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OGC WCS: A Short Guide - Europa€¦ · Web Coverage Service (WCS) = - modular, testable, scalable...

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WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann Peter Baumann Jacobs University | rasdaman GmbH [email protected] OGC WCS: A Short Guide [gamingfeeds.com]
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  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Peter Baumann

    Jacobs University | rasdaman GmbH

    [email protected]

    OGC WCS: A Short Guide

    [gamingfeeds.com]

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Overview

    Introduction

    Coverage data: the OGC Coverage Model

    Coverage services: the WCS Suite

    Conformance Testing

    Summary

    2

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Features & Coverages

    The basis of all: geographic feature

    - = abstraction of a real world phenomenon [OGC, ISO]

    Special kind of feature: coverage

    - = space-time varying multi-dimensional phenomenon

    Usually, Big Geo Data are coverages

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Coverage Data & Services

    coverage = digital representation of some space-time verying phenomenon

    - n-D, discretized or continuous, testable down to pixel level

    - uniform handling of space & time

    Web Coverage Service (WCS) =

    - modular, testable, scalable

    - Core mission: Get original data (or subset thereof), suitable for further processing

    Starting WCS 2, coverage data & service model separated

    - Coverages servable by WFS, WMS, WCS, WCPS, WPS, SOS, ...

    - WCS, WCPS specialized on coverages

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    feature coverage

    data

    WMS

    images data

    meta

    data

    WCPS

    WCS-T

    WCS

    FE

    WFS-T

    WFS

    CQL

    CS-T

    CS-W

    (Part of) The OGC Standards Quilt

    • WMS "portrays spatial data pictures"

    • WCS: "provides data + descriptions; data with original semantics,

    may be interpreted, extrapolated, etc.“

    [09-110r3]

    5

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Overview

    Introduction

    Coverage data: the OGC Coverage Model

    Coverage services: the WCS Suite

    Conformance Testing & Implementations

    Summary

    7

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Coverage Definition

    class GML 3.2.1 Application Schema for Coverages

    «FeatureType»

    Coverage

    «FeatureType»

    GML::Feature

    «Union»

    GML::DomainSet

    «Union»

    GML::RangeSet

    «type»

    SWE Common::DataRecord

    rangeSetdomainSet rangeType

    contains hook

    for metadata

    ISO 19123

    is abstract

    → many different

    implementations

    possible

    → not per se

    interoperable

    OGC coverage std

    is concrete and

    interoperable

    [OGC 09-146r2]

    from SWE Common

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    MultiSolid

    Coverage

    OGC Coverage Types

    Coverage = digital representation of

    space/time varying phenomenon

    - n-D!

    «FeatureType»AbstractCoverage

    MultiPoint

    Coverage

    MultiCurve

    Coverage

    MultiSurface

    Coverage

    Grid

    Coverage

    Referenceable

    GridCoverage

    as per GML 3.2.1

    Rectified

    GridCoverage

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Coverage Subtypes

    GridCoverage:

    - Obsoleted, should not be used

    for referenced data

    RectifiedGridCoverage:

    - Grid which is equidistant, straight

    - Georeferenced

    - Ex: ortho imagery, climate data cubes

    ReferenceableGridCoverage

    - Grid may not be equidistant, not straight

    - May not be georeferenced

    - Ex: L0 satellite data, curved grids,

    triangular meshes, hexagonal grids

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Gridded Coverage Types

    Not georeferenced, „just pixels“

    - GMLCOV::GridCoverage

    Georeferenced, regular

    - GMLCOV::RectifiedGridCoverage

    Georeferenced, 1+ irregular axes

    - All axes irregular: GML 3.3

    ReferenceableGridByVectors *

    - GMLCOV::ReferenceableGridCoverage

    Georeferenced, 1+ axes warped

    - All axes warped: GML 3.3 ReferenceableGridByArray *

    - GMLCOV::ReferenceableGridCoverage

    [Campalani 2013]

    *) CR to GML planned

    Mix, eg, with

    sat image

    timeseries

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Sample Grid Coverage (GML)

    samples for each coverage type

    provided with specification bundle

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Sample MultiSolidCoverage

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Coverage Encoding

    Pure GML: complete coverage, in GML

    Special Format: other suitable file format (ex: MIME type “image/tiff”)

