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Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

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Africa Needs Research Universities Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013
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Page 1: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Africa Needs Research Universities

Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm

10 December 2013

Page 2: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Structure of Presentation

1. Review of Development Aid (2007): Sweden

2. Argument for research universities

3. State of knowledge production in 8 (flagship) research universities

4. Possible responses

Page 3: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Crossing the Divide?The Governance of Development Cooperation in the area of Higher Education and Research

Nico Cloete/Peter MaassenNIFU STEP Seminar Oslo, 29 March, 2006

Page 4: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

1. Rationale

Why growing interest in role of HE/University in development cooperation?

G8 summit in Gleneagles; World Bank; ‘Experts (Sachs):

HE/University and Knowledge Economy

University central institution in national development

Page 5: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Sweden

Overall: One of few bilateral donors that support

the development of local research capacity

a/b. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) responsible for development policy; Swedish public budget for development aid (Sek 12.4 billion/2004) is channelled mainly (63%) through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). Sida has separate Department for Research Cooperation (SAREC).

Page 6: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Sweden

e. Funding:Sweden is one of the largest bilateral donors in

thearea of higher education and research

developmentcooperation. Sida ranked second in the world

withregard to institutionally-focused funding, i.e.

projectsinvolving directly (local) HEIs. In 2003 Sida’s

totalbudget for thematic research Sek 464 million (>US$65 million)

Page 7: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Sweden

f. Nature of development and cooperation policy:Sweden’s focus on local capacity building is

ratherunique. Sweden’s new development strategy emphasizes

thecontribution to poor peoples’ own efforts to

improvetheir quality of life. Higher education and research are seen as

importanttools for creating these opportunities.

Page 8: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Africa Needs Strong Universities

1. The importance of knowledge and higher education for sustainable development is global, even though there are contextual and regional differences

2. The sustainable, long-term beneficial contribution of knowledge to development is indirect, not direct

3. It is the knowledge re-generative capacity of universities that underlies sustainable development

4. Traditional role: Training professionals (National) - community service (Development Aid)

5. Africa needs to shift to increased participation (from low base of under 10% ) and increased knowledge production

6. This will require Differentiation

Page 9: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Africa Needs Research Universities (1)

Altbach: The role of research universities in developing countries. Studies in Higher Education, 2013.

1. Research universities in low- and middle-income countries have crucial roles to play in developing differentiated and effective academic systems, and in making it possible for their countries to join the global knowledge society and compete in sophisticated knowledge economies

2. A research university is not an ivory tower and is relevant to the wider community; much of its research is carried out in collaboration, with funding and sponsorship from non-university sources.

Page 10: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Africa Needs Research Universities (2)

Altbach (2013)

3. Research universities are committed to the creation and dissemination of knowledge, in a range of disciplines and fields, and featuring the appropriate laboratories, libraries, and other infrastructures that permit teaching and research at the highest possible level

4. Understanding the characteristics of the research university and building the infrastructures and the intellectual environment needed for successful research universities is a top priority

Page 11: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

• Network about 50 participants 12 countries in 5th year

• Three successful (OECD) systems that link higher education and development:◦ Finland (Europe), South Korea (Asia), North Carolina (US)

• Africa◦ Botswana – University of Botswana ◦ Ghana – University of Ghana◦ Kenya – University of Nairobi ◦ Mauritius – University of Mauritius◦ Mozambique – Eduardo Mondlane◦ South Africa – UCT◦ Tanzania – University of Dar es Salaam◦ Uganda – Makerere University

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Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa (HERANA)

Page 12: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 1: High-level inputs

Page 13: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 2: Ratios of high-level knowledge outputs to academic staff with doctorates

Page 14: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 3: Ratios of high-level knowledge outputs to professors and associate professors

Page 15: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 4: Undergraduates as % of total enrolments 2011

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Page 16: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

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Figure 5: Ratios of masters to doctorate enrolments 2011

Page 17: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 6: Doctoral enrolments at 8 sub-Saharan African universities 2001, 2007, 2011

Page 18: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 7: Doctoral graduates at 8 sub-Saharan African universities2001, 2007, 2011

Page 19: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Figure 8: Percentage of academic staff with PhDs 2011

Page 20: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

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Figure 9: Peer reviewed publications 2001, 2007, 2011

Cape Town Makerere Nairobi Ghana Botswana Dar es Salaam

Mauritius Eduardo Mondlane

700

72143

77 69 49 23 15

1017

233

105 61 106 60 36 23

1517

382

198 170 10890 63 46

2001 2007 2011

Page 21: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Implications (1)

1. Learn from how Nordic and other OECD strengthen the research and innovation of their own universities

2. Reconsider having a different policy approach/model for African universities than for own own

3. Knowledge is a core public good and African universities need to be integrated into global networks

4. Positioning them in development cooperation programmes keeps them isolated from global knowledge networks

5. There is an overemphasis on individual scholarships and projects, and not enough on system and institutional strengthening

Page 22: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Implications (2)

1. In Africa already differentiation

2. But the flagship universities is not strong enough to participate in global networks

3. Altbach and Balan(2007) World Class World Wide (2007). Africa not included in their review because “we believe Africa’s academic challenges are sufficiently different from Latin America and Asia that comparison would not be appropriate” – meaning that they cant talk about world class in Africa

Page 23: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Implications (3)

1. Institutions got to develop a vision of what it means to be a research university in their national context

2. Competition based on capacity and performance

3. But the flagship universities is not strong enough to participate in global networks

4. Don’t strengthen institutional conditions for research without strengthening national research conditions

Page 24: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Implications (4)

1. Condition for effective investment in the knowledge institution is research informed knowledge on the knowledge institution

2. Greater emphasis on institutional reforms being research (evidence) informed rather than by inspirational Goal and Vision statements

3. Stimulate knowledge production – doctorates and research output plus connecting research to national development agendas

4. Research funding and support must be based on competition and performance, not political correctness

Page 25: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Strengthening research activities/functions

Horizon 20/20

Three pillars – excellence, grand challenges, and strengthening innovation

Rethink rationale and methodology for investment

1. Concentration of research –themes/groups

2. Develop researchers – staff with doctorates, support junior academics

3. Publication skills – methodology, writing

4. Incentives and rewards – direct and indirect

Page 26: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

General observations

1. Strong case for research management

2. Strong indications of following international trend of mimetic normative isomorphism

3. Expanding the professional class without proper assessment of institutional context

4. Need to bring research into the research management – copying ‘best practice’ stories is not enough

5. While promoting managerialism, confused methodology about measuring ‘success’ of the research office

Page 27: Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen Stockholm 10 December 2013.

Nico [email protected]

Data: Ian Bunting & Charles SheppardGraphs: François van Schalkwyk


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