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SEBU8180-01 March 2008 Operation and Maintenance Manual C4.4 Industrial Engine 4441-Up (Engine) SAFETY.CAT.COM
Transcript

SEBU8180-01March 2008

Operation andMaintenanceManualC4.4 Industrial Engine4441-Up (Engine)

SAFETY.CAT.COM

i01658146

Important Safety InformationMost accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observebasic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardoussituations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should alsohave the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous andcould result in injury or death.Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you haveread and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warningsare not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictoriallypresented.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and inthis publication.

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool,procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillaris used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure thatthe product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance orrepair procedures that you choose.The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information thatwas available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes canaffect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before youstart any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for thisproduct Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-lar replacement parts or parts with equivalentspecifications including, but not limited to, phys-ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-ture failures, product damage, personal injury ordeath.

SEBU8180-01 3Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Foreword ................................................................. 4

Safety Section

Safety Messages .................................................... 6

General Hazard Information ................................... 8

Burn Prevention ..................................................... 11

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 12

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 14

Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 14

High Pressure Fuel Lines ..................................... 14

Before Starting Engine .......................................... 16

Engine Starting ..................................................... 16

Engine Stopping ................................................... 17

Electrical System .................................................. 17

Engine Electronics ................................................ 18

Product Information Section

General Information .............................................. 19

Model Views ......................................................... 20

Product Identification Information ........................ 25

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage ................................................ 28

Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 29

Features and Controls .......................................... 31

Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 38

Engine Starting ..................................................... 42

Engine Operation .................................................. 45

Engine Stopping ................................................... 47

Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 49

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities .................................................... 54

Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 61

Warranty Section

Warranty Information .......................................... 102

Reference Information Section

Engine Ratings ................................................... 103

Customer Service ............................................... 104

Reference Materials ............................................ 106

Index Section

Index .................................................................... 110

4 SEBU8180-01Foreword

ForewordLiterature InformationThis manual contains safety, operation instructions,lubrication and maintenance information. Thismanual should be stored in or near the engine areain a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,study and keep it with the literature and engineinformation.

English is the primary language for all Caterpillarpublications. The English used facilitates translationand consistency in electronic media delivery.

Some photographs or illustrations in this manualshow details or attachments that may be differentfrom your engine. Guards and covers may havebeen removed for illustrative purposes. Continuingimprovement and advancement of product designmay have caused changes to your engine which arenot included in this manual. Whenever a questionarises regarding your engine, or this manual, pleaseconsult with your Caterpillar dealer for the latestavailable information.

SafetyThis safety section lists basic safety precautions.In addition, this section identifies hazardous,warning situations. Read and understand the basicprecautions listed in the safety section beforeoperating or performing lubrication, maintenance andrepair on this product.

OperationOperating techniques outlined in this manual arebasic. They assist with developing the skills andtechniques required to operate the engine moreefficiently and economically. Skill and techniquesdevelop as the operator gains knowledge of theengine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators.Photographs and illustrations guide the operatorthrough procedures of inspecting, starting, operatingand stopping the engine. This section also includes adiscussion of electronic diagnostic information.

MaintenanceThe maintenance section is a guide to engine care.The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are groupedby fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendartime maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenanceschedule are referenced to detailed instructions thatfollow.

Use fuel consumption or service hours to determineintervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervalsif they provide more convenient schedules andapproximate the indicated service meter reading.

Recommended service should be performed at theappropriate intervals as indicated in the MaintenanceInterval Schedule. The actual operating environmentof the engine also governs the Maintenance IntervalSchedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,more frequent lubrication and maintenance than isspecified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule maybe necessary.

The maintenance schedule items are organized fora preventive maintenance management program. Ifthe preventive maintenance program is followed, aperiodic tune-up is not required. The implementationof a preventive maintenance management programshould minimize operating costs through costavoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduleddowntime and failures.

Maintenance IntervalsPerform maintenance on items at multiples of theoriginal requirement. Each level and/or individualitems in each level should be shifted ahead or backdepending upon your specific maintenance practices,operation and application. We recommend thatthe maintenance schedules be reproduced anddisplayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.We also recommend that a maintenance record bemaintained as part of the engine’s permanent record.

See the section in the Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Maintenance Records” for informationregarding documents that are generally acceptedas proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorizedCaterpillar dealer can assist you in adjusting yourmaintenance schedule to meet the needs of youroperating environment.

OverhaulMajor engine overhaul details are not covered in theOperation and Maintenance Manual except for theinterval and the maintenance items in that interval.Major repairs are best left to trained personnel oran authorized Caterpillar dealer. Your Caterpillardealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaulprograms. If you experience a major engine failure,there are also numerous after failure overhaul optionsavailable from your Caterpillar dealer. Consult withyour dealer for information regarding these options.

SEBU8180-01 5Foreword

California Proposition 65 WarningDiesel engine exhaust and some of its constituentsare known to the State of California to cause cancer,birth defects, and other reproductive harm.

Battery posts, terminals and related accessoriescontain lead and lead compounds. Wash handsafter handling.

6 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionSafety Messages

Safety Sectioni02872106

Safety MessagesSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

There may be several specific warning signs on yourengine. The exact location and a description of thewarning signs are reviewed in this section. Pleasebecome familiar with all warning signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Cleanthe warning signs or replace the warning signs ifthe words cannot be read or if the illustrations arenot visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to cleanthe warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, orother harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harshchemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures thewarning signs. The warning signs that are loosenedcould drop off of the engine.

Replace any warning sign that is damaged ormissing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of theengine that is replaced, install a new warning signon the replacement part. Your Caterpillar dealer canprovide new warning signs.

(1) Universal Warning

Do not operate or work on this equipment unlessyou have read and understand the instructionsand warnings in the Operation and MaintenanceManuals. Failure to follow the instructions orheed the warnings could result in serious injuryor death.

g01154807Illustration 1

Typical example

The Universal Warning label (1) is located on bothsides of the valve mechanism cover base. Refer toillustration 2.

SEBU8180-01 7Safety Section

Safety Messages

g01268960Illustration 2

(1) Universal warning

(2) Hand (High Pressure)

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

g01154858Illustration 3Typical example

The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (2)is located on the top of the fuel manifold. Refer toillustration 4.

8 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionGeneral Hazard Information

g01430275Illustration 4

(2) Hand (High Pressure) (3) Ether

(3) Ether

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such asether. Such use could result in an explosion andpersonal injury.

g01154809Illustration 5

Typical example

The ether warning label (3) is located on the cover ofthe inlet manifold. Refer to illustration 4.

Note: The position of this label will depend on theapplication on the engine.

i02344741

General Hazard InformationSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

g00104545Illustration 6

SEBU8180-01 9Safety Section

General Hazard Information

Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similarwarning tag to the start switch or to the controlsbefore the engine is serviced or before the engine isrepaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction,SEHS7332) are available from your Caterpillardealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine and toeach operator control station. When it is appropriate,disconnect the starting controls.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,or around the engine when the engine is beingserviced.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustionwhich may be harmful to your health. Always start theengine and operate the engine in a well ventilatedarea. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent theengine exhaust to the outside.

Cautiously remove the following parts. To helpprevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,hold a rag over the part that is being removed.

• Filler caps

• Grease fittings

• Pressure taps

• Breathers

• Drain plugs

Use caution when cover plates are removed.Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last twobolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends ofthe cover plate or the device. Before removing thelast two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order torelieve any spring pressure or other pressure.

g00702020Illustration 7

• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and otherprotective equipment, as required.

• When work is performed around an engine that isoperating, wear protective devices for ears in orderto help prevent damage to hearing.

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snagon controls or on other parts of the engine.

• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers aresecured in place on the engine.

• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.Glass containers can break.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

• Report all necessary repairs.

Unless other instructions are provided, performthe maintenance under the following conditions:

• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the enginecannot be started.

• Disconnect the batteries when maintenanceis performed or when the electrical system isserviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment thatis damaged or repair the equipment.

Pressurized Air and WaterPressurized air and/or water can cause debrisand/or hot water to be blown out. This could result inpersonal injury.

When pressurized air and/or pressurized water isused for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protectiveshoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includesgoggles or a protective face shield.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposesmust be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximumwater pressure for cleaning purposes must be below275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid PenetrationPressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit longafter the engine has been stopped. The pressure cancause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs toescape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.

Do not remove any hydraulic components or partsuntil pressure has been relieved or personal injurymay occur. Do not disassemble any hydrauliccomponents or parts until pressure has been relievedor personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEMinformation for any procedures that are required torelieve the hydraulic pressure.

10 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionGeneral Hazard Information

g00687600Illustration 8

Always use a board or cardboard when you checkfor a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure canpenetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can causeserious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak cancause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatmentfrom a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

Containing Fluid SpillageCare must be taken in order to ensure that fluidsare contained during performance of inspection,maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of theengine. Prepare to collect the fluid with suitablecontainers before opening any compartment ordisassembling any component that contains fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “DealerService Tool Catalog” for the following items:

• Tools that are suitable for collecting fluids andequipment that is suitable for collecting fluids

• Tools that are suitable for containing fluids andequipment that is suitable for containing fluids

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

Asbestos Information

g00702022Illustration 9

Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that areshipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free. Caterpillarrecommends the use of only genuine Caterpillarreplacement parts. Use the following guidelineswhen you handle any replacement parts that containasbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.

Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might begenerated when you handle components that containasbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardousto your health. The components that may containasbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, liningmaterial, clutch plates, and some gaskets. Theasbestos that is used in these components is usuallybound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normalhandling is not hazardous unless airborne dust thatcontains asbestos is generated.

If dust that may contain asbestos is present, thereare several guidelines that should be followed:

• Never use compressed air for cleaning.

• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.

• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestosmaterials.

• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a highefficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also beused.

• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machiningjobs.

• Wear an approved respirator if there is no otherway to control the dust.

SEBU8180-01 11Safety Section

Burn Prevention

• Comply with applicable rules and regulationsfor the work place. In the United States, useOccupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirementscan be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.

• Obey environmental regulations for the disposalof asbestos.

• Stay away from areas that might have asbestosparticles in the air.

Dispose of Waste Properly

g00706404Illustration 10

Improperly disposing of waste can threaten theenvironment. Potentially harmful fluids should bedisposed of according to local regulations.

Always use leakproof containers when you drainfluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down adrain, or into any source of water.

i02344742

Burn PreventionSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

Do not touch any part of an operating engine.Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance isperformed on the engine.

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to bepurged from the high pressure fuel lines before anyservice or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, inthe hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or inthe cooling system before any lines, fittings or relateditems are disconnected.

CoolantWhen the engine is at operating temperature, theengine coolant is hot. The coolant is also underpressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters orto the engine contain hot coolant.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can causesevere burns. Allow cooling system components tocool before the cooling system is drained.

Check the coolant level after the engine has stoppedand the engine has been allowed to cool.

Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing thefiller cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touchwith a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly inorder to relieve pressure.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali cancause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contactthe skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

OilsHot oil and hot lubricating components can causepersonal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact theskin. Also, do not allow hot components to contactthe skin.

BatteriesElectrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personalinjury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin orthe eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicingbatteries. Wash hands after touching the batteriesand connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

12 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionFire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

i02328452

Fire Prevention and ExplosionPreventionSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

g00704000Illustration 11

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixturesare flammable.

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hotsurfaces or onto electrical components can causea fire. Fire may cause personal injury and propertydamage.

A flash fire may result if the covers for the enginecrankcase are removed within fifteen minutes afteran emergency shutdown.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in anenvironment that allows combustible gases to bedrawn into the air inlet system. These gases couldcause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of combustiblegases, consult your Caterpillar dealer for additionalinformation about suitable protection devices.

Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, anddebris from the engine. Do not allow any flammablematerials to accumulate on the engine.

Store fuels and lubricants in properly markedcontainers away from unauthorized persons. Storeoily rags and any flammable materials in protectivecontainers. Do not smoke in areas that are used forstoring flammable materials.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaustcomponents from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must beinstalled correctly.

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammablefluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that containflammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanksthoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior towelding or flame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electricalwires must be properly routed and securely attached.Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wiresthat are loose or frayed before you operate theengine. Clean all electrical connections and tightenall electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller thanthe recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fusesand/or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secureconnections, recommended wiring, and properlymaintained battery cables will help to prevent arcingor sparking.

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to bepurged from the high pressure fuel lines before anyservice or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or fordeterioration. The hoses must be properly routed.The lines and hoses must have adequate supportand secure clamps. Tighten all connections to therecommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.

Oil filters and fuel filters must be properly installed.The filter housings must be tightened to the propertorque.

SEBU8180-01 13Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

g00704059Illustration 12

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Donot smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do notrefuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Alwaysstop the engine before refueling.

g00704135Illustration 13

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any openflames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Donot smoke in battery charging areas.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metalobject across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter ora hydrometer.

Improper jumper cable connections can causean explosion that can result in injury. Refer tothe Operation Section of this manual for specificinstructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause anexplosion.

The batteries must be kept clean. The covers(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use therecommended cables, connections, and battery boxcovers when the engine is operated.

Fire ExtinguisherMake sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Befamiliar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fireextinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendationson the instruction plate.

EtherEther is flammable and poisonous.

Use ether in well ventilated areas. Do not smokewhile you are replacing an ether cylinder or while youare using an ether spray.

Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in theengine compartment. Do not store ether cylindersin direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49 °C(120 °F). Keep ether cylinders away from openflames or sparks.

Dispose of used ether cylinders properly. Do notpuncture an ether cylinder. Keep ether cylindersaway from unauthorized personnel.

Do not spray ether into an engine if the engine isequipped with a thermal starting aid for cold weatherstarting.

Lines, Tubes and HosesDo not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bentor damaged.

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leakscan cause fires. Consult your Caterpillar dealer forrepair or for replacement parts.

Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not useyour bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board orcardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connectionsto the recommended torque.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditionsare present:

14 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionCrushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

• High pressure fuel line or lines are removed.

• End fittings are damaged or leaking.

• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

• Wires are exposed.

• Outer coverings are ballooning.

• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.

• Outer covers have embedded armoring.

• End fittings are displaced.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shieldsare installed correctly. During engine operation, thiswill help to prevent vibration, rubbing against otherparts, and excessive heat.

i01359666

Crushing Prevention andCutting PreventionSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

Support the component properly when work beneaththe component is performed.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,never attempt adjustments while the engine isrunning.

Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all movingparts. Leave the guards in place until maintenanceis performed. After the maintenance is performed,reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fanblades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses inorder to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objectsare struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that noone will be injured by flying debris.

i01372247

Mounting and DismountingSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work areabefore mounting the engine. Keep these items cleanand keep these items in good repair.

Mount the engine and dismount the engine only atlocations that have steps and/or handholds. Do notclimb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.

Face the engine in order to mount the engine ordismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contactwith the steps and handholds. Use two feet and onehand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use anycontrols as handholds.

Do not stand on components which cannot supportyour weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a workplatform. Secure the climbing equipment so that theequipment will not move.

Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount theengine or when you dismount the engine. Use a handline to raise and lower tools or supplies.

i02861106

High Pressure Fuel LinesSMCS Code: 1274

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

SEBU8180-01 15Safety Section

High Pressure Fuel Lines

g01425090Illustration 14

(1) High pressure line(2) High pressure line

(3) High pressure line(4) High pressure line

(5) High pressure fuel manifold (rail)(6) High pressure line

The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines thatare between the high pressure fuel pump and thehigh pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that arebetween the fuel manifold and cylinder head. Thesefuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuelsystems.

This is because of the following differences:

• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly chargedwith high pressure.

• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuellines are higher than other types of fuel system.

• The high pressure fuel lines are formed to shapeand then strengthened by a special process.

Do not step on the high pressure fuel lines. Do notdeflect the high pressure fuel lines. Do not bend orstrike the high pressure fuel lines. Deformation ordamage of the high pressure fuel lines may cause apoint of weakness and potential failure.

Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with theengine or the starting motor in operation. After theengine has stopped allow 60 seconds to pass in orderto allow the pressure to be purged before any serviceor repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in orderto remove air from the fuel system. This procedureis not required.

Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines beforethe engine is started. This inspection should be eachday.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always usethe proper inspection procedure in order to avoida fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation andMaintenance Manual, “General Hazard Information”.

• Inspect the high pressure for the following:damage, deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, ora dent

16 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionBefore Starting Engine

• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If thereis a leak do not tighten the connection in orderto stop the leak. The connection must only betightened to the recommended torque. Refer toDisassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel InjectionLines - Remove and Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.

• If the high pressure fuel lines are torqued correctlyand the high pressure fuel lines are leaking thehigh pressure fuel lines must be replaced.

• Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel linesare in place. Do not operate the engine with clipsthat are damaged, missing or clips that are loose.

• Do not attach any other item to the high pressurefuel lines.

• Loosened high pressure fuel lines must bereplaced. Also removed high pressure fuel linesmust be replaced. Refer to Disassembly andAssembly Manual, “ Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.

i01805780

Before Starting EngineSMCS Code: 1000

NOTICEFor initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and forstart-up of an engine that has been serviced, makeprovision to shut the engine off should an overspeedoccur. This may be accomplished by shutting off theair and/or fuel supply to the engine.

Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically.If automatic shutdown does not occur, press theemergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/orair to the engine.

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that thearea is free of personnel.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for theengine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that alllights work properly, if equipped.

All protective guards and all protective covers mustbe installed if the engine must be started in orderto perform service procedures. To help prevent anaccident that is caused by parts in rotation, workaround the parts carefully.

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do notdisable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits areprovided in order to help prevent personal injury. Thecircuits are also provided in order to help preventengine damage.

See the Service Manual for repairs and foradjustments.

i02344744

Engine StartingSMCS Code: 1000

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such asether. Such use could result in an explosion andpersonal injury.

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switchor to the controls DO NOT start the engine or movethe controls. Consult with the person that attachedthe warning tag before the engine is started.

All protective guards and all protective covers mustbe installed if the engine must be started in orderto perform service procedures. To help prevent anaccident that is caused by parts in rotation, workaround the parts carefully.

Start the engine from the operator’s compartment orfrom the engine start switch.

Always start the engine according to the procedurethat is described in the Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Engine Starting” topic in the OperationSection. Knowing the correct procedure will help toprevent major damage to the engine components.Knowing the procedure will also help to preventpersonal injury.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is workingcorrectly, check the water temperature gaugeand/or the oil temperature gauge during the heateroperation.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustionwhich can be harmful to your health. Always start theengine and operate the engine in a well ventilatedarea. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,vent the engine exhaust to the outside.

SEBU8180-01 17Safety Section

Engine Stopping

Note: The engine is equipped with a device for coldstarting. If the engine will be operated in very coldconditions, then an extra cold starting aid may berequired. Normally, the engine will be equipped withthe correct type of starting aid for your region ofoperation.

These engines are equipped with a glow plug startingaid in each individual cylinder that heats the intakeair in order to improve starting.

i02328530

Engine StoppingSMCS Code: 1000

To avoid overheating of the engine and acceleratedwear of the engine components, stop the engineaccording to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Engine Stopping” topic (Operation Section).

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped)ONLY in an emergency situation. DO NOT use theEmergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping.After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engineuntil the problem that caused the emergency stophas been corrected.

On the initial start-up of a new engine or an enginethat has been serviced, make provisions to stop theengine if an overspeed condition occurs.

To stop an electronic controlled engine, cut the powerto the engine and/or the air supply to the engine.

i02234878

Electrical SystemSMCS Code: 1000; 1400

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or batterycircuit cable from the battery when the charging unitis operating. A spark can cause the combustiblegases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To help prevent sparks from igniting combustiblegases that are produced by some batteries, thenegative “−” cable should be connected last from theexternal power source to the negative “−” terminalof the starting motor. If the starting motor is notequipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect thecable to the engine block.

Check the electrical wires daily for wires thatare loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electricalconnections before the engine is started. Repair allfrayed electrical wires before the engine is started.See the Operation and Maintenance Manual forspecific starting instructions.

Grounding Practices

g01162916Illustration 15Typical example

(1) Starting motor to engine block(2) Ground to starting motor(3) Ground to battery

g01162918Illustration 16Typical example

(4) Ground to engine(5) Ground to battery

Correct grounding for the engine electrical systemis necessary for optimum engine performanceand reliability. Incorrect grounding will result inuncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliableelectrical circuit paths.

18 SEBU8180-01Safety SectionEngine Electronics

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result indamage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfacesand to aluminum components.

Engines that are installed without engine-to-frameground straps can be damaged by electricaldischarge.

To ensure that the engine and the engine electricalsystems function correctly, an engine-to-frameground strap with a direct path to the battery must beused. This path may be provided by way of a directengine ground to the frame.

The connections for the grounds should be tight andfree of corrosion. The engine alternator must begrounded to the negative “-” battery terminal witha wire that is adequate to handle the full chargingcurrent of the alternator.

The power supply connections and the groundconnections for the engine electronics should alwaysbe from the isolator to the battery.

i02652709

Engine ElectronicsSMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1900

Tampering with the electronic system installationor the OEM wiring installation can be dangerousand could result in personal injury or death and/orengine damage.

Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injec-tors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltageto the electronic unit injectors. Do not come incontact with the harness connector for the elec-tronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.Failure to follow this instruction could result inpersonal injury or death.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmableEngine Monitoring System. The Electronic ControlModule (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engineoperating conditions. If any of the engine parametersextend outside an allowable range, the ECM willinitiate an immediate action.

The following actions are available for enginemonitoring control:

• Warning

• Derate

• Shutdown

The following monitored engine operating conditionshave the ability to limit engine speed and/or theengine power:

• Engine Coolant Temperature

• Engine Oil Pressure

• Engine Speed

• Intake Manifold Air Temperature

The Engine Monitoring package can vary for differentengine models and different engine applications.However, the monitoring system and the enginemonitoring control will be similar for all engines.

Note:Many of the engine control systems and displaymodules that are available for Caterpillar Engineswill work in unison with the Engine MonitoringSystem. Together, the two controls will provide theengine monitoring function for the specific engineapplication. Refer to the Troubleshooting for moreinformation on the Engine Monitoring System.

SEBU8180-01 19Product Information Section

General Information

Product InformationSection

General Informationi02668476

Welding on Engines withElectronic ControlsSMCS Code: 1000

NOTICEBecause the strength of the frame may decrease,some manufacturers do not recommend welding ontoa chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equip-ment or your Caterpillar dealer regarding welding ona chassis frame or rail.