    Multipart-Mixed: multipart MIME, type “multipart/mixed”

    GML Coverage

    Domain set

    Range type

    Range set

    App Metadata

    GML Coverage

    Domain set

    Range type

    xlink

    App Metadata

    NetCDF file

    NetCDF

    Domain set

    Range type

    Range set

    App Metadata

    GeoTIFF

    Domain set

    Range type

    Range set

    App Metadata

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Sample Mixed Encoding: TIFF

    Content-Type: Multipart/Related; boundary=wcs;

    start="GML-Part"

    type="text/xml"

    --wcs

    Content-type: text/xml

    Content-ID: GML-Part

    grey.tif

    image/tiff

    --wcs

    Content-Type: image/tiff

    Content-Description: coverage data

    Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

    Content-ID: grey.tif

    Content-Disposition: INLINE

    ...binary TIFF data...

    --wcs--

    How to request

    a particular encoding

    from a server?

    See later!

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Adding Metadata To Coverages

    Coverage has slot „metadata“ allowing to link in kind of metadata

    - WCS will deliver this, even without knowing contents

    Ex: EO-WCS

    GetCoverage

    result

    Inverse possible, too:

    metadata record

    contains (or links)

    coverage

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Overview

    Introduction

    Coverage data: the OGC Coverage Model

    Coverage services: the WCS Suite

    Conformance Testing & Implementations

    Summary

    17

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Core

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Service Model: Structure

    Hook for future service-

    related coverage metadata

    WCS offering

    can be seen as

    a single virtual

    document

    Notwithstanding

    other actual

    encodings

    [OGC 09-110r4]

    GML coverage

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Service Model: Operations

    GetCapabilities

    - what service extensions?

    - What formats? CRSs?

    - What coverages?

    DescribeCoverage

    - coverage metadata

    GetCoverage

    - coverage, or subset thereof

    20

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Web Coverage Service (WCS)

    WCS Core: Simple & efficient access to n-D coverages & subsets

    - Format conversion on the fly

    - subset = trim | slice

    WCS Extensions: for optional functionality facets

    WCS Application Profiles: domain-oriented bundling

    - EO, MetOcean, ...

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WC GetCoverage: Retrieve Coverage (Subset)

    Download a coverage (or a subset thereof), values guaranteed unchanged

    Ex: „download coverage c001“

    Ex: „coverage c001, lat/long cutout, time slice t=2009-11-06T23:20:52Z”

    Ex: “coverage c001, in GeoTIFF”

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001

    & SUBSET=Long(100,200) & SUBSET=Lat(50,60)

    & SUBSET=phenomenon-time("2009-11-06T23:20:52Z")

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001 & FORMAT=“image/tiff“

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Suite Big Picture

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extensions

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension – Range Subsetting [OGC 12-039]

    Extract range components

    - „bands“, „variables“

    - Extension to GetCoverage request

    Ex:

    - or:

    - or:

    - or:

    - or:

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001

    & RangeSubset=red

    …& RangeSubset=nir,red,green &…

    …& RangeSubset=green,red,blue &…

    …& RangeSubset=nir:green &…

    …& RangeSubset=band01,band03:band05,band19:band21 &…

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension - Scaling [OGC 12-039]

    Reduce resolution of gridded coverages

    - Extension to GetCoverage request

    Ex:

    - or:

    - or:

    - or:

    2.0 = scale DOWN by factor of 2

    Interpolation control depending on Interpolation extension

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001

    & ScaleByFactor=2.0 &…

    …& ScaleAxesByFactor=lat(2.0),long(2.0),time(1.0) &…

    …& ScaleToSize=lat(4000),long(5000) &…

    …& ScaleToExtent=lat(10,20),long(20,30) &…

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension – Interpolation [OGC 12-049]

    Communicate & control interpolation to be applied

    - Scaling, CRS

    Cap doc reports interpolation methods supported

    - Without IE: opaque,

    server doesn„t tell

    Client can mandate

    particular method

    Ex:

    - or:

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0 & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001 & ...

