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Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP?...

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Page 1: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Open Distributed Processing

Davide Rizzo

Page 2: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Summary

Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications

Page 3: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Why ODP?

Open

Distributed

Processing

Page 4: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Integration among services and resources

Page 5: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

A possible solution Capture the representation form of data, the

transport protocol for that data, the location algorithm of a service provider etc.

Common services: by grouping together the properties of different services and gaining an agreement on these, the amount of heterogeneity in a distributed systems can be structured in a controllable way

A framework for system specification is needed that supports such a structuring of the features of distributed systems into common services: this is provided by ODP standardization

Page 6: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

What is ODP?

Is a standardization activity by ISO providing an object oriented reference model for open distributed system

Its objective is to enable the construction of distributed systems in a multi-vendor environment through the provision of a general architectural framework that such systems must conform to

Describes systems that support heterogeneous distributing processing both within and between organizations through the use of a common interaction model (Reference Model of ODP - 1995)

An architectural framework describes a method for designing an information system in terms of a set of building blocks, and for showing how the building blocks fit together. It should provide a common vocabulary

Page 7: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• portability : i.e., the ability to execute different components on different processing nodes without modification• interworking : i.e., the ability to support meaningful interactions between components, possibly residing in different systems

Page 8: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties: • Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Incorporating various systems and resources into a whole without costly ad-hoc developments• It covers, for example, integration of systems with different architectures, different resources of different performance. • Helps to deal with heterogeneity.

Page 9: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Supporting a system’s evolution, including the existence and continued operation of legacy systems• An open distributed system should be capable of being dynamically reconfigured to accommodate changing circumstances. • Helps to deal with mobility.

Page 10: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Parts of a system are autonomous, but interrelated• It is the basis for flexibility

Page 11: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Combining systems from different administrative or technical domains to achieve a single objective

Page 12: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• monitoring, controlling and managing system’s resources in order to support configuration, QoS and accounting policies.

Page 13: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Meeting a set of quality requirements on the system’s behaviour

Page 14: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess

• Integration

• Flexibility

• Modularity

• Federation

• Manageability

• Provision of quality of service

• Security

• Transparency

• Ensuring that system facilities and data are protected against unauthorised access. • The security requirements are made more difficult to meet by the remoteness of interactions and the potential mobility of parts of the system and of the system users.

Page 15: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Properties of ODP systems

ODP standardization enables the building of distributed systems with the following properties:• Openess• Integration• Flexibility• Modularity• Federation• Manageability• Provision of quality of service• Security• Transparency

• Masking from applications the details and the differences in mechanisms used to overcome problems caused by distribution. • This is a central requirement that arises from the need to facilitate the construction of distributed applications.

Page 16: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Realization of ODP

There cannot be an single, common infrastructure that provides all of the properties that distributed systems require

There is also a need for a framework describing infrastructure components and showing how they fit together

The development of a framework for system specification and the corresponding infrastructure components is the general goal of the ODP standardization

Page 17: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Principals Concepts of the ODP

• Transparencies: determine how the end users see the system, or more precisely, what they don’t see of the system

• Viewpoints: a division of system specification in order to simplify the description of complex systems

• Functions: mask the complexity of a distributed system both user and programmers and connect processes and services

Implement

Use

Page 18: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Transparencies – general concepts

The programmers and end users should not need to be concerned with the nature and means of distribution

Programming and use of a distributed application appears exactly the same as if the application were not distributed at all

Uniform view of a system for the end users It’s ODP’s abstraction mechanism Presents a view of what is happening, but hides

the how it is happening

Page 19: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Masks the differences between two or more communicating objects• The differences could be in the data representation or in the invocation mechanism between the objects. • Is provided by an ODP engineering channel

Page 20: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Enables fault tolerance in an object or shields an object from failures in the objects environment. • Can be implemented by several functions. One such function is the replication function wich replicates an object

Page 21: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Masks the location of an object in space. • Depends on chosing a location independent naming scheme. • Enables the named entities to be moved, without notifying all parties who carry a reference to the entity of the changed reference