Proper welding procedures are necessary in orderto avoid damage to the engine’s ECM, sensors,and associated components. When possible,remove the component from the unit and thenweld the component. If removal of the componentis not possible, the following procedure must befollowed when you weld on a unit that is equippedwith a Caterpillar Electronic Engine. The followingprocedure is considered to be the safest procedure toweld on a component. This procedure should providea minimum risk of damage to electronic components.

NOTICEDo not ground the welder to electrical componentssuch as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding cancause damage to the drive train bearings, hydrauliccomponents, electrical components, and other com-ponents.

Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com-ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as closeas possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-sibility of damage.

1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to theOFF position.

2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from thebattery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,open the switch.

3. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors fromthe ECM. Move the harness to a position that willnot allow the harness to accidentally move backand make contact with any of the ECM pins.

g01075639Illustration 17

Use the example above. The current flow from the welder tothe ground clamp of the welder will not cause damage to anyassociated components.

(1) Engine(2) Welding electrode(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position(5) Disconnected battery cables(6) Battery(7) Electrical/Electronic component(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded

and any electrical/electronic component(9) The component that is being welded(10) Current path of the welder(11) Ground clamp for the welder

4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to thepart that will be welded. Place the ground cable asclose as possible to the weld in order to reduce thepossibility of welding current damage to bearings,hydraulic components, electrical components, andground straps.

Note: If electrical/electronic components are usedas a ground for the welder, or electrical/electroniccomponents are located between the welder groundand the weld, current flow from the welder couldseverely damage the component.

5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debrisand spatter.

6. Use standard welding practices to weld thematerials.

20 SEBU8180-01Product Information SectionModel Views

Model Viewsi02872107

Model View IllustrationsSMCS Code: 1000

The following model views show typical featuresof the engines. Due to individual applications, yourengine may appear different from the illustrations.

g01430279Illustration 18Engine view of a turbocharged aftercooled engine

SEBU8180-01 21Product Information Section

Model Views

g01430281Illustration 19

Engine view of a turbocharged engineFront left engine view(1) Front lifting eye(2) Water outlet(3) Rear lifting eye(4) Fuel manifold (rail)(5) Electronic control module

(6) Secondary fuel filter(7) Water pump(8) Oil Filler(9) Oil gauge(10) Oil sampling valve

(11) Oil filter(12) Crankshaft pulley(13) Drive Belt(14) Belt tensioner

22 SEBU8180-01Product Information SectionModel Views

g01430282Illustration 20

Rear right engine view(15) Alternator(16) Exhaust manifold(17) Turbocharger(18) Wastegate solenoid

(19) Drain plug or coolant sampling valve(20) Starting Motor(21) Oil drain plug(22) Primary fuel filter

(23) Hand fuel priming pump(24) Flywheel(25) Flywheel housing

Note: The primary fuel filter may be mounted off theengine.

i02872108

Engine DescriptionSMCS Code: 1000

The Caterpillar C-4.4 Industrial Engine has thefollowing characteristics:

• In-Line 4 cylinder

• Four stroke cycle

• Turbocharged

• Turbocharged aftercooled

Engine SpecificationsNote: The front end of the engine is opposite theflywheel end of the engine. The left and the rightsides of the engine are determined from the flywheelend. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

SEBU8180-01 23Product Information Section

Model Views

g01187485Illustration 21(A) Exhaust valve(B) Inlet valve

Table 1

C-4.4 Engine Specifications

Operating Range (rpm) 700 to 2640(1)

Arrangement andCylinders In-Line 4 cylinder

Bore 105 mm (4.13 inch)

Stroke 127 mm (5 inch)

Aspiration Turbocharged,Turbocharged aftercooled

Compression Ratio 16.2:1

Displacement 4.4 L (269 in3)

Firing Order 1-3-4-2

Rotation (flywheel end) Counterclockwise

Valve Lash (inlet) 0.35 mm (0.013 inch)

Valve Lash (exhaust) 0.35 mm (0.013 inch)(1) The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, theapplication and the configuration of the throttle.

Electronic Engine FeaturesThe Caterpillar C-4.4 Engine is designed forelectronic controls. The integral on board computercontrols the operation of the engine. Currentoperating conditions are monitored. The ElectronicControl Module (ECM) controls the response of theengine to these conditions and to the demands of theoperator. These conditions and operator demandsdetermine the precise control of fuel injection by theECM. The electronic engine control system providesthe following features:

• Engine monitoring

• Engine speed governing

• Control of injection pressure

• Cold start strategy

• Automatic air/fuel ratio control

• Torque rise shaping

• Injection timing control

• System diagnostics

For more information on electronic engine features,refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Engine Features and Controls” topic (OperationSection).

Engine Diagnostics

The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensurethat the engine systems are functioning correctly.The operator will be informed of any change to aprogrammed limit. The operator will be alerted tothe condition by a “Stop or Warning” lamp that ismounted on the dashboard. Under certain conditions,the engine horsepower and the vehicle speed maybe limited. The Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)may be used to display the diagnostic codes.

There are three types of codes: active diagnostic,logged diagnostic, and event.

Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and storedin the ECM. For additional information, refer tothe Operation and Maintenance Manual, “EngineDiagnostics” topic (Operation Section).

The ECM provides an electronic governor thatcontrols the injector output in order to maintain thedesired engine rpm.

Engine Cooling and LubricationThe cooling system consists of the followingcomponents:

• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump

• Water temperature regulator which regulates theengine coolant temperature

• Gear-driven oil pump

• Oil cooler

24 SEBU8180-01Product Information SectionModel Views

The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor typeoil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and theengine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valvescan provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil tothe engine if the oil filter element should becomeplugged.

Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, andengine performance depend on adherence to properoperation and maintenance recommendations.Engine performance and efficiency also depend onthe use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, andcoolants. Refer to this Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for moreinformation on maintenance items.

Engine Service LifeEngine efficiency and maximum utilization of engineperformance depend on the adherence to properoperation and maintenance recommendations. Inaddition, use recommended fuels, coolants andlubricants. Use the Operation and MaintenanceManual as a guide for required engine maintenance.

Expected engine life is generally predicted by theaverage power that is demanded. The average powerthat is demanded is based on fuel consumption ofthe engine over a period of time. Reduced hours ofoperation at full throttle and/or operating at reducedthrottle settings result in a lower average powerdemand. Reduced hours of operation will increasethe length of operating time before an engineoverhaul is required. For more information, refer tothe Operation and Maintenance Manual, “OverhaulConsiderations” topic (Maintenance Section).

Aftermarket Products andCaterpillar EnginesWhen auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables(filters, additives, catalysts, etc) which are madeby other manufacturers are used on Caterpillarproducts, the Caterpillar warranty is not affectedsimply because of such use.

However, failures that result from the installationor use of other manufacturers’ devices,accessories, or consumables are NOT Caterpillardefects. Therefore, the defects are NOT coveredunder the Caterpillar warranty.

Welding and Caterpillar ElectronicEngines

NOTICEBecause the strength of the frame may decrease,some manufacturers do not recommend welding ontoa chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equip-ment or your Caterpillar dealer regarding welding ona chassis frame or rail.

To help avoid damage to the electronic controls,proper welding procedures are necessary. Beforewelding on an engine that is equipped with anelectronic engine, observe the following precautions:

1. Turn off the engine. Place the key start switch inthe OFF position.

2. If the machine has a battery disconnect switch,open the switch. Otherwise, disconnect thenegative “-” battery cable from the battery of thevehicle.

NOTICEDo not ground the welder to electrical componentssuch as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding cancause damage to the drive train bearings, hydrauliccomponents, electrical components, and other com-ponents.

Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com-ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as closeas possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-sibility of damage.

3. Clamp the ground cable from the welder to thecomponent that will be welded. Place the clampas close as possible to the weld.

4. Protect wiring harnesses from welding debris andspatter. Use proper welding procedures.

SEBU8180-01 25Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

Product IdentificationInformation

i02499733

Plate Locations and FilmLocationsSMCS Code: 1000

g01248563Illustration 22Location of the serial number plate

Serial Number Plate (1)The engine serial number plate is located on the leftside of the cylinder block to the rear of the engine.

Caterpiller dealers need all of these numbers in orderto determine the components that were included withthe engine. This permits accurate identification ofreplacement part numbers.

g01258789Illustration 23Serial number plate

i00610276

Reference NumbersSMCS Code: 1000

Information for the following items may be needed toorder parts. Locate the information for your engine.Record the information on the appropriate space.Make a copy of this list for a record. Retain theinformation for future reference.

Record for ReferenceEngine Model _______________________________________________

Engine Serial No. __________________________________________

Engine Arrangement No. _________________________________

Modification No. ____________________________________________

Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________

Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________

Performance Specification No. _________________________

Primary Fuel Filter No. ____________________________________

Water Separator Element No. ___________________________

Secondary Fuel Filter Element No. ____________________

Lubrication Oil Filter Element No. ______________________

Auxiliary Oil Filter Element No. _________________________

Supplemental Coolant Additive Maintenance ElementNo. (Optional) _______________________________________________

Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________

26 SEBU8180-01Product Information SectionProduct Identification Information

Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________

Air Cleaner Element No. _________________________________

Fan Drive Belt No. _________________________________________

Alternator Belt No. _________________________________________

i02894858

Emissions Certification FilmSMCS Code: 1000; 7405

This information is pertinent in the United States andin Canada.

g01440937Illustration 24Typical example

i02238153

Customer SpecifiedParametersSMCS Code: 1000

To record programmed specifications, use thefollowing blanks.

Customer Passwords

• First Password ___________________________________________

• Second Password ______________________________________

Power Rating (hp at rpm) ______________________________

Rating Selection (A-E) __________________________________

PTO Governor Parameters

• PTO Engine Speed Ramp Rate __________ rpm/sec

Engine Parameters

• Top Engine Limit (TEL) at 100 percent load (IfApplicable) _______________________________________________

• Torque Limit ______________________________________________

• High Idle (If Applicable) ________________________________

• Low Idle ___________________________________________________

• Intermediate Speed ____________________________________

Engine Monitoring Mode

• “OFF” ______________________________________________________

SEBU8180-01 27Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

• “Warning” _________________________________________________

• “Warning/Derate” ________________________________________

• “Warning/Derate/Shutdown” __________________________

• “Coolant Level Sensor Enable/Disable” ____________

• “Fuel Pressure Sensor Enable/Disable” ___________

• “Inlet Manifold Air Temperature SensorEnable/Disable” _________________________________________

Equipment ID

Maintenance Indicator

• Manual-Hours

• Auto-Hours

• Manual-Fuel

• Auto-Fuel

Auxiliary Pressure

• High Warning Set Point ________________________________

Auxiliary Temperature

• High Warning Set Point ________________________________

28 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionLifting and Storage

Operation Section

Lifting and Storagei02437864

Product LiftingSMCS Code: 1000; 1404; 7002

g00103219Illustration 25

NOTICENever bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only loadthe eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem-ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the anglebetween the supporting members and the object be-comes less than 90 degrees.

When it is necessary to remove a component at anangle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated forthe weight.

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Usean adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. Allsupporting members (chains and cables) should beparallel to each other. The chains and cables shouldbe perpendicular to the top of the object that is beinglifted.

Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order toobtain proper balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes thatare on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specificengine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyesand/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the liftingfixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensurethat proper lifting devices are provided. Consult yourCaterpillar dealer for information regarding fixturesfor proper engine lifting.

i02068367

Product StorageSMCS Code: 1000; 1404; 7002

If the engine will not be started for several weeks, thelubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls andfrom the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinderliner surface. Rust on the cylinder liner surface willcause increased engine wear and a reduction inengine service life.

To help prevent excessive engine wear, use thefollowing guidelines:

• Complete all of the lubrication recommendationsthat are listed in this Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”(Maintenance Section).

• If freezing temperatures are expected, check thecooling system for adequate protection againstfreezing. See this Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”(Maintenance Section).

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engineis not planned, special precautions should be made.If the engine will be stored for more than one month,a complete protection procedure is recommended.

For more detailed information on engine storage, seeSpecial Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage ProcedureFor Caterpillar Products”.

Your Caterpillar dealer can assist in preparing theengine for extended storage periods.

SEBU8180-01 29Operation Section

Gauges and Indicators

Gauges and Indicatorsi02724238

Gauges and IndicatorsSMCS Code: 1900; 7450

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all ofthe gauges that are described. For more informationabout the gauge package, see the OEM information.

Gauges provide indications of engine performance.Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.Determine the normal operating range by observingthe gauges over a period of time.

Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicatepotential gauge or engine problems. Problems mayalso be indicated by gauge readings that changeeven if the readings are within specifications.Determine and correct the cause of any significantchange in the readings. Consult your Caterpillardealer for assistance.

Some engine applications are equipped with IndicatorLamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnosticaid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orangelens and the other lamp has a red lens.

These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:

• The indicator lamps can be used to identify thecurrent operational status of the engine. Theindicator lamps can also indicate that the enginehas a fault. This system is automatically operatedvia the ignition switch.

• The indicator lamps can be used to identify activediagnostic codes. This system is activated bypressing the Flash Code button.

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “IndicatorLamps” for further information.

NOTICEIf no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. Ifmaximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOPthe engine. Engine damage can result.

Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressureshould be greatest after a cold engine isstarted. The typical engine oil pressure with

SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at ratedrpm.

A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the loadis stable and the gauge reading changes, performthe following procedure:

1. Remove the load.

2. Stop the engine.

3. Check and maintain the oil level.

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –Typical temperature range is 83° to 95°C(181.4° to 171°F). The maximum allowable

temperature at sea level with the pressurized coolingsystem at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 103 °C (217.4 °F). Highertemperatures may occur under certain conditions.The water temperature reading may vary accordingto load. The temperature reading should neverexceed 7 °C (44.6 °F) below the boiling point for thepressurized system that is being used.

A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap may be installed onthe cooling system. The temperature of this coolingsystem must not exceed 112 °C (233.6 °F).

If the engine is operating above the normal rangeand steam becomes apparent, perform the followingprocedure:

1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.

2. Determine if the engine must be shut downimmediately or if the engine can be cooled byreducing the load.

3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

Tachometer – This gauge indicates enginespeed (rpm). When the throttle control leveris moved to the full throttle position without

load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine isrunning at the full load rpm when the throttle controllever is at the full throttle position with maximumrated load.

NOTICETo help prevent engine damage, never exceed thehigh idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in seriousdamage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceed-ing high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.

Ammeter – This gauge indicates theamount of charge or discharge in thebattery charging circuit. Operation of the

indicator should be to the “+” side of “0” (zero).

Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuellevel in the fuel tank. The fuel level gaugeoperates when the “START/STOP” switch

is in the “on” position.

30 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionGauges and Indicators

Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicatestotal operating hours of the engine.

SEBU8180-01 31Operation Section

Features and Controls

Features and Controlsi02330192

Monitoring SystemSMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7402; 7450; 7451

Table 2

WarningLamp

ShutdownLamp Lamp Status Description of lamp status Engine Status

ON ONLamp check When the engine start switch is turned to the

“ON” position both lamps will illuminate for 2seconds only.

The engine has not beenstarted.

OFF OFF No faults There are no active diagnostic faults. The engine is runningnormally.

ON OFFActivediagnosticfault

An active diagnostic fault has been detected. The engine is runningnormally.

ON FLASHINGActivediagnosticfault

A serious active diagnostic fault has beendetected and an engine derate has beeninvoked.

The engine is runningbut the engine has beenderated.

FLASHING OFF Warning One or more of the engine protection valueshas been exceeded.

The engine is runningnormally.

FLASHING FLASHINGDerate andwarning

One or more of the engine protection valueshas been exceeded.

The engine is runningbut the engine has beenderated.

ON ONEngineshutdown

One or more of the engine protection values hasbeen exceeded or a serious active diagnosticfault has been detected.

The engine is shutdown orshutdown is imminent.

i02724323

Monitoring SystemSMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7402; 7450; 7451

If the Shutdown mode has been selected and thewarning indicator activates, engine shutdownmaytake as little as 20 seconds from the time the warn-ing indicator is activated. Depending on the ap-plication, special precautions should be taken toavoid personal injury. The engine can be restartedfollowing shutdown for emergency maneuvers, ifnecessary.

NOTICEThe Engine Monitoring System is not a guaranteeagainst catastrophic failures. Programmed delaysand derate schedules are designed to minimize falsealarms and provide time for the operator to stop theengine.

The following parameters are monitored:

• Coolant temperature

• Intake manifold air temperature

• Intake manifold air pressure

• Oil pressure

• Pressure in the fuel rail

• Engine speed/timing

Programmable Options andSystems Operation

If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has beenselected and the warning indicator activates,bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De-pending on the application, special precautionsshould be taken to avoid personal injury.

32 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionFeatures and Controls

The engine can be programmed to the followingmodes:

“Warning”

The “Warning” lamp and the warning signal (orangelamp) turn “ON” and the warning signal is activatedcontinuously in order to alert the operator that one ormore of the engine parameters is not within normaloperating range.

“Warning/Derate”

The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warningsignal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, theengine power will be derated. The warning lamp willbegin to flash when the derating occurs.

The engine will be derated if the engine exceedspreset operational limits. The engine derate isachieved by restricting the amount of fuel that isavailable for each injection. The amount of thisreduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of thefault that has caused the engine derate, typically upto a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in apredetermined reduction in engine power.

“Warning/Derate/Shutdown”

The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warningsignal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning,the engine power will be derated. The engine willcontinue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdownof the engine occurs. The engine can be restartedafter a shutdown for use in an emergency.

A shutdown of the engine may occur in as littleas 20 seconds. The engine can be restarted aftera shutdown for use in an emergency. However,the cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.The engine may shut down again in as little as 20seconds.

If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolanttemperature, there will be a two second delay inorder to verify the condition.

For each of the programmed modes, refer toTroubleshooting Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for moreinformation on Indicator Lamps.

For more information or assistance for repairs,consult your Caterpillar dealer.

i02861773

Sensors and ElectricalComponentsSMCS Code: 1900; 7400

Sensor LocationsIllustration 26 shows the typical locations of thesensors and the ECM on the engine. Specific enginesmay appear different from the illustration due todifferences in applications.

SEBU8180-01 33Operation Section

Features and Controls

g01425443Illustration 26(1) Coolant temperature sensor(2) Intake manifold pressure sensor(3) Inlet air temperature sensor

(4) Fuel pressure sensor(5) Electronic control module(6) Primary position sensor

(7) Secondary position sensor(8) Engine oil pressure sensor

Illustration 27 shows the sensors and the ECM inposition on the engine.

34 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionFeatures and Controls

g01425468Illustration 27

Failure of Sensors

All Sensors

A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by oneof the following malfunctions:

• Sensor output is open.

• Sensor output is shorted to “- battery” or “+ battery”.

• Measured reading of the sensor is out of thespecification.

Programmable Monitoring System(PMS)The Programmable Monitoring System determinesthe level of action that is taken by the ElectronicControl Module (ECM) in response to a conditionthat can damage the engine. These conditions areidentified by the ECM from the signals that areproduced from the following sensors.

• Coolant Temperature Sensor

• Intake manifold Air Temperature Sensor

• Intake manifold Pressure Sensor

• Fuel Pressure Sensor

SEBU8180-01 35Operation Section

Features and Controls

• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor

• Primary Speed/Timing Sensor

• Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor

Coolant Temperature Sensor 1The coolant temperature sensor monitors enginecoolant temperature. The output of the ECM (5) canindicate a high coolant temperature through a relayor a lamp. The coolant temperature sensor is usedby the ECM to determine initiation of the Cold StartCondition.

Failure of the Coolant TemperatureSensor

The ECM (5) will detect a failure of the coolanttemperature sensor. The diagnostic lamp will warn theoperator about the status of the coolant temperaturesensor. A failure of the coolant temperature sensorwill not cause a shutdown of the engine or anyhorsepower change. In order to check the correctoperation of the sensor, refer to Troubleshooting,“Engine Temperature Sensor Circuit - Test”.

Intake Manifold Air TemperatureSensor 2Note: This sensor can have two different locations.The location will depend on the type of engine.

The intake manifold air temperature sensor measuresthe intake air temperature. A signal is sent to theECM (5). The intake manifold air temperature sensoris also used by the ECM to determine initiation of theCold Start Strategy.

In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,refer to Troubleshooting, “EngineTemperature SensorCircuit - Test”.

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor 3The intake manifold pressure sensor measurespressure in the manifold. A signal is sent to the ECM(5).

Fuel Pressure Sensor 4The fuel pressure sensor measures the fuel pressurein the fuel manifold. A signal is sent to the ECM (5).

Electronic Control Module 5The ECM is the control computer of the engine. TheECM provides power to the electronics. The ECMmonitors data that is input from the sensors of theengine. The ECM acts as a governor in order tocontrol the speed and the power of the engine.

The ECM adjusts injection timing and fuel pressurefor the best engine performance, the best fueleconomy and the best control of exhaust emissions.

Primary Speed/Timing Sensor 6If the ECM (5) does not receive a signal from theprimary speed/timing sensor , the “DIAGNOSTIC”lamp will indicate a diagnostic fault code which will belogged in the ECM memory.

If the ECM does not receive a signal from the primaryspeed/timing sensor (7), the ECM will read the signalfrom the secondary speed/timing sensor (8). TheECM continually checks in order to determine if thereis a signal from both sensors.

Intermittent failure of the sensors will cause erraticengine control.

Failure of the Primary Speed/TimingSensor

Correct operation of the primary speed/timingsensor is essential. Software in the ECM protectsagainst reverse running of the engine. If the primaryspeed/timing sensor fails there is no automaticprotection against reverse running. In someapplications, it is possible for the transmission torun the engine in reverse. In this event, Stop theengine immediately. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF”position.

In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine speed/Timingsensor - Test”.

Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor 7The signal from the secondary speed/timing sensoris used by the ECM (5) on engine start-up in orderto check the stroke of the pistons. The secondaryspeed/timing sensor may be used by the ECMin order to operate the engine if the primaryspeed/timing sensor is faulty.

In order to check the correct operation of the sensor,refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine speed/Timingsensor-Test”.

36 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionFeatures and Controls

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 8Note: This sensor can have two different locations.The location will depend on the type of engine.