    & INTERPOLATION=http://www.opengis.net/def/interpolation/OGC/1/linear

    http://www.opengis.net/def/interpolation/OGC/0/nearest-neighbor

    http://www.opengis.net/def/interpolation/OGC/0/linear

    …& INTERPOLATIONPERAXIS=phenomenon-time,http://www.opengis.net/def/interpolation/OGC/1/nearest-neighbor

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension – CRS [OGC 11-053]

    retrieval (& bbox) in CRSs different from Native CRS

    - Extension to GetCoverage request

    - Capabilities document lists supported CRSs (must be at least 1)

    Ex:

    This needs

    - New CRSs (vertical, time, index, proxies, ...) Time + Index CRS NTS

    - Combination of CRSs CRS NTS

    http://www.acme.com/wcs ? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0

    & REQUEST=GetCoverage & COVERAGEID=c001

    & SUBSETTINGCRS=http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326

    & OUTPUTCRS=http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Time & Index CRSs [OGC 13-102r2]

    Need new CRSs / axes:

    - Time (incl calendars) Temporal.DWG

    - Vertical new WG

    - Index („ImageCRS“, never formalized) Index CRS

    NB: EPSG not interested in time CRSs

    Issue: ISO timestamps as coordinates

    - WCS allows, GML (still) refuses

    Ex: http://www.acme.com/wcs? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION=2.0 & REQUEST=GetCoverage

    & COVERAGEID=C0002

    & SUBSET=long(100,200)

    & SUBSET=lat(50,60)

    & SUBSET=phenomenon-time("2009-11-06T23:20:52Z")

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    CRS Name Types [OGC 11-135] WGS84, RESTful:

    • http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326

    WGS84, KVP:

    • http://www.opengis.net/def/crs?authority=EPSG&version=0&code=4326

    Parametrized („AUTO“) CRSs:• http://www.opengis.net/def/crs?authority=OGC&version=1.3

    & code=AUTO42003 & UoM=m & CenterLongitude=-100 & CenterLatitude=45

    Ad-hoc combination of CRSs:• http://www.opengis.net/def/crs-compound?

    1=http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326& 2=http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/ISO/2004/8601

    Proprietary CRS definition:• http://www.acme.com/def/this-is-EPSG-4326

    Inline CRS definition:• srsName=“#crsdef”

    OGC resolver implementation

    provided by Jacobs U:

    www.earthlook.org/demos/secore

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension – Transaction [OGC 13-057]

    = WCS-T: Modify coverage offerings on a server via Web

    - New requests:

    InsertCoverage + DeleteCoverage + UpdateCoverage (partial replacement)

    - Core design goal: GetCoverage InsertCoverage

    Revamping old WCS-T 1.1.4 (Arliss Whiteside) 2.0

    - Adjusted to GMLCOV & WCS 2.0

    Ex: http://www.acme.com/wcs? SERVICE=WCS & VERSION = 2.0

    & REQUEST=InsertCoverage

    & COVERAGEREF=http://bcme.com/archive/hurricane.nc

    & USEID=new

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Extension – Processing [OGC 13-057]

    WCS wrapper for OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS)

    - high-level spatio-temporal geo raster query language

    for $c in ( M1, M2, M3 )where

    some( $c.nir > 127 )return

    encode($c.red - $c.nir,“image/tiff“

    )

    (tiffA,

    tiffC)

    32

    "From MODIS scenes M1, M2, M3: difference between red & nir, as TIFF"• …but only those where nir exceeds 127 somewhere

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Application Profiles

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    EO-WCS

    WCS Application Profile for Earth Observation [OGC 10-140]- 2D imagery + time metadata

    - hierachical coverage groupings

    - Metadata & provenance

    - Mosaic overlaying

    EO Metadata Record 1

    EO Metadata Record 2

    [EOX]

    long

    lat

    t

    [JacobsU, EOX]

    [JacobsU, EOX]

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    MetOcean-WCS [OGC 14-052]

    WCS Application Profile for Meteorology, Climate, Aviation

    Data model:

    - 4-D x/y/z/t data cubes

    Service model:

    - Space-time extraction

    - curtains, corridors

    Status: draft

    - JacobsU + UK MetOffice

    [UK MetOffice, DWD]

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WPS AP – Coverages [OGC 09-045r1]

    Specialization of WPS for coverage services

    - WCS folks: „want to have async processing on coverages“

    - WPS folks: „want interoperable coverage processes“

    WCS request type

    WPS process definition

    - WCS extensions piggyback

    - No new schema needed

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Overview

    Introduction

    Coverage data: the OGC Coverage Model

    Coverage services: the WCS Suite

    Conformance Testing & Implementations

    Summary

    38

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Conformance Testing: Status

    39

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS Implementations

    High acceptance by implementers for WCS 2

    - "The WCS 2.0 XML schema set is much easier to use than the 1.x XML; it

    validates and is better organized" -- OPeNDAP

    Users increasingly planning to move to WCS 2 (eg, NGA)

    Known implementations:

    - rasdaman, MapServer, GeoServer, OPeNDAP, GMU, Trellis, ...

