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Outcomes Intermediate Vocabulary Builder

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VOCABULARY BUILDER OUTCOMES REAL ENGLISH FOR THE REAL WORLD The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder booklet contains key language from the Student's Book and is organised by unit so that learners can easily refer to the words they need while they are studying. The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder contains: A short explanation for each word Common collocations and phrases Practice activities Regular language boxes for extra information on word families, word-building and phrasal verbs Answer key Also available for the student: Workbook - additional language and skills practice, a Developing Writing section, extra activities for the Outcomes Vocabulary Builder and audio CDs for the listening activities. MyOutcomes - online practice for grammar, vocabulary and all four skills. Use for self study or interact with your teacher and get feedback on your progress. Pin code available at the back of the Student's Book. /V HEINLE t% CENGAGE Learning Heinle, a part of Cengage Learning, is a leading provider of materials for English language teaching and learning throughout the world. Visit Heinle at http://elt.heinle.com Visit our corporate website at www.cengage.com /V HEINLE t% CENGAGE Learning VOCABULARY BUILDER INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES
Transcript

VOCABULARY BUILDER

OUTCOMES REAL ENGLISH FOR THE REAL WORLD

The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder booklet contains key language

from the Student's Book and is organised by unit so that learners

can easily refer to the words they need while they are studying.

The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder contains:

• A short explanation for each word

• Common collocations and phrases

• Practice activities

• Regular language boxes for extra information on word

families, word-building and phrasal verbs

• Answer key

Also available for the student:

• Workbook - additional language and skills practice, a

Developing Writing section, extra activities for the Outcomes

Vocabulary Builder and audio CDs for the listening activities.

• MyOutcomes - online practice for grammar, vocabulary and all

four skills. Use for self study or interact with your teacher and

get feedback on your progress. Pin code available at the back

of the Student's Book.

/ V HEINLE t % CENGAGE Learning

Heinle, a part of Cengage Learning, is a leading provider of materials for English language

teaching and learning throughout the world.

Visit Heinle at http://elt.heinle.com

Visit our corporate website at www.cengage.com

/ V HEINLE t % CENGAGE Learning

VOCABULARY BUILDER

INTERMEDIATE

OUTCOMES

Guide to Pronunciation Symbols

Consonant Sounds

/Р/ pet / p e t / 1Ы bed / b e d / 14 time /taim/

Idl dog / d o g / /к/ king / к щ / /9/ garden / 'go dan/

m fox, leaf /foks/, /II f/ /V/ van /vaan/

HI same /seim/ zebra, is / ' zebra/, /iz/

/1/ light /lait/

/ml mat /maat/ / П / name /neim/ / h / hot /hDt/ /г/ red /red/

HI young /JAO/ /w/ what /WDt/ /6/ bath /ba 9/ / а / weather /weBa/

/// fashion / fasjan/

/3/ television / , tel i ' vrjan/

/*/ cheap, catch /г/i р/, /каег// / « / jumper / djAmpa/ /0/ spring /sprirj/

Vowel

/1 7 see /si:/ /I/ win /win/ /1/ very / ' veri/ /е/ every / ' evri/ /аз/ cat / k m / /a / farm /fa:m/ /0/ clock /klok/ /э:/ wall /WD:I/

/о/ book /Ьик/ /и / moon / т и : п / /л/ cup /клр/ /з 7 world /W3:ld/ / а / letter / ' l e t t /

Diphthong (two vowels together)

/ei/ wait /weit/ /90/ phone /faun/ /31/ mine /main/ /ао/ house /haos/ /31/ noise /nDIZ/ / В / near /П1Э/

/е»/ hair / h o / /оэ/ pure /pjua/

Remember: Sound is not the same as spelling, for example, the word 'is'finishes with the letter's' but the sound is Izl. Iu.1 ii.

When writing the sound of a word (its phonemic transcription), always put lines like these //on either side of the word: /vaen/

Stress shown with marks like these ' shows the primary stress in a word. For example, / ' go dan/ gcmien , shows the secondary stress. For example, / , t e l l ' V l j j n / teleiuiiati

INTRODUCTION TO OUTCOMES VOCABULARY BUILDER

Learning vocabulary in collocations and phrases will develop your fluency. And doing a little revision regularly is the best way to learn vocabulary. That's what the Outcomes Vocabulary Builder (OVB) will help you with.

It has been written to provide you with the important vocabulary in the Student's Book and to show you how these words are commonly used. It does not include easier words which you should know from lower levels such as boring, or unusual words, which you probably don't need to remember at this level.

What each entry contains

• Each entry has a short explanation of the word's meaning and often gives information on other forms or opposites.

• There is then a list of up to six typical collocations and phrases that the word is used with. • Regular language boxes provide extra information on word families, phrasal verbs etc.

How the OVB is organised

It is organised to make it quick and easy to use in class and to revise at home.

• Each unit in the OVB contains the most important new words from exercises, texts and listenings in the unit of the Student's Book.

• The units are then divided according to each double page of the Student's Book and the words within those pages are written in alphabetical order.

• At the end of each unit there are exercises to do. • There is an answer key at the back of the book.

Ways you can use the OVB

• Read the word list before you study the unit in the book. • Translate all the words you don't know based on the explanation. Check the collocations for each word. Do

they make sense? Are any different to your language? • In class, if you have forgotten a word, look it up again. Write out the collocation list and add one of your own. • Cover words in the list and say or write phrases with the word. Then compare with the collocation list. • Choose five to ten words from the list to learn each day. • Put eight new words in a story using the collocations listed. • Do the exercises at the end of each unit some time after you've done it in class. Then check the answers in

the key. • Write a list of the words you find difficult to remember and write sentences using the words.

1

MY FIRST CLASS

PACES 8 - 9

abroad when you go abroad,you go to a different or foreign country: I'd love to live ~ /she travels - a lot /go-for a holiday Istudy -

accent an accent is the way you say words. You can tell where someone is from because of their accent: she speaks with an American -la strong French - (very noticeable) /aslight ~ (not very noticeable)

involve when a job or a course involves something, it includes it as an essential part: the job ~s talking to people and solving their problems I it -s a lot of hard work I it ~s computer programming

management management is the way of controlling and organizing an organization.The management is also the group of people who control an organization.The verb is manage: he's studying business - Ishe works in - Ithe company has good - I improve - of the organization I she manages the whole hotel

mile one mile is 1.6 kilometres. Miles is often used to mean a long way: the town is soo -sfrom Moscow I the hotel is only a ~ down the road I a tiny village that's ~sfrom anywhere (not near any towns) / it's ~s to the nearest shop (a very long way)

remind to remind someone about something means to make them remember it. Be careful -you cannot use remember with this meaning: she reminded me about my doctor's appointment I can you - me to phone home? I he ~s me of my brother (he looks like my brother) / that song ~s me of my wedding (it makes me think about my wedding)

rude if something you say or do is rude, it is not polite and might upset people: it's - to ask people their age I I'm sorry-1 didn't mean to be -1 how-I I a very - man I he knows all the - words!

2 OUTCOMES

seat a seat is the place where you sit: come in and take a - (sit down) / I'd prefer a window - (a seat next to the window) / the - next to me/the best - in the theatre /you can book ~s in advance I the

front - of a car top the top person or thing is the highest, most

important or best: a - head teacher (one of the best) / she's the UK's - athlete I score - marks in the exam (very high marks) / he's in the - class (the class with the highest level) / they live on the -

floor (the highest floor in a building)

PACES 1 0 - 1 1

available if something is available,you can get it or buy it. The noun is availability: they want to make language learning more ~ to students /the game is - in the shops now (you can buy it) / her books are widely - (you can get them in lots of different places) /they're -forfree / I'm always - to help you (I can help you) / What's your availability for a meeting next week?

bilingual if you are bilingual,you speak two languages very fluently. You can also be trilingual (able to speak three languages) or multilingual (able to speak many languages): I'm - in English and Turkish /grow up - Igo to a - school I be totally - / be almost -

continuity if there is continuity, things continue in a similar way without changes or problems: there was good - between teachers I we always try and maintain - /it's important not to lose - / we had six different teachers, so there was a lack of-

deal with if you deal with something,you do what is necessary. If you deal with a problem,you solve it: her job is to - complaints I he has to - lots of different people in his job/have to - some difficult customers / a difficult problem to -

defend if you defend something,you say you think it is good when other people say it is bad: a lot of people criticized the proposals, but he ~ed them I he tried to - what she had said I he should stand up and - himself (say that his ideas are right)

disaster if something is a disaster, it is a complete failure: the policy was a - /the party was a total - I the evening was a bit of a -

dub if you dub a film, you change the speaking in it from one language into another. The adjective is dubbed: do you like watching foreign TV programmes that are -bed into your own language? I it's been -bed into English

environment an environment is the place or conditions you live in or work in. Note that when we talk about the environment we mean the natural world: the school provides a good - to learn in I it's a safe - to play in I a good working - I they learn better in a good learning -

evidence facts that show if something is true, or show if someone is guilty or innocent of a crime: the police are still collecting - I there's no - against him I there's no - to suggest it's true

fluent if you are fluent, you speak a language easily, without making mistakes.The adverb is fluently. The noun is fluency: a - English speaker I I'm - in Spanish /you write very fluently I1 need to improve my fluency

get by if you get by, you can do something quite well, but not very well: I'm not very good at French, but I can just about - I1 don't know much about computers - but I - / he gets by at school - but he's not very academic

head the head of a country, organization or department is the leader or manager. To head something means to lead it or be in charge of it: he's the - teacher (the leader of a school) / the queen is the - of state I the - of the company I he's -ing the negotiations

improve if you improve, you get better and if you improve something,you make it better.The noun is improvement: my English is really improving I to-your language learning /the economy is improving I he was very ill, but he's slowly improving (becoming healthy again) /the government needs to - public transport I there has been a big improvement in your work

keep if you keep doing something,you continue to do it or do it many times: - practising until you can do it I - trying I he -s phoning me I1 -forgetting to send that email /he~s telling me I'm wrong

lack if there is a lack of something, it is missing. If you lack something,you do not have any: there was a - of evidence I the idea failed because of a - of interest (people weren't interested in it) la -of effort (not trying hard enough) I the country ~s money to improve education I he completely -s talent

maintain if you maintain something,you make it continue. If you maintain a building,you keep it in good condition: / can - a conversation in French I -a good relationship with my neighbours I we try to - high standards I they haven't -ed the house very well (they haven't kept it in good condition) / i t costs a lot to - the school (to keep the buildings in good condition)

motivation your motivation is the reason why you do something.The verb is motivate. If you motivate someone,you give them motivation: he has no - to study / some students fail because of a lack of - /1 lost all my - to go running during the winter I their teacher really knows how to motivate them

pick up if you pick up a language or some other skill,you learn it by seeing it or doing it, without studying it in a classroom: / picked up a few words of Turkish when I was staying there I they haven't

studied it at school but just picked it up off the street (by playing outside with otheryoung people) / she picks up languages very easily I1 showed him how to do it and he picked it up very quickly

point the point of something is the reason to do it: what's the - of studying for exams? I there's no -speaking to him (it will not achieve anything) / the - of coming here is to learn English I1 don't see the - of spending a lot of money on clothes

policy a policy is an idea or plan that a government or organization follows: what is the government's - on education? I health - I it's against company - to employ people under 16 / they want the government to change its - on immigration

progress if you progress, you get better at doing something. Progress is also a noun: students - at different speeds /to- slowly /to- quickly I he's definitely -ing /she's made huge - this term (she has got much better)

provide if you provide something,you give it to people or make it available: I'll - all the food and drink I coffee will be -d in the break I they should -people with more information I this will -you with a great opportunity

question if you question something,you say that you have doubts about it and think it might be wrong: they -ed the prime minister's decision I some people are-ing the government's change in policy I he was -ed by the police (the police asked him questions) /she -ed his motives (wondered why he was really doing something)

range when there is a range of things, there are a number of different kinds of thing: we discussed a - of topics I deal with a wide - of levels I the company provides a - of services /see our full -of products

rely on if you rely on something,you need it and trust it. The adjective for someone you can trust is reliable.The opposite is unreliable: she has to - her parents for money (she needs her parents to give her money) / they - everyone else to speak English (they need everyone else to speak English) / you can't - him (you can't trust him) lits a very reliable train service (you can trust it) / he's totally unreliable (you can't trust him)

reply if you reply to someone, you give them an answer. Reply is also a noun: he replied in English I she didn't - to my letter I sorry for the delay in -ing 11 still haven't received a - from him 11 asked him a question, but he gave no - (he didn't say anything)

report a report is a written document or a TV or radio programme that gives information about a subject. Report is also a verb: the government has published a new - on the war I according to a recent - I the main conclusions of the - I a TV -on crime I they will - back to us next week (they will tell us the information they have learnt)

VOCABULARY BUILDER 3

review if you review an idea or a policy, you think about it again and decide what you should do. Review is also a noun: the government is going to -its drug policy / we will - the situation next week / a - of language policy

skills your skills are the abilities you have: she's got good language - / have computer - / management ~ / learn new - / he's got poor people - (he doesn't get on well with people)

teach yourself if you teach yourself something, you learn it from books or by practising yourself, without a teacher: is it possible to - English? / he taught himself the guitar /1 taught myself how to cook

trade trade is the business of buying and selling things. Trade is also a verb: the company does a lot of - with China / they are worried they will lose -/ they want to increase - with Europe / improve the tourist - (the business of making money by encouraging tourists to visit an area) /they - with companies all over the world

PACES 1 2 - 1 3

bang if you bang something, you hit it. Bang is also a noun: / was -ing on the door for ages /to - the table hard /1 -ed my knee on the side of the table (by accident) / / heard a - at the door (the sound of someone banging)

chat if you chat to someone, you talk to them in a friendly, informal way. Chat is also be a noun.The adjective is chatty: we-ted for a while /1 often - to her on the phone / have a - with someone / she's very chatty (willing to spend time chatting)

excuse an excuse is the reason you give for why you did something wrong: what'syour -for being late? / give an - / invent (or make up) an - / a good - / there's no -for being so rude

flat a flat is a group of rooms you can live in. It is usually part of a larger building. In American English, people say apartment: live in a - in the city centre / look for a -to rent / a ground-floor - / a top-floor - / a furnished - (with furniture already in it) / live in a block of-s

run if a machine or vehicle is running, it is working: the train -s every 30 minutes (it goes every 30 minutes) / the buses don't - after midnight / the train and bus services usually - smoothly (without problems) / the car -son diesel

rush if you rush, you do something or go somewhere very quickly, often because you do not have much time. Rush is also a noun: / -ed out of the house (left the house very quickly) /we had to - her to the doctor (take her to the doctor very quickly) /1 -ed the last question of the exam (did it too quickly) / I'm in a - (i don't have much time) / do my homework in a -

sort out if you sort something out, you organize it: I need to - my holiday (organize it) / - the problem (solve it) /I'm trying to - my life (make it more organized and deal with problems in it) / - all my papers (organize them and put them in order)

spare if something is spare, it is extra: we've got a -room / give you a - key / have no - time / have you got any - change (small amounts of money that you do not need)

PHRASAL VERBS

A phrasal verb is a verb and a particle that are used together with a particular meaning. In some cases the particle does not change the meaning of the verb.This is true for action verbs like walk and run. For example, she rushed out of the house / let's walk down the stairs / they ran away with my bag 11 fell over, mean that the person rushed, walked, ran or fell.

However, sometimes adding the particle changes the meaning of the verb: He walked out on his wife (he left his wife). They ran out of food and drink (they used all the food and needed more). I fell out with my brother (we had an argument).

The other phrasal verbs in this unit are: deal with (solve), grow up (become an adult),get by (manage), p/'d: up (learn), rely on (trust), make up (invent), sort out (solve)

4 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 Their house is miles anywhere. 2 She really reminds me my mother. 3 The film is dubbed English. 4 There was a lack interest in the idea. 5 It's company policy to wear jeans. 6 We'll provide everyone an opportunity to

try it. 7 I read a report crime in New York. 8 We do a lot of trade theEU. 9 There's no excuse that kind of behaviour.

1 a language easily 2 in French 3 a film into English 4 food and drink 5 the situation 6 your language learning

В Match the nouns to the verbs. Look up the nouns (a-f) if you need help.

1 to collect 2 to lose your 3 to make 4 to publish a 5 to have a 6 to work in

PHRASAL VERBS

a) motivation b) chat c) report d) evidence e) management f) progress

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 study management a small business

2 widely available What'syour next

week? 3 be fluent in Spanish speak three languages

4 improve your English showabig in your

English 5 have no motivation the team

to play better 6 rely on him a lot be a very

worker

A Choose the correct phrasal verb. 1 I'm not very good with computers but I get

by / deal with. 2 I have to deal with / rely on a lot of difficult

children in the class. 3 He's very intelligent. He picks things up/gets

by very quickly. 4 Can you lend me some money? I rushed out /

sorted out of the house this morning and I forgot to get my purse.

5 Many people don't have a car and rely on / make up public transport to get to work.

6 We've almost/a//en out / run out of milk. Can you get some when you go out?

7 I'm going to stay at home this weekend and sort out /pick up the house. It's a complete mess.

В Which TWO words in the list below are NOT both a noun and verb?

bang head lack remind reply policy progress question rush trade

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the lists. Look up the verbs if you need help.

dub get by improve pick up provide review

PATTERNS

A Put the verb in brackets into the correct form [to + infinitive or-ing).