The engine oil pressure sensor is an absolutepressure sensor that measures the engine oilpressure in the main oil gallery. The engine oilpressure sensor detects engine oil pressure fordiagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensorsends a signal to the ECM (5).

Low Oil Pressure Warning

The setpoint for the low pressure warning isdependent upon the engine speed. The fault will beactive and logged only if the engine has been runningfor more than 8 seconds.

Very Low Oil Pressure Warning

The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependentupon the engine speed. If the DERATE mode of theengine monitoring system is selected, the ECM (5)will derate the engine power. The engine horsepowerwill be limited.

Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Sensor

The ECM (5) will detect failure of the engine oilpressure sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the userabout the status of the engine oil pressure sensor.The engine oil pressure related strategies will bedisabled in the event of a failure of the engine oilpressure sensor. A failure of the engine oil pressuresensor will not cause a shutdown of the engine orany horsepower change. In order to check the correctoperation of the sensor, refer to Troubleshooting, “5Volt Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”.

i02858345

Engine Shutoffs and EngineAlarmsSMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7418

ShutoffsThe shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanicallyoperated. The electrically operated shutoffs arecontrolled by the ECM.

Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the followingitems:

• Operating temperature

• Operating pressure

• Operating level

• Operating rpm

The particular shutoff may need to be reset beforethe engine will start.

NOTICEAlways determine the cause of the engine shutdown.Make necessary repairs before attempting to restartthe engine.

Be familiar with the following items:

• Types and locations of shutoff

• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function

• The resetting procedure that is required to restartthe engine

AlarmsThe alarms are electrically operated. The operationof the alarms are controlled by the ECM.

The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.When the sensor or the switch is activated a signalis sent to the ECM. An event code is created bythe ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order toilluminate the lamp.

Your engine may be equipped with the followingsensors or switches:

Coolant level – The low coolant level switchindicates when the coolant level is low.

Coolant temperature – The coolant temperaturesensor indicates high jacket water coolanttemperature.

Intake manifold air temperature – The intakemanifold air temperature sensor indicates high intakeair temperature.

Intake manifold pressure – The intake manifoldpressure sensor checks the rated pressure in theengine manifold.

Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensorchecks for high pressure or low pressure in the fuelrail.

Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressuresensor indicates when oil pressure drops below ratedsystem pressure, at a set engine speed.

SEBU8180-01 37Operation Section

Features and Controls

Engine overspeed – The primary speed/timingsensor checks the engine speed. The alarm isactivated at 3000 RPM.

Air filter restriction – The switch checks the airfilter when the engine is operating.

User defined switch – This switch can shut downthe engine remotely.

Water in fuel switch – This switch checks for waterin the primary fuel filter when the engine is operating.

Note: The sensing element of the coolanttemperature switch must be submerged in coolantin order to operate.

Engines may be equipped with alarms in orderto alert the operator when undesirable operatingconditions occur.

NOTICEWhen an alarm is activated, corrective measuresmustbe taken before the situation becomes an emergencyin order to avoid possible engine damage.

If corrective measures are not taken within areasonable time, engine damage could result. Thealarm will continue until the condition is corrected.The alarm may need to be reset.

TestingTurning the keyswitch to the ON position will checkthe indicator lights on the control panel. All theindicator lights will be illuminated for two secondsafter the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspectbulbs immediately.

Refer to Troubleshooting for more information.

i02254118

OverspeedSMCS Code: 1900; 1907; 1912; 7427

An overspeed condition is detected by the ElectronicControl Module (ECM). The event code E0190 will belogged if the engine speed exceeds 3300 rpm. The“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will indicate a diagnostic faultcode. The diagnostic fault code will remain activeuntil the engine speed drops to 2800 rpm.

38 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Diagnostics

Engine Diagnosticsi01796959

Self-DiagnosticsSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

Caterpillar Electronic Engines have the capability toperform a self-diagnostics test. When the systemdetects an active problem, a diagnostic lampis activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored inpermanent memory in the Electronic Control Module(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved byusing Caterpillar electronic service tools.

Some installations have electronic displays thatprovide direct readouts of the engine diagnosticcodes. Refer to the manual that is provided by theOEM for more information on retrieving enginediagnostic codes.

Active codes represent problems that currently exist.These problems should be investigated first.

Logged codes represent the following items:

• Intermittent problems

• Recorded events

• Performance history

The problems may have been repaired since thelogging of the code. These codes do not indicate thata repair is needed. The codes are guides or signalswhen a situation exists. Codes may be helpful totroubleshoot problems.

When the problems have been corrected, thecorresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.

i02501517

Diagnostic LampSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902; 7451

A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existenceof an active fault. A fault diagnostic code will remainactive until the problem is repaired. The diagnosticcode may be retrieved by using Caterpillar electronictechnician (ET).

i02872126

Diagnostic Flash CodeRetrievalSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

“Diagnostic” LampUse the “DIAGNOSTIC” Lamp or an electronicservice tool to determine the diagnostic flash code.

Use the following procedure to retrieve the flashcodes if the engine is equipped with a “DIAGNOSTIC”lamp:

1. Turn the keyswitch “ON/OFF” two times within 3seconds.

A flashing“YELLOW” lamp indicates a 3 digit code forthe engine. The sequence of flashes represents thesystem diagnostic message. Count the first sequenceof flashes in order to determine the first digit of theflash code. After a two second pause, the secondsequence of flashes will identify the second digit ofthe flash code. After the second pause, the thirdsequence of flashes will identify the flash code.

Any additional flash codes will follow after a pause.These codes will be displayed in the same manner.Flash Code 551 indicates that No Detected Faultshave occurred since the ignition keyswitch has beenturned to the ON position.

For further information, assistance for repairs, ortroubleshooting, refer to the Service Manual orconsult an authorized Caterpillar dealer.

Table 3 lists the flash codes and the table also givesa brief description of the flash codes.

Note: Table 3 indicates the potential effect on engineperformance with “ACTIVE” flash codes.

Some codes record events. Also, some codesmay also indicate that a mechanical system needsattention. Troubleshooting is not required for code“551”. Code 001 will not display a flash code. Somecodes will limit the operation or the performance ofthe engine.

Table 3 indicates the potential effect on the engineperformance with active flash codes. Table 3 alsoforms a list of Electronic diagnostic codes anddescriptions.

SEBU8180-01 39Operation SectionEngine Diagnostics

Table 3

Flash Codes for the Industrial Engine

Effect On Engine Performance (1) Suggested Operator Action

Diagnostic Flash Code EngineMisfire

LowPower

ReducedEngineSpeed

EngineShutdown

ShutDown theEngine (2)

Service (3) Schedule aService. (4)

111 Cylinder 1 Fault X X X

112 Cylinder 2 Fault X X X

113 Cylinder 3 Fault X X X

114 Cylinder 4 Fault X X X

133Intake ManifoldTemperature sensorfault (5)

X X

141 Primary Speed/Timing Sensor Fault X X

142SecondarySpeed/TimingSensor Fault

X

143 Timing CalibrationFault X X

144Engine OperationMode SelectorSwitch Fault

X X

151 High Air FilterRestriction X X

154 Throttle Positionsensor Fault X X

155Secondary ThrottlePosition sensorFault

X X

157 Oil Pressure SensorFault(5) X X X X X

159 Fuel Rail PressureSensor Fault X X

162 High Pressure FuelPump Fault X X X

168Coolant

Temperature SensorFault

X X X

169 Low Engine Coolant X X

177 Wastegate SolenoidFault X

185 High ExhaustTemperature X X

197Intake ManifoldPressure SensorFault

X X

199 Glow Plug StartRelay Fault X

(continued)

40 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Diagnostics

(Table 3, contd)

Flash Codes for the Industrial Engine

Effect On Engine Performance (1) Suggested Operator Action

Diagnostic Flash Code EngineMisfire

LowPower

ReducedEngineSpeed

EngineShutdown

ShutDown theEngine (2)

Service (3) Schedule aService. (4)

415 Incorrect EngineSoftware X X X

426Machine SecuritySystem ModuleFault (6)

X

429 Keyswitch Fault X

511 Intermittent BatteryPower to ECM X X X X

514 SAE J1939 DataLink Fault X X

5165 Volt Sensor DCPower SupplyFault(5)

X X

517 8 Volt Sensor DCPower Supply Fault X X

527Check CustomerParameters orSystem Parameters(5)

X X X

(1) An “X” indicates that the effect on engine performance may occur if the code is active.(2) Shut Down the Engine: Operate the engine cautiously. Get immediate service. Severe engine damage may result.(3) The operator should go to the nearest location that has a qualified service program.(4) Schedule Service: The problem should be investigated when the operator has access to a qualified service program.(5) These Flash Codes may affect the system under specific environmental conditions such as engine start-up at cold temperature andcold weather operation at high altitudes.

(6) The engine will not start.

i02512380

Fault LoggingSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)generates an active diagnostic code, the code will belogged in the memory of the ECM. The codes thathave been logged in the memory of the ECM canbe retrieved with Caterpillar electronic service tools.The codes that have been logged can be clearedwith Caterpillar electronic service tools. The codesthat have been logged in the memory of the ECMwill be automatically cleared from the memory after100 hours. The following faults can not be clearedfrom the memory of the ECM without using a factorypassword: overspeed, low engine oil pressure, andhigh engine coolant temperature.

SEBU8180-01 41Operation SectionEngine Diagnostics

i01797045

Engine Operation with ActiveDiagnostic CodesSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engineoperation, the system has identified a situation that isnot within the specification. Use Caterpillar electronicservice tools to check the active diagnostic codes.

Note: If the customer has selected “DERATE” and ifthere is a low oil pressure condition, the ElectronicControl Module (ECM) will limit the engine poweruntil the problem is corrected. If the oil pressure iswithin the normal range, the engine may be operatedat the rated speed and load. However, maintenanceshould be performed as soon as possible.

The active diagnostic code should be investigated.The cause of the problem should be corrected assoon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnosticcode is repaired and there is only one activediagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

Operation of the engine and performance of theengine can be limited as a result of the activediagnostic code that is generated. Accelerationrates may be significantly slower. Refer to theTroubleshooting Guide for more information on therelationship between these active diagnostic codesand engine performance.

i01797063

Engine Operation withIntermittent Diagnostic CodesSMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engineoperation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, anintermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault hasoccurred, the fault will be logged into the memory ofthe Electronic Control Module (ECM).

In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the enginebecause of an intermittent code. However, theoperator should retrieve the logged fault codesand the operator should reference the appropriateinformation in order to identify the nature of the event.The operator should log any observation that couldhave caused the lamp to light.

• Low power

• Limits of the engine speed

• Excessive smoke, etc

This information can be useful to help troubleshootthe situation. The information can also be used forfuture reference. For more information on diagnosticcodes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for thisengine.

42 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Starting

Engine Startingi02837427

Before Starting EngineSMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450

Perform the required daily maintenance and otherperiodic maintenance before the engine is started.Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection canhelp prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to theOperation and Maintenance Manual, “MaintenanceInterval Schedule” for more information.

• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuelsupply.

• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).

NOTICEAll valves in the fuel return line must be open beforeand during engine operation to help prevent high fuelpressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housingfailure or other damage.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks,fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Airmay have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuelfilters have been changed, some air pockets will betrapped in the engine. In these instances, prime thefuel system. Refer to the Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more informationon priming the fuel system.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustionwhich may be harmful to your health. Always startand operate the engine in a well ventilated areaand, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to theoutside.

• Do not start the engine or move any of the controlsif there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag orsimilar warning tag attached to the start switch orto the controls.

• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.

• Ensure that any driven equipment has beendisengaged. Minimize electrical loads or removeany electrical loads.

i02322203

Starting the EngineSMCS Code: 1000; 1450

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control duringstart-up. The electronic control module (ECM) willcontrol the engine speed during start-up.

Starting the Engine1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by theengine.

2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave thekeyswitch in the RUN position until the warninglight for the glow plugs is extinguished.

3. When the warning light for the glow plugs isextinguished turn the keyswitch to the STARTposition in order to engage the electric startingmotor and crank the engine.

Note: The operating period of the warning light forthe glow plugs will change due to the temperatureof the engine.

NOTICEDo not engage the starting motor when flywheel isturning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, releasethe starter switch or button and wait two minutes toallow the starting motor to cool before attempting tostart the engine again.

4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN positionafter the engine starts.

5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine failsto start.

i02325155

Cold Weather StartingSMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such asether. Such use could result in an explosion andpersonal injury.

Startability will be improved at temperatures below−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heateror extra battery capacity.

SEBU8180-01 43Operation SectionEngine Starting

When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following itemsprovide a means of minimizing starting problemsand fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil panheaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuelline insulation.

Use the procedure that follows for cold weatherstarting.

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control duringstart-up. The electronic control module (ECM) willcontrol the engine speed during start-up.

1. Disengage any driven equipment.

2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave thekeyswitch in the RUN position until the warninglight for the glow plugs is extinguished.

NOTICEDo not engage the starting motor when flywheel isturning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, releasethe starter switch or button and wait two minutes toallow the starting motor to cool before attempting tostart the engine again.

3. When the warning light for the glow plugs isextinguished turn the keyswitch to the STARTposition in order to engage the electric startingmotor and crank the engine.

Note: The operating period of the warning light forthe glow plugs will change due to the temperatureof the engine.

4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN positionafter the engine starts.

5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine failsto start.

Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order tospeed up the warm up process.

6. Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, orallow the engine to idle until the water temperatureindicator begins to rise. When idling after theengine has started in cold weather, increase theengine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This willwarm up the engine more quickly. Maintainingan elevated low idle speed for extended periodswill be easier with the installation of a handthrottle. Allow the white smoke to disperse beforeproceeding with normal operation.

7. Operate the engine at low load until all systemsreach operating temperature. Check the gaugesduring the warm-up period.

i02344933

Starting with Jump StartCablesSMCS Code: 1000; 1401; 1402; 1900

Improper jump start cable connections can causean explosion resulting in personal injury.

Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks couldcause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump startcable ends to contact each other or the engine.

If the installation is not equipped with a backupbattery system, it may be necessary to start theengine from an external electrical source.

For information on troubleshooting the chargingsystem, refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354,“Charging System Troubleshooting”.

Many batteries which are considered unusable arestill rechargeable. After jump starting, the alternatormay not be able to fully recharge batteries thatare severely discharged. The batteries must becharged to the proper voltage with a battery charger.For information on testing and charging, refer tothe Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery TestProcedure”.

NOTICEUsing a battery source with the same voltage as theelectric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage forjump starting. The use of higher voltage will damagethe electrical system.

Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator canbe damaged. Attach ground cable last and removefirst.

When using an external electrical source to start theengine, turn the generator set control switch to the“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF be-fore attaching the jump start cables.

Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF posi-tion before attaching the jump start cables to the en-gine being started.

1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to theOFF position. Turn off all the engine’s accessories.

44 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Starting

2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cableto the positive cable terminal of the dischargedbattery. Connect the other positive end of the jumpstart cable to the positive cable terminal of theelectrical source.

3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cableto the negative cable terminal of the electricalsource. Connect the other negative end of thejump start cable to the engine block or to thechassis ground. This procedure helps to preventpotential sparks from igniting the combustiblegases that are produced by some batteries.

4. Start the engine.

5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnectthe jump start cables in reverse order.

After jump starting, the alternator may not be able tofully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.The batteries must be replaced or charged to theproper voltage with a battery charger after the engineis stopped. Many batteries which are consideredunusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operationand Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” andTesting and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.

Refer to the Electrical Schematic for your engine.Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information.

i02330138

After Starting EngineSMCS Code: 1000

Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximatelythree minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),additional warm-up time may be required.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe thefollowing conditions:

Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with theengine or the starting motor in operation. If youinspect the engine in operation, always use theproper inspection procedure in order to avoid afluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation andMaintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpmand at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)before operating the engine under load. This is notpossible in some applications.

• Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, orallow the engine to idle until the water temperatureindicator begins to rise. Check all gauges duringthe warm-up period.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed andthe data should be recorded frequently while theengine is operating. Comparing the data over timewill help to determine normal readings for eachgauge. Comparing data over time will also helpdetect abnormal operating developments. Significantchanges in the readings should be investigated.

SEBU8180-01 45Operation SectionEngine Operation

Engine Operationi01646252

Engine OperationSMCS Code: 1000

Proper operation and maintenance are key factorsin obtaining the maximum life and economy ofthe engine. If the directions in the Operation andMaintenance Manual are followed, costs can beminimized and engine service life can be maximized.

The time that is needed for the engine to reachnormal operating temperature can be less than thetime taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.

The engine can be operated at the rated rpm afterthe engine is started and after the engine reachesoperating temperature. The engine will reach normaloperating temperature sooner during a low enginespeed (rpm) and during a low power demand. Thisprocedure is more effective than idling the engineat no load. The engine should reach operatingtemperature in a few minutes.

Gauge readings should be observed and the datashould be recorded frequently while the engineis operating. Comparing the data over time willhelp to determine normal readings for each gauge.Comparing data over time will also help detectabnormal operating developments. Significantchanges in the readings should be investigated.

i01646335

Engaging the DrivenEquipmentSMCS Code: 1000

1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm,when possible.

2. Engage the driven equipment without a load onthe equipment, when possible.

Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drivetrain. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get thedriven equipment in motion, engage the clutchsmoothly with no load on the equipment. Thismethod should produce a start that is smooth andeasy. The engine rpm should not increase and theclutch should not slip.

3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normalwhen the engine is operating at one-half ofthe rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operateproperly.

4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Alwaysincrease the engine rpm to the rated rpm beforethe load is applied.

5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at lowload. Check the gauges and equipment for properoperation. After normal oil pressure is reachedand the temperature gauge begins to move,the engine may be operated at full load. Checkthe gauges and equipment frequently when theengine is operated under load.

Extended operation at low idle or at reduced loadmay cause increased oil consumption and carbonbuildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildupresults in a loss of power and/or poor performance.

46 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Operation

i01457002

Fuel Conservation PracticesSMCS Code: 1000; 1250

The efficiency of the engine can affect the fueleconomy. Caterpillar’s design and technology inmanufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency inall applications. Follow the recommended proceduresin order to attain optimum performance for the lifeof the engine.

• Avoid spilling fuel.

Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuelmay overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines forleaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to theOperations and Maintenance Manual, “FuelRecommendations”for further information.

• Avoid unnecessary idling.

Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods oftime.

• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep theair cleaner elements clean.

• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctlyso that the proper air/fuel ratio is maintained. Cleanexhaust indicates proper functioning.

• Maintain a good electrical system.

One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.This will consume excess power and excess fuel.

• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. Thebelts should be in good condition. Refer to theSpecifications manual for further information.

• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses aretight. The connections should not leak.

• Ensure that the driven equipment is in goodworking order.

• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heatfrom the jacket water system and the exhaustsystem, when possible. Keep cooling systemcomponents clean and keep cooling systemcomponents in good repair. Never operate theengine without water temperature regulators.All of these items will help maintain operatingtemperatures.

SEBU8180-01 47Operation SectionEngine Stopping

Engine Stoppingi02334873

Stopping the EngineSMCS Code: 1000; 7000

NOTICEStopping the engine immediately after it has beenworking under load, can result in overheating and ac-celerated wear of the engine components.

Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.

Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize tur-bocharger shaft and bearing life.

Note: Individual applications will have differentcontrol systems. Ensure that the shutoff proceduresare understood. Use the following general guidelinesin order to stop the engine.

1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce theengine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engineto idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.

2. Stop the engine after the cool down periodaccording to the shutoff system on the engine andturn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.If necessary, refer to the instructions that areprovided by the OEM.

i02255774

Emergency StoppingSMCS Code: 1000; 7418

NOTICEEmergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY useONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices orcontrols for normal stopping procedure.

Ensure that any components for the external systemthat support the engine operation are secured afterthe engine is stopped.

Emergency Stop Button

g00104303Illustration 28

Typical emergency stop button

The emergency stop button is in the OUT position fornormal engine operation. Push the emergency stopbutton. The engine will not start when the button islocked. Turn the button clockwise in order to reset.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Features and Controls” for the location and theoperation of the emergency stop button.

i02330274

After Stopping EngineSMCS Code: 1000

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operatethe engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allowthe engine oil to return to the oil pan.

48 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionEngine Stopping

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

• After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuelsystem and from the cooling, lubrication or airsystems. Replace any high pressure fuel line thathas leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assemblyManual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.

• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil levelbetween the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark onthe engine oil level gauge.

• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,note the reading. Perform the maintenance thatis in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.

• Fill the fuel tank in order to help preventaccumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfillthe fuel tank.

NOTICEOnly use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended inthe Coolant Specifications that are in the Operationand Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can causeengine damage.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protectionand the correct corrosion protection. Add thecorrect coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

• Perform all required periodic maintenance on alldriven equipment. This maintenance is outlined inthe instructions from the OEM.

SEBU8180-01 49Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operationi02724382

Cold Weather OperationSMCS Code: 1000; 1250

Caterpillar Diesel Engines can operate effectively incold weather. During cold weather, the starting andthe operation of the diesel engine is dependent onthe following items:

• The type of fuel that is used

• The viscosity of the engine oil

• The operation of the glow plugs

• Optional Cold starting aid

• Battery condition

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU5898, “ColdWeather Recommendations for CaterpillarMachines”.

This section will cover the following information:

• Potential problems that are caused by cold weatheroperation

• Suggest steps which can be taken in order tominimize starting problems and operating problemswhen the ambient air temperature is between0° to −40 °C (32° to 40 °F).

The operation and maintenance of an engine infreezing temperatures is complex . This is becauseof the following conditions:

• Weather conditions

• Engine applications

Recommendations from your Carerpillar dealer arebased on past proven practices. The information thatis contained in this section provides guidelines forcold weather operation.

Hints for Cold Weather Operation• If the engine will start, operate the engine until aminimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)is achieved. Achieving operating temperature willhelp prevent the intake valves and exhaust valvesfrom sticking.

• The cooling system and the lubrication systemfor the engine do not lose heat immediately uponshutdown. This means that an engine can be shutdown for a period of time and the engine can stillhave the ability to start readily.

• Install the correct specification of engine lubricantbefore the beginning of cold weather.

• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)weekly.

• Check all electrical wiring and connections for anyfraying or damaged insulation.

• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.

• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.Check the air intake more often when you operatein snow.

• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Glow Plug- Test”.

Personal injury or property damage can resultfrom alcohol or starting fluids.