    - rasdaman WCS Core Reference implementation

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS & WCPS: Practice Proven

    from simple data access to agile analytics on spatio-temporal sensor,

    image, simulation, & statistics data

    130+ TB databases, 2D, 3D x/y/z & x/y/t, 4D x/y/z/t timeseries

    single query distributed to 1,000+ cloud nodes

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    „raster data manager“: SQL + n-D raster objects

    Scalable parallel “tile streaming” architecture

    In operational use

    - OGC Web Coverage Service

    Core Reference Implementation

    rasdaman: Agile Array Analytics

    select img.green[x0:x1,y0:y1] > 130

    from LandsatArchive as img

    where avg_cells( img.nir ) < 17

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Adaptive Tiling

    Sample tiling strategies [Furtado]:

    - regular directional area of interest

    rasdaman storage layout language

    insert into MyCollection

    values ...

    tiling area of interest [0:20,0:40], [45:80,80:85]

    tile size 1000000

    index d_index storage array compression zlib

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Inset: WaterML 2.0 Time Handling

    WaterML 2.0: timseries = time slices

    OGC Coverages: time just another axis «FeatureType»Coverage

    «Union»DomainSet

    «Union»RangeSet

    «type»DataRecord

    rangeSetdomainSet rangeType

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Sample Application: Database Visualization

    for $s in (SatImage), $d in (DEM)

    return

    encode(

    struct {

    red: (char) s.image.b7[x0:x1,x0:x1],

    green: (char) s.image.b5[x0:x1,x0:x1],

    blue: (char) s.image.b0[x0:x1,x0:x1],

    alpha: (char) scale( d.elev, 20 )

    },

    "image/png"

    )

    [JacobsU, Fraunhofer; data courtesy BGS, ESA]

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Viewing: WCPS Emulating WMS

    Example 2: real-time WMS zoom/pan/styling

    - 1 background, 1 bathymetry, 3*RGB

    - www.earthlook.org

    SELECT png(

    (marray x in [0:399,0:399] values {255c,255c,255c})

    overlay

    ((scale( extend( img0[269:349,0:65], [269:395,-60:65] ), [0:399,0:399] ) < -1300)*{0c,0c,0c}

    +(-1300.000000< scale( extend( img0[269:349,0:65], [269:395,-60:65] ), [0:399,0:399] ) and scale( extend( img0[269:349,0:65], [269:395,-60:65] ), [0:399,0:399] )

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    for $a in (A), $b in (B), $c in (C), $d in (D)

    return

    max(($a.nir - $a.red) / ($a.nir + $a.red))

    - max(($b.nir - $b.red) / ($b.nir + $b.red))

    - max(($c.nir - $c.red) / ($c.nir + $c.red))

    - max(($d.nir - $d.red) / ($d.nir + $d.red))

    Parallel / Distributed Query Processing

    1 query 1,000+ cloud nodes

    Dataset B

    Dataset A

    Dataset D

    Dataset C

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Use Case: Plymouth Marine Laboratory

    “Avg chlorophyll concentration for given area & time period, from x/y/t cube”

    - 10, 60,120, 240 days

    Conclusions:

    - „we must minimise data transfer

    as well as [client] processing”

    - “standards such as WCPS provide

    the greatest benefit”

    [Oliver Clements, EGU 2014]

    rasdaman

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Secured Archive Integration

    First-ever direct, ad-hoc mix from protected NASA & ESA services

    in OGC WCS/WCPS Web client (EarthServer + CobWeb)

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Real Life, Real Volume, Real Service