1 The job involves withyoung people, (work)

2 Can you remind me Ana a call after the class? (give)

3 I'll be available any problems at one o'clock, (deal with)

4 If you don't have any success first time, just keep (try)

5 I taught myself how and now I make my own jumpers, (knit)

6 There's no point here in the rain. Let's go inside, (wait)

VOCABULARY BUILDER 5

FEELINGS

PACES 1 4 - 1 5

accommodation accommodation is a place such as a house, flat or hotel where you can live or stay: the tourist office can help you find - / the university can't provide - / I've had some problems with my ~ / there's plenty of good - in the town I I'm living in student -

behind if you are behind with work,you are late, slow or not doing as well as you should.The opposite is ahead: I'm really - with my work / he's - at school / the company's fallen - the competition / the project is two months - schedule

break down if a machine or system breaks down, it stops working: my car broke down on the motorway / the central heating's broken down I the company's payment system broke down

cheer up if you cheer up, you start to feel happier. If you cheer someone up, you make them feel happier: I'm sure she'll - soon / ~- it's not that bad /1 bought her some flowers to cheer her up /1 need to do something to cheer myself up / he needs cheering up

confused if you are confused,you cannot understand something: she tried explaining it to me, but I was still ~ I I'm a bit - about how much I have to pay / she looked very -

disappointed if you are disappointed,you are unhappy because something is not as good as you wanted or expected: she was - with her exam results /1 was really - at not getting the job / he was very - that you missed his birthday /1 was a bit - by the film

due if something is due, it should happen or arrive at a certain time: the baby is - next month /the train was - ten minutes ago / they were - to arrive at six o'clock / my rent's - today (I have to pay it today) / my pay's - next week (I will receive it then)

exhausted if you are exhausted, you are really tired: sit down -you must be- / I'm absolutely - /1 always feel - by the end of the week /1 was too - to argue with him

fed up if you are fed up with something, you no longer like it because it is boring or annoying: I'm -with my job / You look a bit - / I'm getting - with this awful weather /1 was - of waiting

furious if you are furious, you are very angry: he was -about the damage to his car /1 was - when I heard what they'd done / they were - with me for being late /she was - at how much it cost

guilty if you feel guilty about something,you feel bad because you think you have done something wrong. If someone is guilty, they have committed a crime: I feel a bit - because I haven't rung him for ages /1 feel - about not inviting her / he gave me a - look when I asked him where the money was / he was found - of murder (a court decided that he was guilty)

hardly almost nothing or no one: he - said anything all evening (he said very little) / there was - anyone there (there were very few people) /speak up -1 can - hear you (I can't hear you very well) / ) - ever see him (very rarely) / we were so far back that I could - see the stage (it was very difficult to see) / there's - any crime here (almost no crime)

join if you join someone,you go to where they are so that you are with them: would you like to - us} I do you mind if I-your /'she can't come now, but she'll - us for dinner / please - the queue (stand in the queue and wait)

mood your mood is how you feel: she's been in a bad -all day (feeling angry) / listening to music always puts me in a good - (makes me feel happy) /I'm not in the - to go out / ignore him - he's in a funny - (a strange mood)

pleased if you are pleased with something,you are happy or satisfied with it: / was really - with my exam results /1 feel - with myself for giving up smoking I I'll be - to help (willing to help) / - to meet you (said when you meet someone for the first time)

relief if you feel relief, you feel happy because something bad or worrying has ended: it was a -to hear you weren't hurt / he gave a sigh of - / it's a - to know I'm not the only one with problems / the doctors gave him pain - (medicine to get rid of pain)

split up if two people split up, they get divorced or stop being a couple. If a group split up, they stop working together: he's just - with his girlfriend / they decided to - after 20 years of marriage / the band - because of musical differences / the teacher split us up because we were talking

terrible if you feel terrible, you feel very ill, sad or guilty: I've got a high temperature and I feel - /

6 OUTCOMES

I felt - about disappointing them /1 feel -for not telling you the truth /are you OK? You look -!

throw up if you throw up, you are sick. A more formal word is vomit: / think I'm going to- /1 was up all night throwing up / he threw up all over the bathroom floor

upset if you are upset, you are sad or angry about something: he was quite - when I spoke to him / I was very - about it / we were all very - by her death /she was too - to talk /he's a bit - that no-one told him about the party

WORD FAMILIES AND -ED ADJECTIVES

Most -ed adjectives come from verbs that are commonly used. bore: football ~s те/ I'm sorry to-you with my problems confuse: / don't want to -you by giving you too much information / this research -s matters further disappoint: / don't want to - them /1 hate to -you, but the concert's already sold out please: / knew the result would - him /you can't -everyone all the time

Sometimes the verb can have a different meaning to the -ed adjective. exhaust: we've -ed all the possibilities (tried them all) / what will we do when we've -ed the supplies of oil? (used them all)

The nouns related to -ed adjectives can vary a lot in their form. boredom: / was falling asleep with - /1 thought I was going to die of -confusion: There was some - about who had won / put your name on your bags to avoid -disappointment: book early to avoid - I losing the match was a big -pleasure: is your trip for business or-? I it's a - to work with you (it's enjoyable) exhaustion: she was suffering from - / he was weak wili\

PACES 1 6 - 1 7

approach if you approach something,you get nearer to it. If you approach someone, you go towards them and speak to them: a woman -ed me in the street /you can always - him with a problem (talk to him about it) / the company -ed me and offered me a job / things became more tense as the election -ed (came closer)

atmosphere the atmosphere in a place is the feeling you get from being there: a hotel with a lovely

relaxing - / the club's got a great - / there's a nasty - at work / he spoiled the friendly - with his stupid comments / he sensed the tense - as soon as he walked in

attempt if you make an attempt to do something, you try to do it. Attempt is also a verb: he made a desperate - to save the child / he failed in his - to break the world record / she succeeded in her - to get elected I it was a deliberate - to hide the truth I he -ed to climb Mount Everest

campaign a campaign is a series of actions you do because you want to win something or persuade people about something: his free hugs' campaign has been very successful / they are starting a new - against poverty/a military -against the rebels / an election - / the government launched an anti-smoking - / run a - against drink driving

discovery a discovery is something new that you find or learn.The verb is discover: scientists have made an exciting - / this is an important new - / they discovered gold in the mountains

intend if you intend to do something, you plan to do it in the future: he -s to carry on hugging people / I don't think she -ed me to see the email / what do you - to do about this?

isolated if someone feels isolated, they feel very alone. An isolated place is far away from towns and cities: she felt very - when her parents died / they live in an - village / this was just an - incident (just one, not part of a series)

line a line is a telephone number or connection. A help line is a number you phone to ask for advice: you can call our help -for more information I the customer service - is open 24 hours a day /all the ~s are busy at the moment /you need to dial g to get an outside - / could you hold the - and I'll try and find her for you

loss a loss is when you lose something. It can be a game that you lose, or money that a company loses. It can also be the sad feeling you have when someone close to you dies: fh/s was the team's third -this year / the company made a big - last month / his death was a great - to us all / I'm sorry for your -

mark a mark is the number or grade you get for a piece of work or an exam. When a teacher marks work, they correct it and give it a number or grade: / didn't expect to get such a high - / he got top ~s in the test I get a low - / the pass - is 40 per cent /you lose -sfor bad spelling /the teacher hasn't marked the exams yet

meaningful if something is meaningful it is serious or important and useful: he finds it hard to make -connections with other people / she wants to have a - life / the search for a - relationship / we should have a - debate about the problem

miserable if you are miserable, you are very sad. If something is miserable, it makes you sad: I felt

VOCABULARY BUILDER 7

a bit - when everyone left / he's had a -year / what a - day (with bad weather) / the weather was -last week (very bad)

protect if you protect someone,you stop things from hurting them. If you protect something, you stop things from damaging it: a friend came along to - him /the animals are -edfrom hunters /you need to -yourselffrom the sun / wear goggles to -your eyes

response a response is an answer to a question or letter, or a reaction to something that has happened: / wrote to him last week, but I haven't had a -yet / we got a positive - to our idea / there was a disappointing -from the public / I'm writing in - to your letter / his comments provoked an angry -

skills skills are things that you are able to do, especially things you can do well: she wants to improve her computer - / he has no social - (he doesn't know how to talk to other people) / she has good organizational - / he lacks the necessary -to be a doctor

speech if you give a speech,you talk to a large number of people about something: the chairman delivered an inspiring - / he made an acceptance - / she gave a - to the school / the head teacher made a short - at the end of the dinner / we had to listen to some boring ~es

PAGES 1 8 - 1 9

fancy if you fancy doing something,you want to do it: do you - going for a coffee? / do you - watching a film? /I've never fancied trying yoga /1 - doing something different

find if you say that you find something interesting, boring, etc, this is your opinion of it: / - lying on a beach incredibly boring / did you - the exam difficult? /how are you -ing the course?

graduate you graduate when you get your first degree at university: she ~d in law last year (she got a degree in law) /I'm going to - next year / he -dfrom Harvard with first class honours (top marks)

heat heat is when something is hot: I don't go to very hot countries because I can't stand the - /the -was unbearable during the day / keep the butter

away from the - / once the soup is boiling, reduce the - and cook it gently for a few minutes

ignore if you ignore someone,you don't listen to them or speak to them. If you ignore something, you don't pay any attention to it:just - him - he's being stupid /1 said hello, but she completely ~d me / we can't - this problem

mysterious someone or something mysterious is difficult to understand.The noun is mystery: we heard some - sounds / why are you being so - about it? /she died in - circumstances / her disappearance was a complete mystery / detectives are trying to solve the mystery

nervous if you are nervous about something, you feel worried or a bit scared about it: / get very - before exams /1 was quite - before I made the speech / he was so -, his hand was shaking

promoted if you get promoted, your employer gives you a better job and more money.The noun is promotion: / was - by Head Office / I'm hoping to get - to supervisor / now I've been - I'm on a better salary / she's hoping to get a promotion soon

relationship a relationship is the way two people feel and behave towards each other: / have a good - with my parents / he doesn't want people to know about his - with Sara / a love-hate -1 the- between a parent and child / the - between a doctor and his patients

scenery the scenery is the countryside that you see in a place: we passed through some lovely - on the way I they stopped to admire the amazing - / beautiful -

shocked if you are shocked at something,you are very surprised and slightly upset: / was - by the news / I was - at how much poverty there was /1 was - at how old he looked /1 was - to see so many people using drugs

stuck if you are stuck somewhere, you cannot move from that place: we were - in a lift for two hours / I was - in traffic / we were - on the train for hours / the children were - inside all day because of the rain /1 don't want to be - in front of a computer all day

unlike if it is unlike a person or thing to do something it is not typical or normal for them: it's - him to be so quiet / it's - them to be late / the storm was -anything I've ever seen

8 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 I was really disappointed not getting the job.

2 I feel a bit guilty forgetting his birthday. 3 I'm totally fed up him complaining all the

time. 4 They were absolutely furious me for

staying out all night. 5 They have started a campaign poverty. 6 He's such a bad mood. I don't know what's

wrong with him. 7 I was very upset the whole thing. 8 They don't do anything to protect themselves

the sun. 9 I am writing response to your complaint

of 2 August. 10 She's been promoted a higher position. 11 He graduated philosophy the Sorbonne

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the sentences with the correct nouns and adjectives from these verbs.

bore confuse disappoint exhaust please

1 I was really when he told me he couldn't come to the wedding. She couldn't hide her when I told her.

2 There were so many to choose from, I felt a bit To avoid , can just one person speak at a time?

3 The kids were really because it was raining and they couldn't go outside. I thought I was going to die of I

4 I was with myself for giving up smoking. It was no trouble at all. It was a

5 I was by the time we finally got home. She was suffering from after the run.

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 have a love-hate r__ _p 2 take some pain r f

3 make an acceptance s h 4 what's the pass m k? 5 phone the customer service h I 6 run an advertising c__ __n 7 develop your computer s s 8 live in student a n

В Choose the correct verbs to complete the collocations. Look up the nouns to help you if necessary.

1 make/do an attempt to do something 2 get /launch a campaign against poverty 3 make /do an exciting new discovery 4 earn/get good marks in an exam 5 give /speak a speech 6 solve /finish a mystery

С Which of the following words do not collocate with the nouns?

1 a good / bad / funny / upset mood 2 a nasty / tense / isolated / friendly atmosphere 3 lovely / handsome / amazing / beautiful

scenery 4 successful / high / low / top marks 5 a positive / angry / disappointing / exciting

response

PHRASAL VERBS

Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb.

1 The awful smell almost made me throw up / down.

2 The bus broke off / down on the way home. 3 I'll buy her some flowers to cheer her out / up. 4 He's split off / up from his girlfriend.

PATTERNS

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list.

arrive be break go hear work

1 He failed in his attempt the world record.

2 Do you fancy out later? 3 He's due in the next few minutes. 4 It was a relief that he was OK. 5 It's unlike him so quiet. 6 Howdoyoufind nights?

VOCABULARY BUILDER 9

TIME OFF

PACES 2 0 - 1

ancient if something is ancient, it is very, very old: we visited some - ruins / an - mosque I an - city / are you interested in - history?

bargain a bargain is something you buy at a much cheaper price than usuahyou can always find lots of ~s in the sales / that's only £30 - it's a real -

castle a castle is a big old building with strong walls that was built to protect the people inside and to give armies a safe place to stay: go and visit the old ~ / there's a ruined - on the hill

concentration camp a concentration camp is a set of buildings where lots of prisoners are kept and sometimes killed during wars: a Nazi - / thousands of people were sent to the ~s / millions died in the -s

decorated if something is decorated, it is made to look more beautiful. The verb is decorate and the noun is decoration: the church was beautifully -

for the special day / we all helped to decorate the Christmas tree I why don't we put up some party decorations?

desert a desert is a large area of dry land where there is very little water and very few plants or animals: not many animals can survive in the -/go trekking across the Sahara -1 be lost in the -

district a district is a part of a city or town: the main housing - of the city / the shop is in the old Jewish - / the financial - (where there are lots of banks and offices) / the main shopping - / a poor - of the city

guide a guide is someone whose job is to show tourists places and tell them about the places they are visiting.There is also an adjective guided: we were shown around by a tour - /you can hire a local - to show you the city / buy a good -book (a book with information about a place) /go on

10 OUTCOMES

a guided tour of the castle (a tour when a guide shows you around)

historic a historic place or building is old and important. Historic events are very important events that happened in the past and will be remembered in the future: the city has a lot of -buildings / an - town / visit all the - monuments / the peace agreement was an - event I an - day

location a location is the place where something is. The adjective is located: the hotel is in a beautiful - / the beach was a strange -for a wedding / the talks are taking place at a secret - / their offices are located in the city centre

medieval the medieval age in Europe was from around 1000 ad to 1500 ad: a - castle / the old -square in the town centre /studying - history /a -painting

mine a mine is a big hole in the ground where people digand bring upcoal.gold, salt, etc, from under the ground.The people who work in mines are miners. The industry is mining. Mine is also a verb: ancient salts/ it would be interesting to go down a - / most of the men here work in the -sla coal miner I a mining town / it's too expensive to mine for coal here

prayer prayer is the act of speaking to Cod. The verb is pray: we heard the call to - coming from the mosque / say a - / attend daily ~s / pray to Cod / pray for their safe return (ask God for this)

reject if you reject someone or something,you say you do not want them. The noun is rejection: they -ed our ideas /he -ed my offer I the company -ed my application / the fighting started again after the rejection of the peace plan

reopen if a place reopens, it becomes open to the public again after it has been closed for a while. The noun is reopening: they've just -ed the old cinema / the museum will - next month I they -ed the road last night / we were invited to the reopening of the restaurant

restore if you restore something, you repair it so that it is as good as it was in the past: they've been restoring the old palace for years /they~d the old mosque to its original condition I the church has been beautifully -d / - peace to the country after the war

rides in a theme park, the rides are the machines which move around and which you can go on for fun: they've got some great - there/goon all the - / there are some really scary - I he's too young to go on the -

ruins ruins are the parts of an old building that are still left after most of the building has been destroyed. The adjective is ruined: there are some Roman - near the city / visit some ancient - / wander round the - I the city was left in - after the war /an old ruined temple

temple a temple is a religious building for certain religions: a Buddhist/Hindu/Sikh -1 we visited the ancient ~s

WORD BUILDING: VERBS THAT START WITH RE

Sometimes when a verb starts with the letters re, this adds the meaning of'again'to the verb. For example, reopen means 'open again'. Here are some more examples:

rearrange rebuild redo remake remarry repaint replay resell rethink retake (an exam) reuse rewrite

However, with lots of verbs that start with re-there is no extra meaning of'again'. For example, restore does NOT mean 'to store again'- even though 'store' is also a verb. It just has a different meaning!

Also, with some verbs that start with re-,you can't take away the letters re to make another verb. For example, repeat is a verb - but 'peat' is not!

PAGES 2 2 - 3

average you calculate an average by adding two or more amounts together and then dividing by the total number of amounts: the - age of the people in the class is 18 / the European - wage / - house prices / she's about - height

charge if you charge someone,you ask them for money for something you have given them or done for them. Charge is also a noun: they -d us 20 euros for a salad / he -s £30 an hour /you can use the library free of - (without paying) / they offered us a bigger room at no extra -

compulsory if something is compulsory, the rules or laws say you have to do it: maths and English are - subjects at the school / some countries have -military service / -ID cards

damage if you damage something, you break it or harm it. Damage is also a noun: this crisis could -the economy / a lot of buildings were ~d by the storm / this story could - his reputation / the cinema suffered serious - in the pre

debate if people debate something, they discuss it in a serious, formal way before making a decision. Debate is also a noun: the government is debating whether to reduce taxes / this is a hotly ~d topic (a lot of people have discussed it angrily) / we need a public - on this subject / a heated - (in which people become angry)

entitlement your entitlement is your right to receive something.The verb is entitle:you have a legal -to 20 days'holiday a year / the ticket entitles you to

one free drink / everyone is entitled to free health care

fair If things are fair, everyone is treated well and treated in the same way: it's not - if some people get paid more than others /his lawyers are demanding a - trial / she wanted her - share of the money / a - price

highlight if you highlight something,you talk or write about it in a way that makes people notice it and tells them it is important: he wants to - the low number of public holidays / we need to - this problem / the report -s the need for action

link if one thing is linked to another, it is connected in some way. Link is also a noun: the lack of holidays has been - ed to people becoming ill from overworking / the two facts are closely -ed / doctors have established a - between diet and cancer / cultural and economic -s between the countries

luggage your luggage is the bags and suitcases you take with you when you go on holiday: Shall I carry your -for you? / we were scared of losing our - / heavy - /you're only allowed one piece of hand -

nightmare a nightmare is a bad dream or a very difficult and unpleasant situation: the holiday was a complete - / their dream of a new home turned into a- /1 still have -s about the accident

pour if you pour a liquid,you make it flow out of its container. If it pours with rain, it rains very heavily. You can also say that it pours down: shall I-you a drink? / it's going to - down tomorrow / it - ed with rain all day

raise if you raise an amount or a level,you increase it: the restaurant had to - its prices / this policy could -unemployment / - taxes

ripped off if you are ripped off, someone charges you too much or does not pay you enough. Rip off is also a verb and the noun is rip-off: workers are being - by the company / we got -by a taxi driver / the hotel tried to rip us off / I'm not paying that much - it's a total rip-off!

spoil if you spoil something, you damage it so that it is not as beautiful or enjoyable: the bad weather -ed the holiday / the new buildings will -the view / don't - the party

trade union a trade union is an organization that tries to get better pay and working conditions for workers: most of the workers belong to a - / they decided to set up a - / the - criticized the plan to close the factory / the - negotiated a pay rise

traffic jam if there is a traffic jam on a road, there is a line of cars that cannot move forwards: we were stuck in a - for hours / the accident caused a -

upset stomach if you have an upset stomach, your stomach hurts and you might be sick, usually because of something you have eaten: I've got a really bad -1 it might cause an - / have you got anything for an -?

VOCABULARY BUILDER 11

worth if something is worth doing, there is a good reason to do it: it's not - cleaning the floor, because it will just get dirty again /it's a film that is definitely -seeing / it may not work but it's -atry / the castle is well - a visit

PACES 2 4 - 5

blow when wind or air blows, it moves. The past tense is blew.The past participle is blown: my umbrella blew away / the wind blew the roof off the house /1 was nearly blown over

chilly if it is chilly.it is cold. The noun is chill. Chill can also be a verb: it's a bit - outside / the evenings are starting to get quite - / there's a slight chill in the air I put the wine in the fridge to chill (become cold)

clear up if something clears up, it becomes better. If you clear something up, you make it better: hopefully, the weather will - later / the infection should ~ in a day or two / we need to - the misunderstanding between us / we need to - this mess (make it tidy)

confirm if you confirm an arrangement, you say that it will definitely happen.The noun is confirmation: he phoned to - the date of the meeting / - the booking in writing / they sent me a letter of confirmation

drop if an amount or level drops, it goes down. Drop is also a noun: The temperature ~ped to minus ю'С/

prices have ~ped dramatically / there's been a - in student numbers /a 20 per cent - in profits

forecast a forecast is a statement about what people think is going to happen in the future, based on the evidence available: what's the weather -for tomorrow? / the -said it's going to snow tonight / a pessimistic economic - / next year's sales - s

humid if the weather is humid, it is very hot and there is a lot of water in the air. The noun is humidity: the afternoon was hot and - / a very -climate / can't stand the humidity /go per cent humidity

reach to reach a place or level means to get there: the temperature might - 36X tomorrow / we

finally -ed the top of the mountain / he -ed the age of 100

storm when there is a storm, lots of rain falls and there are strong winds.The adjective is stormy: there might be a- later / the plane crashed in a -/as we were driving home, a - broke (it started) / stormy weather / a stormy relationship (with a lot of arguing)

turn out the way something turns out is the way it develops or changes: the afternoon turned out really sunny / everything will -fine in the end

warm if something is warm, it is quite hot in a pleasant way. There is also a verb warm up: the weather was nice and - / it's much warmer today than it was yesterday / the warmest room in the house / I'm cold -1 need to - up a bit / shall I - the soup up? (make it hotter)

12 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES COLLOCATIONS

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 The hotel is a beautiful location. 2 You are entitled 20 days holiday a year. 3 There is a link diet and cancer. 4 We were stuck a traffic jam. 5 It is difficult to survive the desert. 6 I would hate to go amine. 7 They pray Cod every day. 8 He wanted to go all the rides. 9 The town was left ruins.

10 They charged us €20 a salad. 11 There has been a drop student numbers.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 decorate a room put up 2 a tourist guide go on a

tour 3 a beautiful location the hotel is

in the city centre 4 a salt mine the men work as

5 daily prayers for someone's safe return

6 some Roman ruins a temple 7 a legal entitlement this ticket

you to a free drink 8 a chilly day there was a slight

in the air 9 confirm the time send written

10 a humid day 90 per cent 11 a terrible storm weather

WORD-BUILDINC

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs.