Alcohol or startingfluids are highly flammable andtoxic and if improperly stored could result in injuryor property damage.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such asether. Such use could result in an explosion andpersonal injury.

• For jump starting with cables in cold weather,refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.

Viscosity of the Engine LubricationOilCorrect engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosityaffects the amount of torque that is needed tocrank the engine. Refer to this Operation andMaintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” forthe recommended viscosity of oil.

50 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionCold Weather Operation

Recommendations for the CoolantProvide cooling system protection for the lowestexpected outside temperature. Refer to this Operationand Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”for the recommended coolant mixture.

In cold weather, check the coolant often for thecorrect glycol concentration in order to ensureadequate freeze protection.

Engine Block Heaters

Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat theengine jacket water that surrounds the combustionchambers. This provides the following functions:

• Startability is improved.

• Warm up time is reduced.

An electric block heater can be activated oncethe engine is stopped. An effective block heater istypically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your Caterpillardealer for more information.

Idling the EngineWhen idling after the engine is started in coldweather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extendedperiods will be easier with the installation of a handthrottle. The engine should not be “raced” in order tospeed up the warm up process.

While the engine is idling, the application of a lightload (parasitic load) will assist in achieving theminimum operating temperature. The minimumoperating temperature is 82 °C (179.6 °F).

Recommendations for CoolantWarm UpWarm up an engine that has cooled below normaloperating temperatures due to inactivity. This shouldbe performed before the engine is returned to fulloperation. During operation in very cold temperatureconditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms canresult from engine operation for short intervals. Thiscan happen if the engine is started and the engine isstopped many times without being operated in orderto warm up completely.

When the engine is operated below normal operatingtemperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burnedin the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causessoft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.Generally, the deposits do not cause problems andthe deposits are burned off during operation atnormal engine operating temperatures.

When the engine is started and the engine is stoppedmany times without being operated in order to warmup completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.This can cause the following problems:

• Free operation of the valves is prevented.

• Valves become stuck.

• Pushrods may become bent.

• Other damage to valve train components canresult.

For this reason, when the engine is started,the engine must be operated until the coolanttemperature is 71 °C (160 °F) minimum. Carbondeposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimumand the free operation of the valves and the valvecomponents will be maintained.

In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed inorder to keep other engine parts in better conditionand the service life of the engine will be generallyextended. Lubrication will be improved. There will beless acid and less sludge in the oil. This will providelonger service life for the engine bearings, the pistonrings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessaryidle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear andunnecessary fuel consumption.

The Water Temperature Regulator andInsulated Heater Lines

The engine is equipped with a water temperatureregulator. When the engine coolant is below thecorrect operating temperature jacket water circulatesthrough the engine cylinder block and into theengine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to thecylinder block via an internal passage that bypassesthe valve of the coolant temperature regulator. Thisensures that coolant flows around the engine undercold operating conditions. The water temperatureregulator begins to open when the engine jacketwater has reached the correct minimum operatingtemperature. As the jacket water coolant temperaturerises above the minimum operating temperature thewater temperature regulator opens further allowingmore coolant through the radiator to dissipate excessheat.

SEBU8180-01 51Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

The progressive opening of the water temperatureregulator operates the progressive closing of thebypass passage between the cylinder block andhead. This ensures maximum coolant flow tothe radiator in order to achieve maximum heatdissipation.

Note: Caterpillar discourages the use of all airflow restriction devices such as radiator shutters.Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessivefan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.

A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. Thefeed from the engine and the return lines from thecab should be insulated in order to reduce heat lossto the outside air.

Insulating the Air Inlet and EngineCompartment

When temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F) will befrequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet thatis located in the engine compartment may bespecified. An air cleaner that is located in the enginecompartment may also minimize the entry of snowinto the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by theengine helps to warm the intake air.

Additional heat can be retained around the engine byinsulating the engine compartment.

i01457051

Radiator RestrictionsSMCS Code: 1353; 1396

Caterpillar discourages the use of airflow restrictiondevices that are mounted in front of radiators. Airflowrestriction can cause the following conditions:

• High exhaust temperatures

• Power loss

• Excessive fan usage

• Reduction in fuel economy

If an airflow restriction device must be used, thedevice should have a permanent opening directlyin line with the fan hub. The device must have aminimum opening dimension of at least 770 cm2

(120 in2).

A centered opening that is directly in line with the fanhub is specified in order to prevent an interruptedairflow on the fan blades. Interrupted airflow on thefan blades could cause a fan failure.

Caterpillar recommends a warning device for theinlet manifold temperature and/or the installation ofan inlet air temperature gauge. The warning devicefor the inlet manifold temperature should be set at75 °C (167 °F). The inlet manifold air temperatureshould not exceed 75 °C (167 °F). Temperatures thatexceed this limit can cause power loss and potentialengine damage.

i02237624

Fuel and the Effect from ColdWeatherSMCS Code: 1000; 1250

The following fuels are the grades that are availablefor Caterpillar engines:

• No. 1

• No. 2

• Blend of No. 1 and No. 2

No. 2 diesel fuel is the most commonly used fuel.Either No. 1 diesel fuel or a blend of No. 1 and No. 2is best suited for cold weather operation.

52 SEBU8180-01Operation SectionCold Weather Operation

Quantities of No. 1 diesel fuel are limited. No. 1 dieselfuels are usually available during the months of thewinter in the colder climates. During cold weatheroperation, if No. 1 diesel fuel is not available, use No.2 diesel fuel, if necessary.

There are three major differences between No. 1 andNo. 2 diesel fuel. No. 1 diesel fuel has the followingproperties:

• Lower cloud point

• Lower pour point

• Lower rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel

When No. 1 diesel fuel is used, a decrease in powerand in fuel efficiency may be noticed. Other operatingeffects should not be experienced.

The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud ofwax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystalscan cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point isthe temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. Thediesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow throughfuel pumps and through fuel lines.

Be aware of these values when diesel fuel ispurchased. Anticipate the average ambienttemperature of the area. Engines that are fueled inone climate may not operate well if the engines aremoved to another climate. Problems can result dueto changes in temperature.

Before troubleshooting for low power or for poorperformance in the winter, check the type of fuel thatis being used.

When No. 2 diesel fuel is used the followingcomponents provide a means of minimizing problemsin cold weather:

• Starting aids

• Engine oil pan heaters

• Engine coolant heaters

• Fuel heaters

• Fuel line insulation

For more information on cold weather operation,see Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold WeatherRecommendations”.

i02785732

Fuel Related Components inCold WeatherSMCS Code: 1000; 1250

Fuel TanksCondensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for drainingwater and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow waterand sediment to settle below the end of the fuelsupply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fueldirectly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine isequipped with this system, regular maintenance ofthe fuel system filter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storagetank at the following intervals: weekly, serviceintervals, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will helpprevent water and/or sediment from being pumpedfrom the fuel storage tank and into the engine fueltank.

Fuel FiltersAfter you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuelsystem in order to remove air bubbles from the fuelsystem. Refer to the Operation and MaintenanceManual in the Maintenance Section for moreinformation on priming the fuel system.

The micron rating and the location of a primary fuelfilter is important in cold weather operation. Theprimary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the mostcommon components that are affected by cold fuel.

NOTICEIn order to maximize fuel system life and prevent pre-mature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel, afour micron[c] absolute high efficiency fuel filter is re-quired for all Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit In-jectors. Caterpillar High Efficiency Fuel Filters meetthese requirements. Consult your Caterpillar dealerfor the proper part numbers.

Fuel HeatersFuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from pluggingin cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater shouldbe installed in the fuel system before the primaryfuel filter.

SEBU8180-01 53Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

The following fuel heaters are recommended forCaterpillar engines:

• 7C-3557 Fuel Heater Group

• 7C-3558 Heater Kit

For further information on fuel heaters, consult yourCaterpillar dealer.

Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.

Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the watertemperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heatersshould be used with this engine. Fuel heaters thatare not controlled by the water temperature regulatorcan heat the fuel in excess of 65°C (149°F). A loss ofengine power can occur if the fuel supply temperatureexceeds 37°C (100°F).

Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should havea bypass provision in order to prevent overheating ofthe fuel in warm weather operation.

54 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionRefill Capacities

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacitiesi02872195

Refill Capacities andRecommendationsSMCS Code: 1348; 1395; 7560

Engine Oil

NOTICEThese recommendations are subject to change with-out notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for themost up to date recommendations.

API Oils

The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System bythe American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognizedby Caterpillar. For detailed information about thissystem, see the latest edition of the “API publicationNo. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol areauthorized by API.

g00546535Illustration 29Typical API symbol

Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have notbeen API authorized classifications since 1 January1996.

Table 4

API Classifications

Current Obsolete

CH-4(1)CI-4 CE, CC, CD

- CD-2 (2)

(1) API CH-4 and CI-4 oils are acceptable if the requirementsof Caterpillar’s ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluidspecification-1) are met. CH-4 and CI-4 oils that have notmet the requirements of Caterpillar’s ECF-1 Specificationmay cause reduced engine life.

(2) The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Caterpillar doesnot sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.

Note: When oil meets more than one APIclassification, the applicable footnote is determinedby the highest API classification that is met.

Example – An oil meets both the API CH-4 and theAPI CF oil classifications. In this case, the API CH-4applies.

Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil)

Caterpillar Oils have been developed and tested inorder to provide the full performance and servicelife that has been designed and built into CaterpillarEngines. Caterpillar Oils are currently used to filldiesel engines at the factory. These oils are offeredby Caterpillar dealers for continued use when theengine oil is changed. Consult your Caterpillar dealerfor more information on these oils.

Due to significant variations in the quality and inthe performance of commercially available oils,Caterpillar makes the following recommendations:

• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (10W-30)

• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (15W-40)

Caterpillar multigrade DEO is formulated with thecorrect amounts of detergents, dispersants, andalkalinity in order to provide superior performance inCaterpillar Diesel Engines.

Caterpillar multigrade DEO is available in variousviscosity grades that include SAE 10W-30 and SAE15W-40. To choose the correct viscosity grade forthe ambient temperature, see Table 6. Multigradeoils provide the correct viscosity for a broad range ofoperating temperatures.

Multigrade oils are effective in maintaining low oilconsumption and low levels of piston deposits.

SEBU8180-01 55Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Caterpillar multigrade DEO can be used in otherdiesel engines and in gasoline engines. See theengine manufacturer’s guide for the recommendedspecifications. Compare the specifications to thespecifications of Caterpillar multigrade DEO. Thecurrent industry standards for Caterpillar DEO arelisted on the product label and on the data sheetsfor the product.

Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers andfor available sizes of containers.

Note: Caterpillar SAE 15W-40 multigrade DEOexceeds the performance requirements for thefollowing API classifications: CI-4, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4,and CF. The Caterpillar multigrade DEO exceeds therequirements of the Caterpillar specification that isECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid-1). The CaterpillarSAE 15W-40 multigrade DEO passes the followingproprietary tests: sticking of the piston ring, oil controltests, wear tests, and soot tests. Proprietary testshelp ensure that Caterpillar multigrade oil providessuperior performance in Caterpillar Diesel Engines.In addition, Caterpillar multigrade oil exceedsmany of the performance requirements of othermanufacturers of diesel engines. Therefore, this oil isan excellent choice for many mixed fleets. True highperformance oil is produced with a combinationof the following factors: industry standard tests,proprietary tests, field tests, and prior experiencewith similar formulations. The design and thedevelopment of Caterpillar lubricants that areboth high performance and high quality arebased on these factors.

Note: Non-Caterpillar commercial oils are secondchoice oils.

Commercial Oils

In order to select the correct engine oil for the C-4.4electronic engine, you must refer to table 5.

Table 5

API Classifications for the C-4.4 electronicIndustrial Engine

Oil Specification MaintenanceInterval

CH-4/CI-4 500 Hours

CI-4 500 Hours

CG-4 250 Hours

Note: If Caterpillar Multigrade DEO is not used,use only commercial oils that meet the followingclassifications.

• API CH-4 multigrade oils and API CI-4 multigradeoils are acceptable if the requirements ofCaterpillar’s ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluidspecification-1) are met. CH-4 oils and CI-4 oilsthat have not met the requirements of Caterpillar’sECF-1 Specification may cause reduced enginelife.

• API CF-4 multigrade oils are not recommended forthis series of diesel engines. For all other smallercommercial diesel engines, the oil drain intervalshould not exceed 50 percent of the standard oildrain interval for your engine.

NOTICEIn selecting oil for any engine application, both the oilviscosity and oil performance classification/specifica-tion as specified by the engine manufacturer must bedefined and satisfied. Using only one of these param-eters will not sufficiently define oil for an engine appli-cation.

In order to make the proper choice of a commercialoil, refer to the following explanations:

API CI-4 – API CI-4 oils were developed in orderto meet the requirements of high performancediesel engines that use cooled Exhaust GasRecirculation (EGR). API CI-4 oils are acceptableif the requirements of Caterpillar’s ECF-1 (EngineCrankcase Fluid specification-1) are met.

API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in orderto protect low emissions diesel engines that use a0.05 percent level of fuel sulfur. However, API CH-4oils may be used with higher sulfur fuels. API CH-4oils are acceptable if the requirements of Caterpillar’sECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid specification-1) aremet.

Note: CH-4 oils and CI-4 oils that have not met therequirements of Caterpillar’s ECF-1 Specificationmay cause reduced engine life.

NOTICEFailure to follow these oil recommendations can causeshortened engine service life due to deposits and/orexcessive wear.

Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine FluidsRecommendations” for additional information thatrelates to lubrication for your engine.

Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations

The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determinedby the minimum ambient temperature duringcold engine start-up, and the maximum ambienttemperature during engine operation.

56 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionRefill Capacities

Refer to Table 6 (minimum temperature) in order todetermine the required oil viscosity for starting a coldengine.

Refer to Table 6 (maximum temperature) in order toselect the oil viscosity for engine operation at thehighest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

Note: Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that isavailable to meet the requirement for the temperatureat start-up.

If ambient temperature conditions at engine start-uprequire the use of multigrade SAE 0W oil, SAE0W-40 viscosity grade is preferred over SAE 0W-20or SAE 0W-30.

Table 6

Engine Oil Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures

Ambient Temperature

Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum

SAE 0W-20 −40 °C (−40 °F) 10 °C (50 °F)

SAE 0W-30 −40 °C (−40 °F) 30 °C (86 °F)

SAE 0W-40 −40 °C (−40 °F) 40 °C (104 °F)

SAE 5W-30 −30 °C (−22 °F) 30 °C (86 °F)

SAE 5W-40 −30 °C (−22 °F) 50 °C (122 °F)

SAE 10W-30 −18 °C (0 °F) 40 °C (104 °F)

SAE 10W-40 −18 °C (0 °F) 50 °C (122 °F)

SAE 15W-40 −9.5 °C (15 °F) 50 °C (122 °F)

Note: Supplemental heat is recommended below theminimum recommended ambient temperature.

S·O·S Oil Analysis

Caterpillar has developed a tool for maintenancemanagement that evaluates oil degradation and thetool also detects the early signs of wear on internalcomponents. The Caterpillar tool for oil analysis iscalled S·O·S Oil Analysis and the tool is part of theS·O·S Services program. S·O·S Oil Analysis dividesoil analysis into three categories:

• Wear Analysis

• Oil condition

• Additional tests

The wear analysis monitors metal particles, some oiladditives, and some contaminants.

Oil condition uses infrared (IR) analysis to evaluatethe chemistry of the oil. Infrared analysis is also usedto detect certain types of contamination.

Additional tests are used to measure contaminationlevels from water, fuel, or coolant. Oil viscosity andcorrosion protection can be evaluated, as needed.

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “CaterpillarCommercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”or contact your local Caterpillar dealer for additionalinformation concerning the S·O·S Oil Analysisprogram.

Refill Capacities for the LubricationSystem

The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflectthe approximate capacity of the crankcase or sumpplus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems willrequire additional oil. Refer to the OEM specificationsfor the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

Table 7

EngineRefill Capacities

Compartment or System Minimum Maximum

Crankcase Oil Sump(1) 5 L(5.2834 qt)

7 L(7.3968qt)

(1) These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcaseoil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factoryinstalled oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will requireadditional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacityof the auxiliary oil filter.

Lubricating GreaseCaterpillar provides a range of moderate greasesto extremely high performance greases in order toservice the entire line of Caterpillar products thatoperate throughout the wide variety of climates.From this variety of Caterpillar grease products, youwill find at least one of the Caterpillar greases thatwill satisfy the performance requirements for anymachine or equipment application.

Before selecting a grease for any application, theperformance requirements must be determined.Consult the grease recommendations that are madeby the OEM for the equipment when the equipment isoperated in the expected conditions. Then, consultwith your Caterpillar dealer for a list of greases andthe following related characteristics.

• Performance specifications

• Available sizes of containers

• Part numbers

Always choose a grease that satisfies therecommendations that are specified by theequipment manufacturer for the application.

SEBU8180-01 57Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Note: If it is necessary to choose a single greaseto use for all of the equipment at one site, alwayschoose a grease that satisfies the requirementsof the most demanding application.

Do not use the cost per pound as the only factorwhen you choose a grease. Use the grease thatyields the lowest total cost of operation. The costanalysis should include the following factors:

• Parts

• Labor

• Downtime

• Cost of the grease

Greases that barely meet the minimum performancerequirements can be expected to barely produce theminimum life of the parts.

Note: Take care when you change the type of grease.Take care when you change to a different supplier ofgrease. Some greases are not chemically compatible.Some brands of grease can not be interchanged. Ifyou are in doubt about the compatibility of theold grease and the new grease, purge all of theold grease from the joint. Consult your supplier inorder to determine if the greases are compatible.

Note: All Caterpillar brand of greases arecompatible with each other.

Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine FluidsRecommendations” for additional information thatrelates to lubrication for your engine.

General Fuel InformationDiesel fuels that meet the Caterpillar Specificationfor Distillate Diesel Fuel are recommended. Thesefuels will help to provide maximum engine service lifeand performance. In North America, diesel fuel thatis identified as No. 1-D or No. 2-D in “ASTM D975”generally meet the specifications. Diesel fuels fromother sources could exhibit detrimental propertiesthat are not defined or controlled by this specification.

NOTICEOperating with fuels that do not meet Caterpillar’s rec-ommendations can cause the following effects: start-ing difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel in-jectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, de-posits in the combustion chamber, and reduced ser-vice life of the engine.

Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine FluidsRecommendations” for the Caterpillar Specificationfor distillate fuel and for additional information thatrelates to fuel for your engine.

Refill Capacities for the Fuel System

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual thatis provided by the OEM for capacities of the fuelsystem.

General Coolant Information

NOTICEThese recommendations are subject to change with-out notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for themost up to date fluids recommendations.

NOTICENever add coolant to an overheated engine. Enginedamage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

NOTICEIf the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an areawith below freezing temperatures, the cooling systemmust be either protected to the lowest outside temper-ature or drained completely to prevent damage.

NOTICEFrequently check the specific gravity of the coolant forproper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

• Contamination of the cooling system

• Overheating of the engine

• Foaming of the coolant

Note: Air pockets can form in the cooling system ifthe cooling system is filled at a rate that is greaterthan 5 L (1.3 US gal) per minute.

After you drain the cooling system and after you refillthe cooling system, operate the engine. Operate theengine without the filler cap until the coolant reachesnormal operating temperature and the coolant levelstabilizes. Ensure that the coolant is maintained tothe proper level.

58 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionRefill Capacities

NOTICENever operate an engine without water temperatureregulators in the cooling system. Water temperatureregulators help to maintain the engine coolant at theproper operating temperature. Cooling system prob-lems can develop without water temperature regula-tors.

Refer to Special Instruction, SEBD0518, “KnowYour Cooling System” and Special Instruction,SEBD0970, “Coolant and Your Engine” for moredetailed information.

Many engine failures are related to the coolingsystem. The following problems are related to coolingsystem failures: overheating, leakage of the waterpump, plugged radiators or heat exchangers, andpitting of the cylinder liners.

These failures can be avoided with proper coolingsystem maintenance. Cooling system maintenance isas important as maintenance of the fuel system andthe lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is asimportant as the quality of the fuel and the lubricatingoil.

Coolant is normally composed of three elements:water, additives, and glycol.

Water

NOTICENever use water alone without Supplemental CoolantAdditives (SCA) or without inhibited coolant. Wateralone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures.Water alone does not provide adequate protectionagainst boiling or freezing.

Water is used in the cooling system in order totransfer heat.

Distilled water or deionized water isrecommended for use in engine cooling systems.

DO NOT use the following types of water in coolingsystems: hard water, softened water that has beenconditioned with salt, and sea water.

If distilled water or deionized water is not available,use water with the properties that are listed in Table 8.

Table 8

Caterpillar Minimum Acceptable Water Requirements

Property Maximum Limit ASTM Test

Chloride (Cl) 40 mg/L(2.4 grains/US gal)

“D512”,“D4327”

Sulfate (SO4) 100 mg/L(5.9 grains/US gal) “D516”

Total Hardness 170 mg/L(10 grains/US gal) “D1126”

Total Solids 340 mg/L(20 grain/US gal) “D1888”

Acidity pH of 5.5 to 9.0 “D1293”

For a water analysis, consult one of the followingsources:

• Caterpillar dealer

• Local water utility company

• Agricultural agent

• Independent laboratory

Additives

Additives help to protect the metal surfaces ofthe cooling system. A lack of coolant additives orinsufficient amounts of additives enable the followingconditions to occur:

• Corrosion

• Formation of mineral deposits

• Rust

• Scale

• Pitting and erosion from cavitation of the cylinderliner

• Foaming of the coolant

Many additives are depleted during engine operation.These additives must be replaced periodically.This can be done by adding Supplemental CoolantAdditives (SCA) to Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant(DEAC) or by adding ELC Extender to Extended LifeCoolant (ELC).

Additives must be added at the proper concentration.Overconcentration of additives can cause theinhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits canenable the following problems to occur:

• Formation of gel compounds

SEBU8180-01 59Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

• Reduction of heat transfer

• Leakage of the water pump seal

• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages

Glycol

Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protectionagainst the following conditions:

• Boiling

• Freezing

• Cavitation of the water pump and the cylinder liner

For optimum performance, Caterpillar recommends a1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

Note: Use a mixture that will provide protectionagainst the lowest ambient temperature.

Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at atemperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).