    6 Lighthouse Applications covering Earth & Planetary Sciences

    Established data centers adding EarthServer technology to service

    portfolio

    Summer 2014: all 20+ TB, 2x 100+ TB = 280 TB operational

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    ChartLink

    - Envitia Ltd, UK

    rasdaman

    - Jacobs U,

    rasdaman GmbH

    petascope

    rasdaman

    WCS+WCPS WPS+WCPS

    Viewing: WPCS for Web Mapping

    [ESA VAROS project, 2010]

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Viewing: WPCS for Web Mapping

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Viewing: WPCS for Web Mapping

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Overview

    Introduction

    Coverage data: the OGC Coverage Model

    Coverage services: the WCS Suite

    Conformance Testing & Implementations

    Summary

    54

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    WCS goes ISO

    Resolved at OGC TC meeting in Calgary, Sep 2014:

    Submission of OGC coverage works to TC211 as DIS

    - GMLCOV

    - WCS Core

    - WCS POST/XML

    Rationale: Interoperability & sustainability of coverage data & services

    - GMLCOV also preparing/initiating revision of 19123

    - WCS 2.0 as the missing TC211 Web Coverage Service

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    ISO 9075 Part 15: SQL/MDA

    - resolved by ISO SQL WG in June 2014

    - Based on rasdaman concepts & experience

    n-D arrays as attributes

    declarative array operationsselect id, encode(scene.band1-scene.band2)/(scene.nband1+scene.band2)), „image/tiff“ )

    from LandsatScenes

    where acquired between „1990-06-01“ and „1990-06-30“ and

    avg( scene.band3-scene.band4)/(scene.band3+scene.band4)) > 0

    Science SQL in ISO

    create table LandsatScenes(

    id: integer not null, acquired: date,

    scene: row( band1: integer, ..., band7: integer ) array [ 0:4999,0:4999] )

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    SWE, SOS: upstream

    sensor data capturing

    W*S: downstream

    download, processing, visualization

    SOS

    WMS

    WCS

    WCPS

    WPS...coverageserver

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Conclusion Coverage data = spatio-temporal regular & irregular grids, point clouds, meshes

    - GMLCOV, based on ISO 19123

    - Servable by many services

    Web Coverage Service: from simple access to versatile analytics- Uniform interface to grids, point clouds, [meshes tbd]

    - Scalable implementations: 130+ TB, 1000+ cloud nodes

    See also: http://standards.rasdaman.org

    [rasdaman screenshots]

    http://standards.rasdaman.org/

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Document Overview Coverage data :

    - 09-146r2 GML Application Schema - Coverages

    - 12-100 GeoTIFF Coverage Encoding Extension

    - 12-108 JPEG2000 Coverage Encoding Extension

    Coverage service:- 09-110r4 WCS 2.0 Core

    - 09-147r1 WCS Extension - KVP Protocol

    - 09-148 WCS Extension - XML/POST Protocol

    - 09-149 WCS Extension - XML/SOAP Protocol

    - 13-057 WCS Transaction Extension 2.0

    - 08-059 WCS Extension - ProcessCoverages 2.0

    - 12-040 WCS Extension - Range Subsetting

    - 12-039 WCS Extension - Scaling

    - 11-053 WCS Extension - CRS

    - 12-049 WCS Extension - Interpolation

    Other:- 08-068r2 Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) Language

    - 10-140 WCS Application Profile - Earth Observation

    - 14-052 WCS Application Profile - MetOcean

    - 11-135 CRS Name Type Specification59

    www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wcs

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Some Relevant OGC WGs

    WCS.SWG - WCS/WCPS maintenance

    Coverages.DWG - exchange with all interested domains

    - http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/CoveragesDWG/

    Temporal.DWG - establishing semantics for time & calendars

    - http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/TemporalDWG/

    BigData.DWG - well...you guess it

    - http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/BigDataDwg/

    http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/CoveragesDWG/http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/TemporalDWG/http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/BigDataDwg/

  • WCS Short Guide :: © 2014 Peter Baumann

    Useful links

    Wikipedia

    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coverage_data

    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Coverage_Service

    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Coverage_Processing_Service

    OGC:

    - http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/CoveragesDWG/

    Tutorial:

    - http://rasdaman.org/wiki/Workshops/BigDataRasdamanApproach

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coverage_datahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Coverage_Servicehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Coverage_Processing_Servicehttp://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/CoveragesDWG/http://rasdaman.org/wiki/Workshops/BigDataRasdamanApproach

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