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Oklahoma Geography and Geology

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Oklahoma Geography and Geology. Diversity. 70,000 sq miles/45 million acres/18th in size “Panhandle”—added in 1890 Bordered by: Kansas, Colorado, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and New Mexico. 10 Distinct Geographic regions KEY WORD—ANOMALY!. 3 MAJOR LANDFORM TYPES:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Oklahoma Geography and Oklahoma Geography and Geology Geology
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Page 1: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Oklahoma Geography and Oklahoma Geography and GeologyGeology

Page 2: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

DiversityDiversity

70,000 sq miles/45 million acres/18th in size70,000 sq miles/45 million acres/18th in size ““Panhandle”—added in 1890Panhandle”—added in 1890 Bordered by: Kansas, Colorado, Missouri, Bordered by: Kansas, Colorado, Missouri,

Arkansas, Texas, and New Mexico.Arkansas, Texas, and New Mexico. 10 Distinct Geographic regions10 Distinct Geographic regions KEY WORD—ANOMALY! KEY WORD—ANOMALY!

Page 3: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

3 MAJOR LANDFORM TYPES:3 MAJOR LANDFORM TYPES:

Plains—Great Salt Plains—Great Salt Plains, Red Bed Plains, Red Bed Plains, Prairie PlainsPlains, Prairie Plains

Mountains—Ozark, Mountains—Ozark, Ouachita, Arbuckle, Ouachita, Arbuckle, WichitaWichita

Plateaus/Mesas—Plateaus/Mesas—Black Mesa, Ozark Black Mesa, Ozark Plateau Plateau

Page 4: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

10 Geographic Regions10 Geographic Regions

High PlainsHigh Plains Gypsum HillsGypsum Hills Wichita MountainsWichita Mountains Red Bed PlainsRed Bed Plains Arbuckle MountainsArbuckle Mountains

Sandstone HillsSandstone Hills Prairie PlainsPrairie Plains Ozark PlateauOzark Plateau Ouachita MountainsOuachita Mountains Red River PlainsRed River Plains

Page 5: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

High PlainsHigh Plains

Northwestern OKNorthwestern OK Level grasslandsLevel grasslands High elevationHigh elevation Low precipitationLow precipitation Buffalo grassBuffalo grass Juniper and Pinion TreesJuniper and Pinion Trees Economic Activities: Economic Activities:

Winter wheat, cattle, Winter wheat, cattle, petroleum, natural gaspetroleum, natural gas

Page 6: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Gypsum HillsGypsum Hills

Western OKWestern OK Low hills capped with Low hills capped with

GypsumGypsum Sandy soilSandy soil Extreme temperaturesExtreme temperatures Shallow RiversShallow Rivers Low precipitationLow precipitation Similar to Red Bed Similar to Red Bed

plainsplains

Page 7: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Wichita MountainsWichita Mountains

SW OklahomaSW Oklahoma Made of Granite and Rhyolite.Made of Granite and Rhyolite. Among the oldest mountains on Earth.Among the oldest mountains on Earth.

Page 8: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Red Bed PlainsRed Bed Plains Western/ Central OklahomaWestern/ Central Oklahoma Largest region in OklahomaLargest region in Oklahoma Rolling prairieRolling prairie Forest in eastern partForest in eastern part 32 inches of rain/ year32 inches of rain/ year Tall bluegrass and short buffalo Tall bluegrass and short buffalo

grassgrass Post oak and Black jack oak Post oak and Black jack oak

treestrees Wide riversWide rivers Red soilRed soil Economic Activities: Winter Economic Activities: Winter

wheat cotton, cattle, horses, wheat cotton, cattle, horses, natural gas, and oilnatural gas, and oil

Page 9: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Arbuckle MountainsArbuckle Mountains

Southern OklahomaSouthern Oklahoma Low mountainsLow mountains Unusual rock Unusual rock

formationsformations Cattle grazingCattle grazing

Page 10: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Sandstone HillsSandstone Hills

North-central OklahomaNorth-central Oklahoma Rolling HillsRolling Hills Tall prairie grassTall prairie grass Scrub oak treesScrub oak trees Sandy soilSandy soil Blackjack and Post oak treesBlackjack and Post oak trees Oil Drilling began hereOil Drilling began here

Page 11: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Prairie PlainsPrairie Plains

Northeastern OKNortheastern OK Low Sandstone RidgesLow Sandstone Ridges High forested ridgesHigh forested ridges Rivers run N to SRivers run N to S Bluestem grassBluestem grass Economic Activities: Economic Activities:

Coal, oil, natural gas, Coal, oil, natural gas, livestock, agriculturelivestock, agriculture

Page 12: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Ozark Plateau/ Ouachita Mtns.Ozark Plateau/ Ouachita Mtns.

Northeast OKNortheast OK Huge forests filled with Hickory, Oak and Huge forests filled with Hickory, Oak and

Pine TreesPine Trees Unique rock formations, springs, and Unique rock formations, springs, and

waterfalls,waterfalls, Deep riversDeep rivers Economic Activities: Wood pulp processed, Economic Activities: Wood pulp processed,

coal, cattle grazing.coal, cattle grazing.