J rebuild remarry repaint resell retake rewrite

1 If you fail your exam, you'll have to it.

2 We have to the doors every few years.

3 They had to the cinema after it burnt down.

4 If you find you don't need your tickets, you can always them.

5 He two years after his wife died. 6 My essay wasn't very good, so I had to

A Match the adjectives to the nouns. Look up the adjectives if you need help.

1 ancient a)event 2 a fair b)age

3 a compulsory c) ruins 4 the average d) relationship 5 a historic e) subject at school 6 a stormy f)trial

В Use the collocations to complete the missing nouns.

1 coal / salt m __e 2 a Buddhist/Hindu/Sikh t e 3 the weather/economic f t 4 a beautiful / strange / secret I n 5 do serious d e 6 turn into a complete n _ _ __e

С Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs from the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

blow reach reject reopen spoil

1 They the road last night. 2 Unfortunately, they our offer. 3 The wind the roof off the shed. 4 The temperature 40°C yesterday. 5 The bad weather our holiday.

D Match the sentence halves. Look up the verbs if you need help.

1 He thinks it's important a) the date of a to highlight meeting.

2 The government wants to raise b) the economy. 3 I think it's going to pour c) this problem. 4 I'll phone to confirm d) with rain. 5 This crisis could damage e) taxes.

E Which of the collocations do not go with the nouns?

1 have / cause/fall an upset stomach 2 find / come / be a bargain 3 be sent to / die in / send a concentration camp 4 set up / belong to / open a trade union 5 carry / make / lose/your luggage

PHRASAL VERBS

A Choose the correct phrasal verbs. 1 Some restaurants try to clear up / rip off their

customers. 2 It's going to pour down / turn out this afternoon. 3 Shall I turn out /warm up the soup? 4 The infection should clear up / pour down in a

few days. 5 Everything will rip off I turn out fine in the end.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 13

INTERESTS

PACES 2 6 - 7

backwards if you move backwards, you move in the direction that is behind you. If you do something backwards,you do it in the opposite way to normal: he fell - /it's hard to skate - / have your T-shirt on ~ (with the front part at the back)

complicated if something is complicated, it is difficult to do or understand because it has a lot of different parts: we learnt some ~ dance moves / chess is a - game / it's a very - situation

court the court is the area of hard ground where you play some sports: a tennis ~ / a basketball -

defence the defence is the group of players who stop the other team scoring in a game. The verb is defend, and the players are defenders: Joe is quite good in ~ /she usually plays in - / the team has a strong - / it's important to defend well / he's an excellent defender

kick if you kick something,you hit it with your foot. Kick is also a noun: / can't even - the ball in a straight line / they ~ed and punched him / they tried to - the door in / give it a -I

move a move is a change of position in a sport such as a martial art: / can do the basic ~s / I'd like to learn some more advanced ~s / that's a difficult - / she watched his every -

net the net is the thing in tennis that you hit the ball over. It is also the material at the back of a goal in football: I always hit the ball into the - /he managed to get the ball over the - / Federer's very good at the - (when he stands close to the net) / the crowd cheered when he kicked the ball into the back of the -

rubbish if you are rubbish at something,you are very bad at it. You can also say that something is rubbish if it is very bad or stupid: I'm - at football / he's - with computers /this film's - / he's talking - / that's -I

score if you score, you get a point or a goal in a game. The score is how many points or goals each team has: / -d a goal / Casol -d 23 points / Arsenal -d in the last minute / What's the ~? / the final - was 3-0

shoot if you shoot in football and other sports, you try to put the ball in the net. The past tense is shot. The noun is also shot: if you get near the goal, just -I / I'm useless at -ing / that was a great shot!

straight if something is straight, it does not bend or curve: stand in a - line /1 can't kick the ball - / keep your back -/sit up - (with your back straight)

useless if you are useless, you are very bad at something. If something is useless, it is not good or useful: I'm - at shooting / he's - at tennis /the course was - / the machine doesn't work - it's -

PACES 2 8 - 9

autograph if a famous person gives you their autograph, they sign their name for you: the fans were waiting to get his - / someone asked me for my ~

balance your balance is your ability to stay steady and not fall over. If you are off balance, your body is more on one side and you may fall: it's difficult to keep your - sometimes /you need good - to do judo /she lost her ~ and fell / my opponent threw me off-

big-headed if someone is big-headed, they think they are better than other people: people will think you're - if you keep saying how good you are / he's very - / don't be so -I

bloody if something is bloody, it is covered in blood. When your body bleeds, blood comes out of it: he gave me a - nose / there were - battles on the streets /your nose is bleeding / his head was bleeding badly

boast if you boast,you tell other people that you are very good at something or you have very nice or expensive things: he's always -ing about how good he is / he was -ing that he'd never failed an exam / she was -ing because her parents had just bought her a new car

bully if someone bullies you, they hurt you or laugh at you because you are different from them. Someone who does this is a bully: the big kids used to - me / she was bullied for wearing glasses / some kids get bullied for being clever / there's a lot of-ing in the school, he's a horrible -I

course a course is a large area of land or water for races or games: a race - (for horse racing) / a golf -

fit if you are fit, you are healthy and can do exercise without getting tired.The opposite is unfit.The noun is fitness: I'm going running everyday to get - / how do you keep so-? / they're worried he won't be -for the match on Saturday /1 need to improve my fitness

WORD BUILDING - NEGATIVES

You can add un- to lots of adjectives to mean not, for example unfit. unable: sorry I'm - to help / he's - to read unacceptable: - behaviour / the proposal is -uncomfortable: these shoes are really - /an -chair unexpected: the win was quite -/an - defeat / an - visit unfair: that's -I /an - decision / it gives them an -advantage unfit: I'm so -I / too - to play in the match unfortunate: it was an - accident / an - mistake unfriendly: she's very - /an - atmosphere unhappy: he's very - in his job/an - childhood unhealthy: he looks - / have an - lifestyle uninspiring: an - speech / an - leader unlikely: it's - to happen / it's extremely - he'll win unlucky: they were - to lose / we were - with the bad weather

unnecessary: there was an - delay / cause -suffering to animals unpleasant: it was an - experience / an - smell / an - child unpopular: the president is very - /an - decision / an - policy unreliable: he's very - / the bus service is quite -unsuccessful: the plan was -/an - advertising campaign unsuitable: those shoes are -for climbing unsure: I'm - what to do untidy: he's really - / her room's so -unusual: it's - weather for winter/it's - for him not too phone

get on how someone gets on is how successful they are: how did you - in the competition? / we didn't -very well (we weren't very successful)

helmet a helmet is a hard hat that you wear to protect your head: a cycle - /you should always wear a - /put your - on /take off your-

injury if you have an injury, you hurt a part of your body. The verb is injure. The adjective is injured: he's got a leg - / a serious - / he was badly injured in an accident /she has an injured foot

persuade if you persuade someone to do something, you talk to them and give reasons so that they agree to do it: her teachers ~d her to start doing judo /1 tried to - him to change his mind / we managed to - him

plaster if you have a part of your body in plaster, it is covered with a hard substance to protect a broken bone and stop it moving: she's got her arm in - /

his leg was in - for 6 weeks / when are they going to take the - off?

properly if you do something properly, you do it correctly:you should always warm up - before a game /you need to know how to fall - / the machine isn't working - 1 he's not - trained

pull a muscle if you pull a muscle, you injure it by stretching it too much: / pulled a muscle in my leg / I've pulled my hamstring (the muscle at the top of the leg) / she pulled her calf muscle (the muscle at the bottom of leg)

season the seasons are the different times of the year. In sport, a season is the time of year when a sport is played: when does the football - start? / the end of the tennis - / summer is my favourite -

semi-final the semi-final is the game before the final in a competition. Before the semi-final, there is the quarter-final: they lost in the - / he won his ~, so he's in the final next week / we got through to the - / they reached the -

skating skating is the sport of moving over ice on shoes with metal blades on the bottom.The shoes are called skates: we went - last weekend/she's really good at - /1 need to buy some new ~s.

slip if you slip, your foot moves accidentally and you lose your balance or fall. You usually slip when the ground is wet.The adjective is slippery: / -ped on the ice / she -ped and fell / it's a bit muddy - be careful you don't - / the ground's very slippery /the roads were very slippery

stiff if something is stiff, it is hard and difficult to move. If your muscles are stiff, they hurt because you have used them too much: my legs are - /1 feel a bit -1 I've got a - neck I the window is a bit - (it won't open easily)

strength strength is the noun from strong: this sport is a real test of- / use your - / I've lost - in my arm after the injury / build up your - / improve your -and fitness

take advantage if you take advantage of something, you use it to get what you want, sometimes unfairly: he took advantage of his opponent's injury / - of the situation /-of an opportunity / they took advantage of the defender's mistake and scored

technique a technique is a special way of doing something: he taught me some new -s/ it's always good to learn new ~s

train if you train for a sport,you do exercises and practice to become fitter and better.The activity is training: how often do you have to -? / he -s hard every day / we - a lot / I'm -ing for a marathon / a training session

tournament a tournament is a competition with several rounds and matches, which continue until there are just two teams or players in the final: he won a judo - /a tennis - / they got knocked out of the - in the first round

14 OUTCOMES VOCABULARY BUILDER 15

warm up when you warm up, you move your body gently so that you are ready to start a sport. Warm-up is a noun: it's important to - properly before a match / we did а ю minute warm-up

weights weights are heavy metal objects that people lift in order to strengthen their muscles: he does ~s in the gym (he lifts them) /you should try lifting -s to build up your strength /a ю-kilo - / a ~s machine

PAGES 3 0 - 1

background: when something is in the background, it is behind other things so you do not notice it very much: they had music on in the - / the radio was on in the -1 there are mountains in the - of the painting / there was a lot of- noise

challenge a challenge is something difficult which you want to try and do. The adjective is challenging: climbing this mountain will be a real - / we want to set our readers a - /my job's become boring -1 need a new - / do you enjoy a ~? I teachers have to provide a - for their students / it's a very challenging job

download if you download something.you take it from the Internet and put it on your computer. The opposite is upload or post: to - music /1 -ed

a great song /you can - movies from the website / you can go to their website and - updates for the software

funeral a funeral is the ceremony you have after someone has died: over 200 people attended his - / I wanted to go to the - / he chose the music he'd like played at his- / it was a very moving -

jump if you jump, you move very quickly or suddenly, often because you are surprised: / -ed out of bed when I heard the alarm / everyone -ed up and started dancing / he -ed in the car and drove off / I -ed when I heard the door bang I you made me ~! (you frightened me)

ring-tone the ring-tone is the sound a mobile phone makes when it rings: / like your - /an annoying - / I downloaded a - onto my mobile /1 need to change the - on my phone

set if you set a challenge or something similar, you give it to someone to do: we want to - our readers a challenge / the teacher always -s us too much homework /she-an essay for next week /the company always ~s high sales targets

suit if something suits a person or a situation, it is convenient or suitable. If a piece of clothing suits you, it makes you look good: this musics my mood / the time of the class doesn't -me / working part-time s my lifestyle I that jacket doesn't - him / that new hairstyle really s her

16 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES 3 I can't wear those shoes - they're too

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 He usually plays defence. 2 I'm rubbish football! 3 He's useless tennis. 4 He always boasts how good he is. 5 She's got her leg plaster. 6 He took advantage his opponent's injury. 7 The picture had some mountains the

background. 8 You can download music this website.

4 It's if some people get more money than others.

5 It's very to have snow in the summer.

6 I can't play football - I'm too

COLLOCATIONS

A Match the two halves of the collocations. 1 a basketball a) helmet 2 a race b) pitch 3 a cycle c) court 4 a football d) course

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 a strong defence he's a good 2 Just shoot! a good 3 he'sveryfit improveyour 4 a serious injury she was in

an accident 5 mind you don't slip the roads are 6 he's very strong improveyour 7 train for a sport do a session 8 it's a real challenge a job

В Tick the words which are both a noun and a verb.

1 kick 2 score 3 shoot 4 bat 5 course 6 bully

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with a negative form of the correct adjective.

able comfortable fair fit reliable usual

1 The bus is always breaking down - the service is very

2 I'm sorry, but I'm to come to the meal on Saturday.

В Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

download persuade pull score set suit train

1 He a goal in the last minute of the game.

2 Oh, no! I think I've a muscle. 3 You'll have to hard if you want to

get into the team. 4 It doesn't cost much to music

from the Internet. 5 Our teacher wants to us a

challenge. 6 Working from home my lifestyle. 7 She me to try tennis.

С Choose the correct verb to go with each noun. Look up the nouns if you need help.

1 make /do weights 2 tootfend/possafuneral 3 to have/keepyour balance 4 to reach/arrive the semi-final 5 to build up /make up your strength 6 to have /suffer уош arm in plaster

D Complete the missing adjectives. 1 Baseball has a lot of rules - it's quite a

c__ __dgame. 2 I'll never get into the team - I'm r__ __hat

sport! 3 They all stood in a s _ _ _ _ t line to have

their photo taken. 4 He's always telling me how good he is at

tennis - he's so b__-h d! 5 My legs are sos f, I can hardly walk! 6 He punched me and gave me a b у

nose.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 17

WORKING LIFE

PACES 3 6 - 7

accountant an accountant is someone whose job is to organize financial records for a company or a person. The noun is accounts. The subject you study is accountancy: he's an - for a big law firm /1 need to talk to my - / my - sorts out all my finances /she helped me do my accounts / work in the accounts department /he wants to study accountancy

bonus a bonus is extra money you get from your boss because you have worked hard or done well: all the staff get an end-ofyear - / I'll get a - if I meet all my sales targets / a Christmas -

civil servant a civil servant is someone who works for a government department. All the people and departments together are called the civil service: she's a - / a senior - (with a high rank)/get a job in the civil service / apply for the civil service (apply to work there)

competitive if an industry is competitive, everyone in it is trying hard to do better than everyone else. The noun is competition.The verb is compete: advertising is a very - industry / a very - market / there's a lot of competition for jobs / the company faces competition from abroad / small companies find it hard to compete in the market

contract a contract is a formal legal agreement between two groups. It says what one or both of the two sides has to do. Contract is also a verb: he's only got a temporary job - / get a permanent - / the company won a big sales - / sign the -/ifwe delay, we could lose the whole - / we're -ed to work 37 hours a week

deadline the deadline is the time or date by which something has to be done: when's the -for this work? / we have to meet this - / they're working to a very tight - (with very little time) / / don't want to miss the -

18 OUTCOMES

delivery delivery is the act of taking things such as goods or letters to a place. The verb is deliver: we'll get the order ready for - / they pack all the orders for - / we make daily deliveries / send it by express -(very quick) / we can deliver direct to your door

demanding if a situation or a person is demanding, they need a lot of your time, attention and energy. The noun is demand. Demand is also a verb: a physically - job / my boss is very - /a very - child / children make a lot of demands on your time / they are demanding a pay rise

engineer an engineer is someone whose job is to design or make machines, electrical equipment, roads, bridges, railways, etc. The subject you study is engineering: he's an electrical - / a mechanical - /a software - (who makes new software for computers)/a civil - (who designs roads, bridges etc) / do a degree in engineering / she works for an engineering company

finances your finances are the amount of money you have. The adjective is financial: / need to sort out my personal - /he deals with the company's - / their - are in a mess / he's got financial problems / the end of the financial year

form a form is an official document that has spaces for you to add information:/?// in a -/ complete the - / an application - / send the - off

in charge if you are in charge,you control something or are responsible for it: be - of the whole department / she's - of 30 sales reps / he was put -of the team / who's - here?

insecure if something is insecure, it is not safe or protected.The noun is insecurity: his job is very -(he could lose it) / the workers face an - future /

financial insecurity / growing economic insecurity

involved in if you are involved in an event or an activity, you take part in it: they were - designing the software / he was mainly - planning the advertising campaigns /I'm not - that project / get - crime

permanent if something is permanent, it lasts for a long time or forever: he's looking for a - job /a mixture of - and temporary staff / after 3 months, they offered her a - contract / cause - damage

recruit if you recruit people for a company or an organization,you persuade them to join.The noun is recruitment: - people for the company I -volunteers / be -ed into the army / a recruitment agency (which helps to recruit people for jobs) / the industry is facing a recruitment crisis

responsibility your responsibilities are the things you have to deal with.The adjective is responsible: the directors have a lot of - / she doesn't have much - / a position of - (a job with a lot of responsibility) / refuse to accept -for the problem / be responsible for packing all the orders /you will be financially responsible for any damage

research research is the study of something in order to find out more about it. Research is also a verb. A person who does this is a researcher: he works in -and development / we need to do more - into the subject / carry out market - / a very well -ed piece of work / a TV researcher

rewarding if something is rewarding, doing it gives you pleasure, or brings you money or satisfaction. The verb is reward. Reward is also a noun: a very-job / it's financially - / emotionally - /a very -experience / they will be generously rewarded / a reward for all your hard work

supportive if people are supportive, they help you and understand your situation. The verb is support. Support is also a noun: my colleagues are very - / I've got a - boss / we'll support you whatever you decide to do / his parents offered him financial support

temporary if something is temporary, it only lasts for a limited period of time: a - job/a - contract /-workers I living in - accommodation /a- address

training if you get training at work.you are taught how to do a job. The verb is train: give workers the - they need /you will get on-the-job -/go on a - course /receive - /train staff to deal with problems / she wants to train to be a police officer

varied if something is varied, it changes a lot or it consists of lots of different kinds of things. The verb is vary. The noun is variety: the work is interesting and very - /' a very - group of people / a - range of products / prices vary quite a lot / they offer a wide variety of courses

warehouse a warehouse is a large building where goods are kept before they are sold or moved to shops: he works in a - /a big furniture - / pick up the goods from the -

PACES 3 8 - 9

ID card ID stands for identity. ID cards are official cards that prove who you аге-.you have to show your - to get into the building / have to carry - at all times /сап I see your -, please?

notice if you give someone notice about something, you warn them that it is going to happen in the future:you have to give a month's - if you want to leave/hand in your - at work (say you are going to leave) / he asked me to do it at short notice (without much warning)

order an order is a request to make, supply or deliver something. Order is also a verb: we need to complete this - by Saturday (get it ready to deliver to someone) / they were late with my - / their job is to pack all the ~s I get the ~s ready for delivery / phone to place an - / we could - a new one for you

perform if you perform, you entertain a group of people by acting, singing, dancing, etc.The noun

is performance.The people who do this are performers: my son's - ing in a school concert / she writes and -s her own music /the play was first -ed in 1854 / she gave a brilliant performance / he's a great performer

photocopy a photocopy is a piece of paper that has been copied from another piece of paper by a machine. Photocopy is also a verb.The machine is a photocopier.The noun is photocopying: I'll make a - for you / we can run off a few quick -ies / send a - of your passport / I'll photocopy the contract and send it to you / the photocopier is out of order / who does the photocopying in the office?

MACHINE-RELATED VERBS

We often make verbs from the names of machines, especially to talk about ways of sending information. For example, we photocopy things, or make photocopies, using a photocopier

In the same way, we can use a fax machine to fax things, or fax them over, to people; we can phone people using our telephones or mobiles; we can email people and we can even text them or SMS them.

