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Nursing Theories Ppt

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Page 1: Nursing Theories Ppt


Page 2: Nursing Theories Ppt

What is a theory?

• A set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of a phenomena

• It may consist of one or more relatively specific and concrete concepts and propositions that purport to account for, or organize some phenomenon (Barnum, 1988)

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What are the components of a theory?

• Concepts – ideas and mental images that help to describe phenomena (Alligood and Marriner-Tomey, 2002)

• Definitions – convey the general meaning of the concepts

• Assumptions – statements that describe concepts

• Phenomenon – aspect of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced (Meleis, 1997).

Page 4: Nursing Theories Ppt

What is a paradigm?

• A model that explains the linkages of science, philosophy, and theory accepted and applied by the discipline (Alligood and Marriner – Tomey, 2002)

Page 5: Nursing Theories Ppt

What is a domain?

• The view or perspective of the discipline

• It contains the subject, central concepts, values and beliefs, phenomena of interest, and the central problems of the discipline

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How does domain relate to nursing theory?

• Nursing has identified its domain in a paradigm that includes four linkages:

1) person/client

2) health

3) environment

4) nursing

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Purposes of nursing theory

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What are the purposes of nursing theory?

• It guides nursing practice and generates knowledge

• It helps to describe or explain nursing

• Enables nurses to know WHY they are doing WHAT they are doing

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Types of nursing theories

• Grand theories – broad and complex

• Middle-range theories- address specific phenomena and reflect practice

• Descriptive theories – first level of theory development

• Prescriptive theories – address nursing interventions and predict their consequences

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Why on earth do we study nursing theory?

• Everyday practice enriches theory

• Both practice and theory are guided by values and beliefs

• Theory helps to reframe our thinking about nursing

• Theory guides use of ideas and techniques

• Theory can close the gap between theory and research

• To envision potentialities (Gordon, Parker, & Jester, 2001)

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“The study and use of nursing theory in nursing practice must have roots in the everyday practice

of nurses (Gordon, Parker, and Jester, 2001).

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So how do nurses use theory in everyday practice?

• Organize patient data• Understand patient data• Analyze patient data• Make decisions about

nursing interventions• Plan patient care• Predict outcomes of care• Evaluate patient


(Alligood, 2001)

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How do student nurses begin to use nursing theory?

• By asking yourself two very important questions…..

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Student nurse questions

• What is the nature of knowledge needed for the practice of nursing?

• What does it mean to me to practice nursing?

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Nursing also utilizes non-nursing theories

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Commonly used non-nursing theories

• Systems theory• Basic Human Needs

theory• Health and Wellness

Models• Stress and Adaptation• Developmental

Theories• Psychosocial


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What is the link between nursing theory and the research

process?• Theory provides direction

for nursing research• Relationships of

components in a theory help to drive the research questions for understanding nursing

• Chinn and Kramer (2004), indicate a spiral relationship between the two

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Current trends that influence nursing theory

• Medical science• Nursing education• Professional nursing

organizations• Evolving research

approaches• Global concerns• Consumer demands• Technologies

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“ Practicing nurses who despise theory are condemned to performing a series of tasks - either at the command of a physician or in response to

routines and policies.”

Leah Curtin, RN, MS, FAAN (1989)

Former Editor, Nursing Management

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