Page 22: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Masks changes of location of an object• Depends on the migration function • Before migration, an object will be checkpointed, and deleted from its original location• Once the object is moved, other objects depend on the relocation transparency to find the object again

Page 23: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Mask from an object the deactivation an reactivation of objects including itself• An object does not need to be concerned with loading an object from persistent store before using it• Depends on the deactivation and reactivation function

Page 24: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Masks the relocation of an object from other objects that are referring to it• If objects are connected via a channel, and one object is relocated, the channel is reconfigured to the new location of the object• Is provided by the relocation function

Page 25: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• Replicates objects in different locations to provide fault tolerance and enhanced performance by better access of data• Is provided by the replication function

Page 26: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Transparencies Are implemented by ODP functions The ODP transparencies are:

• access transparency

• failure transparency

• location transparency

• migration transparency

• persistence transparency

• relocation transparency

• replication transparency

• transaction transparency

• masks the coordination between a set of objects required to achieve consistency properties of the objects•Is provided by the transaction function

Page 27: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Viewpoints Provide a framework for specifying ODP

systems They are not of concern to end users (viewpoint

have nothing to do with the end users view of a system: transparencies provide this)

Are not independent, but partial view of the complete system specification

Distributed system are viewed to be so complex that a process of separation of concerns must be employed when describing such system (“Divide and conquer”)

Multiple viewpoint enables different partecipants each to observe a system from a suitable prospective and a suitable level of abstraction

Page 28: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Viewpoints Languages

Are associated with a viewpoint They may utilises a different notation, that is

best suited for describing a particular area They consist of:

• a set of definitions

• a set of rules, wich constrain the ways in wich the definition can be related

Page 29: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Development by viewpoints• Embraces all techniques that involve adding more detail to the specification • For example, by including more requirements or by resolving implementation choices

Page 30: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Development by viewpoints• A specification in one viewpoint may need to be translated into a specification in another viewpoint. • This is because each viewpoint may utilises a different notation or language, that is best suited for describing a particular area

Page 31: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Development by viewpoints

• Is a relation between specification at the same level of abstraction. • Two specifications are equivalent in case they capture precisely same requirements

Page 32: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Development by viewpoints• A collection of viewpoint specifications may be integrated into one specification• Each viewpoint presents a partial description of the implementation• The ultimate aim is to develop an implementation that satisfies all viewpoints

Page 33: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Development by viewpoints

• Is a relation between any number of specifications, not necessarily at the same level of abstraction• Specifications are consistent with each other, whenever it is possible to find at least one implementation that satisfies them simultaneously

Page 34: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

The RM-ODP framework

Page 35: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Viewpoints enterprise viewpoint concerned with the business

activities of the specified system information viewpoint concerned with the information that

needs to be stored and processed in the system computational viewpoint concerned with the description of

the system as a set of objects that interact at interfaces – enabling system distribution

engineering viewpoint concerned with the mechanism supporting system distribution

technology viewpoint concerned with the components from which the distributed system is constructed

Page 36: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP Functions Provide some building blocks to assemble ODP systems They are a collection of functions expected to be required

in ODP systems to support the needs of the computational language (e.g. trading function) and engineering language (e.g. the relocator)

There is not a simple mapping between transparencies and functions• For example, the relocation transparency is exactly what tje

relocation function provides, but some transparencies are more implicit in an ODP system, and do not require the support of a function

Similarly, many functions provide functionality that is not necessarily a transparency

Page 37: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP functions

The ODP functions are categorised into four groups:• management functions

• coordination functions

• repository functions

• security functions

Page 38: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP functions

The ODP functions are categorised into four groups:• management functions

• Node management function

• Capsule management function

• Cluster management function

• Object management function

• coordination functions

• repository functions

• security functions

Page 39: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP functions The ODP functions are categorised into four groups:

• management functions

• coordination functions• Event notification function

• Checkpoint and recovery function

• Deactivation and reactivatin function

• Group function

• Replication function

• Migration function

• Engineering interface reference tracking function

• Transaction function

• ACID transaction function

• repository functions

• security functions

Page 40: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP functions

The ODP functions are categorised into four groups:• management functions

• coordination functions

• repository functions• Storage function

• Information organization function

• Relocation function

• Type repository function

• Trading function

• security functions

Page 41: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

ODP functions

The ODP functions are categorised into four groups:• management functions

• coordination functions

• repository functions

• security functions• Acces control function

• Security audit function

• Authentication function

• Integrity function

• Confidentiality

• Non-repudation function

• Key management function

Page 42: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Software development process in ODP The development process is decomposed according to viewpoints Each viewpoint deals with a particoular area of concern and,

therefore, focuses on those aspects of the system under development that are relevant to that area of concern

Page 43: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Consistency between viewpoints The five viewpoints specifications must be linked by

defining the relations between key terms in them. It is these statements of the relationships between veiwpoints that make them specifiy a single system, rather than being completely independent documents

Many of the links will be provided implicity by the notations used, resulting from correspondence between names. However, some of the key constraints need to be stated explicitly

Constraints are placed on the relations between terms in the viewpoint language themselves, establishing some limits on the mappings which can be established

Most of the constraints placed are between terms in the computational and engineering languages

Page 44: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Example of consistency between viewpoints

If such correspondence cannot be established, then the two different description are not consistent, and should be refined untile a correspondence can be demonstrated

Page 45: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Enterprise viewpoint consistency vs. other viewpoints The enterprise language should serve as the basis for specifying

enterprise goals which must be reflected directly or indirectly in all other viewpoint specifications.

The enterprise viewpoint describes, explicitly, the objectives of the system in the context of the organization in terms of members, roles, actions, purposes, usage and policies.

Therefore, an information, computational, engineering or technology viewpoint specification is consistent with an enterprise specification if all the roles, activities, and policies described in the enterprise specification are correctly reflected.

For instance, dynamic schema defined in an information specification must obey the policies described in the enterprise specification.

Different roles identified in the enterprise specification may be supported by different computational objects, having different transparency requirements.

Thus, transparency needs for each role in the enterprise specification should be reflected by the use of the corresponding transparency mechanism in the engineering specification

Page 46: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Correspondence between computational and engineering viewpoints

Page 47: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

Other concerns in ODP System

Formal Descriptions Consistency between viewpoints

described with different notations Conformance assessments Other ODP projects:

• INTAP, which uses UML Profile for EDOC (Enterprise Distributed Object Computing) from OMG and RM-ODP viewpoints

• ATA, architecture which respect ODP standards

Page 48: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of enterprise viewpoint

Page 49: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of enterprise viewpoint

Special icon is used to represent role of the community in the diagram

Page 50: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of enterprise viewpoint

The behavioral part of the community could be specified with UML Collaboration.

Page 51: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of information viewpoint

Instance model description

Page 52: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of information viewpoint

Structured class diagrams for instance model

Page 53: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

INTAP: example of information viewpoint

Dinamic schema

Page 54: Open Distributed Processing Davide Rizzo. Open Distributed Processing Summary Why ODP? What is ODP? Reference Model for ODP Consistency of Viewpoint Specifications.

Open Distributed Processing

References ODP Reference Model  

ftp://ftp.dstc.edu.au/DSTC/arch/RM-ODP/PDFdocs/ Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP): Introduction

Kerry Raymond - [email protected] http://archive.dstc.edu.au/AU/research_news/odp/ref_model/papers/icodp95.ps

ODP: Unplugged! Ian Joynerhttp://homepages.tig.com.au/~ijoyner/ODPUnplugged.html

RM-ODP: The ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed ProcessingAntonio Vallecillo - [email protected] Informática. Universidad de Málagahttp://www.enterprise-architecture.info/Images/Documents/RM-ODP.pdf

FDTs for ODPHoward Bowman, John Derryck, Peter Linington and Maarten SteenComputing Laboratory, University of Kent, Canterburyhttp://www.cs.kent.ac.uk/research/groups/tcs/consistency/talk.ps.gz

Applying EDOC and MDA to the RM-ODP Engineering and Technology ViewpointsAn Architectural PerspectiveDavid Frankel Consultinghttp://www.net.intap.or.jp/e/odp/odp-techguide.pdf


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