PACES 4 0 - 1

abuse abuse is violent or unfair treatment of a person, especially by someone stronger. Abuse is also a verb: she gets a lot of-from her boss / children who suffer -/ sexual/physical - /the country is accused of human rights - s Ia victim of - / she was emotionally abused at work

bend if you bend something, you make it folded and not straight. Bend is also a noun.The adjective is bent: a strong metal that won't - easily / the job involves -ing over a lot and lifting heavy objects I she bent down and picked up the letter / -your arm / there's a sharp - in the road / the wheel got bent out of shape

body a body is a dead person: they found a - in the lake / chemicals that are used to preserve dead bodies / the police are still examining the -

conditions conditions are the situation or place in which something happens: they work in terrible - / the workers are demanding better working - / - in coal mines have improved a lot / they have to put up with poor living - / driving -are poor

cramped if a place is cramped, there is not enough space: the office is a bit -/we work in - conditions / a-flat

dust dust is the very small pieces of dry dirt that cover surfaces. Dust is also a verb. The adjective is

VOCABULARY BUILDER 19

dusty: wear a mask if there is a lot of- / workers who are exposed to - f the floor was covered in - / a layer of - / clouds of- /you need to - those shelves /the road was hot and dusty

endlessly if something happens endlessly, it seems as if it never finishes.The adjective is endless: she was tired of- cleaning and polishing the shoes of the rich / it rained - / he talks - about football / they have endless arguments

expose if you expose somebody to something,you make it possible that something harmful or dangerous will happen to them: the workers were -d to dangerous chemicals /you mustn't - them to danger / a lot of children are still-dto cigarette smoke

grateful if you feel grateful to someone,you are glad that they have helped you or given you something. The adverb is gratefully: the families are very -for the work I've done / I'm - for all your help / I'd be very - if you could phone me / all suggestions will be gratefully received

handle if you handle something, you touch it or move it:you shouldn't - rotting meat / nurses often have to - dirty nappies / Fragile - - with care!

lift if you lift something, or lift it up, you move it to a higher place.The noun is lifting: he has to - heavy objects / - me up so I can see/go to the gym to -weights / don't do any lifting or you'll hurt your back

mean if someone is mean, they are not willing to spend any of their money or they are unkind or cruel: he's very - with money / she's too - to buy a new one / that was a - thing to say / don't be - to your little sister

nappy a nappy is the white cloth a baby wears around its middle: nurses often have to handle dirty nappies I change the baby's -la bag of disposable nappies

preserve if you preserve something,you keep it fresh, or to stop it from being destroyed. The noun is preservation: chemicals that help to - dead bodies /the need to - historic buildings / different ways of preserving fruit / preservation of the environment/food preservation

put up with if you put up with something unpleasant, you accept it or tolerate it:factory workers have to - high levels of noise / they have to - cramped living conditions /1 won't - any bad behaviour /1 don't know how you - him!

relatively if something is relatively good, it is good when compared to similar things. The adjective is relative: a - quick and easy way of earning money / it's - easy to find / their furniture is -cheap /he did - well in the exam / a period of relative stability

risk if you risk something,you put it in a situation where it might be damaged or destroyed. Risk is also a noun.The adjective is risky: I don't want to - my life / if you go too close,you - catching the disease / he has -ed everything he owns /young drivers often take ~s / it's risky to invest all your money in shares / oil exploration is a risky business

rot if something rots, it decays as a result of slow natural processes.The adjective is rotten: sugars your teeth /the wood had all -ted / rotten eggs / rotten meat

side effects side effects are unpleasant and unplanned effects of a medicine: they test new drugs for - such as vomiting or headaches I some patients suffer - / the drug causes some nasty - / these drugs can have serious -

slam if you slam something,you hit it hard against a hard surface: she -med down the phone I he -med the door in my face / the bus -med into the back of a car / he -med his fist down on the table

stare if you stare at something,you look at it for a long time: I don't want to - at a computer all day / it's rude to - at people /she was staring into space / I couldn't stop staring at her

straight away if you do something straight away, you do it immediately: I'll phone him - /1 have to leave-/ I'll do it -

swear if you swear, you use rude or offensive words. The past tense is swore.The past participle is sworn: sometimes customers shout and - /he started to - at me/don't - in front of the children / I never use - words at work

wage your wage is the money you get for your job each day, week or month: he earns a good - / they pay him the minimum - (the lowest wage allowed by law) / they get a bit more than the average - / they are protesting about low ~s / an hourly/daily/ weekly -

20 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 He's got a job the civil service. 2 She's very mean her money. 3 Her parents make a lot of demands her time. 4 Who is in charge the warehouse? 5 She was involved organizing the event. 6 The deadline the work is Friday. 7 Who is responsible this problem? 8 There is a variety courses to choose from.

В Choose the correct preposition. 1 She works in/on a warehouse. 2 Can you do this in / at short notice? 3 The miners work for / in terrible conditions. 4 Farm workers are often exposed to/at

dangerous chemicals. 5 We're very grateful/or/ to all you've done. 6 Why is he always so mean with / to me? 7 You shouldn't put up with /for these terrible

working conditions. 8 Why are you staring at / to me?

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 it's ready for delivery we can on Friday

2 it's your responsibility who is ? 3 receive training new

staff 4 varied work a of

different courses 5 perform on stage she's a great

6 risk your life a job

В Complete the sentences with the correct nouns from the words in brackets.

1 They face a period of financial (insecure)

2 There's a lot of forjobsatthe moment, (competitive)

3 Hegetsalotof from his family. (supportive)

4 He got the job through a agency. (recruit)

5 She received a of£iooofor finding the money, (rewarding)

6 I can't make a copy because the has broken.(photocopy)

С Write the jobs from these words. 1 accountancy an 2 civil service a.. 3 engineering an 4 research a..

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

slam expose handle perform

preserve swear

1 on the stage 2 someone to danger 3 with care 4 historic buildings 5 the door 6 shout and

В Match the nouns to the verbs. Look up the nouns (a-d) if you need help.

1 sign a) an order with a company 2 meet b) a contract 3 carry out c) a deadline 4 place d) research

С Choose the correct verb to go with each noun. Look up the nouns if you need help.

1 get/doa bonus 2 fill in / write a form 3 get /make training 4 carry / wear an ID card 5 do/give notice to quit your job 6 gain / earn a wage

D Which TWO adjectives do not collocate with job!

cramped demanding insecure permanent rewarding supportive temporary

PATTERNS

A Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (to +infinitive or -ing)

1 He's contracted 35 hours a week. (work)

2 Were you involved in the product? (design)

3 Who is responsible for the office? (clean)

4 He's training a teacher, (be) 5 I don't want to risk myjob. (lose)

VOCABULARY BUILDER 21

GOING SHOPPING

PAGES 4 2 - 3

avoid if you avoid something,you try not to do it or experience it: try to ~ repeating words when you write / / managed to - the rush hour /1 think Sam is -ing me (trying to avoid speaking to me)

carve if you carve wood or stone,you make a design in it by cutting it,The adjective is carved.The noun is carving: visitors like to - their names in the wood / a beautiful ~d wooden mask / some lovely carvings on the front of the building

china china is a special kind of clay used to make plates, cups, etc: a lovelyhand-painted - plate /the cups are all made of - / a - ornament

clay clay is a kind of soil which becomes very hard when it is dried and heated. It is used to make bowls, pots, etc: a lovely - pot / it's made of - / a small -figure I heavy - soil / play tennis on a-court

cute in British English, something which is cute is small and attractive, in a slightly childish way. In American English, it can also mean someone is good-looking: what a - little dog/she's so -

gorgeous something that is gorgeous looks beautiful or tastes delicious: о - silk rug / they have a -house / he's-1 this ice cream is - / what a - day!

hang if you hang something somewhere,you put it so that it is held at the top, and the bottom doesn't touch the ground: - your jacket on the back of the door / - your clothes in the wardrobe/-(up) a painting / - up your coat

insult if you insult someone, you say something rude to them or about them.The noun is insult: he -ed me several times / they're -ing us by offering so little money / how dare you - me! / they shouted insults at us

last if something lasts, it continues for a long time: the battery ~s quite a long time / those cars -

forever / he was being nice to me, but I knew it wouldn't -

mass mass means that there is a lot of something. It is used as a prefix, and as an adjective and noun: --producedcars (produced in large numbers) / they make clothes for the - market (to be sold in large numbers)/a - protest by students / he was accused of- murder / a period of - unemployment / there's masses of food left over

match if you match something,you find something which is equal or similar: we'll - their price (make our price the same as theirs) / the company has -ed the sales it made last year (achieved the same amount) /the blood they found at the murder ~es his / those trousers don't -your jacket

offer if you make an offer, you suggest a price or deal: that's my final - / he made a good -for the house / the shoes were on special - (at a cheaper price)

package a package is a combination of several things that are offered to you together for one price or as part of one deal: a special - that is offered to new employees / I've bought a whole software - / a -holiday (travel and accommodation are included in the price)

pot a pot is a container that is used for cooking, keeping food, or growing plants in: a clay -for cooking / a cupboard for -s and pans /a- of jam / a tea - / a flower -

room if there is room for something, there is enough space for it: there's - for 200 people / is there - in the car for me? / there isn't much - to dance / can you make -for us to sit down? / there's plenty of-over here / a large sofa would take up too much -

rug a rug is a carpet which covers only part of the floor, or a thick blanket you can sit on: a hand-woven - /a - in front of the fire / lie on a - on the

floor / spread a - on the grass to sit on

store if you store something, you keep it somewhere when you are not using it. The noun is storage: the answerphone can - 500 messages / a music player that can - up to 10,000 songs /1 ~d some of my old books in the garage / the goods are ~d in a warehouse / there's not much storage space

tacky something that is tacky looks cheap and unfashionable: a - plastic hat /it looks a bit - /a shop selling - souvenirs

silk silk is a fine, smooth, natural material which is produced by an insect called a silkworm. It is usually expensive: a beautiful - scarf / a dress made of- / it's made of pure -

uneven if something is uneven, it is not the same level, size, colour, quality, etc, across all its parts. The adverb is unevenly: the colour on the walls is a bit - / the floor's - / the teams are - / the grass is very - / the economy has grown unevenly

upgrade when you upgrade something, you get a better or more recent form of the same thing. Upgrade is also a noun: / need to - my computer I

the airline -d me to first class /1 downloaded an-from the Internet

woven a material that is woven is made from threads that are crossed over and under each other.The verb is weave: a hand-- rug /a - basket / the women weave cloth to sell / a weaving machine

PAGES 4 4 - 5

afford if you can afford something,you have enough money to buy it. If you can afford the time for something,you have enough time to do it: she can't - a new car / I can't - to buy aflat /1 can't -to take time off work /1 couldn't - to live in London /1 can only just - to pay the rent

brand a brand is the name a company gives to its product: he only buys designer ~s / a famous - /a new - of washing powder / they want to improve the - image

bright bright colours are light and strong, not dark. If a room or house is bright, a lot of light comes in: she wears a lot of- colours / the kitchen is lovely and - /she's got - blue eyes / a - light /the sun's very -

chain a chain is a set of metal rings, joined together in a line. You can wear a small chain as a decoration: she was wearing a delicate silver -round her neck / a heavy gold - /the-on a bicycle / the prisoners were kept in ~s (tied up with chains)

do without if you do without something, you do not buy it or use it even though you would like it: we had to - holidays because we couldn't afford them /1 can't - my mobile /1 can't - 8 hours sleep a night /the team s going to have to - its star player

exception an exception is a person or thing that is different from others: usually it's cold in December, but this year was an - / there are some -s to this rule / we're all going out - with the - of Tim (he is not going) / we don't usually allow days off, but I'll make an - in your case / he goes for a bike ride every day, without -

fit if something fits, it is the right size. Fit is also a noun: the shirt doesn't - me/ it -s perfectly / we can't all - in the car/the sofa won't - through the door /1 like this jumper, and it's a good - /we can all get in, but it's a tight - (there isn't much room)

heel the heel is the bottom of a shoe at the back. Your heel is the back part of your foot: wear shoes with high ~s / my - was rubbing on the shoe / my~'s sore

label the label on something you buy is the part that has the name of the brand and other information on it. If you label something,you put a label on it: he'll only buy something if it's got a designer - / the washing instructions are on the - / check the -before you wash something / the -s sticking out on your T-shirt /-your suitcase with your name

mall a mall is a very large building containing lots of different shops. In Britain, it is often called a shopping centre: we usually shop in a out-of-town shopping - / the kids hang out in the -

outfit an outfit is a set of clothes that you wear together: / need to buy a new -for the wedding / that's a nice -

out of business if a shop or company goes out of business, it has to close because it is not making any money: a lot of small shops are going - / this could put us - / we risk going -

OUT

Prepositions like out can have different meanings when used in different expressions, but there are often one or two important meanings. For example, out often means no longer in a place or situation:

be out of business: no longer doing business be out of power: no longer in a position of power be out of fashion: no longer fashionable be out of the game: no longer playing because you have lost or been injured be out of date: no longer relevant, modern or fashionable be out of danger: no longer in a dangerous situation be out of trouble: no longer in a bad situation

i be out of hospital: no longer in hospital drop out of university: stop doing a course at university

be thrown out of the class: be asked to leave the class have a tooth out: have a tooth removed be knocked out in the semi-final: to lose the semi-final and so be no longer in the competition

overdraft an overdraft is a debt you have at a bank when you have spent more than you have in your account.The adjective is overdrawn: / have a €200 - / I've gone into my - at the bank / he's got a big - / I'm overdrawn at the bank

owe if you owe money to someone, you have borrowed money from them and have not paid it back yet: / - €JOOO on my credit card / Tom ~s me £10 / how much do I-you?/1 - him a favour (he did me a favour so I must do one for him)

plain something that is plain is simple, with no extra parts or decoration: 0 - blue shirt /a - suit /the

food was quite - / use - language retail retail is anything to do with shops and selling

goods to customers: / work in - / the - industry /

22 OUTCOMES VOCABULARY BUILDER 2B

the - price (the price something is usually sold for in the shops) // think I need some - therapy (shopping to make you feel more cheerful)

scruffy if someone looks scruffy, they are untidy: he looks - / a —looking guy / wear - jeans /a - old shirt / - hair

shop around if you shop around,you go to several places to find the best price before you buy something: it's a good idea to - before you buy / - to find the best price / -for a bargain

smart if you look smart,you look tidy and wear quite formal clothes. The opposite is casual: it's important to look -for an interview / you're very - - are you going somewhere special' I wear something -

sales the sales are when shops sell a lot of things cheaper than normal for a few weeks: /got this coat in the - / the - are on at the moment / when do the - start? / wait for the - before you buy

second-hand if something is second-hand, another person has had it before you:you can buy fridges - / get a - car /a - clothes shop

tag a tag is a piece of paper or plastic that is fixed to something to give information about it. Sometimes people wear a name tag with their name on: can you see the price ~? Ithe shop assistants were all wearing name -s

tight if clothes are tight, they fit close to your body: - jeans /a - skirt / this jacket's too - /do the shoes feel -?

thick something that is thick is not thin. Someone who is thick is stupid: he was wearing a - coat / a - woolly jumper /a- book /the wall's are very - / she's got lovely - hair / Why can't you just do it? Areyou -?

top a top is a piece of clothing that you wear over on the top part of your body: she's bought a new - / a tracksuit - /that - matches your skirt

trendy something which is trendy is very fashionable. A trend is also a fashion: he looks quite - / wear -clothes I'go to a - bar I high heels are quite - at the moment / this hair style is the latest trend

PACES 4 6 - 7

diet your diet is the food that you eat. If you go on a diet,you eat less food because you want to lose weight: we have quite a healthy - 1 eat a balanced - /you should improveyour - / don't offer me chocolates - I'm on a - at the moment / a low-fat - /he's on a special - because of a heart condition

fake something fake is not real. Fake is also a verb: the painting looked like a - / a - €20 note /use a - passport /give - ID/he ~d his own death

ferry a ferry is a large boat that transports people or cars across a river or sea. Ferry is also a verb: we can take the - to France / we went on a - across the lake / we were late and missed the - / the - was delayed because of rough seas / the - sank

fortune a fortune is a very large amount of money: It's a lovely ring, but it costs a - / she earns a - / their house is worth a - I he made a- on the stock exchange / he lost a - / she spends a - on clothes

gig a g ig ' s 3 concert of rock or pop music: I've got some tickets for a-on Saturday / a Rolling Stones - / go to a - / a great - / what time does the -finish?

hang around if you hang around, you stay somewhere waiting or doing nothing: we had to -outside the stadium, to see if we could get tickets /1 can't -for long / there was a lot of hanging around

helping a helping is a portion of food that you serve: she gave me a huge - of potatoes / would you like another-? / have a second - / that's your third-I

queue a queue is a line of people waiting to do something.The verb is queue (up): there was an enormous - outside the cinema / wait in the -for hours / be at the front of the- / is this the end of the ~? / theyjumped the - (they went straight to the front of the queue) / we had to queue up for tickets

venue a venue is a place where there is a concert, party or similar event: the club is a good -for parties / the castle is sometimes used as a - for weddings / what was the - like?

24 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES COLLOCATIONS

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 She carved a flower the wood. 2 The plates are made china. 3 Which brand soap do you buy? 4 I bought this the sales.

В Choose the correct preposition. 1 It says what size it is in /on the label. 2 He works in / at retail. 3 I like to shop around with /for bargains. 4 The sales are in/on at the moment.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 store some old books need more space

2 an uneven floor paint something

3 an overdraft at the bank be at the bank

4 a trendy bar it's the latest in

hairstyles

В Tick the words which are both a noun and a verb.

1 afford 2 label 3 fake 4 g'g 5 queue 6 venue

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with the words in the list.

danger date fashion university

1 Long hair was popular a few years ago, but it's out of. now.

2 They knew they were out of when they saw the rescue helicopter.

3 You can't use this passport - it's out of 4 She wasn't enjoying her course, so she

dropped out of

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list.

J fit last match store upgrade

1 How long will the batteries ? 2 They said they would the other

company's price. 3 You can thousands of songs on

some music players. 4 My computer's quite old -1 need to

it. 5 She bought me a jumper, but it doesn't

me.

В Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 shoes with high h s 2 a designer I I 3 a shopping m _ _ I 4 a tracksuit t _ p 5 a healthyd__t

С Choose the correct verbs to complete the collocations. Look up the nouns if you need help.

1 He gave /made an offer for the house. 2 The company got / went out of business last

year. 3 You should make I eat a balanced diet 4 Do you have / own an overdraft at the bank? 5 We had to go / wait in the queue for hours.

D Match the adjectives with the nouns. Look up the adjectives if you need help.

1 a beautiful silk a) little dog 2 a shop selling tacky b) dress 3 acute c)souvenirs 4 lots of bright d) colours 5 a thick e) woolly jumper

PHRASAL VERBS

A Choose the correct phrasal verb. 1 Would you like to hang up /hang around your

coat? 2 It's best to shop around / do without to find

the best price. 3 We had to hang up / hang around for ages,

waiting for him. 4 I hope we don't have to do without / queue up

for tickets.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 25

SCHOOL AND STUDYING

PACES 4 8 - 9

cope if you cope, you deal successfully with a difficult situation: He found it hard to - after his wife died / I can't - with the workload /she seems to be coping with the stress very well / he can't - with the pressure

core the core of something is the basic and most important part of it: English, maths and science are the - subjects /you have to study five - modules / their - beliefs / learn - skills

debt a debt is an amount of money that you owe someone: / managed to pay back all my ~s / he's in -(he owes people money)/she got into -/ it's difficult to get out of- / clear all your ~s (repay them) / / owe him a huge ~ of gratitude (I'm very grateful to him)

dedicated if you are very dedicated.you spend all your time and energy on somethingyou feel is very important.The noun is dedication о very -teacher / a-father/mother /be- to yourjob / the staff all showed great dedication / thanks for all your dedication

deserve if you deserve something,you think it is right for you to get it because you of what you have done: / think I - a holiday after all that studying / you - to be thrown out of university if you cheat in an exam / we -d to win that game

extend if you extend something,you make it longer or bigger. The noun is extension: the shop has -ed its opening hours / is it possible to - the deadline? / I need to - my visa before it runs out / they've built an extension on their house

first aid first aid is the basic medical treatment you give someone when they have an accident or become ill suddenly: doctors gave him - at the scene of the accident /do a- course /а~ kit

flexible if something is flexible, it is not fixed, but can change when it needs to.The opposite is inflexible: the course is pretty - / my work schedule is quite - /we have - working hours

26 OUTCOMES

WORD BUILDING - NEGATIVES

You can add in- to some adjectives to mean 'not' - as in inflexible: inaccurate: - information / their estimate was wildly -incomplete: the building is still - / we still have an - understanding of the disease inconvenient: I'm afraid that's a very - time incorrect: that's the - answer / some of the facts were -indecisive: she can be very - at times inexperienced: they're still quite an - team /an - teacher inflexible: his manager is very - / have a very -attitude inoffensive: an - comment / an - joke insensitive: he made some really - comments / a very - man invalid:your password is - / I'm afraid your ticket is i

However, just because an adjective starts with in-, it doesn't always mean you can remove the in- to make the opposite. For example, the opposite of intelligent is unintelligent, stupid, or thick!

