Overhead Kit – Gr. 2-5
This all-inclusive set of overhead transparencies is a great tool forhelping students understand nonfiction reading materials! It includescolorful overhead transparencies that explain text features andstructures, with examples and practice activities that make the conceptseasy to understand and learn. It’s everything you need to turn youroverhead projector into an exciting, hands-on reading comprehensioncenter!
What’s Included• 9 overhead transparencies• 48 color-coded cut-aparts • Storage pouch
Before You BeginCut apart the passages, diagrams, graphs, and charts and store themin the vinyl pouch. Attach the pouch to your projector, following thedirections on page 2.
©2006 Lakeshore EE782(800) 428-4414 Ages 7+www.lakeshorelearning.com Printed in China
Designed to meet these objectives:Language• Students will identify characteristics of nonfiction materials.• Students will use text features to understand informational text.• Students will recognize and understand the organizational struc-
tures of informational text.
Attaching theStorage PouchWith the hook and loop fastenersstill attached to the storage pouch,peel off the adhesive backings.Then, secure the pouch to theprojector, as shown at right. Be surethe overhead projector fan is leftuncovered.
Note: Do not attach the storagepouch to any part of the projectorthat might get hot.
Getting StartedThis kit contains materials to help familiarize students with nonfictiontext features and structures. “Features,” which include tables of content,bold or italicized print, graphs, charts, and so on, provide informationin a way that helps readers notice them. Understanding how thesefeatures work can improve students’ comprehension of nonfiction texts.
“Structure” refers to the way the author has organized the text, forexample, comparing and contrasting items or identifying causes andtheir effects. Authors often use more than one structure. Identifyingthe structure of nonfiction material can help students better under-stand the relationship of the ideas and retain the information.
This kit includes 9 full-size transparencies with activities that will helpstudents recognize and interpret the features and structures of nonfictiontext. There are also dozens of cut-apart examples to be used with theactivity transparencies. (Note that the examples are color-coded tomatch the transparencies.) Use the transparencies and cutouts toexplain the text elements and provide examples. Work on one exampleas a class to make sure students understand. (Reference illustrationsand more details for each transparency are provided in the followingpages of this guide.) Then, place a new example on your overheadprojector and have students form pairs or small groups to completethe activity. Invite volunteers to share their work by writing directly onthe transparency.
Note: When writing on the transparencies or cutouts, be sure to useoverhead projector pens only. To prevent staining, use a damp clothto wipe the sheets clean after each use.
Print FeaturesPrint features refers to text that isemphasized by the use of italics,underlining, bold type, or coloredprint. Print features draw the reader’sattention to particular words thatare essential to understanding theinformation being presented.
Place the Print Features trans-parency on your overhead, andread and discuss the definitiongiven. Then, place one of theorange-bordered cutouts in thebox. Read the questions on thetransparency and ask volunteers toanswer them. Place another cutoutin the box and invite students toread the text and then answer thequestions on their own.
Graphic AidsGraphic aids include diagrams, charts, graphs, and so on. They provideinformation in a visual way that makes facts and relationships easier tounderstand. Explain that graphic aids are very common in nonfiction
texts. Then, place the Graphic Aidstransparency on your overheadprojector and put a pink-borderedcutout in the box. Prompt studentsto tell you what type of graphic aidit is. Then, help them analyze theinformation shown on the cutoutand extract facts to write on thetransparency. (Include facts aboutrelationships, such as “Spermwhales are longer than graywhales,” or “Australian deserts arenot found along the coast.”) Thenplace another example on thetransparency and have studentswork in groups or individually toanswer the questions.
Informational AidsThese text features provide additional information that will helpstudents understand the main body of the text. For example, intro-ductions or overviews prepare the reader for the information that willbe presented by explaining itsrelevance or summarizing keyaspects. Captions explain what isbeing shown in an illustration thatrelates to the text. Materials listslet readers know what they willneed before they begin working ona project, and time lines help clarifyevents by showing the order inwhich they occurred.
Place the Informational Aids trans-parency on your overhead alongwith a light green-bordered cutout.Explain what type of informationalaid is shown, and help studentsunderstand how to use it. Then,have them extract informationfrom a new example on their own.
Organizational AidsOrganizational aids such as tables of content, indexes, and glossaries
help a reader quickly find specificinformation in the book. Place theOrganizational Aids transparencyon your overhead and read the listof organizational aids. Explain thatthe table of contents is found atthe beginning of a book, and ittypically lists the title and pagenumber for each chapter. Indexesare found at the end of a book;they list all the subjects covered in the book, along with the pagesthat reference each subject.Glossaries are lists of key wordsand their definitions. Whenincluded, a glossary is usuallyfound near the end of a book.