Most conventional heavy-duty antifreezes useethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used.In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and propyleneglycol provide similar protection against freezing andboiling. See Tables 9 and 10.

Table 9

Ethylene Glycol

Concentration FreezeProtection

BoilProtection

50 Percent −36 °C (−33 °F) 106 °C (223 °F)

60 Percent −51 °C (−60 °F) 111 °C (232 °F)

NOTICEDo not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-ceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’sreduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycolin conditions that require additional protection againstboiling or freezing.

Table 10

Propylene Glycol

Concentration FreezeProtection

Anti-BoilProtection

50 Percent −29 °C (−20 °F) 106 °C (223 °F)

To check the concentration of glycol, use the1U-7298 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degrees Celsius)or use the 1U-7297 Coolant/Battery Tester (DegreesFahrenheit). The testers give readings that areimmediate and accurate. The testers can be usedwith ethylene or propylene glycol.

Coolant Recommendations

NOTICEDo not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that on-ly meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type ofcoolant/antifreeze is made for light duty automotiveapplications.

The following two coolants are used in Caterpillardiesel engines:

Preferred – Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC)or a commercial extended life coolant that meets theCaterpillar EC-1 specification

Acceptable – Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze(DEAC) or a commercial heavy-duty antifreezethat meets “ASTM D4985”, or “ASTM D6210”specifications

Caterpillar recommends a 1:1 mixture of water andglycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provideoptimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.

Note: Caterpillar DEAC does not require a treatmentwith an SCA at the initial fill. A commercial heavy-dutyantifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” or “ASTMD6210” specifications MAY require a treatment withan SCA at the initial fill. These coolants WILL requirea treatment with an SCA on a maintenance basis.

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “CaterpillarCommercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”for additional information that relates to coolant.

S·O·S Coolant AnalysisTable 11

Recommended Interval

Type of Coolant Level 1 Level 2

DEAC Every 250 Hours Yearly(1)

ELC Not Required Yearly(1) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if aproblem is identified by a Level 1 Coolant Analysis.

S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)

A coolant analysis (Level 1) is a test of the propertiesof the coolant.

The following properties of the coolant are tested:

60 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionRefill Capacities

• Glycol concentration for freeze protection and boilprotection

• Ability to protect from erosion and corrosion

• pH

• Conductivity

• Visual analysis

• Odor analysis

The results are reported, and appropriaterecommendations are made.

Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule inthis Operation and Maintenance Manual, “CoolingSystem Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain” for asampling location and the maintenance interval forcollecting the coolant samples.

S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)

A coolant analysis (Level 2) is a comprehensivechemical evaluation of the coolant. This analysis isalso a check of the overall condition of the inside ofthe cooling system.

The S·O·S Coolant Analysis has the followingfeatures:

• Full coolant analysis (Level 1)

• Identification of the source of metal corrosion andof contaminants

• Water hardness

• Identification of buildup of the impurities that causecorrosion

• Identification of buildup of the impurities that causescaling

The results are reported, and appropriaterecommendations are made.

Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule inthis Operation and Maintenance Manual, “CoolingSystem Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain” for asampling location and the maintenance interval forcollecting the coolant samples.

Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure thatthe engine is protected from internal cavitation andfrom corrosion. The analysis also tests the ability ofthe coolant to protect the engine from boiling andfrom freezing. The S·O·S Coolant Analysis can bedone at your Caterpillar dealer. Caterpillar S·O·SCoolant Analysis is the best way to monitor thecondition of your coolant and your cooling system.S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a program that is basedon periodic samples.

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “CaterpillarCommercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”for additional information.

Refill Capacity of the CoolingSystemTo maintain the cooling system, the Total CoolingSystem capacity must be known. The approximatecapacity for the “Engine Only” cooling system islisted. External System capacities will vary amongapplications. Refer to the OEM specifications for theExternal System capacity. This capacity informationwill be needed in order to determine the amountof antifreeze that is required for the Total CoolingSystem.

Table 12

EngineRefill Capacities

Compartment or System Liters

Engine Only 7 L(7.3968 qt)

External System Per OEM(1)

(1) The External System includes a radiator or an expansiontank with the following components: heat exchanger andpiping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for thecapacity of the External System in this row.

SEBU8180-01 61Maintenance Section

Maintenance Interval Schedule

i02872160

Maintenance Interval ScheduleSMCS Code: 1000; 7500

When Required

Battery - Replace .................................................. 64Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. 65Engine - Clean ...................................................... 74Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -Clean/Replace .................................................... 74Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 84Severe Service Application - Check ..................... 97

Daily

Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 63Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 69Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 73Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 77Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ................... 78Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 78Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator -Drain ................................................................... 85Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace .................. 92V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .......................... 99Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 100

Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 92

Every 250 Service Hours

Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) -Obtain ................................................................. 70Engine Oil Sample - Obtain .................................. 79Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 82

Initial 500 Service Hours

Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 82

Every 500 Service Hours

Fan Clearance - Check ......................................... 83V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .......................... 99

Every 500 Service Hours or 2 Months

Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 73

Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year

Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 64Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 71Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -Clean/Replace .................................................... 74Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -Replace ............................................................... 77

Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 79Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)Element - Replace .............................................. 86Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace .............. 89Radiator - Clean .................................................... 96

Every 1000 Service Hours

Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 82

Every 2000 Service Hours

Aftercooler Core - Inspect ..................................... 62Belt Tensioner - Inspect ........................................ 65Exhaust Manifold - Inspect ................................... 82Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................ 97Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 98Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 101

Every 2000 Service Hours or 1 Year

Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 63Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 78

Every Year

Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) -Obtain ................................................................. 71

Every 3000 Service Hours

Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 63

Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years

Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 65Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator -Replace ............................................................... 72

Every 4000 Service Hours

Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 62

Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years

Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add .... 69

Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years

Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 67

Overhaul

Overhaul Considerations ...................................... 93

Commissioning

Fan Clearance - Check ......................................... 83

62 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionAftercooler Core - Clean/Test

i01546702

Aftercooler Core - Clean/TestSMCS Code: 1064-070; 1064-081

1. Remove the core. Refer to the Service Manualfor the procedure.

2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order toremove debris.

NOTICEDo not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner toclean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleanercan attack the internal metals of the core and causeleakage. Only use the recommended concentration ofcleaner.

3. Back flush the core with cleaner.

Caterpillar recommends the use of Hydrosolvliquid cleaner. Table 13 lists Hydrosolv liquidcleaners that are available from your Caterpillardealer.

Table 13

Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)

PartNumber Description Size

1U-5490 Hydrosolv 4165 19 L (5 US gallon)

174-6854 Hydrosolv 100 19 L (5 US gallon)(1) Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleanerat temperatures up to 93°C (200°F). Refer to ApplicationGuide, NEHS0526 or consult your Caterpillar dealer for moreinformation.

4. Steam clean the core in order to remove anyresidue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.Remove any other trapped debris.

5. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse thecore thoroughly with clean water.

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-er procedure.When using pressure air, wear a pro-tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be lessthan 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

6. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air inthe reverse direction of the normal flow.

7. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.Pressure test the core. Many shops that serviceradiators are equipped to perform pressure tests.If necessary, repair the core.

8. Install the core. Refer to the Service Manual forthe procedure.

For more information on cleaning the core, consultyour Caterpillar dealer.

i01468985

Aftercooler Core - InspectSMCS Code: 1064-040

Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according tothe effects of the operating environment.

Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and otherdebris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.

For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods thatare used for cleaning radiators.

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-er procedure.When using pressure air, wear a pro-tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be lessthan 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

Pressurized air is the preferred method for removingloose debris. Direct the air in the opposite directionof the fan’s air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately6 mm (.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move theair nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.This will remove debris that is between the tubes.

Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposesmust be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurizedwater in order to soften mud. Clean the core fromboth sides.

Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil andgrease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the corewith detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse thecore with clean water.

SEBU8180-01 63Maintenance SectionAlternator - Inspect

After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate theengine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removalof debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspectthe core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, ifnecessary.

Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be openedwith a “comb”.

Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repairedor replaced, a leak test is highly recommended. TheFT1984 Aftercooler Testing Group is used to performleak tests on the aftercooler. Refer to the SystemsOperation/Testing and Adjusting, “Aftercooler - Test”and the Special Instruction, SEHS8622 for the propertesting procedure.

Inspect these items for good condition: welds,mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

For more detailed information on cleaning andinspection, see Special Publication, SEBD0518,“Know Your Cooling System”.

i02676048

Alternator - InspectSMCS Code: 1405-040

Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspectionof the alternator. Inspect the alternator for looseconnections and proper battery charging. Inspect theammeter (if equipped) during engine operation inorder to ensure proper battery performance and/orproper performance of the electrical system. Makerepairs, as required.

Check the alternator and the battery charger forproper operation. If the batteries are properlycharged, the ammeter reading should be very nearzero. All batteries should be kept charged. Thebatteries should be kept warm because temperatureaffects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,the battery will not crank the engine. The battery willnot crank the engine, even if the engine is warm.When the engine is not run for long periods of timeor if the engine is run for short periods, the batteriesmay not fully charge. A battery with a low charge willfreeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.

i02491869

Alternator Belt -Inspect/Adjust/Replace(Poly V-Belt)SMCS Code: 1357-036; 1357-510

InspectionTo maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if thebelt is worn or damaged.

• If the belt (1) has more than four cracks per25.4000 mm (1 inch) the belt must be replaced.

• Check the belt of cracks, splits, glazing, grease,and splitting.

g01251375Illustration 30Typical example

AdjustmentThis type of belt has an automatic belt tensioner.

ReplaceRefer to Disassembly and Assembly manual,“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.

64 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionBattery - Replace

i02322315

Battery - ReplaceSMCS Code: 1401-510

Batteries give off combustible gases which canexplode. A spark can cause the combustible gas-es to ignite. This can result in severe personal in-jury or death.

Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are inan enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in or-der to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparksnear batteries. Do not smoke when batteries areserviced.

The battery cables or the batteries should not beremoved with the battery cover in place. The bat-tery cover should be removed before any servic-ing is attempted.

Removing the battery cables or the batteries withthe cover in place may cause a battery explosionresulting in personal injury.

1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Removeall electrical loads.

2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect anybattery chargers.

3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminalon the starting motor. Disconnect the cable fromthe NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.

4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminalon the starting motor. Disconnect the cable fromthe POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.

Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard abattery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriaterecycling facility.

5. Remove the used battery.

6. Install the new battery.

Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure thatthe engine start switch is OFF.

7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to thePOSITIVE “+” battery terminal.

8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the NEGATIVE“-” battery terminal.

i02724529

Battery Electrolyte Level -CheckSMCS Code: 1401-535

When the engine is not run for long periods of time orwhen the engine is run for short periods, the batteriesmay not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in orderto help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteriesare properly charged, ammeter reading should bevery near zero,when the engine is in operation.

All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid whichcan burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a faceshield and protective clothing when working on ornear batteries.

1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolytelevel to the “FULL” mark on the battery.

If the addition of water is necessary, use distilledwater. If distilled water is not available use cleanwater that is low in minerals. Do not use artificiallysoftened water.

2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.

3. Keep the batteries clean.

Clean the battery case with one of the followingcleaning solutions:

• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking sodaand 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.

• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.

Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.

Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean theterminals and the cable clamps. Clean the itemsuntil the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOTremove material excessively. Excessive removalof material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.

SEBU8180-01 65Maintenance Section

Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect

i02323088

Battery or Battery Cable -DisconnectSMCS Code: 1402-029

The battery cables or the batteries should not beremoved with the battery cover in place. The bat-tery cover should be removed before any servic-ing is attempted.

Removing the battery cables or the batteries withthe cover in place may cause a battery explosionresulting in personal injury.

1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn theignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF positionand remove the key and all electrical loads.

2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensurethat the cable cannot contact the terminal. Whenfour 12 volt batteries are involved, two negativeconnection must be disconnected.

3. Remove the positive connection.

4. Clean all disconnected connection and batteryterminals.

5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean theterminals and the cable clamps. Clean the itemsuntil the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOTremove material excessively. Excessive removalof material can cause the clamps to not fitcorrectly. Coat the clamps and the terminals witha suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.

6. Tape the cable connections in order to helpprevent accidental starting.

7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.

8. In order to connect the battery, connect thepositive connection before the negative connector.

i02870187

Belt Tensioner - InspectSMCS Code: 1358-040

g01429637Illustration 31

Typical example

Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly andAssembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.

Ensure that the belt tensioner is securely installed.Visually inspect the belt tensioner (1) for damage.Check that the roller on the tensioner rotates freely.Some engines have a guide roller (2). Ensure thatthe guide roller is securely installed. Visually inspectthe guide roller for damage. Ensure that the guideroller can rotate freely.

Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.

i02789695

Cooling System Coolant(DEAC) - ChangeSMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044

Clean the cooling system and flush the coolingsystem before the recommended maintenanceinterval if the following conditions exist:

• The engine overheats frequently.

• Foaming is observed.

• The oil has entered the cooling system and thecoolant is contaminated.

66 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionCooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change

• The fuel has entered the cooling system and thecoolant is contaminated.

NOTICEUse of commercially available cooling system clean-ers may cause damage to cooling system compo-nents. Use only cooling system cleaners that are ap-proved for Caterpillar engines.

Note: Inspect the water pump and the watertemperature regulator after the cooling system hasbeen drained. This is a good opportunity to replacethe water pump, the water temperature regulator andthe hoses, if necessary.

Drain

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly inorder to relieve any pressure. Remove the coolingsystem filler cap.

Note: Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,“General Hazard Information” for information onContaining Fluid Spillage.

2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).If the cooling system is not equipped with a drainvalve, remove one of the drain plugs.

Allow the coolant to drain into a suitable container.

3. Properly dispose of the drained material. Obeylocal regulations for the disposal of the material.

NOTICEDispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.Various methods have been proposed to reclaim usedcoolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The fulldistillation procedure is the only method acceptable byCaterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.

Flush1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in orderto remove any debris.

2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean thedrain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to TorqueSpecifications, SENR3130 for more informationon the correct torques.

NOTICEDo not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of cleanwater and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling SystemCleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L(4 US gal) of the cooling system capacity. Installthe cooling system filler cap.

4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimumof 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should beat least 82 °C (180 °F).

NOTICEImproper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling systemcan result in damage to copper and other metal com-ponents.

To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sureto completely flush the cooling system with clear wa-ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of thecleaning agent are gone.

5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowlyin order to relieve any pressure. Remove thecooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drainplugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the coolingsystem with clean water. Close the drain valve (ifequipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the drainplugs. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130for more information on the correct torques.

Cooling Systems with HeavyDeposits or PluggingNote: For the following procedure to be effective,there must be some active flow through the coolingsystem components.

1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in orderto remove any debris.

2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean thedrain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to TorqueSpecifications, SENR3130 for more informationon the correct torques.

SEBU8180-01 67Maintenance Section

Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

NOTICEDo not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locksmay result in engine damage.

3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of cleanwater and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling SystemCleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling systemcapacity. Install the cooling system filler cap.

4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimumof 90 minutes. The coolant temperature should beat least 82 °C (180 °F).

NOTICEImproper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling systemcan result in damage to copper and other metal com-ponents.

To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sureto completely flush the cooling system with clear wa-ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of thecleaning agent are gone.

5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowlyin order to relieve any pressure. Remove thecooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drainplugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the coolingsystem with clean water. Close the drain valve (ifequipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the drainplugs. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130for more information on the correct torques.

Fill

NOTICEDo not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locksmay result in engine damage.

1. Fill the cooling system with the coolant/antifreeze.Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic(Maintenance Section) for more information oncooling system specifications. Do not install thecooling system filler cap.

2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase theengine rpm to 1500 rpm. Run the engine at highidle for one minute in order to purge the air fromthe cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.

3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant levelwithin 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of thepipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sightglass (if equipped).

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect thegasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. Ifthe gasket that is on the cooling system filler capis damaged, discard the old cooling system fillercap and install a new cooling system filler cap.If the gasket that is on the cooling system fillercap is not damaged, perform a pressure test. A9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to performthe pressure test. The correct pressure for thecooling system filler cap is stamped on the face ofthe cooling system filler cap. If the cooling systemfiller cap does not retain the correct pressure,install a new cooling system filler cap.

5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system forleaks and for the correct operating temperature.

i02822203

Cooling System Coolant (ELC)- ChangeSMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044

Clean the cooling system and flush the coolingsystem before the recommended maintenanceinterval if the following conditions exist:

• The engine overheats frequently.

• Foaming is observed.

• The oil has entered the cooling system and thecoolant is contaminated.

• The fuel has entered the cooling system and thecoolant is contaminated.

Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, onlyclean water is needed when the ELC is drained andreplaced.

Note: Inspect the water pump and the watertemperature regulator after the cooling system hasbeen drained. This is a good opportunity to replacethe water pump, the water temperature regulator andthe hoses, if necessary.

68 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionCooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

Drain

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly inorder to relieve any pressure. Remove the coolingsystem filler cap.

2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).If the cooling system is not equipped with a drainvalve, remove the cooling system drain plugs.

Allow the coolant to drain.

NOTICEDispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.Various methods have been proposed to reclaim usedcoolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The fulldistillation procedure is the only method acceptable byCaterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.

For information regarding the disposal and therecycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillardealer or consult Dealer Service Tools.

Flush1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in orderto remove any debris.

2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean thedrain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to TorqueSpecifications, SENR3130 for more informationon the correct torques.

NOTICEDo not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locksmay result in engine damage.

3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install thecooling system filler cap.

4. Start and run the engine at low idle until thetemperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).

5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowlyin order to relieve any pressure. Remove thecooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drainplugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the coolingsystem with clean water. Close the drain valve (ifequipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the drainplugs. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130for more information on the correct torques.

Fill

NOTICEDo not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant(ELC). Refer to this Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”topic (Maintenance Section) for more informationon cooling system specifications. Do not install thecooling system filler cap.

2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase theengine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at highidle for one minute in order to purge the air fromthe cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.

3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant levelwithin 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of thepipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sightglass (if equipped).

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect thegasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. Ifthe gasket that is on the cooling system filler capis damaged, discard the old cooling system fillercap and install a new cooling system filler cap. Ifthe gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap isnot damaged, use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pumpin order to pressure test the cooling system fillercap. The correct pressure for the cooling systemfiller cap is stamped on the face of the coolingsystem filler cap. If the cooling system filler capdoes not retain the correct pressure, install a newcooling system filler cap.

5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system forleaks and for proper operating temperature.

SEBU8180-01 69Maintenance Section

Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add

i02482066

Cooling System CoolantExtender (ELC) - AddSMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081

Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) does not requirethe frequent additions of any supplemental coolingadditives which are associated with the presentconventional coolants. The Cat ELC Extender onlyneeds to be added once.

NOTICEUse only Cat Extended Life Coolant (ELC) Extenderwith Cat ELC.

Do NOT use conventional supplemental coolant addi-tive (SCA) with Cat ELC. Mixing Cat ELC with conven-tional coolants and/or conventional SCA reduces theCat ELC service life.

Check the cooling system only when the engine isstopped and cool.

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steamand alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hotand under pressure. The radiator and all linesto heaters or the engine contain hot coolant orsteam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly torelieve pressure only when engine is stopped andcooling system pressure cap is cool enough totouch with your bare hand.

Do not attempt to tighten hose connections whenthe coolant is hot, the hose can come off causingburns.

Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

NOTICECare must be taken to ensure that fluids are containedduring performance of inspection, maintenance, test-ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared tocollect the fluid with suitable containers before open-ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-nent containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “CaterpillarDealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and suppliessuitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillarproducts.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations andmandates.

1. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly inorder to relieve pressure. Remove the coolingsystem filler cap.

2. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant fromthe cooling system in order to add the Cat ELCExtender.

3. Add Cat ELC Extender according to therequirements for your engine’s cooling systemcapacity. Refer to the Operation and MaintenanceManual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”article for more information.

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect thegaskets on the cooling system filler cap. Replacethe cooling system filler cap if the gaskets aredamaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.

i01197583

Cooling System Coolant Level- CheckSMCS Code: 1395-082

Check the coolant level when the engine is stoppedand cool.

70 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionCooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain

g00285520Illustration 32Cooling system filler cap

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly inorder to relieve pressure.

2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine isequipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolantlevel to the proper level in the sight glass.

g00103639Illustration 33

Typical filler cap gaskets

3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check thecondition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace thecooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets aredamaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.

4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

i02837191

Cooling System CoolantSample (Level 1) - ObtainSMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542

Note: Obtaining a Coolant Sample (Level 1) isoptional if the cooling system is filled with CatELC (Extended Life Coolant). Cooling systems thatare filled with Cat ELC should have a Coolant Sample(Level 2) that is obtained at the recommended intervalthat is stated in the Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Note: Obtain a Coolant Sample (Level 1) if thecooling system is filled with any other coolantinstead of Cat ELC. This includes the followingtypes of coolants:

• Commercial long life coolants that meet theCaterpillar Engine Coolant Specification -1(Caterpillar EC-1)

• Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)

• Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze

Table 14

Recommended Interval

Type of Coolant Level 1 Level 2

Cat DEAC Every 250Hours(1) Yearly(1)(2)

Cat ELC Optional(2) Yearly(2)

(1) This is the recommended interval for coolant samples for allconventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze. This is also therecommended interval for coolant samples of commercialcoolants that meet the Cat EC-1 specification for enginecoolant.

(2) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if aproblem is suspected or identified.

NOTICEAlways use a designated pump for oil sampling, anduse a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.Using the same pump for both types of samples maycontaminate the samples that are being drawn. Thiscontaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor-rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by bothdealers and customers.

Note: Level 1 results may indicate a need forLevel 2 Analysis.

SEBU8180-01 71Maintenance Section

Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain

Obtain the sample of the coolant as close as possibleto the recommended sampling interval. In orderto receive the full effect of S·O·S analysis, youmust establish a consistent trend of data. In orderto establish a pertinent history of data, performconsistent samplings that are evenly spaced.Supplies for collecting samples can be obtained fromyour Caterpillar dealer.

Use the following guidelines for proper sampling ofthe coolant:

• Complete the information on the label for thesampling bottle before you begin to take thesamples.

• Keep the unused sampling bottles stored in plasticbags.

• Obtain coolant samples directly from the coolantsample port. You should not obtain the samplesfrom any other location.

• Keep the lids on empty sampling bottles until youare ready to collect the sample.