IT IT stands for Information Technology. IT is the use of computers for storing and sending information: he works in the company's - department / do an - course /get some - training /call the - help desk

lighten if you lighten a difficult situation,you make it easier, happier or less stressful: my boss agreed to - my workload /she made a joke to try and - the atmosphere /- up! (stop being so serious)

postgraduate a postgraduate course or degree is one that you do after you receive your first university degree: do a - course / do some - research / - students /a - qualification

practical if something is practical, it is useful and based on real things you can do to improve a situation, not just ideas. The opposite is theoretical A practical person is good at dealing with problems and is usually good at doing things with their hands: he has a lot of - experience of working with computers / the course is very - (you learn skills as well as ideas) /he made some -suggestions / she gave us some - advice

revision revision is the work of studying for a test or an exam.The verb is revise: / did some last-minute - before the exam / plan your - well in advance / you'll fail if you don't revise properly

struggle if you struggle, you try very hard to do something that is difficult. Struggle is also a noun: she -d up the hill with the heavy bags / I'm

struggling to cope with the workload /we - to pay all my bills each month /1 - to understand some of his ideas / she found the course a bit ofa -

PACES 5 0 - 1

abuse abuse of something is the use of it in a bad way. Abuse is also a verb: the - of illegal drugs / alcohol - is a big problem in this area /an - of power / the voting system is open to - (people can abuse it) / he started to - drugs when he was ц

achievement an achievement is something good that you have managed to do, usually after a lot of time and effort. The verb is achieve: getting a degree is a great - / they were impressed with his academic ~s / that's quite an - /a remarkable - / it gives you a real sense of - / he has worked hard to achieve his goals

appreciate if you appreciate something,you understand why it is good or special.The noun is appreciation: teach students to - the importance of wine in French culture /he -sthe good things in life / learn to - jazz / it's nice to be -d by your boss / do a film appreciation course

assignment an assignment is a piece of work you have to do as part of yourjob or your studies: have a lot of reading ~s to complete before the end of term / hand in your - by next Friday / he was given a difficult -

concerned if you are concerned about something, you are worried about it.The noun is concern: / asked my daughter why she was so - about her tests / they tried to reassure all the - parents / - members of the public asked for a meeting with the police / lots of people have expressed concern about the matter / the flu outbreak is causing concern among doctors

control if you control people,you make them behave in the way you want them to behave. Control is also a noun: he can't even - his own children / a good teacher is good at -ling the class / the government -s every aspect of their lives / learn to -your temper/as a young teacher, it's easy to lose - of the class

cover to cover a subject or situation means to include it or deal with it: the course ~s areas such as citizenship and the abuse of illegal drugs / the book -s the whole of the eighteenth century I the lecture -ed several important topics / we'll - that topic later on in the course

development a development is a recent event that changes a situation: his obsession with getting top marks has been a bad - / there's been a - in the murder enquiry / some exciting technological ~s

encourage if you encourage someone to do something,you try to persuade them to do it.The adjective is encouraging.The noun is

encouragement: we - students to follow their own interests in their research / cigarette advertising -syoung people to start smoking / my parents always ~d me to work hard / the teacher is always very encouraging / my friends offered some encouragement /young children need quite a tot of encouragement

failure a failure is someone or something that has not achieved success: I felt I was a complete - / the meeting was a total - / the whole project ended in -

go through if you go through something,you look at it to make sure you understand it: I'll - my notes before the test / I'll - the paperwork this weekend / let's - the answers

observe if you observe something,you watch it very closely in order to understand more about it. The noun is observation: they ~d the animals

for several weeks /you can learn by observing more experienced teachers / he was placed under police observation / be admitted to hospital for observation

point if you point to something during a discussion or in an essay,you show how important it is and you use it as an example to support your ideas: in his book, he -s to the Danish system of education as a better model / she -ed to China as an example ofa rapidly growing economy / to support her argument she -ed to the situation in Spain

pushy if someone is pushy, they do whatever they can to get what they want, even if it sometimes makes other people angry. The verb is push.The verb push is not as negative as the adjective pushy: teachers have to deal with some very - parents sometimes / a - salesman / our teacher really pushes us to do well

relevant if something is relevant, it is connected to what is happening or what is being talked about. The opposite is irrelevant: they learn skills that are - too lot of jobs / that's not really - to the discussion / when you apply for the job, tell us if you have any - experience /she asked a completely irrelevant question

respect if you respect something,you show that it is important to you. If you respect a person,you look up to them and admire them or you treat them well. Respect is also a noun: it's important to -nature / a teacher needs to gain the kids'-/ if you behave badlyyou'll lose everyone's - / treat people with - /he doesn't have much self—

rigid if something is rigid, it is fixed and cannot be changed easily: they have a very - education system / he's got some - ideas on how to bring up children / she's on a very - diet

scream if you scream,you shout in a loud high voice because you are angry, excited or scared. Scream is also a noun: she started -ing when she saw the mouse /1 -edfor help / he was -ing with pain / he

VOCABULARY BUILDER 27

tends to - and shout at people when he's angry / she let out a loud -

success success is the noun from the verb succeed. If you have success,you get a good result: I applied to go to university but had no- /the new course has been a great - / she has had some - with her writing / the drug has a good - rate /the play was an overnight - /1 hope the project succeeds

PACES 5 2 - 3

affect to affect something means to have an influence or effect on it: these personal problems are -ing your academic work / the bullying -ed him really badly / the storm didn't - this area at all

assessment an assessment is a judgement about what something is like or how good it is. The verb is assess: the teacher made a quick - of the class / the school uses a system of continuous - / the students are preparing for their final - /a medical - / we tried to assess the damage

attention attention is the thought or interest you give to something you are listening to or watching: she never pays - in class/сап I have your - please? / he loves being the centre of - (with everyone watching him)

cheat if you cheat,you break the rules in a game or an exam, in order to do well. The person who does this is a cheat: she got caught -ing in an exam / he always -s at cards / he accused me of being a - / you're such a -I

counselling counselling is advice you can get from a someone who is trained to listen to people and provide support: if you're having problems, contact the student - service / a lot of couples have marriage guidance - / he needed a lot of- after the divorce

detention a detention is a punishment you get at school. It usually means you have to stay at school when other students go home: / got a -yesterday / the teacher gave me a - /he's had five ~s this term

discipline discipline is making people follow rules and punishing them if they break the rules. Discipline is also a verb: the school believes in strict - / it's important to maintain classroom - / she lacks self— (the ability to control her own behaviour)/ if you break the rules,you will be disciplined (punished)

facilities the facilities in a place are all the buildings, services and equipment that are available for people to use: the school doesn't have very good - / it has excellent sports - / they want to improve the - here / there's a lack of - in this area

interrupt if you interrupt someone,you say or do something to stop them when they are talking, working etc.The noun is interruption: I'm sorry to-, but can I ask a question? /don't - me while I'm working / there were a few brief interruptions

litter litter is things that are dropped in public places and make the places look untidy: don't drop - in the street / pick your - up/a - bin / clear up all the - in the park

lively lively means full of life, energy, enthusiasm or people enjoying themselves: a very - class /a - teacher / it's a very - area / the school has a -atmosphere

reputation the reputation ofa place is how good or bad people say it is: the school has a very good -

for sport / it's gained a - as an excellent school /the course enjoys an international - / the company's - suffered

rough if a place is rough, it is not very safe because there is lots of violence or crime there: it's quite a -school /a - area

skip if you skip something, you do not do it or have it: we decided to - class / there's usually a reason for children -ping school /1 had to - breakfast I let's -the next exercise

suspend if you suspend someone, you officially stop them from going to school or doing their job for a period of time because they have done something wrong. Suspend is often used in the passive.The noun is suspension: he was -edfrom school for cheating / she's been -edfrom the police force / both players got a three-match suspension

victim a victim is someone who has been attacked, hurt or injured, often in a crime: he was a - of bullying / the ~s of crime / sending food to the earthquake ~s

warning a warning is a statement telling someone about something bad that might happen to them. The verb is warn: she got a written - from the school / this is your last - /1 warned you not to do that

28 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 I can't cope the stress. 2 She seemed very concerned her exams. 3 Have you ever cheated an exam? 4 The college has a good reputation music. 5 He was suspended school fighting. 6 They offer help to victims bullying.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 dedicated doctors show great

2 do plenty of revision foran exam

3 a great achievement your goals

4 encourage someone give 5 pushyparents a lot of parents

their children

6 a great success in your career

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with a negative form of the correct adjectives.

accurate complete convenient experienced sensitive valid

1 No, it can't be 2 o'clock-that's an time for me.

2 She's only just started teaching, so she's still quite

3 I typed my password in, but it said it was

4 They started building the new theatre two years ago, but it's still

5 The first estimate they gave us was - it cost much more than that in

the end. 6 He's very - he never thinks

about other people's feelings.

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the sentences with the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

control deserve extend lighten skip

1 I've been working hard, so I a holiday.

2 They've decided to opening hours to attract more customers.

3 I had too much work, so I asked my boss to my workload.

4 You should learn to yourtemper. 5 Children often school if they are

unhappy.

В Match the two halves of the collocations. 1 do a postgraduate a) skills 2 be a complete b) failure 3 believe in strict c) discipline in schools 4 have excellent sports d) course in

engineering 5 learn core e) facilities

С Choose the correct verbs to complete the collocations. Look up the nouns if you need help.

1 He got /did a warning from his teacher. 2 I must make/do some revision tonight. 3 Don't forget to hand in/put in your assignment. 4 Please give /pay attention! 5 If he does that again, he'll get/do a detention.

D Complete the missing adjectives. 1 averyd_d__ __d teacher 2 have complaints from some с _ n __d

parents 3 they're a very I _v __y class 4 a school in a r__g h area 5 a very r_g_d education system

PATTERNS

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Use to + infinitive or -ing.

I achieve cheat cope do pass work

1 He's worked hard, so he deserves his exam.

2 My parents have always encouraged me hard.

3 The teachers push the students good exam results.

4 He was suspended from school for in the exam.

5 I warned you not that again! 6 She's struggling with all the

work.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 29

8 EATING

PACES 5 4 - 5

bland if something is bland, it has no taste or character: that cheese tastes - / his food is a bit - / I find that music a bit -

diabetic someone who is diabetic has an illness and cannot control the level of sugar in their blood. The illness is called diabetes: I'm - /you can get special chocolate for ~s / she's got diabetes / he suffers from diabetes

dish a dish is a particular way of preparing food. Dishes often have names: his favourite - is spaghetti bolognese / there are plenty of ~es to choose from I a meat ~ / a traditional Creek -

fattening if food is fattening, it can make you fat if you eat a lot of it: try to avoid -foods such as chocolate / potatoes are quite -

filling if food is filling,you only have to eat a small amount to feel full: a ~ soup/ I've had enough thanks - it was very -

fussy if someone is fussy about food, there are lots of kinds of food that they don't like or refuse to eat: you shouldn't be so - /young children are often quite - about food I a - eater

go for if you go for something, you choose it: / think I'll - the steak

greasy if something is greasy, it has a lot of oil or fat in it or on it: the chips are a bit - / my hands are - / shampoo for - hair

WORD BUILDING: ADJECTIVES THAT END WITH -Y

We often add -y to nouns to make an adjective like greasy (from the noun grease). It usually means it has a lot of the noun or is like the noun.

buttery: a lovely - taste rubbery: a - texture crunchy: - biscuits salty: too -juicy: - steak spicy: a - curry mouldy: go - sugary: - drinks oily: - fish watery: the soup's a bit -

product a product is something which is made, grown, or produced: I'm allergic to dairy ~s (foods produced from milk) /he won't use any animal ~s / his job is to develop new -s / bring a new ~ onto the market

raw if something is raw, it is not cooked, not developed or not changed in any way: -fish / - meat I - carrots / the meat is still ~ in the

middle / have - talent (not developed yet) / only see the - data (not organized yet)

side a side dish is an extra dish, usually of vegetables or salad, that you eat with your main meal. You can also say that you have this extra dish on the side: would you like any ~ dishes with your fish? / I'll have a salad as a - dish / Can I have some chips on the -?

stuffed food that is stuffed is cooked with a mixture of other foods inside it: chicken - with lemon and tomatoes /a- pepper

stew a stew is a mixture of meat or vegetables that is cooked slowly in a sauce: we had a delicious ~ made with goat meat / a chicken ~ / a fish ~ / make a nice - / what's in the ~f

talk through if you talk someone through something, you explain it to them carefully: can you talk us through the menu? /he talked us through the contract

tender if food is tender, it is soft and easy to eat. A tender plant is delicate. A tender person is gentle and sensitive: the meat was - and juicy I the steak is very - / boil the potatoes until they are - /

- plants won't withstand frost /a- song /a - kiss texture the texture of something is how it feels to

touch: / hate the - offish / it's got a funny (strange) - / a lovely smooth - / a rough -

30 OUTCOMES

PACES 5 6 - 7

adventurous if you are adventurous, you like trying lots of different and exciting things. The opposite is unadventurous: he's not a very - eater / a holiday

for - travellers bound to if something is bound to happen, it is

certain that it will happen: we're-find a good restaurant somewhere in the town / it's - rain / that accident was - happen sooner or later / they're -find out

exceptional something that is exceptional is extremely good or extremely unusual. The adverb is exceptionally: she's an - student (very good) / he showed - courage / this is only allowed in -circumstances /an exceptionally good meal

goods goods are things that are produced so that they can be sold: the shop sells a wide range of - / they stock Italian - / electronic - / leather -

left over if something is left over, it has not been eaten or used. The noun is leftovers: is there any soup ~? / use any meat that is -/put the leftovers in the fridge

manners manners are ways of behaving that are considered to be polite: it's good - to serve other people first / talking with your mouth full is seen as bad - / that man has no -I

mould mould is the blue, white or black substance that covers food when it becomes bad. The adjective is mouldy: there was blue - on the bread / there's - on the walls because of the damp

overseas if you go overseas, you go to a different country across the sea: he often travels - for work / they live - /he works - / the company has moved production - / the college has a lot of- students (from other countries)

round if you go round or over to someone's house, you go to visit them: / went - to see Tim / they invited us - for dinner / he popped - to say hello

split if you split something,you divide it into smaller parts which are usually equal: shall we - the bill? / they agreed to - the profits / we'll - it so-so (per cent) / - the cake into five pieces

spread if you spread something,you cover an area with it. If a thing spreads, it covers an area or affects more and more people: - butter on bread / - jam on toast / - the good news (tell lots of people) / the disease can - quickly

starving if you say you are starving, it means you are very hungry. You also say that someone is starving if they are dying because they do not have enough food. The verb is starve: / was - by lunchtime / I'm absolutely - / people are - to death I help the -children in Africa

stock if a shop stocks something, it has it so it is available. Stock is also a noun: they don't - French cheeses / the shop ~s a huge range of sports

equipment / I'm sorry, that book is out of - (there are none in the shop) /doyou have any more in ~?

transfer if you transfer something,you move it to another place. If you transfer someone, you send them to another place: the company -red me to the States (sent me there to work) /she's been -red to the sales department / we were -red to the hotel by bus /1 want to - I500 to my savings account

variation a variation is a difference between things that are generally similar: the dish is cooked all over Italy, but there's a lot of regional - / this is a slight -on a traditional recipe / there is considerable - in price

PAGES 5 8 - 9

advertise if you advertise something,you make sure people know about what you have: they should -in the paper / it was -don TV /the company is advertising for new recruits

appetite your appetite is the normal feeling of hunger you have before a meal: that walk has given me an - / he's got a good - /don't have sweets now - it'll spoil your - / I've lost my - (I don't feel hungry)

attract if something attracts you, it makes you feel interested so that you want to see it or visit it: the restaurant wants to - more customers / - tourists / his ideas have -ed a lot of interest / she -s a lot of attention

ban if you ban something,you have a rule or law which stops it happening. Ban is often used in the passive. Ban is also a noun: They should -adverts with really thin girls / smoking is -ned in all public placed / he was -ned from driving for three months / the government has introduced a -on smoking

bare if something is bare, it is empty and not filled or covered with anything. If someone is bare, they have no clothes on: the place looks cold and - / the walls are completely - / walk around in - feet

blame if you blame someone or something, you say that they have caused a problem: / - the media for all the fuss / don't - me! /1 - the government for the mess / who's to-? / human activity is to -for climate change

decor the decor is the style of furniture and decoration in a building: a smart new restaurant with trendy - /1 like the - here / they should improve the -

deserted if somewhere is deserted, there is no-one there: the city centre is -at night/ the beach was - / a - building

disorder a disorder is a medical problem: a lot of teenage girls have eating -s / he suffers from a heart - / a stomach -

VOCABULARY BUILDER 31

estimate if you estimate, you guess the amount, value or strength of something. If you overestimate, your guess is too much. If you underestimate, your guess is too little: can you -the cost of the wedding? /1 ~d that there were 200 people there / / overestimated how much food we needed / he underestimated how long it would take

generous a generous amount is a very large amount: the portions weren't very - / she gave me a very - helping / they offer ~ discounts for groups / a very - donation

inviting if something looks inviting, it looks pleasant and makes you want to try it: the food didn't look very - / the pool looks - / the beach looked -

limited if something is limited, there is not very much of it or not many different things: the menu's quite- /a - choice of dishes / there are - numbers of tickets / places are -, so apply early

look out over if a building looks out over somewhere, or overlooks somewhere, it has a view of that place: our room looks out over the sea / the front window looks out over the mountains / the house overlooks a main road

organic something organic is natural and does not use or contain artificial chemicals: the food is all-/ I only drink - milk / - farming is expanding / an-farmer

overpower if one thing overpowers other things, it is too strong so that the other things are not noticeable. If one person overpowers another, they defeat them. The adjective is overpowering: the onions - the taste of everything else / an overpowering taste of lemon / her perfume is overpowering /government soldiers -ed the rebels

packed if something is packed, it is very full and contains a lot of people or things: the town

centre was - / the train was - / the drink is - with vitamins / an action—film (full of action)

react if you react to something, you behave in a particular way when that thing happens to you. If you overreact,your behaviour is too extreme: how did he - when you told him? /she -ed badly to the news / they -ed angrily / the government -ed by closing the embassy /1 think you're overreacting

stick if you stick with something, you continue to do it or use it even when there are problems: / think I'll - with my own ideas / I'm going to - with my job and see if it gets better / she finds it hard to - to a diet / we all have to - to the rules

swap if you swap something, you exchange it for another thing can we - places? we -ped phone numbers (told each other our phone numbers)

terrace a terrace is an area just outside a building or room where you can sit: the restaurant has a -overlooking the sea /sit out on the - / aroof -

tough food that is tough is hard and difficult to eat. Something that is tough is also hard or strong, or difficult to do: the steak was -and overcooked / the plastic is quite - (difficult to break)/it's a very - exam / it was a - decision to leave /she had a - time at school (with many problems)

vote if you vote for someone, you choose them in an election. If someone's voted out, or voted off something, they lose their position after an election: she was ~d off the show / the public -dfor him to stay in the competition / -for the Republican Party / the Conservatives were -d out at the last election

weight your weight is how heavy you are: / need to lose - / she's put on - /1 try to watch my - (eat carefully so that I don't get heavier) / he worries about his -

32 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES 5 some new customers 6 smoking in the building

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 Some people are starving death. 2 I'm afraid those toys are of stock. 3 He was banned driving. 4 Whodoyoublame thisproblem? 5 Fresh fruit is packed vitamins. 6 She reacted badly the news. 7 It's difficult to stick a diet. 8 Who did you vote in the election?

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 he's diabetic suffer from

2 a filling meal feel 3 an exceptional student good 4 there's some food left over put the

in the fridge

5 some mould on the cheese a piece of

bread

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with adjectives formed from the nouns.

butter grease sugar spice water

1 Fried food is often too 2 The biscuits had a lovely taste. 3 Salmon is a type of fish. 4 I love hot food. 5 This soup is horrible and 6 You shouldn't drink too many

drinks.

В Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

estimate overpower stick stock swap

1 The shop a wide range of products. 2 Can you the cost of the holiday? 3 The pepper all the other flavours. 4 Can we places so that I'm next to

the window? 5 I think I'll with this job for a while.

С Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 a traditional Italian d _ _ h 2 he doesn't use animal p__ __s 3 they sell a lot of leather g s 4 suffer from an eating d__ __r 5 a restaurant with a roof t __ __e

D Which of the following words do not collocate with the nouns?

