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Observational constraints on primordial perturbations. Antony Lewis CITA, Toronto http://cosmologist.info. Primordial fluid at redshift < 10 9. Photons Nearly massless neutrinos Free-streaming (no scattering) after neutrino decoupling at z ~ 10 9 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Observational constraints on primordial perturbations

Antony LewisCITA, Toronto

http://cosmologist.info

Primordial fluid at redshift < 109

• Photons• Nearly massless neutrinos

Free-streaming (no scattering) after neutrino decoupling at z ~ 109

• Baryonstightly coupled to photons by Thomson scattering

• Dark MatterAssume cold. Coupled only via gravity.

• Dark energyprobably negligible early on

Perturbations O(10-5) => linear evolution

• Scalar, vector, tensor modes evolve independently• Each Fourier k mode evolves independently

General perturbation

Scalar

Vector

Tensor

Adiabatic(observed)

Matter density

Cancelling matter density(unobservable)

Neutrino vorticity(very contrived)

Gravitational waves

Neutrino density(contrived)

Neutrino velocity(very contrived)

+ irregular modes, neutrino n-pole modes, n-Tensor modes Rebhan and Schwarz: gr-qc/9403032+ other possible components, e.g. defects, magnetic fields, exotic stuff…

General regular linear primordial perturbation

Irregular (decaying) modes• Generally ~ a-1, a-2 or a-1/2

• E.g. decaying vector modes unobservable at late times unless ridiculously large early on

Adiabatic decay ~ a-1/2 after neutrino decoupling.

possibly observable if generated around or after neutrino decoupling

Otherwise have to be very large (non-linear?) at early times

Amendola, Finelli: astro-ph/0411273

WMAP + other CMB data

Redhead et al: astro-ph/0402359

+ Galaxy surveys, galaxy weak lensing, Hubble Space Telescope, supernovae, etc...

Constraints from data

• Can compute P( {ө} | data) using e.g. assumption of Gaussianity of CMB field and priors on parameters

• Often want marginalized constraints. e.g.

nn ddddataPdata ..)|...(| 2132111

• BUT: Large n-integrals very hard to compute!

• If we instead sample from P( {ө} | data) then it is easy:

)(11

1| i

iNdata

Use Markov Chain Monte Carlo to sample

MCMC sampling for parameter estimation

• Number density of samples proportional to probability density

• At its best scales linearly with number of parameters(as opposed to exponentially for brute integration)

• For CMB: P( {ө} | data) ~ P(Cl(ө)|data)

Theoretical Cl numerically computed using linearised GR + Boltzmann equations(CAMB)

CosmoMC code at http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc

Lewis, Bridle: astro-ph/0205436

Bridle, Lewis, Weller, Efstathiou: astro-ph/0302306

Adiabatic modesWhat is the primordial power spectrum?

Reconstruct in bins by sampling posterior using MCMC with current data

On most scales P(k) ~ 2.3 x 10-9

Close to scale invariant

WMAP TT power spectrum at low l

data from http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/

compared to theoretical power law model (mean over realizations)

Low quadrupole Indication of less power on very large scales?

• Any physical model cannot give sharper cut in power than a step function with zero power for k< kc

• k cut model favoured by data, but only by ~1 sigma

• No physical model will be favoured by the data by any more than thise.g. Contaldi et al: astro-ph/0303636

• Allowing for foreground uncertainties etc, evidence is even weaker

astro-ph/0302306

Matter isocurvature modes• Possible in two-field inflation models, e.g. ‘curvaton’ scenario• Curvaton model gives adiabatic + correlated CDM or baryon

isocurvature, no tensors• CDM, baryon isocurvature indistinguishable – differ only by

cancelling matter mode

Constrain B = ratio of matter isocurvature to adiabatic

No evidence, though still allowed.Not very well constrained.

Gordon, Lewis: astro-ph/0212248

General isocurvature models

• General mixtures currently poorly constrained

Bucher et al: astro-ph/0401417

Polarization can break degeneracies

Bucher et al. astro-ph/0012141

The future: CMB Polarization Stokes’ Parameters

- -

Q U

Q → -Q, U → -U under 90 degree rotation

Spin-2 field Q + i Uor Rank 2 trace free symmetric tensor

θ

sqrt(Q2 + U2)

θ = ½ tan-1 U/Q

E and B polarization

Trace free gradient:E polarization

Curl: B polarization

e.g.

Why polarization?

• E polarization from scalar, vector and tensor modes (constrain parameters, break degeneracies)

• B polarization only from vector and tensor modes (curl grad = 0) + non-linear scalars

Primordial Gravitational Waves

• Well motivated by some inflationary models- Amplitude measures inflaton potential at horizon crossing- distinguish models of inflation

• Observation would rule out other models - ekpyrotic scenario predicts exponentially small amplitude - small also in many models of inflation, esp. two field e.g. curvaton

• Weakly constrained from CMB temperature anisotropy - significant power only at l<100, cosmic variance limited to 10% - degenerate with other parameters (tilt, reionization, etc)

Look at CMB polarization: ‘B-mode’ smoking gun

CMB polarization from primordial gravitational waves (tensors)

Adiabatic E-mode

Tensor B-mode

Tensor E-mode

Planck noise(optimistic)

Weak lensing

• Amplitude of tensors unknown• Clear signal from B modes – there are none from scalar modes• Tensor B is always small compared to adiabatic E

Seljak, Zaldarriaga: astro-ph/9609169

Regular vector mode: ‘neutrino vorticity mode’ logical possibility but unmotivated (contrived). Spectrum unknown.

Lewis: astro-ph/0403583

Similar to gravitational wave spectrum on large scales: distinctive small scale

B-modes

Pogosian, Tye, Wasserman, Wyman: hep-th/0304188

•Topological defects Seljak, Pen, Turok: astro-ph/9704231

10% local strings frombrane inflation:

lensing

r=0.1

global defects:

Other B-modes?

Non-Gaussian signals

Conclusions

• Currently only very weak evidence for any deviations from standard near scale-invariant purely adiabatic primordial spectrum

• Precision E polarization - Much improved constraints on isocurvature modes

• Large scale Gaussian B-mode CMB polarization from primordial gravitational waves: - energy scale of inflation - rule out most ekpyrotic and pure curvaton/ inhomogeneous reheating models and others

• Small scale B-modes: - Strong signal from any vector vorticity modes (+strong magnetic fields, topological defects, lensing, etc)

http://CosmoCoffee.infoarXiv paper discussion and comments

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