• Place the sample in the mailing tube immediatelyafter obtaining the sample in order to avoidcontamination.

• Never collect samples from expansion bottles.

• Never collect samples from the drain for a system.

Submit the sample for Level 1 analysis.

For additional information about coolant analysis,see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “RefillCapacities and Recommendations” or consult yourCaterpillar dealer.

i01987714

Cooling System CoolantSample (Level 2) - ObtainSMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542

NOTICEAlways use a designated pump for oil sampling, anduse a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.Using the same pump for both types of samples maycontaminate the samples that are being drawn. Thiscontaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor-rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by bothdealers and customers.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”for the guidelines for proper sampling of the coolant.

Submit the sample for Level 2 analysis.

For additional information about coolantanalysis, see Special Publication, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines FluidsRecommendations” or consult your Caterpillar dealer.

i02456600

Cooling System SupplementalCoolant Additive (SCA) -Test/AddSMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081

Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact withthe skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling systemcoolant additive.

Note: Test the concentration of the SupplementalCoolant Additive (SCA) or test the SCA concentrationas part of an S·O·S Coolant Analysis.

Test for SCA Concentration

Coolant and SCA

NOTICEDo not exceed the recommended six percent supple-mental coolant additive concentration.

Use the 8T-5296 Coolant Conditioner Test Kitor use the 4C-9301 Coolant Conditioner Test Kitin order to check the concentration of the SCA.Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for moreinformation.

Water and SCA

NOTICEDo not exceed the recommended eight percent sup-plemental coolant additive concentration.

Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Refer to the SpecialPublication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar CommercialDiesel Engine Fluids Recommendations” for moreinformation.

72 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionCooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace

S·O·S Coolant AnalysisS·O·S coolant samples can be analyzed at yourCaterpillar dealer. S·O·S Coolant Analysis is aprogram that is based on periodic samples.

Level 1

Level 1 is a basic analysis of the coolant. Thefollowing items are tested:

• Glycol Concentration

• Concentration of SCA

• pH

• Conductivity

The results are reported, and recommendationsare made according to the results. Consult yourCaterpillar dealer for information on the benefits ofmanaging your equipment with an S·O·S CoolantAnalysis.

Level 2

This level coolant analysis is recommended when theengine is overhauled. Refer to this Operations andMaintenance Manual, “Overhaul Considerations” forfurther information.

Add the SCA, If Necessary

NOTICEDo not exceed the recommended amount of sup-plemental coolant additive concentration. Excessivesupplemental coolant additive concentration can formdeposits on the higher temperature surfaces of thecooling system, reducing the engine’s heat transfercharacteristics. Reduced heat transfer could causecracking of the cylinder head and other high temper-ature components. Excessive supplemental coolantadditive concentration could also result in radiatortube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated waterpump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplementalcoolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)at the same time. The use of those additives togethercould result in supplemental coolant additive concen-tration exceeding the recommended maximum.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap inorder to relieve the pressure. Remove the coolingsystem filler cap.

Note: Always discard drained fluids according tolocal regulations.

2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the coolingsystem into a suitable container in order to allowspace for the extra SCA.

3. Add the proper amount of SCA. Referto the Special Publication, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines FluidsRecommendations” for more information on SCArequirements.

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect thegaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If thegaskets are damaged, replace the old coolingsystem filler cap with a new cooling system fillercap. Install the cooling system filler cap.

i02623972

Cooling System WaterTemperature Regulator -ReplaceSMCS Code: 1355-510

Replace the water temperature regulator beforethe water temperature regulator fails. This is arecommended preventive maintenance practice.Replacing the water temperature regulator reducesthe chances for unscheduled downtime.

A water temperature regulator that fails in apartially opened position can cause overheating orovercooling of the engine.

A water temperature regulator that fails in the closedposition can cause excessive overheating. Excessiveoverheating could result in cracking of the cylinderhead or piston seizure problems.

SEBU8180-01 73Maintenance Section

Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace

A water temperature regulator that fails in the openposition will cause the engine operating temperatureto be too low during partial load operation. Lowengine operating temperatures during partial loadscould cause an excessive carbon buildup inside thecylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could resultin an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wearof the cylinder liner.

NOTICEFailure to replace your water temperature regulatoron a regularly scheduled basis could cause severeengine damage.

Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design coolingsystem and require operating the engine with a watertemperature regulator installed.

If the water temperature regulator is installed incor-rectly, the enginemay overheat, causing cylinder headdamage. Ensure that the new water temperature reg-ulator is installed in the original position. Ensure thatthe water temperature regulator vent hole is open.

Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket orcylinder head surface.

Refer to two articles in the Disassembly andAssembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulators- Remove and Water Temperature Regulators -Install” for the replacement procedure of the watertemperature regulator, or consult your Caterpillardealer.

Note: If only the water temperature regulators arereplaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system toa level that is below the water temperature regulatorhousing.

i02866782

Crankcase Breather (Canister)- ReplaceSMCS Code: 1317-510

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

Note: The breather assembly is not installed on allengines.

1. Place a container under the canister (1).

2. Clean the outside of the canister. Use a suitabletool in order to remove the canister.

g01428096Illustration 34

Typical example

3. Lubricate the O ring seal (2) on the new canister(3) with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the newcanister. Tighten the canister to 12 N·m (8 lb ft).Do not overtighten the canister.

4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canisterand any split oil in a safe place.

i00174798

Driven Equipment - CheckSMCS Code: 3279-535

Refer to the OEM specifications for more informationon the following maintenance recommendations forthe driven equipment:

• Inspection

• Adjustment

• Lubrication

• Other maintenance recommendations

Perform any maintenance for the driven equipmentwhich is recommended by the OEM.

74 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionEngine - Clean

i02345750

Engine - CleanSMCS Code: 1000-070

Personal injury or death can result from high volt-age.

Moisture can create paths of electrical conductiv-ity.

Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lockout the starting controls and tag the controls “DONOT OPERATE”.

NOTICEAccumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire haz-ard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluidspills whenever a significant quantity accumulates onthe engine.

Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulatedoil and grease. A clean engine provides the followingbenefits:

• Easy detection of fluid leaks

• Maximum heat transfer characteristics

• Ease of maintenance

Note: Caution must be used in order to preventelectrical components from being damaged byexcessive water when the engine is cleaned.Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not bedirected at any electrical connectors or the junction ofcables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electricalcomponents such as the alternator, the starter, andthe ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluidsin order to wash the engine.

i01553486

Engine Air Cleaner Element(Dual Element) - Clean/ReplaceSMCS Code: 1054-037; 1054-510

NOTICENever run the engine without an air cleaner elementinstalled. Never run the engine with a damaged aircleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements withdamaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering theengine causes premature wear and damage to enginecomponents. Air cleaner elements help to prevent air-borne debris from entering the air inlet.

NOTICENever service the air cleaner element with the enginerunning since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Servicing the Air Cleaner ElementsIf the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the aircan split the material of the air cleaner element.Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal enginewear. Your Caterpillar dealer has the proper aircleaner elements for your application. Consult yourCaterpillar dealer for the correct air cleaner element.

• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily foraccumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirtand debris, as needed.

• Operating conditions (dust, dirt and debris) mayrequire more frequent service of the air cleanerelement.

• The air cleaner element may be cleaned up tosix times if the element is properly cleaned andinspected.

• The air cleaner element should be replaced at leastone time per year. This replacement should beperformed regardless of the number of cleanings.

Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements withclean air cleaner elements. Before installation, theair cleaner elements should be thoroughly checkedfor tears and/or holes in the filter material. Inspectthe gasket or the seal of the air cleaner element fordamage. Maintain a supply of suitable air cleanerelements for replacement purposes.

SEBU8180-01 75Maintenance Section

Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Dual Element Air Cleaners

The dual element air cleaner contains a primaryair cleaner element and a secondary air cleanerelement. The primary air cleaner element can beused up to six times if the element is properly cleanedand inspected. The primary air cleaner elementshould be replaced at least one time per year. Thisreplacement should be performed regardless of thenumber of cleanings.

The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceableor washable. The secondary air cleaner elementshould be removed and discarded for every threecleanings of the primary air cleaner element. Whenthe engine is operating in environments that aredusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require morefrequent replacement.

g00736431Illustration 35

(1) Cover(2) Primary air cleaner element(3) Secondary air cleaner element(4) Turbocharger air inlet

1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary aircleaner element.

2. The secondary air cleaner element should beremoved and discarded for every three cleaningsof the primary air cleaner element.

Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air CleanerElements”.

3. Cover the turbocharger air inlet with tape in orderto keep dirt out.

4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and bodywith a clean, dry cloth.

5. Remove the tape for the turbocharger air inlet.Install the secondary air cleaner element. Install aprimary air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.

6. Install the air cleaner cover.

7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.

Cleaning the Primary Air CleanerElements

NOTICECaterpillar recommends certified air filter cleaning ser-vices that are available at Caterpillar dealers. TheCaterpillar cleaning process uses proven proceduresto assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.

Observe the following guidelines if you attempt toclean the filter element:

Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to re-move dust.

Do not wash the filter element.

Use low pressure compressed air in order to removethe dust from the filter element. Air pressure must notexceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up thepleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filterelement. Take extreme care in order to avoid damageto the pleats.

Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, orseals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage toengine components.

The primary air cleaner element can be used upto six times if the element is properly cleaned andinspected. When the primary air cleaner element iscleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.The primary air cleaner element should be replacedat least one time per year. This replacement shouldbe performed regardless of the number of cleanings.

Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirtyelements are being cleaned.

NOTICEDo not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping ortapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use el-ements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dam-aged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Enginedamage could result.

Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elementsbefore cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements fordamage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.

There are two common methods that are used toclean primary air cleaner elements:

• Pressurized air

• Vacuum cleaning

76 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionEngine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

Pressurized Air

Pressurized air can be used to clean primary aircleaner elements that have not been cleaned morethan two times. Pressurized air will not removedeposits of carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with amaximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).

g00281692Illustration 36

Note: When the primary air cleaner elements arecleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side(outside).

Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the elementalong the length of the filter in order to help preventdamage to the paper pleats. Do not aim the streamof air directly at the primary air cleaner element. Dirtcould be forced further into the pleats.

Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air CleanerElements”.

Vacuum Cleaning

Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaningprimary air cleaner elements which require dailycleaning because of a dry, dusty environment.Cleaning with pressurized air is recommended priorto vacuum cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not removedeposits of carbon and oil.

Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air CleanerElements”.

Inspecting the Primary Air CleanerElements

g00281693Illustration 37

Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similarfacility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleanerelement. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tearsand/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner elementfor light that may show through the filter material. If itis necessary in order to confirm the result, comparethe primary air cleaner element to a new primary aircleaner element that has the same part number.

Do not use a primary air cleaner element that hasany tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do notuse a primary air cleaner element with damagedpleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primaryair cleaner elements.

Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements

If a primary air cleaner element that passes inspectionwill not be used, the primary air cleaner element canbe stored for future use.

g00281694Illustration 38

SEBU8180-01 77Maintenance Section

Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Replace

Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as aprotective covering for storage. An airflow restrictionmay result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrapthe primary air cleaner elements in Volatile CorrosionInhibited (VCI) paper.

Place the primary air cleaner element into a boxfor storage. For identification, mark the outside ofthe box and mark the primary air cleaner element.Include the following information:

• Date of cleaning

• Number of cleanings

Store the box in a dry location.

i02242500

Engine Air Cleaner Element(Single Element) - ReplaceSMCS Code: 1051; 1054-510

NOTICENever service the air cleaner element with the enginerunning since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

g00109823Illustration 39(1) Air cleaner element. (2) Clamp.

1. Loosen clamp (2) which fastens air cleanerelement (1) to the air inlet. Remove the dirty aircleaner element and clamp.

2. Install clamp (2) on new air cleaner element (1).

3. Install new air cleaner element (1) to the airinlet and tighten clamp (2). Refer to TorqueSpecifications, SENR3130 for the correct torque.

i02335405

Engine Air Cleaner ServiceIndicator - InspectSMCS Code: 7452-040

Some engines may be equipped with a differentservice indicator.

Some engines are equipped with a differential gaugefor inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inletair pressure displays the difference in the pressurethat is measured before the air cleaner element andthe pressure that is measured after the air cleanerelement. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,the pressure differential rises. If your engine isequipped with a different type of service indicator,follow the OEM recommendations in order to servicethe air cleaner service indicator.

The service indicator may be mounted on the aircleaner element or in a remote location.

g00103777Illustration 40Typical service indicator

Observe the service indicator. The air cleanerelement should be cleaned or the air cleaner elementshould be replaced when one of the followingconditions occur:

• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.

• The red piston locks in the visible position.

Test the Service IndicatorService indicators are important instruments.

• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicatorshould reset in less than three pushes.

• Check the movement of the yellow core whenthe engine is accelerated to the engine ratedspeed. The yellow core should latch at the greatestvacuum that is attained.

78 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionEngine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean

If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if theyellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,the service indicator should be replaced. If the newservice indicator will not reset, the hole for the serviceindicator may be restricted.

The service indicator may need to be replacedfrequently in environments that are severely dusty.

i02927289

Engine Air Precleaner -Check/CleanSMCS Code: 1055-070; 1055-535

g01453058Illustration 41Typical engine air precleaner

(1) Wing nut(2) Cover(3) Body

Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for anaccumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean thebody, if necessary.

After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) andwing nut (1).

Note: When the engine is operated in dustyapplications, more frequent cleaning is required.

i02456872

Engine Mounts - InspectSMCS Code: 1152-040

Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and forproper bolt torque. Engine vibration can be causedby the following conditions:

• Improper mounting of the engine

• Deterioration of the engine mounts

Any engine mount that shows deterioration should bereplaced. Refer to Special Publication, SENR3130,“Torque Specifications” for the recommendedtorques. Refer to the OEM recommendations formore information.

i02335785

Engine Oil Level - CheckSMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV

Hot oil and hot components can cause personalinjury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components tocontact the skin.

g01165836Illustration 42(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.

NOTICEPerform this maintenance with the engine stopped.

Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or thatthe engine is in the normal operating position in orderto obtain a true level indication.

Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, waitfor ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drainto the oil pan before checking the oil level.

1. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark (Y)and the “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.Do not fill the crankcase above the “FULL” mark(X).

NOTICEOperating your engine when the oil level is above the“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip intothe oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaftdipping into the oil reduces the oil’s lubricating char-acteristics and could result in the loss of power.

SEBU8180-01 79Maintenance Section

Engine Oil Sample - Obtain

2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.

i01935337

Engine Oil Sample - ObtainSMCS Code: 1000-008; 1348-554-SM;7542-554-OC, SM

In addition to a good preventive maintenanceprogram, Caterpillar recommends using S·O·S oilanalysis at regularly scheduled intervals in orderto monitor the condition of the engine and themaintenance requirements of the engine. S·O·S oilanalysis provides infrared analysis, which is requiredfor determining nitration and oxidation levels.

Obtain the Sample and the Analysis

Hot oil and hot components can cause personalinjury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components tocontact the skin.

Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In orderto help obtain the most accurate analysis, providethe following information:

• Engine model

• Service hours on the engine

• The number of hours that have accumulated sincethe last oil change

• The amount of oil that has been added since thelast oil change

To ensure that the sample is representative of theoil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oilsample.

To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the toolsand the supplies that are used for obtaining oilsamples must be clean.

Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valvein order to obtain oil samples. The quality and theconsistency of the samples are better when thesampling valve is used. The location of the samplingvalve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to beobtained during normal engine operation.

The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle isrecommended for use with the sampling valve. Thefluid sampling bottle includes the parts that areneeded for obtaining oil samples. Instructions arealso provided.

NOTICEAlways use a designated pump for oil sampling, anduse a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.Using the same pump for both types of samples maycontaminate the samples that are being drawn. Thiscontaminate may cause a false analysis and an incor-rect interpretation that could lead to concerns by bothdealers and customers.

If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump isdesigned to accept sampling bottles. Disposabletubing must be attached to the pump for insertioninto the sump.

For instructions, see Special Publication, PEHP6001,“How To Take A Good Oil Sample”. Consult yourCaterpillar dealer for complete information andassistance in establishing an S·O·S program for yourengine.

i02873596

Engine Oil and Filter - ChangeSMCS Code: 1318-510; 1348-044

Hot oil and hot components can cause personalinjury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components tocontact the skin.

NOTICECare must be taken to ensure that fluids are containedduring performance of inspection, maintenance, test-ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared tocollect the fluid with suitable containers before open-ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-nent containing fluids.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations andmandates.

NOTICEKeep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortenedcomponent life.

80 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionEngine Oil and Filter - Change

Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when theengine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,suspended waste particles settle on the bottom ofthe oil pan. The waste particles are not removed withdraining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the enginestopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. Thisdraining method allows the waste particles that aresuspended in the oil to be drained properly.

Failure to follow this recommended procedure willcause the waste particles to be recirculated throughthe engine lubrication system with the new oil.

Drain the Engine Lubricating OilNote: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is largeenough to collect the waste oil.

After the engine has been run at the normal operatingtemperature, stop the engine. Use one of thefollowing methods to drain the engine oil pan:

g01430582Illustration 43

Typical example

• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn thedrain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drainthe oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valveknob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.

• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the oilto drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow oilpan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from bothends of the oil pan.

After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should becleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the Oring seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).

Replace the Oil Filter

NOTICECaterpillar oil filters are manufactured to Caterpillarspecifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recom-mended by Caterpillar could result in severe damageto the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result ofthe larger waste particles from unfiltered oil enteringthe engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters rec-ommended by Caterpillar.

1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 ChainWrench.

Note: Some oil filters may be installed horizontally.This type of oil filter can be drained before the filteris removed. The torque for this drain plug is 12 N·m(8 lb ft).

Note: The following actions can be carried out aspart of the preventive maintenance program.

g00588944Illustration 44Element with debris

2. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil FilterCutter . Break apart the pleats and inspect theoil filter for metal debris. An excessive amountof metal debris in the oil filter may indicate earlywear or a pending failure.

Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrousmetals and the nonferrous metals that are found inthe oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicatewear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.

SEBU8180-01 81Maintenance Section

Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on thealuminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts ofthe engine. Parts that may be affected includethe following items: main bearings, rod bearings,turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.

Due to normal wear and friction, it is notuncommon to find small amounts of debris in theoil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in orderto arrange for a further analysis if an excessiveamount of debris is found in the oil filter.

g01187802Illustration 45

Typical example

3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head (2).Ensure that the union is secure in the filter head.

4. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (3) forthe new oil filter.

Note: Some oil filters may be installed horizontally.Refer to the illustration . This type of oil filter assemblycan be drained before the filter is removed. Thetorque for this drain plug (4) is 12 N·m (8 lb ft). Ifnecessary, install a new O ring seal (5). Start at step 1in order to remove the oil filter and install the oil filter.

NOTICEDo not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminat-ed. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear toengine components.

5.

Horizontal Oil Filter

g01430585Illustration 46Typical example

Note: Some oil filters may be installed horizontally.Refer to illustration 46. This type of oil filter assemblycan be drained before the filter is removed. Start atstep 1 in order to remove the oil filter and install theoil filter.

Fill the Oil Pan1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to thisOperation and Maintenance Manual, “FluidRecommendations” for more information onsuitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correctamount of new engine lubricating oil. Referto this Operation and Maintenance Manual,“Refill Capacities” for more information on refillcapacities.

NOTICEIf equipped with an auxilliary oil filter system or a re-mote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manu-facture’s remonmendations. Under filling or over fillingthe crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.

2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOWIDLE” for two minutes. Perform this procedure inorder to ensure that the lubrication system hasoil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oilfilter for oil leaks.

82 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionEngine Oil and Filter - Change

3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back tothe oil pan for a minimum of ten minutes.

g01165836Illustration 47Typical example

4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order tocheck the oil level. Maintain the oil level betweenthe “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil levelgauge.

i02869394

Engine Oil and Filter - Change(CG-4 Oil)SMCS Code: 1318-510; 1348-044

CG-4 engine oil may be used. If this grade of engineoil is used a 250 hour service interval is required forthe engine oil and the engine oil filter.

i02519453

Engine Valve Lash -Inspect/AdjustSMCS Code: 1102-025

This maintenance is recommended by Caterpillaras part of a lubrication and preventive maintenanceschedule in order to help provide maximum enginelife.

NOTICEOnly qualified service personnel should perform thismaintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or yourCaterpillar dealer for the complete valve lash adjust-ment procedure.

Operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valveadjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This re-duced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usageand/or shortened engine component life.

Ensure that the engine can not be started whilethis maintenance is being performed. To help pre-vent possible injury, do not use the starting motorto turn the flywheel.

Hot engine components can cause burns. Allowadditional time for the engine to cool before mea-suring/adjusting valve lash clearance.

Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuringthe valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,allow the valves to cool before this maintenance isperformed.

Refer to the Service Manual for more information.

i02862580

Exhaust Manifold - InspectSMCS Code: 1059-040

g01425829Illustration 48

1. Inspect the exhaust manifold for damage. Ifnecessary, replace the exhaust manifold. Refer toDisassembly and Assembly, “Exhaust Manifold- Remove and Install”.

2. Check the torque on all the bolts (1). The boltsmust be tightened in the sequence that is shownin illustration 49.

SEBU8180-01 83Maintenance Section

Fan Clearance - Check

g01363916Illustration 49

3. Tighten the bolts to the following torque 40 N·m(29.5 lb ft).

i02683336

Fan Clearance - CheckSMCS Code: 1356; 1359; 1360

There are different types of cooling systems. Refer tothe OEM for information on clearance for the fan.

Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that thecooling system is full. The clearance between thecover (1) and the fan (2) will require checking. Thegap (A) between the edge of the cover and the tip ofthe fan blade must be checked in four equally spacedpositions.

84 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionFuel System - Prime

g01348394Illustration 50

Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip ofthe fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized tothe fan.

The maximum clearance is 12.5 mm (0.4921 inch).The minimum clearance is 6 mm (0.2362 inch).

i02871014

Fuel System - PrimeSMCS Code: 1258-548

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual ,“General Hazard Information and High Pressure FuelLines” before adjustments and repairs are performed.

Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testingand Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel SystemComponents” for detailed information on thestandards of cleanliness that must be observedduring ALL work on the fuel system.

Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performedby authorized personnel that have had the correcttraining.

NOTICEDo not crank the engine continuously for more than30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for twominutes before cranking the engine again.