1 good / bad / strong manners 2 spoil / lose /findyour appetite 3 lose / put on / get weight 4 a smooth / rough / big texture

E Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the list.

deserted fattening generous limited organic raw tender

1 She doesn't eat chocolate because it's

2 You can eat vegetables cooked or 3 Cook the meat until it is lovely and 4 At midnight the town centre was 5 She gave me a very portion of

chips. 6 food is grown in a natural way. 7 There isn't much choice - the menu's quite

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

advertise attract ban split spread transfer

1 the bill between us 2 butter on bread 3 him to another office 4 something on TV

PHRASAL VERBS

A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb.

1 I'll go to/for the apple pie, please. 2 They invited me round /down for a meal. 3 The restaurant looks out/or/overthe lake. 4 He was voted off / over the show. 5 The Democrats were voted off / out at the last

election. 6 Shall I talk you through/over the contract?

VOCABULARY BUILDER 33

HOUSES

PACES 6 4 - 5

affordable if something is affordable, it is cheap enough for most people to buy: they're looking for an - fat / there isn't enough - housing / good quality products at - prices

back back means in the direction behind you. The back of a house is the area behind the house. The back ofa car is the part behind the driver: look - over your shoulder / children playing in the - garden / lock the- door / sit in the- seat of a car

block a block is a big building with lots of different levels. A block is also a group of buildings with streets on all sides: я - of fats /an office - / a tower-[a very tall building) /we took a walk around the -1 walk five ~s

build to build a house, bridge, road, etc, means to make it.The past tense and the past participle is built. If an area is built-up, it has lots of buildings in it: they want to - more skyscrapers in the city / - a bridge over the river / a newly built block of

flats / houses built in the 1960s / they live in a very built-up area

compact if something is compact, it is small and does not use much space: a - fiat in the city centre / a -bathroom /a - office /a - car

dark if a place is dark, there is not much light in it. Dark colours are not light or bright: the flat is quite - / it's getting - outside / - colours like brown and blue/ she's got quite - hair

enormous If something is enormous, it is very large in size or amount. The adverb is enormously: they live in an - house /an - amount of money / I'm under - pressure at the moment / the film was enormously enjoyable / the town has changed enormously

fire fire is the heat and flames made when things burn: have an open - in the front room / it's

34 OUTCOMES

cold - shall I light the fire? / a faulty electrical wire started the - / protesters set - to the embassy / call the -brigade / try to put the - out/forest ~s can spread very quickly

fix if you fix something, you repair it. Fix is often used in the passive: / need to - the lock on that door / the central heating needs -ing /1 need to get my car-ed

garage in British English, a garage is a building next to your house where you keep your car. It is also a place that repairs cars, or a place where you can buy petrol (this is a gas station in American English): park the car in the - / the house has a double - / take the car to the - to get it repaired / stop at the next - and fill up with petrol

heating the heating inabuildingis the equipment that provides heat for the building: we've got gas central - / the - needs fixing / turn the - on / shall I turn the - up?(so that it is hotter) / we haven't got any - at the moment / our - bill was very high

leak if something is leaking, water or gas is getting through it or escaping from it. Leak is also a noun: the roof is -ing / water was -ing from the pipe / look at all that water - we must have a - /a gas -

potential if a place or person has potential, there is the possibility they can improve in the future: the fiat needs decorating, but it has a lot of- / the area has enormous - / he's only a young player, but he has - / she hasn't reached her full -yet

rent If you rent a house or flat, you pay money to the owner so that you can live in it. If you rent a car, you pay money so that you can use it for a while. Rent is also a noun: I'm -ing a small fiat in the centre of town / he ~s the room to students (allows students to live in it in return for rent) / we -ed a car for the week / how much - do you pay per week? / the - is quite high / a low -

replace if you replace something, you remove it and put something new in its place. The noun is replacementyou need to - the batteries / they want to knock down this building and - it with a shopping centre / she's had a hip replacement / the secretary has left, so we need to find a replacement

run-down if a place is run-down, it is in bad condition: the flat's very - and needs a lot of work /a - block of flats /a - area with lots of social problems

separate if two things are separate, they are not together or joined to each other. Separate i! also a verb.The adjective is separated: we want to have -rooms for the kids / they sleep in - beds / keep work and pleasure - / if two students are talking, the teacher might - them / my parents are separated (they no longer live with each other)

spacious if a room or building is spacious, it has a lot of space in it: a lovely - living room / their fiat is very - / -new offices

tile tiles are square, flat pieces of baked clay that you use to cover roofs, walls, and floors. Tile is also a verb.The adjective is tiled: we've bought some new -for the bathroom / roof-s / we want to - all round the sink / the kitchen floor is tiled

PAGES 6 6 - 7

aim an aim is something that you want to achieve. Aim is also a verb: I'm determined to achieve my main - in life / set yourself long-term ~s / the government - to protect the environment / the new housing developments are -ed at tackling the housing shortage

birth your birth is the time when you are born. Your birthplace is the place where you were born: she gave -to a baby girl last night / the - rate is going down (fewer babies are being born)/I've never been back to my birthplace / the birthplace of the tango (the place where it started)

development development is the building of new houses, offices etc: the land has been sold for - / the local authority want to limit - in the area / they are planning a new housing -

WORD BUILDINC: NOUNS THAT END WITH -MENT

We can make nouns from some verbs by adding the suffix-ment, as in development: appointment: make an - with the doctor / keep your - (go to it) attachment: an email - / send the - in a different format equipment: high-tech - / the job requires specialist -improvement: make a steady - / he's showing some -management: they criticized his poor - / - skills treatment: be given special -

However.just because a noun ends in -ment. it does not always mean you can remove the -ment to make a verb. For example, environment is a noun, but environ is NOT a verb!

double if a number doubles, it increases by 100%. Double can also be an adjective: the house has ~d in value since we bought it / the new company ~d what she was earning in her old job /a - bed / a -room (for two people to sleep in)

dramatically if something changes dramatically, it changes a lot in a short time.The adjective is dramatic: prices have fallen - / the area has

changed - over the last few years / a dramatic change / a dramatic improvement

election an election is the process in which people vote to choose someone who will hold an official position. The verbis elect: they're holding an - next month / everyone can vote in the general - / who will win the ~? / he was elected president

go a go is one single attempt to do something: / don't know if I can do it, but I'll have a - / they would like to pay for the whole house in one - / I'll give it a - whose - is it next? (in a board game or a game of cards)

inevitable if something is inevitable, it is sure to happen and cannot be avoided or stopped: war now seems - / this /son - effect of climate change

interest interest is the money that banks charge you when you borrow money from them or pay you if you save money with them: They charge 15% - / pay - on the loan / - rates went up 1.5% last month

investment an investment is somethingyou spend money on now because you think you will make money from it in the future. The verb is invest: / see this course as an- in my future / buying a house is a good long-term - I she bought the painting as an - / invest in property / invest money in the stock market

mortgage a mortgage is an amount of money that a bank lends you to buy a house: / took out a 2s-year - / some banks are offering -s at low interest rates / a lot of young buyers can't get a - / I've finally paid off my-

petrol in British English, petrol is the fuel you put in your car. In American English, people say gas: we ran out of - on the motorway / we need to fill up with - before we leave / - prices keep going up

profit profit is money that you make from selling something, after all your costs have been paid. Profit is also a verb: the company made a - of £10 million / she sold it at a - / the company's -s rose by 12% last year / who will -from the deal?

rate the rate of something is the number of times that it happens over a particular period of time: the birth - (the number of babies being born) / the divorce - is rising / a drop in the crime - /the current unemployment - is nearly 8%

rise a rise is an increase in amount or size. Rise is also a verb.The past tense is rose.The past participle is risen: a sudden - in food prices / there's been a dramatic - in oil prices /the number of people unemployed rose again last month / interest rates have risen a lot recently

root the root of something is the beginning or cause of it: we must get to the -of the problem / what's the - cause of poverty? / the war has its -s in religious differences

shortage if there is a shortage of something, there is not enough of it.The adjective is short of: there are serious food and water ~s/the current - of housing / we're short of time / short of money

VOCABULARY BUILDER 35

steadily if something changes steadily, it changes gradually.The adjective is steady: Unemployment has fallen - / taxes have risen - over recent years / a steady increase in prices / steady growth in the economy

tackle if you tackle a problem, you try hard to find a solution to it: the government must ~ the country's housing shortage / they need to - unemployment / do more to - crime / - the problem of poor discipline in schools

take out if you take out a loan or insurance policy, you get it: they decided to - a mortgage / - a loan to buy a new car /you should - travel insurance

PACES 6 8 - 9

budget budget is used to suggest that something is cheap. A budget is also the amount of money available to spend on something: a - airline (which sells cheap tickets) /sell at a - price /you should work out a weekly - and stick to it / we're on a tight - (we don't have much money to spend) / the project is already over - (it has spent too much)

class a class is one of the groups which people in a society are divided into, according to their jobs, education, background, etc: he grew up in a working—family / a middle— area / some countries have a rigid - system / she's very conscious of- differences

clean up to clean up a place means to make it clean and tidy, or stop crime, pollution, etc. from happening there. Clean-up is also a noun: we need to - the kitchen / the police have done a lot to - the area / -the city streets /they want to organize a clean-up of the city

connected if something is well connected, it has good links with other things.The noun is connection: the area is well -for transport / he's a very well--man (he knows a lot of people) / there are good connections between the capital and other towns

dead if a place is dead, it is not very lively. If a piece of equipment is dead, it doesn't work anymore: the

area's completely - at night / the battery's - / I'm half— this morning (very tired)

distance the distance between two things is the amount of space between them. If something is in the distance,you can see it or hear it, but it is a long way from where you are: the school is quite a - from here / it's within walking - /a long-relationship / we don't get on so I try to keep my -from him /1 hate driving long -s/l could see some people in the -

graffiti graffiti is words or pictures drawn in public places: there's - everywhere / the walls are covered in -1 kids have sprayed - on the bus shelter / a -artist

green if a place is green, there are lots of trees and parks there. Green also means connected to the protection of the environment: this part of the city is quite - /a very - area I the company is trying to be more - (trying to help the environment)/a discussion about - issues / vote for the Green Party

innovative if something is innovative, it uses new ideas or methods. The noun is innovation: a very -idea / an - approach to the problem / scientific innovations / we try to encourage innovation

outskirts the outskirts of a town or city are the areas on the edge of it: they live in an area on the - of town / a shopping mall on the - of the city

posh if you think someone is posh,you think they are ofa higher social class than you. If a place is posh, it is more expensive than places you are used to: he spoke with a - accent /a- hotel / a - restaurant / one of the -est parts of the city

residential a residential area ofa town or city is one where there are houses and flats, but not factories or businesses. A resident is someone who lives in a place: a popular - area / a quiet - street / local residents are angry about the situation /a UK resident

touristy if you think a place is touristy, you do not like it because too many tourists go there: it's a lovely little town, but it's very - / it's a bit too -

for me now / the whole area has become very -

36 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 They're building a new block flats. 2 We keep the car the garage. 3 They rent the room students. 4 They replaced the old cinema a new school. 5 They sold the land development. 6 The house has doubled value. 7 We paid for everything one go. 8 We had to pay interest the loan.

В Choose the correct preposition. 1 They bought the house for / as an investment. 2 They sold the house at /in a profit. 3 There has been a big rise for / in petrol prices. 4 This is the root for /of the problem. 5 There is a serious shortage of/for housing. 6 We are in/on a tight budget. 7 The shops are a short distance of/from here. 8 Their house is in / on the outskirts of town.

3 They are planning a new housing (develop)

4 I'll email the invitation to you as an (attach)

5 They said that the fall in profits was due to poor (manage)

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

build clean up fix leak rent

1 They want to a new bridge across the river.

2 They their house out to tourists during the summer.

3 The central heating's broken - we need to get it

4 They really should the city streets. 5 There's water in the garage-the roof must

be

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 an enormous amount it's changed of money

2 sleep in separate beds her parents are now

3 buy new tiles for the floor is the kitchen

4 prices have fallen a fall dramatically in prices

5 vote in an election be as prime minister

6 a good investment for in the future property

7 the area is well- there are good connected

8 a residential area the idea was popular with

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with the correct noun from the verbs.

1 I'd like to make an with the doctor, please, (appoint)

2 His work used to be very bad, but there has been some recently, (improve)

В Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-e) if you need help.

1 a general a) tiles 2 the central b) election 3 roof c) rate 4 a long-term d) heating 5 the divorce e) investment

С Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 take the car to the g e 2 pay i __ t on a loan 3 takeoutam__ e to buy a house 4 a drop in the crime r e 5 a r__e in food prices 6 get to the r _ _ t of the problem 7 a serious s__ __e of housing 8 within walkingd _e 9 sprayg_ __ionthewall

10 theo__ _ sofa city

D Use the opposites to complete the adjectives from the unit.

1 light ad__kroom 2 very small anen__ __s house 3 in good condition a r -d n area 4 shared they have s e

rooms 5 withnospace asp__ sflat 6 expensive ab t airline 7 industrial are I area

VOCABULARY BUILDER 37

10

GOING OUT

PACES 7 0 - 1

abstract something that is abstract deals with ideas or feelings, not objects or events: - art /an -painting / the course will deal with - concepts / discuss - ideas

audience the audience is the group of people who watch or listen to a performance, programme or speech: the show has a big - /perform in front of an - ofs.ooo people / the minister addressed an -of young people /the show attracted a huge - / the film is trying to reach a wider -

community a community is a group of people who live in the same area or share the same interest or identity in a bigger society: they live in a small rural - /the local - /the Asian - /the black - I the miners form a close-knit ~

costume a costume is the clothes you wear in a play or film or at a party, when you are pretending to be a different person: the dancers wore colourful -s / the ~s were amazing / he arrived in a cowboy - / hire a

fancy dress - /she's a - designer halfway if something is halfwayalong something,

or halfway through it, it is around the middle of it: the school is about - down Columbus Avenue / we got about - up the mountain /1 fell asleep -through the film / he got injured - through the season

installation an installation is a work of art where objects, lights or pictures are placed in a space to make people think about something: an - by a Dutch artist/a multimedia - /the ~ explores the idea of the individual alone

landscape a landscape is an area of land that has a particular appearance: we looked out over the beautiful - / a desert - / a rocky - / a - painting by Turner

plot the plot of a film or book is the story: the book's got a good - / a complicated ~l I couldn't follow the -

portrait a portrait is a painting, photo or description ofa person or group of people: о - by Rembrandt / a -of the queen / he painted a lot ofself—s / a family - / I'd love to have my - painted

rural something that is rural is in the countryside or connected to the countrysides - community / a - landscape /a - way of life / encourage -development / the government minister for -affairs

scenery the scenery on a stage is all the decoration, furniture and pictures that show where the play takes place: the - was beautifully done/the - was very simple / they usually change the - during the interval

sculpture a sculpture is a piece of wood, stone or metal, which has been made into a shape by an artist.The artist is a sculptor: a wooden - by Picasso / a - ofa woman / a huge stone - / a bronze - / a famous French sculptor

showing a showing of a film or programme is a time when it is shown: there's a-at 7.30 / the first ~'s at}/ go to the late ~ / the afternoon - / there'll be a repeat - next week

still life a still life is a painting ofa collection of objects which the artist has arranged: a - by Cezanne la- of fruit / draw a - / an exhibition of-painting

soundtrack the soundtrack ofa film is the music that goes with it: the film's got a great - /1 bought the -on CD

subtitles subtitles are the words of a film or programme which are written on the screen. The adjective is subtitled: a French film with -in English I there are -for the deaf / the film is subtitled

tragedy a tragedy is a very sad story or real event.The adjective is tragic: the play is a - / a Shakespearean - / the accident was a terrible - / their journey ended in - /a tragic accident / his tragic death

trailer a trailer is a short advert for a film in which you see some short parts of the film: did you see the -forthe new lames Bond film?/ the - looked good

turning a turning is where one road joins another road: it's the next - / take the first - on the right I the -for Manchester / we missed the - /we took the wrong -

PACES 7 2 - 3

authentic something that is authentic is real or original and not copied or fake or made especially for tourists: - Italian food / an - Picasso/the document is - / the trip provides an - experience of the Chinese way of life

38 OUTCOMES

cast the cast of a play or film is the group of people who play the different parts.The verb is also cast: the play has an excellent - / the film had an all-star - / a -of unknowns / the director - him in the lead role.

catch if you catch a film or event,you watch it. If you catch someone, you speak to them. The past tense and past participle is caught: doyou want to- a

film later? /1 only caught the end of the film / I'll -you later

crowd a crowd is a large group of people in a place or at a sports event. It can also mean a group of friends: there was a huge - at the game / the -went wild /1 went out with the usual - / his friends are a nice -

dreadful something that is dreadful is very bad. If you dread something that is going to happen,you are worried because you think it will be very bad: the food was - / a - film / a - mistake / make a -mess / I'm dreading going to the dentist

exclusive something that is exclusive is only for a limited number of people, usually rich people: the city's most - disco/an - restaurant /an -neighbourhood / the beach is for - use by residents / an - offer for our readers

fusion a fusion is a mixture of two different things. The verb is fuse: it's a - of European and African music / he uses a - of styles in his paintings /a -of flavours / the show fuses circus and drama

Verb Noun

distract: don't - distraction: have too hi ml many ~s elect: - a new election: hold an -president inject: - drugs injection, they gave me an -integrate: they find integration: the school it difficult to- encourages -locate: the airline location it's a nice -can't - my bag operate: doctors operation: have an heart -decided to - on him Opt: - to do option: have no -nothing

possess: - a degree possession: all his -s were stolen

reject: / was -edfor rejection: receive the job several -s revise: - for an revision: do some last-exam minute -select: he was -ed selection: have a good -

for the team of food suggest: / -ed suggestion: that 'so going out good -

WORD BUILDING: NOUNS THAT END WITH -ION

We often make nouns from a verb by adding -ion. Notice the final 'e'of the verb is removed. For example:fuse (v) - fusion (n); and exaggerate (v) -exaggeration (n). Not all words ending in -ion are based on a verb. For example, motion

Verb

appreciate: thanks - I - it! calculate: - how much we need complete: - a form

congratulate - her on her success contribute: a lot to the project decorate: - the house demonstrate: -against the new law

Noun

appreciation: show your -calculation: do a rough -

completion: send the form to us on -congratulation: give her my -s contribution: make a big -decoration: put up party ~s demonstration: go on a -

incredible something that is incredible is large or very good: he gave an - performance / she looked -/the landscape's absolutely - / make an - noise / spend an - amount of money

keen if you are keen,you are very enthusiastic. If you are keen on something,you like it a lot: he's a -cyclist /a- stamp collector I he's very - on sport / I'm not that - on spicy food /1 think he's quite -on her

spectacular something that is spectacular is amazing to look at: the - scenery / we had a - view of the mountains / the landscape's - /a - firework display /a - show

squad a squad is a group of people who work together in the army or police force, or play in a team together: he's in the -for today's game / he was dropped from the - after his recent poor performances / a police bomb - (police officers trained to deal with bombs) / the drugs - (police officers who deal with illegal drugs)

stroll a stroll is a slow walk for pleasure.The verb is also stroll: we went for a - / a - along the river/a - through the park / we strolled around the old town

terrific something that is terrific is very good: the food was - / a - play / she gave a - performance / I feel -/that's-!