Page 13: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Ouachita MountainsOuachita Mountains

Page 14: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Red River PlainsRed River Plains

Southeastern OklahomaSoutheastern Oklahoma Low elevationLow elevation Sandy soilSandy soil Long growing seasonsLong growing seasons Pine and Cypress TreesPine and Cypress Trees Agriculture/ Fertile Soil, Livestock, Agriculture/ Fertile Soil, Livestock, Evidence of old plantations worked by slave Evidence of old plantations worked by slave

laborlabor

Page 15: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

TWO MAJOR RIVER SYSTEMS:TWO MAJOR RIVER SYSTEMS:

Arkansas—Cimarron, Verdigris, Canadian, IllinoisArkansas—Cimarron, Verdigris, Canadian, Illinois Red—North Fork, Washita, KiamichiRed—North Fork, Washita, Kiamichi All flow West to East…All flow West to East…

Page 16: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

West to EastWest to East

Less rain Less rain more rain more rain Higher elevation Higher elevation lower elevation lower elevation Black Mesa-elevation: 4973 ft.Black Mesa-elevation: 4973 ft.

-rainfall: -rainfall: 15 in/yr15 in/yrMcCurtain County: elevation: 300 ft.McCurtain County: elevation: 300 ft.

-rainfall: -rainfall: 52 in/yr 52 in/yr

Page 17: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Red DirtRed Dirt

Very FERTILE!!Very FERTILE!! 1997 Agricultural production $4,146,351,0001997 Agricultural production $4,146,351,000

– Crops=22%Crops=22%– Livestock=78%Livestock=78%

Page 18: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

ClimateClimate

Warm Gulf air + cool northern air= TORNADOESWarm Gulf air + cool northern air= TORNADOES—mainly in spring—mainly in spring

Average wind speed= 14 mph; perfect for WIND Average wind speed= 14 mph; perfect for WIND power power

Page 19: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

McClellan-Kerr Navigation SystemMcClellan-Kerr Navigation System

McClellan-Kerr Navigation McClellan-Kerr Navigation System—series of locks System—series of locks and dams on Arkansas and dams on Arkansas River to decrease flooding, River to decrease flooding, increase trade/commerce.increase trade/commerce.

Originates at Tulsa’s Port Originates at Tulsa’s Port of Catoosa and runs of Catoosa and runs southeast through OK and southeast through OK and Arkansas to Mississippi Arkansas to Mississippi River.River.

Page 20: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Oklahoma GeologyOklahoma Geology

Page 21: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

400 Million Years Ago 400 Million Years Ago

Vast prehistoric sea covered this area and plant Vast prehistoric sea covered this area and plant and animal debris sank to the sea floor eventually and animal debris sank to the sea floor eventually becoming coal deposits.becoming coal deposits.

Page 22: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

300 Million Years Ago300 Million Years Ago

Volcanic eruptions/ plate shifts caused Volcanic eruptions/ plate shifts caused mountains to rise up (Arbuckles) and waters mountains to rise up (Arbuckles) and waters became trapped beneath the surface became trapped beneath the surface (ground water).(ground water).

These became aquifers that still supply These became aquifers that still supply water for large areas of Oklahomawater for large areas of Oklahoma

Oglalla Aquifer could cover the entire Oglalla Aquifer could cover the entire surface of the state to a depth of 7 feet.surface of the state to a depth of 7 feet.– Value: $1 BillionValue: $1 Billion

Page 23: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

65 Million Years ago65 Million Years ago

Dinosaurs became extinct, but their remains formed what Dinosaurs became extinct, but their remains formed what would become SWAMP TREASURE: PETROLEUM (crude would become SWAMP TREASURE: PETROLEUM (crude oil and natural gas).oil and natural gas).

Vast oil and gas fields lay beneath OK today as a result.Vast oil and gas fields lay beneath OK today as a result. 1983: value reached a high of $11 Billion1983: value reached a high of $11 Billion 1997: $6 billion1997: $6 billion OK is among the 5 leading oil producing statesOK is among the 5 leading oil producing states OK is third highest natural gas producer.OK is third highest natural gas producer.

Page 24: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Mineral IndustryMineral Industry

Greatest source of state revenueGreatest source of state revenue Total oil production: over 14 billion barrels since Total oil production: over 14 billion barrels since

1891 (all time high was 1927—278 million barrels)1891 (all time high was 1927—278 million barrels) Top five oil-producing areas: Top five oil-producing areas:

– near Ardmore and Healdton in Carter County, near Enid near Ardmore and Healdton in Carter County, near Enid in Garfield County, and near Guymon in Texas County.in Garfield County, and near Guymon in Texas County.

Total natural gas production: over 85 trillion cubic Total natural gas production: over 85 trillion cubic feet since 1905.feet since 1905.

The largest Natural Gas fields: The largest Natural Gas fields: – Texas County and Beaver County and Haskell CountyTexas County and Beaver County and Haskell County

Page 25: Oklahoma Geography and Geology

Extra CreditExtra Credit

What is the scientific name for rose rocks?What is the scientific name for rose rocks? Why is our dirt red?Why is our dirt red? When was the most powerful earthquake in When was the most powerful earthquake in

Oklahoma?Oklahoma? When was the most recent?When was the most recent?


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