If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purgedfrom the fuel system before the engine can bestarted. Air can enter the fuel system when thefollowing events occur:

SEBU8180-01 85Maintenance Section

Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain

• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has beenpartially drained.

• The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.

• A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.

• The fuel filter has been replaced.

Hand Fuel Priming PumpUse the following procedures in order to remove airfrom the fuel system:

1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is inthe “ON” position.

g01476592Illustration 51Typical example

2. Operate the fuel priming pump (1). Count thenumber of operations of the fuel priming pump.After 100 depressions of the fuel priming pumpstop.

3. The engine fuel system should now be primed andthe engine should now be able to start.

4. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.After the engine has started, operate the engine atlow idle for a minimum of five minutes, immediatelyafter air has been removed from the fuel system.

Note: Operating the engine for this period of time willhelp ensure that the fuel system is free of air.

Note: Do not loosen the high pressure fuel linein order to purge air from the fuel system. Thisprocedure is not required.

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always usethe proper inspection procedure in order to avoida fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation andMaintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

i02869410

Fuel System PrimaryFilter/Water Separator - DrainSMCS Code: 1260-543; 1263-543

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-vent possible injury, turn the start switch off whenchanging fuel filters or water separator elements.Clean up fuel spills immediately.

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

86 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionFuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

NOTICEThe water separator can be under suction during nor-mal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve istightened securely to help prevent air from enteringthe fuel system.

1. Place a suitable container under the waterseparator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.Clean up any spilled fuel.

g01476633Illustration 52

Typical example

2. Install a suitable tube onto the drain (1). Open thedrain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.

3. Tighten the drain (1) by hand pressure only.Remove the tube and dispose of the drained fluidin a safe place.

Primary Filter with a Vent Screw

g01371846Illustration 53Typical example

Note: Not all primary filters require vent screw (2).This primary fuel filter that has a vent screw may beinstalled on a fuel system that has a low fuel tank.

1. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Loosen ventscrew (2).

2. Open drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into thecontainer.

3. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only. Removethe tube and dispose of the drained fluid in a safeplace.

4. Tighten vent screw to 6 N·m (53 lb in).

i02873617

Fuel System Primary Filter(Water Separator) Element -ReplaceSMCS Code: 1260-510-FQ; 1263-510-FQ

Type One

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-vent possible injury, turn the start switch off whenchanging fuel filters or water separator elements.Clean up fuel spills immediately.

SEBU8180-01 87Maintenance Section

Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”for detailed information on the standards ofcleanliness that must be observed during ALLwork on the fuel system.

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFFposition before performing this maintenance.

2. Place a suitable container under the waterseparator in order to catch any fuel that mightspill. Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outsideof the water separator.

g01259363Illustration 54Typical example

3. Install a suitable tube onto the drain (1). Open thedrain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.Remove the tube.

4. Tighten the drain (1) by hand pressure only.

5. If equipped, remove the wiring harness from thesensor on the bottom of the glass bowl.

6. Hold the glass bowl (3) and remove the screw (2).Remove the glass bowl (3) from the canister (4).

7. Use a 1U-8760 Chain Wrench in order to removethe canister (4). Discard the old seals (5 and 6)and the canister in a safe place.

8. Clean the glass bowl (3).

g01259366Illustration 55Typical example

9. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in orderto install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.

10. Install the new O ring seal (5) onto the setscrew(2). Install the new O ring seal (6) into the glassbowl.

11.Align the glass bowl to the canister. Ensure thatthe sensor (if equipped) is in the correct position.Install the setscrew (2). Tighten the setscrew to atorque of 5 N·m (44 lb in).

12. If equipped, install the wiring harness to thesensor.

13.Remove the container and dispose of the fuel ina safe place.

14. The secondary filter must be replaced at the sametime as the primary filter. Refer to the Operationand Maintenance Manual , “Fuel System Filter -Replace”.

88 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionFuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

Type TwoNote: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”for detailed information on the standards ofcleanliness that must be observed during ALLwork on the fuel system.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFFposition before performing this maintenance.

2. Place a suitable container under the waterseparator in order to catch any fuel that mightspill. Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outsideof the water separator.

g01430590Illustration 56

3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Open drain(1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.Remove the tube.

4. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only.

5. If equipped, remove the wiring harness from thesensor on the bottom of the bowl .

g01430591Illustration 57

6. Rotate bowl (3) counterclockwise in order toremove the bowl. Remove O ring seal (2). Cleanthe bowl.

SEBU8180-01 89Maintenance Section

Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

g01430594Illustration 58

7. Use 1U-8760 Chain Wrench in order to removeold canister (4).

g01430595Illustration 59

8. Lubricate O ring seal (5 ) with clean engine oil onthe new canister. Install new canister (6). Spinon the canister until the O ring seal contacts thesealing surface. Then rotate the canister 360degree in order to tighten the canister correctly.

9. Remove cap (8) from the threaded end of the newcanister and remove new O ring seal (7). Installthe new O ring seal into bowl (3).

10. Lubricate O ring seal (7) with clean engine oil.Install the bowl onto the new canister. Tighten thebowl to 15 N·m (11 lb ft).

11. If equipped, install the wiring harness to thesensor. Open the fuel supply valve.

12.Remove the container and dispose of the fluid ina safe place.

13. The secondary filter must be replaced at the sametime as the primary filter. Refer to the Operationand Maintenance Manual , “Fuel System Filter -Replace”.

i02873623

Fuel System Secondary Filter -ReplaceSMCS Code: 1261-510-SE

Type One

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-vent possible injury, turn the start switch off whenchanging fuel filters or water separator elements.Clean up fuel spills immediately.

Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”for detailed information on the standards ofcleanliness that must be observed during ALLwork on the fuel system.

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

Note: This fuel filter can be identified by the six drainholes in the filter. Refer to illustration 60.

90 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionFuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

g01430615Illustration 60

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

NOTICEDo not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughlyclean the area around a fuel system component thatwill be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over discon-nected fuel system component.

1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is inthe OFF position. Place a suitable container underthe fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that mightspill. Clean up any spilled fuel.

g01430609Illustration 61Typical example

2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use 1U-8760Chain Wrench in order to remove the canister (1)from the engine and dispose of the canister in asafe place.

3. Ensure that dirt can not enter the new canister. Donot fill the canister with fuel before the canister isinstalled. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) with cleanengine oil on the new canister.

4. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in orderto install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.

5. Spin on the canister until the O ring seal contactsthe sealing surface. The canister will require a ¾ ofa full turn in order to tighten the canister correctly.

6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation andMaintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” formore information.

Type Two

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-vent possible injury, turn the start switch off whenchanging fuel filters or water separator elements.Clean up fuel spills immediately.

SEBU8180-01 91Maintenance Section

Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Cleanliness of Fuel System Components”for detailed information on the standards ofcleanliness that must be observed during ALLwork on the fuel system.

NOTICEEnsure that the engine is stopped before any servicingor repair is performed.

g01430619Illustration 62

This fuel filter can be identified by the 12 drain holesin the filter. Refer to illustration 62.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is inthe OFF position. Place a suitable container underthe fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that mightspill. Clean up any spilled fuel.

g01430620Illustration 63Typical example

2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use 1U-8760Chain Wrench in order to remove the canister (2)from the engine and dispose of the canister in asafe place.

3. Ensure that dirt can not enter the new canister. Donot fill the canister with fuel before the canister isinstalled. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) with cleanengine oil on the new canister.

4. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in orderto install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.

5. Spin on the canister until the O ring seal contactsthe sealing surface. Then rotate the canister 360degree in order to tighten the canister correctly.

6. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in asafe place. If equipped, open the fuel supply valve.

7. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation andMaintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” formore information.

92 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionFuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

i02348492

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment- DrainSMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S

NOTICECare must be taken to ensure that fluids are containedduring performance of inspection, maintenance, test-ing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be preparedto collect the fluid with suitable containers beforeopening any compartment or disassembling any com-ponent containing fluids.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations andmandates.

Fuel TankFuel quality is critical to the performance and to theservice life of the engine. Water in the fuel can causeexcessive wear to the fuel system.

Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when thefuel tank is being filled.

Condensation occurs during the heating and coolingof fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passesthrough the fuel system and the fuel returns to thefuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fueltanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtainingfuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate waterin the fuel.

Drain the Water and the SedimentFuel tanks should contain some provision for drainingwater and draining sediment from the bottom of thefuel tanks.

Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tankin order to drain the water and the sediment. Closethe drain valve.

Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after thefuel tank has been filled before draining water andsediment from the fuel tank.

Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine inorder to drive out moist air. This will help preventcondensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. Thefuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank mayoverflow.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow waterand sediment to settle below the end of the fuelsupply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines thattake fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. Ifthe engine is equipped with this system, regularmaintenance of the fuel system filter is important.

Fuel Storage TanksDrain the water and the sediment from the fuelstorage tank at the following intervals:

• Weekly

• Service intervals

• Refill of the tank

This will help prevent water or sediment from beingpumped from the storage tank into the engine fueltank.

If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or movedrecently, allow adequate time for the sediment tosettle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internalbaffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trapsediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from thestorage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.When possible, water separators should be used.

i02518232

Hoses and Clamps -Inspect/ReplaceSMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always usethe proper inspection procedure in order to avoida fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation andMaintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by thefollowing conditions:

• Cracking

• Softness

• Loose clamps

SEBU8180-01 93Maintenance Section

Overhaul Considerations

Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten anyloose clamps.

Check for the following conditions:

• End fittings that are damaged or leaking

• Outer covering that is chafed or cut

• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement

• Outer covering that is ballooning locally

• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed

• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering

A constant torque hose clamp can be used in placeof any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constanttorque hose clamp is the same size as the standardclamp.

Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose willharden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hoseclamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constanttorque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hoseclamps.

Each installation application can be different. Thedifferences depend on the following factors:

• Type of hose

• Type of fitting material

• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose

• Anticipated expansion and contraction of thefittings

Replace the Hoses and the ClampsRefer to the OEM information for further informationon removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).

The following text describes a typical methodof replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEMinformation for further information on the coolantsystem and the hoses for the coolant system.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,stop the engine and wait until the cooling systemcomponents are cool. Loosen the cooling systempressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-sure.

1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.

2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly inorder to relieve any pressure. Remove the coolingsystem filler cap.

Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, cleancontainer. The coolant can be reused.

3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to alevel that is below the hose that is being replaced.

4. Remove the hose clamps.

5. Disconnect the old hose.

6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.

7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.

Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation andMaintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEMinformation for further information on refilling thecooling system.

9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect thecooling system filler cap’s seals. Replace thecooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.Install the cooling system filler cap.

10.Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system forleaks.

i01515272

Overhaul ConsiderationsSMCS Code: 7595-043

Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in alower average power demand. A decreased averagepower demand should increase both the engineservice life and the overhaul interval.

The need for an overhaul is generally indicated byincreased fuel consumption and by reduced power.

The following factors are important when a decisionis being made on the proper time for an engineoverhaul:

• The need for preventive maintenance

• The quality of the fuel that is being used

• The operating conditions

• The results of the S·O·S analysis

94 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionOverhaul Considerations

Oil Consumption as an OverhaulIndicatorOil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenanceinformation can be used to estimate the totaloperating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oilconsumption can also be used to estimate therequired capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitablefor the maintenance intervals.

Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentageof the rated engine load. As the percentage of theengine load is increased, the amount of oil that isconsumed per hour also increases.

The oil consumption rate (brake specific oilconsumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb perbhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC)depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillardealer for assistance in determining the typical oilconsumption rate for your engine.

When an engine’s oil consumption has risen to threetimes the original oil consumption rate due to normalwear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled.There may be a corresponding increase in blowbyand a slight increase in fuel consumption.

Overhaul Options

Before Failure Overhaul

A planned overhaul before failure may be the bestvalue for the following reasons:

• Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided.

• Many original parts can be reused according to thestandards for reusable parts.

• The engine’s service life can be extended withoutthe risk of a major catastrophe due to enginefailure.

• The best cost/value relationship per hour ofextended life can be attained.

After Failure Overhaul

If a major engine failure occurs and the enginemust be removed, many options are available. Anoverhaul should be performed if the engine block orthe crankshaft needs to be repaired.

If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaftis repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new enginewith a similar exchange core.

This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects:

• Specially designed Caterpillar engine features

• Caterpillar dealer exchange components

• Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchangecomponents

Overhaul RecommendationTo minimize downtime, Caterpillar Inc. recommendsa scheduled engine overhaul by your Caterpillardealer before the engine fails. This will provide youwith the best cost/value relationship.

Note: Overhaul programs vary according to theengine application and according to the dealer thatperforms the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillardealer for specific information about the availableoverhaul programs and about overhaul services forextending the engine life.

If an overhaul is performed without overhaul servicefrom your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the followingmaintenance recommendations.

Rebuild or Exchange

Cylinder Head Assembly, Oil Pump, and FuelTransfer Pump

These components should be inspected according tothe instructions that are found in various Caterpillarreusability publications. The Special Publication,SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that areneeded for inspecting the engine parts.

If the parts comply with the established inspectionspecifications that are expressed in the reusableparts guideline, the parts should be reused.

Parts that are not within the established inspectionspecifications should be dealt with in one of thefollowing manners:

• Salvaging

• Repairing

• Replacing

Using out-of-spec parts can result in the followingproblems:

• Unscheduled downtime

• Costly repairs

• Damage to other engine parts

• Reduced engine efficiency

SEBU8180-01 95Maintenance Section

Overhaul Considerations

• Increased fuel consumption

Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuelconsumption translates into higher operating costs.Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairingout-of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts.

Inspection and/or Replacement

Crankshaft Bearings and Crankshaft Seals

The following components may not last until thesecond overhaul.

• Thrust bearings

• Main bearings

• Rod bearings

• Crankshaft seals

Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of newparts at each overhaul period.

Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembledfor an overhaul.

Inspect the crankshaft for any of the followingconditions:

• Deflection

• Damage to the journals

• Bearing material that has seized to the journals

Check the journal taper and the profile of thecrankshaft journals. Check these components byinterpreting the wear patterns on the followingcomponents:

• Rod bearing

• Main bearings

Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals andto the lobes.

Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, usethe magnetic particle inspection process to check forcracks in the camshaft.

Inspect the following components for signs of wear orfor signs of scuffing:

• Camshaft bearings

• Lifters

Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaftvibration damper.

Oil Cooler Core

During an overhaul, Caterpillar Inc. recommends theremoval of the oil cooler core. Clean the oil coolercore. Then, pressure test the oil cooler core.

NOTICEDo not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.

Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of thecore and cause leakage.

Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oilcooler core.

1. Remove the oil cooler core.

2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core. Toremove debris from the oil cooler core, turn the oilcooler core onto one end.

3. Flush the oil cooler core internally with cleaner inorder to loosen foreign substances. This will alsohelp to remove oil from the oil cooler core.

Note: Caterpillar Inc. recommends the use ofHydrosolv Liquid Cleaners. Table 15 lists theHydrosolv Liquid Cleaners that are available fromyour Caterpillar dealer.

Table 15

Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners

PartNumber Description Size

1U-5490 Hydrosolv4165 19 L (5 US gal)

1U-5492 Hydrosolv100 19 L (5 US gallon)

4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core. Thisremoves any remaining residue from the cleaner.Flush the fins of the oil cooler core. Remove anyother trapped debris.

5. Wash the oil cooler core with hot, soapy water.Rinse the oil cooler core thoroughly with cleanwater.

96 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionRadiator - Clean

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-er procedure.When using pressure air, wear a pro-tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be lessthan 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

6. Dry the oil cooler core with compressed air. Directthe air in the reverse direction of the normal flow.

7. Inspect the components in order to ensurecleanliness. The oil cooler core should bepressure tested. Repair the oil cooler core, ifnecessary. Install the oil cooler core.

For more information about cleaning the cores,consult your Caterpillar dealer.

Obtain Coolant Analysis

The concentration of supplemental coolant additive(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kitsor with S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Furthercoolant analysis is recommended when the engineis overhauled.

For example, considerable deposits are found in thewater jacket areas on the external cooling system, butthe concentrations of coolant additives were carefullymaintained. The coolant water probably containedminerals that were deposited on the engine over time.

A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verifythe condition of the water that is being used in thecooling system. A full water analysis can be obtainedby consulting your local water utility company oran agricultural agent. Private laboratories are alsoavailable for water analysis.

Caterpillar Inc. recommends an S·O·S CoolantAnalysis (Level 2).

S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)

An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is acomprehensive coolant analysis which completelyanalyzes the coolant and the effects on the coolingsystem. An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) providesthe following information:

• Complete S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)

• Visual inspection of properties

• Identification of metal corrosion

• Identification of contaminants

• Identification of built up impurities (corrosion andscale)

S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides a report ofthe results of both the analysis and the maintenancerecommendations.

For more information about coolant analysis, seeyour Caterpillar dealer.

i02559063

Radiator - CleanSMCS Code: 1353-070

Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according tothe effects of the operating environment.

Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and otherdebris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.

Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-er procedure.When using pressure air, wear a pro-tective face shield and protective clothing.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposesmust be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the airnozzle is deadheaded.

Pressurized air is the preferred method for removingloose debris. Direct the air in the opposite directionof the fan’s air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move theair nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.This will remove debris that is between the tubes.

Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposesmust be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurizedwater in order to soften mud. Clean the core fromboth sides.

Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil andgrease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the corewith detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse thecore with clean water.

SEBU8180-01 97Maintenance Section

Severe Service Application - Check

After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate theengine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removalof debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspectthe core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, ifnecessary.

Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be openedwith a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

For more detailed information on cleaning andinspection, refer to Special Publication, SEBD0518,“Know Your Cooling System”.

i00151038

Severe Service Application -CheckSMCS Code: 1000-535

Severe service is an application of an engine thatexceeds current published standards for that engine.Caterpillar maintains standards for the followingengine parameters:

• Performance (power range, speed range, and fuelconsumption)

• Fuel quality

• Altitude range

• Maintenance intervals

• Oil selection and maintenance

• Coolant selection and maintenance

• Environmental qualities

• Installation

Refer to the standards for the engine or consult withyour Caterpillar dealer in order to determine if theengine is operating within the defined parameters.

Severe service operation can accelerate componentwear. Engines that operate under severe conditionsmay need more frequent maintenance intervals inorder to ensure maximum reliability and retention offull service life.

Due to individual applications, it is not possible toidentify all of the factors which can contribute tosevere service operation. Consult your Caterpillardealer for the unique maintenance that is necessaryfor the engine.

The operating environment, improper operatingprocedures and improper maintenance procedurescan be factors which contribute to severe serviceconditions.

Environmental FactorsAmbient temperatures – The engine may beexposed to extended operation in extremelycold environments or hot environments. Valvecomponents can be damaged by carbon buildup ifthe engine is frequently started and stopped in verycold temperatures. Extremely hot inlet air reducesengine performance.

Air Quality – The engine may be exposed toextended operation in an environment that is dirtyor dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup cancontain corrosive chemicals.

Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosivechemicals and salt can damage some components.

Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine isoperated at altitudes that are higher than the intendedsettings for that application. Necessary adjustmentsshould be made.

Improper Operating Procedures• Extended operation at low idle

• Frequent hot shutdowns

• Operating at excessive loads

• Operating at excessive speeds

• Operating outside the intended application

Improper Maintenance Procedures• Extending the maintenance intervals

• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants andcoolant/antifreeze

i02348493

Starting Motor - InspectSMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040

Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection ofthe starting motor. If the starting motor fails, theengine may not start in an emergency situation.

98 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionTurbocharger - Inspect

Check the starting motor for correct operation. Checkthe electrical connections and clean the electricalconnections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testingand Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System -Test” for more information on the checking procedureand for specifications or consult your Caterpillardealer for assistance.

i02724929

Turbocharger - InspectSMCS Code: 1052-040; 1052

A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger isrecommended. If the turbocharger fails during engineoperation, damage to the turbocharger compressorwheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to theturbocharger compressor wheel can cause additionaldamage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinderhead.

NOTICETurbocharger bearing failures can cause large quanti-ties of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious enginedamage.

Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extend-ed low idle operation should not cause problems aslong as a turbocharger bearing failure has not oc-cured.

When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompaniedby a significant engine performance loss (exhaustsmoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continueengine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.

A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimizeunscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of theturbocharger can also reduce the chance for potentialdamage to other engine parts.

Removal and InstallationNote: The turbochargers that are supplied arenonserviceable.

For options regarding the removal, installation,and replacement, consult your Carerpillar dealer.Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,“Turbocharger - Remove and Turbocharger - Install”for further information.

Inspecting

NOTICEThe compressor housing for the turbocharger mustnot be removed from the turbocharger for inspectionor removed for the cleaning of the compressor.

1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaustoutlet and remove the air intake pipe to theturbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for thepresence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipesin order to prevent dirt from entering duringreassembly.

2. Check for obvious heat discoloration of theturbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or anymissing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supplyline and the oil drain line. Check for cracks inthe housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that thecompressor wheel can rotate freely.

3. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking fromthe back side of the compressor wheel, there is apossibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.

The presence of oil may be the result of extendedengine operation at low idle. The presence of oilmay also be the result of a restriction of the linefor the intake air (clogged air filters), which causesthe turbocharger to slobber.

4. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbineoutlet for corrosion.

5. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outletpipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that allclamps are installed correctly and that all clampsare tightened securely.

SEBU8180-01 99Maintenance Section

V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace

i02873707

V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/ReplaceSMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510

Inspection

g01476657Illustration 64

Arrangement for the V-belts

To maximize the engine performance, inspect thebelts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that areworn or damaged.

For applications that require multiple drive belts,replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing onlyone belt of a matched set will cause the new belt tocarry more load because the older belt is stretched.The additional load on the new belt could cause thenew belt to break.

If the belts are too loose, vibration causesunnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loosebelts may slip enough to cause overheating.

To accurately check the belt tension, install144-0235 Belt Tension Gauge.

g01003936Illustration 65Typical example(1) Gauge

Fit the gauge (1) at the center of the longest freelength and check the tension. The correct tension fora used belt is 355 N (79.8 lb). If the tension of thebelt is below 250 N (56 lb) adjust the belt to 355 N(79.8 lb).

Note: The correct tension for a new belt or new beltsis 535 N (120 lb). A higher tension is required inorder to compensate for the stretch that is in a newbelt. Only use the higher tension on a belt that hasnot been used. A used belt is a belt that has been inoperation for 30 minutes or a longer period of time.