VOCABULARY BUILDER 39

weird something that is weird is very strange: he did some - paintings / he's a bit - / that's - / a -film

PACES 7 4 - 5

break if you break a promise or rule, you do not do what you should do: I'll neverforgive you if you - this promise / he was punished for -ing the rules / lots of people - the speed limit /he broke the law and was sent to prison / they've broken the agreement

council the council is the local government in an area: the local - broke its election promise / complain to the - / write to the town -

exaggerate if you exaggerate, you say that something is bigger, better or more extreme than it really is. The noun is exaggeration: It was huge-and I'm not exaggerating / the media have ~d the problem / that's a bit of an exaggeration!

fail if something fails to happen, it does not happen. If you fail to do something,you do not do it: his prediction -ed to come true / he -ed to turn up to the meeting /the brakes on the car-ed (didn't work suddenly) / his eyesight's -ing (getting weaker) / the business is -ing (not doing well)

keep if you keep a promise or an agreement, you do what you have agreed to йо-.you must - this promise /1 always - my word / she didn't - her appointment (she didn't go to it) / they should -to their side of the agreement

last-minute something that is last-minute is done just before the time limit finishes or just before something is going to happen: we had a - change of plan / they scored a - winner / they reached a -deal / do some - revision

lift if you give someone a lift, you take them somewhere in your car: I'll give you a- to the airport / ask for a - /1 got a - here

like crazy if people are doing something like crazy, they are doing it a lot: / was sweating - / they were screaming - /we ran -

moving if something is moving, it makes you feel sad or emotional. The verb is move: the play was

very - / it's a very - scene /1 find the music really - / I was moved to tears / his speech really moved me

out of place if you feel out of place, you feel nervous or uncomfortable because the place or situation you are in does not suit you, or you feel that you do not belong there: I felt a bit - in the hotel/he was completely - in that school / the rug looks a bit - in this room / something so old seems - in such a modern city

overrated if you think something is overrated,you think it is not as good as everyone says it is: the restaurant's OK-a bit - though / personally, I think champagne is - / as a player he's very -

pleasant if something is pleasant, it is nice. The adverb is pleasantly: a - evening / what a -surprise / have a - stroll through the park / she seems very - / it's a - place to work /1 was pleasantly surprised

promise a promise is something you say that you will definitely do in the future:you must keep your - / they accused him of breaking his election ~s / he made a - to us / I'll hold you to that - (make sure that you keep it)

sold out if something is sold out, all of it is gone because people have bought it. If a show or concert is sold out, people have bought all the tickets. The verb is sell out: the film was completely - / the concert will sell out very quickly / we'd better book now before the show sells out

sweat when you sweat, water comes out through your skin because you are hot, for example after you have done exercise.The noun is also sweat. The adjective is sweaty: / was -ing like crazy / my hands are -ing / the exercise made me - /1 worked up a - moving those heavy boxes /1 was covered in - / he smelled dirty and sweaty

tears tears are drops of water that come from your eyes when you cry: she was in - (crying) / he was close to - (almost crying)/she burst into -(started crying suddenly) /he reduced her to -(made her cry) / / had - of laughter rolling down my face

40 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 They've got a new installation a French artist.

2 It's a French film, with subtitles English. 3 The trip ended tragedy. 4 Have you seen a trailer the new Bond film? 5 We missed the turning Leeds. 6 His food is a wonderful fusion different

flavours. 7 I'm not very keen classical music. 8 I was tears at the end of the film. 9 It's a high-budget film, with a cast

Hollywood stars.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 a bronze sculpture a work by a French

2 a film with subtitles the film is 3 a terrible tragedy a accident 4 don't exaggerate I think that was an

5 a pleasant day we were surprised

6 running makes feel hot and me sweat

В Tick the words which are both a noun and a verb. 1 costume 2 cast 3 squad 4 stroll 5 sweat 6 council

WORD-BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with the nouns in the list.

appreciation congratulations distraction location operation revision selection

1 I can't concentrate because there are too many

2 The audience clapped to show their

3 She's done very well - please send my

4 The house is very nice, and in an ideal

5 There's a wonderful of food to choose from.

6 I've got an exam tomorrow so I need to do some

7 I've got to have an on my leg.

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 a l _ _ e painting showing mountains and trees

2 ap _ _ _ t of a famous person 3 thes у for a play 4 a wooden s_ __eofacat 5 as 11 __e painting of some flowers 6 theso__ __ckofafi lm

В Match the two halves of the collocations. 1 perform in front of an a) turning off the

motorway 2 follow the b) audience 3 take the wrong c) plot in a book 4 go for a d) tears 5 give her a e) stroll in the park 6 burst into f) lift to the station

С Complete the missing adjectives. 1 The village is in a very r I area. 2 The painting is just a copy-it's not a c. 3 He made a dr f _ l mistake. 4 He's a very к n cook. 5 His paintings are strange - really w d. 6 We had a very p_ _ _ t evening. 7 Wesawas__ __ r firework display.

D Complete the expressions with the words in the list.

minute crazy place out way

1 run like 2 feel out of 3 be sold 4 a last- decision 5 leave half through the film

VOCABULARY BUILDER 41

THE NATURAL WORLD

PACES 7 6 - 7

bush a bush is a kind of plant that is like a tree, but smaller: there were two or three rose ~es in the garden / we could hear something in the -es / a large animal was moving around in the - es

circle if you circle something, you go all the way round it or you draw a round shape all around i t Circle is also a noun: I saw an eagle circling high above us / the plane had to - for an hour before we could land / - the correct answer / we drove round in -sfor ages

crawl when you crawl,you move along the ground on your hands and knees, or you move along very slowly. Crawl is also a noun: babies learn to - at about six months old / I managed to - to the phone /1 saw a cockroach -ing across thefoor / we -ed along the motorway / we went on a pub -(we went to lots of pubs)

disappear if something disappears, it goes somewhere where it cannot be seen or it stops existing. The noun is disappearance: the snake -ed into the long grass / their traditional way of life is -ing fast / he's just completely -ed / the police are investigating her disappearance

distract if you distract someone, you stop them from concentrating.The adjectives are distracted and distracting.The noun is distraction: / hope having so many people around won't-you /1 was -ed

from my work by the noise / he seemed very -ed when I saw him /1 found the music distracting / it's difficult to work when there are so many distractions

grass grass is the low green plant that grows all over the ground: children were playing on the - / hide in the long - /1 need to cut the- / lie on the -

hide if you hide,you go somewhere where people cannot see you or find you. The past tense is hid

42 OUTCOMES

and the past participle is hidden: I found a scorpion hiding in one of my shoes / she hid in a cupboard / I hid her present under the bed / he tries to - his

feelings / she hid her disappointment hiss if something hisses, it makes a long's' sound, like

a snake: there was a snake in the corner -ing at me / the cat started-ing at me

jungle a jungle is an area of thick tropical rainforest: we spent a few days trekking through the - /the Amazon - / they cut a path through the -

rock a rock is a large piece of stone. The adjective is rocky: there was a huge lizard lying on a - / demonstrators started throwing ~s at the police / the boat hit some ~s and sank / driving along a rocky mountain road

trek if you trek, you do a long and difficult walk, often through jungle or across desert. Trek is also a noun: we went -king through the jungle / they -ked across the Gobi desert / it's a real - to my flat (my flat is a long way away)

underneath if you are underneath something, it is directly above you or it is covering you: the bear was lying - a tree / we hid - the table I let's meet - the station clock / wear something warm -your coat

PACES 7 8 - 9

action it you take action, you do something, especially in order to deal with a problem. The verb is act: - needs to be taken soon / the situation calls

for decisive - / take whatever -s are necessary / what's the plan of-? (what are we going to do?) / we need to act quickly /she's acting on the advice of her lawyer

arrest if the police arrest you, they take you to a police station because they think that you have committed a crime. Arrest is often used in the passive. Arrest is also a noun: he was -edfor smuggling / he's been -ed on suspicion of murder / the police -ed her for speeding /you 're under - / the police made an - early this morning

breed if you breed animals, you keep them and put them together so that they will have babies.The past tense and past particle is bred. A breed of dog, horse, etc, is one particular kind: they - sheep / the animals are bred in zoos / the most popular - of sheep / what - is your dog?

currently currently means at the moment. The adjective is current: 16,000 plant and animals species are - threatened with extinction / I'm -writing a new book / the film is - showing at the ABC cinema / the current political situation / he's interested in current affairs (recent social and political events)

cyber-cyber- means connected to computers and the Internet: the information must be stored somewhere in -space (on the Internet) /a -cafe

(where there are computers) / the problem of -crime (crime that involves the Internet)

destroy if you destroy something,you damage it so badly that it no longer exists.The noun is destruction: 50 per cent of all animal species could be -ed by global warming / the building was -ed in afire / prevent the destruction of the environment / weapons of mass destruction

extinct if a plant, animal or language is extinct, it no longer exists.The noun is extinction: the plant could soon become - if action isn't taken / an - volcano (not active) /thousands of species are currently threatened with extinction / their language is now on the verge of extinction / can the animals be saved from extinction?

gang a gang is a group of people who spend a lot of time together, often for criminal reasons: on organized criminal - /the - threatened to kill anyone who got in their way / there were-fights on the streets /a - of kids

global warming global warming is the slow increase in the earth's temperature caused by polluting gases: - has affected wildlife all over the world / the government should do more to tackle - /can we stop ~? / we can now see the effects of-/ the issue of-

hunt if you hunt animals, you chase them in order to then kill them. If you hunt for something,you try hard to find it. Hunt is also a noun. The person is a hunter: it's illegal to - tigers I bears have been -ed into extinction I they should ban the -ing of rare species / police are still -ing for the gang /I'm house—ing at the moment (looking for a house to buy or live in) / the -for the murderer / the number of elephants killed by hunters

illegal if something is illegal, it is against the law. The adverb is illegally: sell - goods via the Internet / it is - to buy alcohol if you're under 18 / the items were being offered for sale illegally

inhabit if you inhabit a place, you live in it.The people who lived somewhere are the inhabitants: this rare species of shark is known to - fresh water / the islands are only -ed by birds / the area is -ed by around 20,000 people / the first inhabitants arrived here in the ninth century

introduce if you introduce something,you put it in a place or start to use it for the first time. If you reintroduce it,you do this for a second time.The noun is introduction: rabbits were ~d to Australia

from Europe / the animal has been reintroduced into the country / the government plans to-a new law / the introduction of tighter security measures

point a point is one particular time or level in a process: the animal is back from the - of extinction (it was nearly extinct)/at one - I thought I was going to die /1 reached the - where I couldn't stand it anymore I it got to the - where I could hardly walk anymore I

predict if you predict what will happen, you say what you think will happen in the future. The adjective is predictable.The noun is prediction: some scientists are -ing that 23 per cent of all mammals could become extinct within the next so years / experts - that the situation is going to get worse / the ending of the film was very predictable (you could predict what would happen) /it's difficult to make long-term predictions about the economy

release if you release something,you let it leave a place where it has been kept, or you make it available. Release is often used in the passive. Release is also a noun: the report was ~dyesterday / the animals were ~d back into the wild / he's due to be -dfrom prison soon /she was -dfrom hospital last night / they are attempting to secure the - of SO prisoners

role a role is the purpose or position that someone has in a particular situation: horses have played an important - in the country's history / what'syour - in the company? / the economy played a key - in the election campaign / money played a major - in my decision / the monthly parties have an important social -

search if you search a place, you look in it carefully in order to find something that is lost or hidden. Search is often used in the passive. Search is also a noun: my bag was -ed before I was allowed through /1 was stopped and -ed by the police / too police officers are -ing the area / the police conducted a thorough - of the area / have you done a - on the web?

VERBS OFTEN USED IN THE PASSIVE

Some verbs are often used in the passive. When you learn new verbs, it is important to not only learn their meanings, but also to pay attention to the grammar that goes with them. For example:

arrest: he was -ed and charged with murder ban: he's been -nedfrom entering the country fix: my car is being -ed at the moment move: / was very -d by the story release: their first CD was -d a couple of years ago suspend: the service has been -ed until further notice transfer: your call is being -red. Please hold the

i line threaten: / was -ed with arrest if I didn't move back

skin your skin is the natural covering on your body: my - was blue with cold / the gang smuggles tiger ~s into the country /she's got very sensitive - /a

VOCABULARY BUILDER 43

cream for dry ~ / people with fair - should stay out of the sun Isufferfrom a ~ disease Ia banana -

skull your skull is the bone in your head, around your brain: he fell and fractured his - / they were arrested for smuggling animal ~s

smuggle if you smuggle something,you take it from one country into another illegally. Smuggle is often used in the passive: the animals are ~d into the country I he was arrested for smuggling exotic animals / she was caught smuggling drugs /they were part ofa people-smuggling gang I they were accused of drug smuggling

species a species is a particular type of animal or plant: a rare - of bear / over the past 500 years, 820 - have become extinct I tigers are now an endangered - (In danger of becoming extinct)

speeding speeding is the crime of driving too fast. The noun is speed: he was arrested for - 11 was fned £130 for - I he was caught by a speed camera

straight if you go straight to a place,you go there directly without stopping anywhere else on the way.you will be taken - to your hotel I1 went -home after class I she went - to bed

threaten if you threaten someone,you say you will do something bad to them, especially if they refuse to do what you want them to do. Threaten is often used in the passive.The noun is threat: they ~ed to kill me if I didn't give them the information I 76,000 species are currently -ed with extinction (they may become extinct) / the factory is now ~ed with closure I he received death threats I terrorism still poses a serious threat

wild if something is wild, it grows without help from people. The wild is the natural environment: there are - horses on the island I -flowers I - animals I the animals were bred in a zoo and then released into the -

PACES 8 0 - 1

aggressive if a person or animal is aggressive, they behave in an angry or violent way towards people: an ~ dog I / was scared by his - and threatening behaviour I he gets very - sometimes

cage a cage is a structure of metal bars for keeping animals or birds in, like in a zoo: / keep the bird in a - /you have to clean the -regularly I it escaped from its - / a man climbed into the lion's -

construction construction is the work of building something, especially a house, bridge, etc. The verb is construct: the - of the road is a threat to wildlife I the stadium is still under - (being built) / work in

the - industry I there are plans to construct a new bridge

free if something is free, it is not locked up, controlled or limited. Free is also a verb. The noun is freedom: the animals were set - I people let their dogs run - I they are campaigning for a - press (newspapers that are allowed to say what they want) /50 political prisoners were -d last night I they believe in freedom of speech

habitat the habitat of plants or animals is the natural environment they grow or live in: the animals' natural - is being destroyed I it's interesting to observe them in their natural -la coastal - I forest -s

hectare a hectare is 10,000 square metres: thousands of ~s of forest are destroyed every hour I a small farm of 200 ~s

investigate if you investigate something, you try to find out the truth about it. The noun is investigation: scientists are -ing the causes of the disease I we will -how the accident happened I they plan to carry out a detailed investigation I he is under police investigation (the police are investigating him)

lick if you lick something,you move your tongue across it: he lets his dog - his face I she -ed her

fingers I he -ed his lips litter tray a litter tray is a container inside a house

where cats go to the toilet: the - is smelly I the -stinks I the - is full I clean out the-

poisonous if something is poisonous, it can kill or harm you if it gets inside your body.The noun is poison: / was bitten by a- snake I - gas I some types of mushroom are - I he used poison to kill his victims

scratch if something scratches you, it makes a small cut on your skin. Scratch is also a noun: the cat -ed me 11 -ed my arm on some bushes I it's nothing -it's only a scratch I there were a few scratches on the car

socialise if you socialise, you spend time meeting friends and other people for fun. The adjective is sociable: she doesn't - very much 11 tend not to -with the people from work I I'm not feeling very sociable today

stroke if you stroke something,you move your hand over it in a slow and gentle way: he ~d the dog I cats love to be ~d I he -d her face gently

tank a tank is a large container that holds liquid or gas. You can also keep fish or snakes in a tank: / keep the snake in a - in my bedroom la fish - la water -la petrol -

44 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES 8 He was caught by a (speeding)

camera

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 I was distracted my work by all the noise. 2 He was arrested murder. 3 The animals were released the wild. 4 What's her role the company? 5 Scientists have discovered a new species

frog. 6 Tigers are threatened extinction. 7 The animals are kept cages. 8 The road is still construction.

В Choose the correct preposition. 1 Something was moving in I at the bushes. 2 They hid on I in the long grass. 3 The snake hissed at I to me. 4 We went trekking through Ion the jungle. 5 The animal skins are smuggled to I into the

country. 6 We observed the animals in Ion their natural

habitat. 7 I don't socialise/or/with people from work. 8 You can keep snakes on I in a glass tank.

С Which TWO words in the list below are NOT both a noun and a verb?

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

disappear into the bushes stop distracting me a large rock hunt for animals

be illegal inhabit a place smuggle goods threatened him with violence

investigate the boy's seem very a mountain path be shot by a group of

sell goods meet the ofa place be arrested for pose a serious

В Complete the sentences with the correct words from the words in brackets.

1 It is important to prevent the of the rainforest, (destroy)

2 These animals now face (extinct) 3 I thought the film was too (predict) 4 He believes in of speech, (free) 5 The police are carrying out an

(investigate) 6 She used to kill the rats.

(poisonous) 7 He's a very person, (socialise)

circle crawl habitat action arrest breed hunt search trek

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

investigate lick predict search stroke threaten

1 a place for evidence 2 your lips 3 what will happen 4 to kill someone 5 how something happened 6 a cat or dog

В Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

breed circle crawl hiss hunt scratch

1 The snake at me. 2 A spider across the floor. 3 They animals in the zoo. 4 People used to tigers for their

skins. 5 If you annoy the cat, it will you. 6 An eagle was above us.

Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-h) if you need help.

1 cut the 2 belong to a criminal 3 try to prevent 4 play a major 5 take decisive 6 have sensitive 7 protect endangered 8 keep them in a fish

a) global warming b) grass c) role d) gang e) skin f) tank g) action h) species

D Use the opposites to complete the adjectives from the unit.

1 an active I e__ __tvolcano 2 it's totally legal l\ I to do that 3 the animals are perfectly tame Iw __d 4 they're quite gentle I а edogs 5 the two men were locked up Is _ t f _ e 6 these mushrooms areedible/p__ __s

VOCABULARY BUILDER 45

12

PEOPLE I KNOW

PACES 8 2 - 3

affectionate if you are affectionate, you show how much you love or like someone. The noun is affection: he's very sweet and - / a very - child / a dog that has been starved of affection /1 just want a bit of affection

bright someone who is bright is intelligent and clever: he's a very-young man / very - kids/she's the brightest student in her class

close if you are close to someone, you get on very well with them and can talk to them about anything: I'm very - to my older brother / my sister and I are very -/ they're a very -family /1 only told my - est friends

competitive someone who is competitive always wants to win or be more successful than other people: he's very sporty and very -la highly -player / why do you have to be so-?

demonstration a demonstration is a public march or meeting to show that people support something or are opposed to it.The verb is demonstrate: an anti-war - I a pro-democracy - /he went on the big - protesting against the new law I a - in support of the arrested men / thousands of people demonstrated against the new tax

determined if you are determined,you do not let anything stop you from achievingyour goals and doing what you want to do. The noun is determination: he's a very-young man / he's - to succeed / we made a - effort to clean the place up /he has shown real determination / they played with great determination

dissolve if you dissolve something in a liquid,you mix it in until it disappears: heat the mixture until the sugar -s / the powder will - in cold water

a dropout a dropout is someone who leaves school or university before finishing their course. It also means someone who decides to live an alternative

lifestyle and to not be a part of normal society. The verb is drop out: he's a bit ofa - / my parents are worried I'm going to end up becoming a - / hippie ~s / he dropped out of college

WORD BUILDING: NOUNS MADE FROM PHRASAL VERBS

Some phrasal verbs can be made into nouns with similar meanings.

Sometimes the nouns are one-word nouns, sometimes they are two words joined with a hyphen (-), Sometimes the words from the phrasal verb appear in the same order in the noun, sometimes they are the other way round.