Place a light blue-bordered cutout in the box and ask if anyone canidentify what type of organizational aid it shows. Then, discuss thefeatures of the aid so students understand how to use it. Help themuse “clues” from the cutout to figure out what type of book theorganizational aid might have come from. What do the chapter headings,topics, or vocabulary words have in common? Encourage students tomake up a title for the book, or challenge them to tell you where aspecific fact could be found. Replace the cutout with a new organiza-tional aid and prompt students to respond to the questions on theirown.
Text StructuresThe remaining activity transparencies are designed to help studentsunderstand typical structures, or organizational patterns, of nonfictiontext. Cutouts for these transparencies feature text passages that showtheir structures clearly so students can easily recognize them.
Compare & ContrastPlace the Compare & Contrast activity transparency on the overheadand read the definition. Invite a volunteer to read the list of signalwords, and explain that there are other “compare and contrast” signalwords, too, such as “instead,” “but,” “both,” and so on. Then,choose a purple-bordered cutout and place it in the box. Read thetext aloud, and help students identify the signal words.
Explain that the overlapping circleson the activity page show a Venndiagram. This type of diagram isespecially useful for organizing simi-larities and differences. Write titleson the red lines, such as “Sharks”and “Orcas.” Then, list facts in thecircles. Write facts that only apply tosharks in the “sharks” circle, andfacts that only apply to orcas in the“orcas” circle. Facts that apply toboth orcas and sharks should bewritten in the center section.
Replace the cutout with a newexample and prompt students to findthe signal words and complete thediagram on their own.
SequenceSequence passages organize ideas inchronological order. Signal wordssuch as “first,” “next,” and “finally”often indicate that a passage isstructured by sequence. Texts abouthistorical events and instructionsfrequently use this type of structure.
Place the Sequence transparency anda dark green-bordered cutout onyour projector. Read the text passageand ask volunteers to point out thesignal words.
Next, ask students to identify thefirst event or step in the instructions.Write it in the section numbered 1
on the caterpillar. What happens next? Write that in section 2.Continue until all of the steps or events have been listed. Reread thepassage to make sure everything is included and in the correct order.Finally, place a new cutout in the box for students to work on inde-pendently.
DescriptionDescriptive passages are very common in nonfiction text. Explain thatthey typically feature a main idea that is supported by details. Themain idea is usually (but not always!) presented early in the passage.
Place the Description transparencyon your overhead with a purple-bordered cutout in the box. Readand discuss the text passage on thecutout. What is it mostly about?Write that “topic” at the top of thepyramid. Then, have students lookfor one sentence that summarizesthe main idea, or encourage themto think of a title for the passage.Write that main idea in the pyramid.Finally, fill in a few details at thebottom.
Cause & EffectPassages with a cause and effect structure explain why a situationexists, or what events led up to it. Place a Cause & Effect transparencyon your projector and choose a red-bordered text passage to go in thebox. Review the list of signalwords, and instruct students tolisten for them as you read thetext passage.
Remind students that causesalways happen before their effects,but the author doesn’t always listthem first in text. Then, helpstudents identify the causes andeffects in the text passage. Listthem in the boxes on the trans-parency.
When students understand how toidentify causes and effects, place anew cutout on the transparencyand have students complete it ontheir own.
Problem & SolutionThis structure identifies a problemand suggests possible solutions, ordescribes how the problem hasbeen solved. Place a Problem &Solution transparency and matchingcutout on your overhead. Readthe text to your students. Whatproblem does it describe? Howwas the problem solved, or whatsolutions does the author suggest?List their ideas in the puzzle piecesat the bottom of the transparency.Then, replace the cutout with anew one and have students analyzeit independently.
Modifications• After completing an activity with the class, erase the answers and
photocopy the transparencies with the cutout in place. Havestudents complete the page as a worksheet to reinforce theconcepts they have learned.
• Provide photocopies of the blank transparencies for students touse as comprehension aids when reading nonfiction text in class.
Enrichment• Challenge students to identify text structures and text features in
nonfiction text they are reading. Encourage them to keep a list intheir journals; which structures do they encounter most often?Which features do they find most helpful?
• Invite students to write their own examples of text structures.Remind them to use the signal words suggested on the trans-parencies.
• Suggest that students include glossaries, diagrams, time lines, orother graphic or informational aids in reports that they are writing.