If twin belts are installed, check and adjust thetension on both belts.

Adjustment

g01430645Illustration 66Typical example

100 SEBU8180-01Maintenance SectionWalk-Around Inspection

1. Loosen The alternator pivot bolt (2) and the bolt(3).

2. Move the alternator in order to increase ordecrease the belt tension. Tighten the alternatorpivot bolt and the link bolt to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).(1).

ReplaceRefer to Disassembly and Assembly manual for moreinformation.

i02517579

Walk-Around InspectionSMCS Code: 1000-040

Inspect the Engine for Leaks andfor Loose ConnectionsA walk-around inspection should only take a fewminutes. When the time is taken to perform thesechecks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.

For maximum engine service life, make a thoroughinspection of the engine compartment before startingthe engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolantleaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections andtrash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:

• The guards must be in the correct place. Repairdamaged guards or replace missing guards.

• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine isserviced in order to reduce the chance of systemcontamination.

NOTICEFor any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up thefluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correctthe leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levelsmore often than recommended until the leak is foundor fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to beunwarranted.

NOTICEAccumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a firehazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Re-fer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “En-gine - Clean” for more information.

• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctlyclamped and that the cooling system hoses aretight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of allpipes.

• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.

Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by thecoolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a smallamount of leakage to occur as the engine cools downand the parts contract.

Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need toreplace the water pump. Remove the water pump.Refer to Disassembly and Assembly , “Water Pump -Remove and Install”. For more information, consultyour Caterpillar dealer.

• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the frontcrankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oilpan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.

• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and theelbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensurethat hoses and tubes are not contacting otherhoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.

• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts areclear.

• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessorydrive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.

• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.

Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced asmatched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt willcarry more load than the belts that are not replaced.The older belts are stretched. The additional load onthe new belt could cause the belt to break.

High Pressure Fuel Lines

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluidpenetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-low these inspection, maintenance and service in-structions may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure tobe purged from the high pressure fuel lines beforeany service or repair is performed on the enginefuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel systemand from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, “FuelInjection Lines - Install”.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always usethe proper inspection procedure in order to avoida fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation andMaintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

SEBU8180-01 101Maintenance SectionWater Pump - Inspect

Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines fordamage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace anydamaged high pressure fuel lines or high pressurefuel lines that have leaked.

Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel linesare in place and that the clips are not loose.

• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Lookfor loose fuel line clamps.

• Drain the water and the sediment from the fueltank on a daily basis in order to ensure that onlyclean fuel enters the fuel system.

• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses forloose connections and for worn wires or frayedwires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missingtie-wraps.

• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection andfor good condition.

• Disconnect any battery chargers that are notprotected against the current drain of the startingmotor. Check the condition and the electrolyte levelof the batteries, unless the engine is equipped witha maintenance free battery.

• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace anygauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge thatcan not be calibrated.

i02517764

Water Pump - InspectSMCS Code: 1361-040; 1361

A failed water pump may cause severe engineoverheating problems that could result in the followingconditions:

• Cracks in the cylinder head

• A piston seizure

• Other potential damage to the engine

g01249453Illustration 67(1) Weep hole

Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by thecoolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a smallamount of leakage to occur as the engine cools downand parts contract.

Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. The waterpump is not a serviceable item. In order to installa new water pump, refer to the Disassembly andAssembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove andInstall”, or contact your Caterpillar dealer.

102 SEBU8180-01Warranty SectionWarranty Information

Warranty Section

Warranty Informationi01087950

Emissions WarrantyInformationSMCS Code: 1000

This engine may be certified to comply with exhaustemission standards and gaseous emission standardsthat are prescribed by law at the time of manufacture,and this engine may be covered by an EmissionsWarranty. A detailed explanation of the EmissionsWarranty that is applicable to emissions certifiedengines is found in Supplement, SEBU6981, “FederalEmissions Control Warranty Information”. Consultyour authorized Caterpillar dealer to determine if yourengine is emissions certified and if your engine issubject to an Emissions Warranty.

SEBU8180-01 103Reference Information Section

Engine Ratings

Reference InformationSection

Engine Ratingsi02945156

Engine Rating ConditionsSMCS Code: 1000

All engine ratings are in compliance with the followingstandard ambient air conditions of “SAE J1349”:

• 99 kPa (29.3 inches of Inches Hg)

• 30 percent relative humidity

• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)

Ratings relate to the standard conditions of“ISO8665”, of “ISO3046/1”, of “DIN6271”, and of“BS5514”.

Power for the engine ratings is set on the followingfuel specification:

• Density 0.837 to 0.845 kg/l at 15 °C (59 °F)

• API Gravity 36 to 37.5 at 15 °C (59 °F)

• Viscosity 2.6 to 2.8 mm^2 /sec at 40 °C (104.0 °F)

• Cetane numbers of 48 to 52

Gross Output Ratings – The total output capabilityof the engine that is equipped with standardaccessories.

Standard accessories include the followingcomponents:

• Oil pumps

• Fuel pumps

• Water pumps

Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliarycomponents from the gross output. This will producethe net power that is available for the external load(flywheel).

i02945155

Engine Rating DefinitionsSMCS Code: 1000

It is important to know the use of the engine sothat the rating will match the operating profile. Theproper rating selection is also important so that thecustomer’s perception of price and value is realized.

In selecting a rating for a specific application, themost important consideration is the time that is spentat full throttle. The rating definitions identify thepercent of time at full throttle. The definitions alsoidentify the corresponding times below rated rpm.

Note: For an exact determination of the appropriaterating, follow the OEM specifications or consult yourCaterpillar dealer.

There is five ratings from A to E. The rating for theC4.4 industrial engine is C.

C – Intermittent service in conjunction with maximumpower and/or speed are cyclic. The engine at full loadshould not exceed 50 percent of the duty cycle.

NOTICEOperating engines above the rating definitions can re-sult in shorter service life before overhaul.

104 SEBU8180-01Reference Information SectionCustomer Service

Customer Servicei02097871

Customer AssistanceSMCS Code: 1000

USA and CanadaWhen a problem arises concerning the operation ofan engine or concerning the service of an engine,the problem will normally be managed by the dealerin your area.

Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillarand to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem thathas not been handled to your complete satisfaction,follow these steps:

1. Discuss your problem with a manager from thedealership.

2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealerlevel without additional assistance, use the phonenumber that is listed below to talk with a FieldService Coordinator:

1-800-447-4986

The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Mondaythrough Friday Central Standard Time.

3. If your needs have not been met still, submit thematter in writing to the following address:

Caterpillar Inc.Manager, Customer Service, Engine DivisionMossville Bldg ACP.O. Box 610Mossville, Illinois 61552-0610

Please keep in mind: probably, your problem willultimately be solved at the dealership, using thedealership’s facilities, equipment, and personnel.Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when aproblem is experienced.

Outside of the USA and of CanadaIf a problem arises outside the USA and outsideCanada, and if the problem cannot be resolved at thedealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar office.

Latin America, Mexico, CarribeanCaterpillar Americas Co.701 Waterford Way, Suite 200Miami, FL 33126-4670USAPhone: 305-476-6800Fax: 305-476-6801

Europe, Africa, and Middle EastCaterpillar Overseas S.A.76 Route de FrontenexP.O. Box 6000CH-1211 Geneva 6SwitzerlandPhone: 22-849-4444Fax: 22-849-4544

Far EastCaterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.7 Tractor RoadJurong, Singapore 627968Republic of SingaporePhone: 65-662-8333Fax: 65-662-8302

ChinaCaterpillar China Ltd.37/F., The Lee Gardens33 Hysan AvenueCauseway BayG.P.O. Box 3069Hong KongPhone: 852-2848-0333Fax: 852-2848-0440

JapanShin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.SBS Tower10-1, Yoga 4-ChomeSetagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530JapanPhone: 81-3-5717-1150Fax: 81-3-5717-1177

JapanCaterpillar Power Systems, Inc.SBS Tower (14th floor)4-10-1, YogaSetagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0097Phone: 81-3-5797-4300Fax: 81-3-5797-4359

Australia and New ZealandCaterpillar of Australia Ltd.1 Caterpillar DrivePrivate Mail Bag 4Tullamarine, Victoria 3043AustraliaPhone: 03-9953-9333Fax: 03-9335-3366

SEBU8180-01 105Reference Information Section

Customer Service

i01028392

Ordering Replacement PartsSMCS Code: 7567

When replacement parts are required for thisproduct Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillarreplacement parts or parts with equivalent spec-ifications including, but not limited to, physicaldimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-ture failures, product damage, personal injury ordeath.

Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are availablefrom Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.Caterpillar dealers’ parts inventories are up-to-date.The parts stocks include all of the parts that arenormally needed to protect your Caterpillar engineinvestment.

When you order parts, please specify the followinginformation:

• Part number

• Part name

• Quantity

If there is a question concerning the part number,please provide your dealer with a completedescription of the needed item.

When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenanceand/or repair, provide the dealer with all theinformation that is stamped on the Information Plate.This information is described in this Operation andMaintenance Manual (Product Information Section).

Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform thedealer about the conditions of the problem and thenature of the problem. Inform the dealer about whenthe problem occurs. This will help the dealer introubleshooting the problem and solving the problemfaster.

106 SEBU8180-01Reference Information SectionReference Materials

Reference Materialsi02518230

Reference MaterialSMCS Code: 1000

The following literature can be obtained through anyCaterpillar dealer.

Lubricants• Special Publication, PEHP8038, “Data Sheet -Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oils (DEO) (CH-4) (NorthAmerica)”

• Special Publication, PEHP9536, “Data Sheet- Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (CF-4)(International only)”

• Special Publication, NEDG6022, “Cat LubricatingGrease”

• Special Publication, PEHP0002, “Data Sheet -Molybdenum (MPGM) Grease”

• Special Publication, NEHP6015, “Data Sheet -Caterpillar Special Purpose Grease (SPG)”

• Special Publication, SEBD0640, “Oil and YourEngine”

• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU5898,“Cold Weather Recommendations”

• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6251,“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine FluidsRecomendations”

• Special Publication, PEHP6001, “How To Take AGood Oil Sample”

Fuels• Special Publication, SEBD0717, “Diesel Fuels andYour Engine”

Coolants• Special Publication, PEHP4036, “Data Sheet -Extended Life Coolant”

• Special Publication, PEHP7057, “Data Sheet -S·O·S Coolant Analysis”

• Special Publication, SEBD0518, “Know YourCooling System”

• Special Publication, SEBD0970, “Coolant and YourEngine”

• Label, PEEP5027, “Extended Life Coolant/Antifreeze”

Miscellaneous• Service Manual, REG1139F, “Service ManualContents Microfiche”

• Service Manual, KENR6217, “C4.4 IndustrialEngines”

• Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,RENR9965, “C4.4 Industrial Engines”

• Specifications, RENR9961, “C4.4 IndustrialEngines.”

• Disassembly and Assembly, KENR6216, “C4.4Industrial Engines”

• Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”

• Special Publication, PECP9067, “One SafeSource” English language for use in NACD

• Special Publication, LEDM5615, “CaterpillarMarine Parts and Service Locations Directory”

• Special Publication, SEBF8029, “Index toGuidelines for Reusable Parts and SalvageOperations”

• Special Publication, SEBF8062, “Procedure toInspect and Clean Air Filters”

• Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “StorageProcedure for Caterpillar Products”

• Special Publication, NEHS0526, “ServiceTechnician Application Guide”

• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “CaterpillarCommercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recomendations”

• Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery TestProcedure”

• Label, SEHS7332, “Danger Do Not Operate”

SEBU8180-01 107Reference Information Section

Reference Materials

Emissions WarrantyThis engine may be Certified and this enginemay be covered by an Emissions Warranty. Adetailed explanation of the Emissions Warrantythat is applicable to Certified engines is foundin Supplement, SMBU6981, “Emissions ControlWarranty Information”. The engine is Certified ifthe engine has a special label that verifies thecertification. A Caterpillar dealer can also inform youif the engine is certified.

i02780825

Additional Reference MaterialSMCS Code: 1000

The “Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)Specifications” can be found in your SAE handbook.This publication can also be obtained from thefollowing locations: local technological society, locallibrary, and local college. If necessary, consult SAEat the following address:

SAE International400 Commonwealth DriveWarrendale, PA, USA 15096-0001Telephone: (724) 776-4841

The “American Petroleum Institute Publication No.1509” can be obtained from the following locations:local technological society, local library, and localcollege. If necessary, consult API at the followingaddress:

American Petroleum Institute1220 L St. N.W.Washington, DC, USA 20005Telephone: (202) 682-8000

The International Organization for Standardization(ISO) offers information and customer serviceregarding international standards and standardizingactivities. ISO can also supply information on thefollowing subjects that are not controlled by ISO:national standards, regional standards, regulations,certification, and related activities. Consult themember of ISO in your country.

International Organization for Standardization(ISO)1, rue de VarembéCase postale 56CH-1211 Genève 20SwitzerlandTelephone: +41 22 749 01 11Facsimile: +41 22 733 34 30E-mail: [email protected] site: http://www.iso.ch

European classifications are established by theCounseil International Des Machines a Combustion(CIMAC) (International Council on CombustionEngines).

CIMAC Central SecretariatLyoner Strasse 1860528 FrankfurtGermanyTelephone: +49 69 6603 1567Facsimile: +49 69 6603 1566

i00912149

Maintenance RecordsSMCS Code: 1000

Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention of accuratemaintenance records. Accurate maintenance recordscan be used for the following purposes:

• Determine operating costs.

• Establish maintenance schedules for other enginesthat are operated in the same environment.

• Show compliance with the required maintenancepractices and maintenance intervals.

Maintenance records can be used for a variety ofother business decisions that are related to enginemaintenance.

Maintenance records are a key element of amaintenance program that is well managed. Accuratemaintenance records can help your Caterpillar dealerto fine tune the recommended maintenance intervalsin order to meet the specific operating situation. Thisshould result in a lower engine operating cost.

Records should be kept for the following items:

Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumptionis essential in order to determine when the loadsensitive components should be inspected orrepaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaulintervals.

Service Hours – A record of service hours isessential to determine when the speed sensitivecomponents should be inspected or repaired.

Documents – These items should be easy toobtain, and these items should be kept in the enginehistory file. All of the documents should show thisinformation: date, service hours, fuel consumption,unit number, and engine serial number. The followingtypes of documents should be kept as proof ofmaintenance or repair for warranty:

108 SEBU8180-01Reference Information SectionReference Materials

Keep the following types of documents as proof ofmaintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types ofdocuments as proof of repair for warranty:

• Dealer work orders and itemized bills

• Owner’s repair costs

• Owner’s receipts

• Maintenance log

SEBU8180-01 109Reference Information Section

Reference Materials

i01176304

Maintenance LogSMCS Code: 1000

Table 16

Engine Model Customer Identifier

Serial Number Arrangement Number

ServiceHours

QuantityOf Fuel Service Item Date Authorization

110 SEBU8180-01Index Section

Index

A

Additional Reference Material ............................. 107After Starting Engine ............................................. 44After Stopping Engine............................................ 47Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................ 62Aftercooler Core - Inspect...................................... 62Alternator - Inspect ................................................ 63Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (PolyV-Belt).................................................................. 63Adjustment ......................................................... 63Inspection........................................................... 63Replace.............................................................. 63

B

Battery - Replace................................................... 64Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 64Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 65Before Starting Engine .................................... 16, 42Belt Tensioner - Inspect ......................................... 65Burn Prevention...................................................... 11Batteries.............................................................. 11Coolant................................................................ 11Oils...................................................................... 11

C

Cold Weather Operation........................................ 49Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 49Idling the Engine ................................................ 50Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 50Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 50Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 49

Cold Weather Starting ........................................... 42Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change........... 65Cooling Systems with Heavy Deposits orPlugging ........................................................... 66Drain .................................................................. 66Fill ...................................................................... 67Flush .................................................................. 66

Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 67Drain .................................................................. 68Fill ...................................................................... 68Flush .................................................................. 68

Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add..... 69Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 69Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) -Obtain .................................................................. 70Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) -Obtain .................................................................. 71Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 71Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 72S·O·S Coolant Analysis...................................... 72Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 71

Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator -Replace................................................................ 72Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 73Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 14Customer Assistance........................................... 104Outside of the USA and of Canada.................. 104USA and Canada............................................. 104

Customer Service ................................................ 104Customer Specified Parameters............................ 26

D

Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ........................... 38“Diagnostic” Lamp.............................................. 38

Diagnostic Lamp.................................................... 38Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 73

E

Electrical System................................................... 17Grounding Practices .......................................... 17

Emergency Stopping ............................................. 47Emergency Stop Button ..................................... 47

Emissions Certification Film .................................. 26Emissions Warranty Information.......................... 102Engaging the Driven Equipment............................ 45Engine - Clean....................................................... 74Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -Clean/Replace ..................................................... 74Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 75Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 74

Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -Replace................................................................ 77Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 77Test the Service Indicator................................... 77

Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 78Engine Description ................................................ 22Aftermarket Products and Caterpillar Engines... 24Electronic Engine Features................................ 23Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 23Engine Service Life ............................................ 24Engine Specifications......................................... 22Welding and Caterpillar Electronic Engines....... 24

Engine Diagnostics................................................ 38Engine Electronics................................................. 18Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 78Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 79Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ........................ 80Fill the Oil Pan.................................................... 81Horizontal Oil Filter ............................................ 81Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 80

Engine Oil and Filter - Change (CG-4 Oil)............. 82Engine Oil Level - Check....................................... 78Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 79Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 79

Engine Operation................................................... 45

SEBU8180-01 111Index Section

Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 41Engine Operation with Intermittent DiagnosticCodes .................................................................. 41Engine Rating Conditions.................................... 103Engine Rating Definitions .................................... 103Engine Ratings .................................................... 103Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 36Alarms................................................................ 36Shutoffs.............................................................. 36Testing................................................................ 37

Engine Starting ................................................ 16, 42Engine Stopping .............................................. 17, 47Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 82Exhaust Manifold - Inspect .................................... 82

F

Fan Clearance - Check.......................................... 83Fault Logging......................................................... 40Features and Controls ........................................... 31Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 12Ether .................................................................. 13Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 13Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 13

Foreword ................................................................. 5California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 5Literature Information........................................... 4Maintenance ........................................................ 4Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4Operation ............................................................. 4Overhaul .............................................................. 4Safety................................................................... 4

Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 51Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 46Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 52Fuel Filters ......................................................... 52Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 52Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 52

Fuel System - Prime.............................................. 84Hand Fuel Priming Pump................................... 85

Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)Element - Replace ............................................... 86Type One ........................................................... 86Type Two............................................................ 88

Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator -Drain .................................................................... 85Primary Filter with a Vent Screw ........................ 86

Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace............... 89Type One ........................................................... 89Type Two............................................................ 90

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 92Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 92Fuel Storage Tanks............................................ 92Fuel Tank ........................................................... 92

G

Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 29

General Hazard Information .................................... 8Asbestos Information ......................................... 10Containing Fluid Spillage ................................... 10Dispose of Waste Properly ................................. 11Fluid Penetration.................................................. 9Pressurized Air and Water ................................... 9

General Information............................................... 19

H

High Pressure Fuel Lines ...................................... 14Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 92Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 93

I

Important Safety Information ................................... 2

L

Lifting and Storage ................................................ 28

M

Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 61Maintenance Log................................................. 109Maintenance Records.......................................... 107Maintenance Section............................................. 54Model View Illustrations......................................... 20Model Views .......................................................... 20Monitoring System................................................. 31Programmable Options and SystemsOperation ......................................................... 31

Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 14

O

Operation Section.................................................. 28Ordering Replacement Parts ............................... 105Overhaul Considerations....................................... 93Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Indicator ........ 94Overhaul Recommendation ............................... 94

Overspeed............................................................. 37

P

Plate Locations and Film Locations....................... 25Serial Number Plate (1) ..................................... 25

Product Identification Information .......................... 25Product Information Section .................................. 19Product Lifting........................................................ 28Product Storage..................................................... 28

112 SEBU8180-01Index Section

R

Radiator - Clean .................................................... 96Radiator Restrictions ............................................. 51Reference Information Section ............................ 103Reference Material .............................................. 106Coolants........................................................... 106Emissions Warranty ......................................... 107Fuels ................................................................ 106Lubricants ........................................................ 106Miscellaneous .................................................. 106

Reference Materials ............................................ 106Reference Numbers .............................................. 25Record for Reference......................................... 25

Refill Capacities..................................................... 54Refill Capacities and Recommendations............... 54Coolant Recommendations................................ 59Engine Oil .......................................................... 54General Coolant Information.............................. 57General Fuel Information ................................... 57Lubricating Grease............................................. 56Refill Capacity of the Cooling System................ 60S·O·S Coolant Analysis...................................... 59

S

Safety Messages..................................................... 6(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 6(2) Hand (High Pressure)..................................... 7(3) Ether ............................................................... 8

Safety Section ......................................................... 6Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 38Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 32Coolant Temperature Sensor 1 .......................... 35Electronic Control Module 5............................... 35Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 8............................ 36Failure of Sensors.............................................. 34Fuel Pressure Sensor 4 ..................................... 35Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor 2......... 35Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor 3.................... 35Primary Speed/Timing Sensor 6 ........................ 35Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) ......... 34Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor 7 ................... 35Sensor Locations ............................................... 32

Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 97Environmental Factors ....................................... 97Improper Maintenance Procedures.................... 97Improper Operating Procedures ........................ 97

Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 97Starting the Engine................................................ 42Starting the Engine ............................................ 42

Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 43Stopping the Engine .............................................. 47

T

Table of Contents..................................................... 3

Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 98Inspecting........................................................... 98Removal and Installation.................................... 98

V

V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace........................... 99Adjustment ......................................................... 99Inspection........................................................... 99Replace............................................................ 100

W

Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 100High Pressure Fuel Lines................................. 100Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for LooseConnections ................................................... 100

Warranty Information ........................................... 102Warranty Section ................................................. 102Water Pump - Inspect .......................................... 101Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 19

Product and Dealer InformationNote: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operationand Maintenance Manual.

Delivery Date:

Product InformationModel:

Product Identification Number:

Engine Serial Number:

Transmission Serial Number:

Generator Serial Number:

Attachment Serial Numbers:

Attachment Information:

Customer Equipment Number:

Dealer Equipment Number:

Dealer InformationName: Branch:

Address:

Dealer Contact Phone Number Hours

Sales:

Parts:

Service:

©2008 CaterpillarAll Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.


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