Phrasal verb

check in: checkyour bags in fall out: let's not -about money walk out: she walked out on her husband rip off they tried to rip us off

break down: cars sometimes -pour down: it's pouring down bring up. - kids on your own

Noun

check-in: I'll meet you at the -falling-out: they had a big -walkout: the union ordered a -rip-off: it was such a -breakdown: have a nervous -downpour: get caught in the -upbringing: have a strict -

easy-going if someone is easy-going, they do not easily get worried, upset, angry or stressed: she's very relaxed and - / they have a very - attitude towards life / a friendly - person

generous if someone is generous, they are willing to give money or help people. The noun is generosity: she can be very - when she wants to be / he's very - with his time /an extremely - offer/people take advantage of his generosity / an act of great generosity

great- great- is a prefix that you can add to words for family members to mean one generation back from that member: my grandfather is 75 and my -grandfather is 102 / my - aunt / his - grandparents

grow out of if you grow out of clothes, you become too big to wear them. If you grow out of something,you become too old to enjoy doing it: kids - their clothes so quickly / don't worry-he'll - it once he gets older / he used to wet his bed, but he's grown out of it now

half- half- is a prefix that you can add to the nouns 'brother'or'sister'to show you share one of the same parents. Half- can also be added to words to give the meaning of 50 percent: my dad remarried

46 OUTCOMES

last year and now I have a --brother / I'm --dead this morning (very tired) / / guess I --agree with you /you can get--price tickets

idiot an idiot is someone who is very foolish or stupid. The adjective is idioticyou can be such an - sometimes / our boss was a bit of an - / he drives like an - / that was an idiotic thing to do

indulgent if you are indulgent with someone,you treat them especially well, and sometimes allow them to have more than is good for them. The verb is indulge: he's very - with his daughter /she's very - towards her grandchildren /she indulges the children too much / the food is all free so go on -indulge yourself

intense if someone is intense, they are very serious in the way they talk and behave. The noun is intensity: he's very serious and quite - / she can be a bit too - sometimes /a very -young man / a very - relationship /she looked at me with real intensity

-mate -mate is a suffix you can add to nouns to show that two people share a space or an activity together: I get on really well with my flat- (the person I share a flat with) /go out with myclass-s / he's got three houses / her room-/go out for a meal with my works

naughty if children are naughty, they behave badly: she can be quite - sometimes /you've been a very - boy I that was very - of you / our teacher talks to us as if we were - schoolchildren

outgoing someone who is outgoing is friendly and likes meeting new people: he's very funny and - / we're both quite chatty and - / she has a very -personality

phase a phase is one period of time in the growth or development of something: the first - of the project is nearly finished / he went through a - of wearing black all the time / it's just a - he's going through

scholarship a scholarship is money that is given to you by an organization so that you can afford to go to school or university: he won a - to study Physics I she was awarded a- to help her complete her degree / I'm here on a -

hy someone who is shy feels nervous and uncomfortable around other people, particularly people they do not know: she's quite quiet and - / he's painfully - (extremely shy)/he's very - with girls /I'm too - to go and talk to her /she gave a

- smile step- step- is a prefix that you can add to words

for family members to show you are related to someone through a second or a later marriage: my mum remarried last year and my -father is great /1 don't really get on with my -brother / a -daughter / her -son / his -mother / my-brother

stubborn someone who is stubborn refuses to change their mind or to see anyone else's point

of view: why do you have to be so-? / he's got a -personality

sweet if someone is sweet, they are pleasant, kind and nice to other people: he's very - and affectionate / it was - of you to help / she's such a - little girl

PAGES 8 4 - 5

activity an activity is something that you do, for example a sport or hobby: golf is the most popular free-time - in my country / the hotel offers a wide range of outdoor activities / there will be some organized group activities in the morning / he's involved in illegal activities

backpacking backpacking is the activity of travelling around an area fora long time, carryingyour luggage in a bag on your back. The person is a backpacker: / met him while I was - in Australia / I spent six months - round Asia / I'd love to go -for a year / we stayed in a cheap little hostel for backpackers

character your character is all the qualities you have that make you an individual. The character of a place is all the qualities it has. If you say that someone is a character,you mean that they are an interesting person: my brother and I have quite similar s / there's a nasty side to his - / the hotel has real - /shouting at her was very out of - for him (he doesn't usually do things like that)/she's a very likeable -

common something that is common to different people is shared by them. If people have things in common, they like some of the same kind of things: we've got a lot of - interests / it's -knowledge that she's going to leave / it's for the -good (for the benefit of everyone) / we have a lot in

- / we don't have much in - / they have absolutely nothing in -

fall out if you fall out with someone,you have a big argument and stop talking to them. The noun is a falling-out: we fell out over a girl I look -1 don't want to - with you about this / have those two

fallen out or something? / we had a big falling-out a few years ago

get into if you get into something, you become interested in it or involved in it: / always used to - trouble at school I he got very into politics a few years ago / he's started getting into drugs (taking drugs)/she's been getting intoyoga recently

power if someone has power, they are able to control other people.The adjective is powerful: he remained in - for over 40years / there'll be a big - struggle now that the president is ill / I'll do everything in my - to help (everything that I can do) / / don't have the - to make that decision / the king is a very powerful man

VOCABULARY BUILDER 47

relations relations between countries and organizations are the connections between then and the way they behave towards each other: the two countries have managed to maintain good ~ since the end of the war/she's studying International - / they are trying to, improve -between the two countries / we want to establish better-with our neighbours / this incident has damaged - between us

touch if you are in touch with someone,you see them or talk to them regularly. If you lose touch,you stop seeing them or talking to them, especially when they move to a different town: we keep in - via email / try and stay in - once the course

finishes / we lost - after university / I'd love to get back in - with my old friends from school / are you two still in ~>

via via something means through or using that thing: we keep in touch - email / the pictures are sent - satellite / we flew to Tokyo - Singapore

PACES 8 6 - 7

come across if you come across something,you find it by accident. The way somebody comes across is the way they seem to other people: / came across a great website /she came across some old photos in the cupboard / he comes across as quite shy

distant if people or things are distant, they are not close to you or not closely related to you: he's only a - friend / a - relative / it all happened in the -past (a long time ago) / it's just a - memory

drift apart if two people drift apart, they gradually become less friendly or their relationship gradually ends: People - because they don't have enough in common / we slowly drifted apart over the years

ego your ego is the opinion you have of your own value and importance. Someone who is egotistical thinks they are very important. Someone with a huge ego is an egomaniac: a young man with a huge - / the experience destroyed my - / if really boosted my - / making the film was all just an -

trip for him (something he did to make himself feel important) / she's very egotistical / he's a complete egomaniac!

harm harm is injury, damage or problems that you cause. Harm is also a verb: one drink won't do you any - / sometimes exercise can do more-than good / don't worry-no - done / there's no -asking /he would never harm his kids / this crisis could seriously harm the economy

mixed if you have mixed feelings, you are unsure how you feel about something.Things that are mixed are partly good and partly bad: he's got -feelings about going to university /1 had very - emotions after seeing him again /she teaches a —ability class / the film got very - reviews / there was a -reaction to the news

paranoid if you are paranoid, you feel frightened of other people for no reason, and you believe they are trying to harm you.The noun is paranoia: it's fine -you're just being - / he's really - that someone is following him / there's a lot of paranoia about terrorism at the moment

popular if someone is popular, most people like them: he's a very - teacher/he wants lots of people to come to his party so that he looks - /he's very -with the fans / a - politician

reservations if you have reservations about an idea, you are not completely sure that it is a good idea: he's got serious - about the plan /1 have a few minor - about her ideas / his colleagues expressed major - /I support the idea, but with some -

site a site is a place that is used for a special purpose. A site on the Internet is a place where information is available or people can talk to each other: he works on a building - /a camp - /we visited the - of an ancient city /most of her friends have joined social networking ~s on the Internet / my favourite web-

track down if you track down a person or a thing, you find them after a long and difficult search: there are websites that help you - people you went to school with / I'm trying to-a copy of the film on DVD / the police finally managed to track him down in Oman

48 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 I'm very close my sister. 2 Dissolve the sugar the lemon juice. 3 She's quite generous her money. 4 He's quite indulgent his grandchildren. 5 We've finished this phase the project. 6 He's quite shy girls. 7 He's popular his classmates. 8 I have some reservations his ideas.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 an affectionate child show a lot of

2 an anti-war demonstration against the war

3 he's determined to have great succeed

4 a generous offer an act of great

5 be very indulgent yourself 6 an intense young man look at someone with

great 7 go backpacking a hostel for

8 be in power for a ten years leader

9 boost someone's ego a very.. man

COLLOCATIONS

A Match the nouns to the verbs. Look up the nouns if you need help.

1 goon a) an idiot 2 drive like b) relations 3 win c) a demonstration 4 go d) a scholarship 5 maintain good e) backpacking

В Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 a popular free-time a __ __y 2 have a nasty side to your с r 3 have a lot in с n 4 keep in t h with someone 5 boost someone's e о

С Complete the sentences with the correct adjective from the list.

bright competitive easy-going intense naughty paranoid sociable stubborn

1 I like to win - I'm very 2 Kidswhoare usually do well in

exams. 3 Those children behave so badly-they're really

4 She never gets stressed - she's very

5 He's very - he's always involved in deep conversations.

6 I love meeting new people - I'm very

7 He never changes his mind - he's incredibly

8 Don't be so -no one's following you I

D Choose the correct phrasal verb. 1 He's dropped out of/grown out of all his

clothes! 2 She's always coming across /falling out with

her friends. 3 He first got into / drifted apart politics when

he was at university. 4 We dropped out of 7 came across some old

photos in the bottom of the wardrobe. 5 They slowly got into / drifted apart over the

years. 6 I managed to track down/grow out of my

cousin in Australia.

Е Complete each pair of sentences with one of the prefixes in the list.

great mixed half step

1 a) I was up very late last night, so now I'm -dead. b) I -agree with you.

2 a) My mum has remarried, so now I've got a -father.

b) I've got a sister and two -brothers. 3 a) My -grandfather is 92.

b) I've got a -aunt in Scotland. 4 a) It's difficult to teach a -ability class.

b) I've got feelings about moving to London.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 49

13

TRAVEL

PACES 9 2 - 3

anxious if you are anxious, you are worried and nervous about something that might happen.The noun is anxiety: / get really - when I fly /1 always get - before exams / the silence was making me feel - / how do you cope with anxiety? / it helps to share your anxieties with others

bend a bend is the curved part in a road, river, etc. Bend is also a verb.The past tense and past participle is bent. If you bend something,you move it so that it is curved: when you're driving, you shouldn't overtake on a -/a sharp - in the road / be careful - this is a tight ~ / a ~ in the river / the road bends sharply to the right / can you bend your arm? / she bent down to pick up the coin

bumpy if a journey is bumpy, it is uncomfortable because it is not smooth and the car or plane you are in moves up and down a lot. The noun is bump. A bump is a raised, uneven part on a surface: the road was really ~ /we had a very -fight / the car hit a bump in the road /1 got a nasty bump on my head where I hit it on the pavement

calm down if you calm down,you become less excited, angry or upset. If you calm someone down,you make them feel less excited, angry or upset: she got into a panic and wouldn't - / it took me a few minutes to- / take a deep breath and - /1 tried to calm him down /you need to calm yourself down a bit

carriage in British English, a carriage is one of the separate sections of a train. In American English, people say a car: they sat in a first-class - / a second-class - / a women-only -

check in if you check in at a hotel or an airport, you give your personal details and sign papers so that

50 OUTCOMES

you can enter. The noun is check-in: we'll go and -at our hotel first /you can- online for your flight / do you have any bags to-? / there was a huge queue at the check-in desk / check-in time is after midday

confiscate if you confiscate something from someone, you take it away from them as a punishment: the teacher ~d my mobile phone / the boat was ~d by the government / the police -d my passport

crossing a crossing is a boat journey across a sea or river. A crossing is also a place where you can cross something like a road or a border: we had a very smooth - / it was a rough - /we reached the border - late in the afternoon /the road was busy, so I looked for a pedestrian -

deck the deck of a boat is the outside part where you can walk. A deck is also one of the different levels or areas on a boat, plane or bus: It was too windy to go out on - / they had to hide in a tiny space below - (in the part of the ship under the deck) / we sat on the top - of the bus / passengers aren't normally allowed on the flight - (the part of a plane where the pilot sits)

desk a desk is a place in a large building such as a hotel or airport where you can get help and information:you can ask at the information - /we went straight to the check-in - / phone the help- / the reception -

ex-the prefix ex- is added to nouns to show what job or role someone used to have. Your ex is someone who used to be your husband, wife, boyfriend or girlfriend: he didn't want to invite his —girlfriend / a group of—soldiers / the —president / he's an —smoker (he used to smoke) /she still keeps in touch with her ex

go through if you go through a difficult or unpleasant time, you experience it. If you go through a place, you pass through it on your way to another place: she's been through a very difficult time /1 don't want to - that again /he's going through a difficult phase / we have to - security before we can board the flight / we'll - Newcastle on our way to Scotland

harbour a harbour is a sheltered area of sea near the land where boats can stop and people can get on and off: we'll be coming into the - soon /a pretty

fishing - /a busy - / we walked along the - wall homeless if you are homeless, you have nowhere to

live. People who have nowhere to live are called the homeless, or homeless people. The problem is homelessness: a lot of ex-soldiers end up - / the earthquake left thousands of people - / the town provides overnight accommodation for -people / they are trying to raise money to help the- / homelessness is a growing problem in the cities

land when a plane lands, it comes down to the ground.The noun is landing: we - at about

WORD BUILDING: ADJECTIVES THAT END WITH -LESS

We often add -less to nouns to make an adjective like homeless (from the noun home). It usually means'without something'.

careless: a - powerless: he felt mistake completely -endless: there are sleepless: / had a -- possibilities night homeless: he speechless: / was ended up - absolutely - with hopeless: it was a anger - situation useless: a - machine painless: a fairly - worthless: a - piece of experience rubbish

и o'clock / please return to your seats - we will be -ing shortly /1 get really anxious about flying -especially at take-off and landing / it was a nice smooth landing

line a railway line is track that trains travel along: the train had to stop because there was something on the - / it's a very fast - up to Edinburgh (the trains are fast)/it's a direct-from London to Birmingham (you don't have to change trains)

overtake if you overtake a car when you are driving, you move in front of it. The past tense is overtook and the past participle is overtaken: The taxi driver overtook another car on a tight bend / it's too dangerous to - here /1 didn't check my mirror before overtaking

pick up if you pick someone up in a car, you go and collect them: I'll come and pick you up at the airport /1 have to pick the kids up from school

security security is all the systems and actions that help to protect a place. Security in an airport is the place where your bags and belongings are checked: it took us ages to go through - /he got stopped going through -/ there is now much tighter - at the airport / they plan to tighten -further / - cameras / - guards

set off when you set off, you begin a journey. The past tense and past participle is set off: we - the next morning / In ig8i Mai Ho finally - with 160 friends, family and neighbours / we need to - early tomorrow

smooth A smooth surface is not rough. A smooth journey is calm, and the car, boat or plane you are in does not move about much. Smooth can also mean without problems.The adverb is smoothly: we had a - crossing /it was a - flight / the road was - / the meeting went smoothly / the trains are running smoothly again (without problems)

take off when a plane takes off, it leaves the ground. The noun is take-off: we didn't - until 9 o'clock / we

took off about an hour late / we got to the airport an hour and a half before take-off

terrifying if something is terrifying, it makes you feel extremely frightened. If you are terrified, you feel extremely frightened: ft was a - experience / it was absolutely -/I'm terrified of snakes

traffic lights traffic lights are coloured lights next to a road that control traffic and tell cars when they should stop: stop at the - / the - turned red as we drove up / turn left at the next set of-

travel if you travel,you go from one place to another. If you go travelling, you spend a long period of time going to lots of different places: they-led to Japan last month / he has to - a lot for work / I'd love to- the world /1 usually try and - light (with very few bags) /she spent a year -ling around India

tyre a tyre is the ring of rubber on the wheel ofa car or a bicycle. It is filled with air: it's a good idea to check the ~s before you set out / we got aflat - on the motorway / I've got a spare - in the back of the car / we had to change the ~s

work out if you work something out, you understand it or find an answer to it by thinking about it: we tried to - how much food we would need / they're trying to - why the plane crashed /he's a strange guy - 1 can't work him out at all

PACES 9 4 - 5

bribe if you bribe someone,you offer them some money to persuade to do something for you. Bribe is also a noun: the teacher ~d the kids with sweets /he was accused of bribing government officials / we had to - the police to let us go /you could try offering him a - /he was accused of taking -s (accepting them)

bureaucracy bureaucracy is a negative word for all the rules, systems and paperwork that organizations use. The adjective is bureaucratic: the company is trying to reduce unnecessary - / there's a huge amount of - involved in keeping immigrants out / there's too much - / the whole system is very bureaucratic

discrimination if there is discrimination, one person or group of people is treated unfairly. The verb is discriminate. The adjective is discriminatory: a lot of women still face sexual - (because of their sex) / they still suffer racial - (because of their colour or race) / a victim of religious - / critics say the new laws discriminate against women / they say the new laws are discriminatory

emigrate if you emigrate, you leave your country and go and live in another one.The noun is emigration: people -for a wide variety of reasons / my uncle ~d to Canada / some people saw emigration as their only option

VOCABULARY BUILDER 51

fence a fence is a wooden or metal structure that separates two pieces of land: they have built a high - to stop immigrants from entering the country / they climbed over the security ~ / put up a garden - / a - around the airport

hypocritical if someone is hypocritical, they say that they have certain beliefs, but then behave in a way that goes against those beliefs.The person is called a hypocrite: she thinks that all politicians are - / it's so - of him to take that job, after all he's said /you're such a hypocrite!

immigration immigration is the process in which people move into a country to live and work there. Someone who does this is an immigrant: the government has introduced new restrictions on - / / handed my passport to the - official (someone who checks the people coming into a country) / the government wants to prevent illegal immigrants from getting in /the country welcomes immigrants

interrogation an interrogation is the process of asking someone questions, often in an angry way, in order to get information.The verb is interrogate: / expected a long- /he was subjected to a police - / a senior officer conducted the - / he revealed everything under» / / was interrogated by the officer for hours

persecution persecution is very bad and unfair treatment of a person or group of people, usually because of their sex, race, religion, etc. The verb is persecute: he fears he will face - if he returns to his own country / they are trying to escape political - / victims of religious -/he was persecuted for being gay

refugee a refugee is someone who has left their country because of war, a natural disaster etc: The ship's captain agreed to take the ~s to the safety of Malaysia / the war has created thousands of~s / the government has agreed to take in the ~s / a - camp

restriction a restriction is a rule or action that controls or limits something.The verb is restrict: the government has introduced new ~s on immigration / they have imposed trade ~s on the country / it may be time to lift the ~s / there are parking ~s in the city centre / the new laws restrict freedom of the press

set up if you set up something, you make the necessary preparations for it to start: he wants to -his own business / I'm going to - my own website

stamp if you stamp a document, you press a mark onto it with ink and a small patterned metal or wooden block. This block is also called a stamp, and the mark on the paper is a stamp as well: they didn't - my passport /1 need to get my visa -ed / he ~ed the date on the application form /the document needs an official -

visa a visa is an official document that gives you permission to enter a country: she was finally given

a - to go to Australia /1 need to sort out my - / have you applied for a -yet' / he was denied a-1 my - runs out soon

uplifting if something is uplifting, it makes you feel happy and full of hope: it's an incredibly - story / an-film / a very - song

PAGES 9 6 - 7

compensation compensation is money that you receive because something bad has happened to you: the victims of the crash are asking for -from the train company / he was awarded £50,000 - / they are still fighting for ~ / he wants - for his lost luggage

filthy if something is filthy, it is extremely dirty: a ~ city / the room was absolutely - / that shirt is -

furious if you are furious, you are extremely angry: I'm absolutely - about them losing my luggage / they had a - argument

light something that is light is not heavy: it's OK-the bag is only - / wear something - because it's going to be warm / there was some - rain in the afternoon / a - meal

make up for if you make up for something bad,you do something to make it better: he bought me

flowers to -forgetting my birthday /when I was on the motorway I drove fast to - lost time

pack when you pack,you put your things into a bag or suitcase so you can take them somewhere: / couldn't decide how many clothes to - /1 still have to - before we leave / he -ed his bags and left / have you -ed our passports?

recharge if you recharge something electrical, you put more power into it: I forgot to - my mobile before I left /1 need to - the battery

reserve if you reserve something,you arrange for it to be kept so that you can use it. The adjective is reserved.The noun is reservation: I've -dseats on the train / I've ~d a room at a hotel / sorry -that table is already reserved / I'd like to make a reservation, please

set if you set a machine, you move the controls so that it will operate in the way you want it to: sorry I'm late -1 forgot to - my alarm clock / remember to - the timer

silly if something is silly, it is childish or not serious: it was a really - mistake to make / tell the children to stop being -

soaked if you are soaked,you are extremely wet: take an umbrella or you'll get - / my clothes were absolutely - /we were - to the bone

52 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

R

Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 Have you checked your hotel yet? 2 It was sunny, so we went up deck. 3 We can ask the information desk. 4 We watched the boats coming the harbour. 5 It took about an hour to go security at the

airport.

Choose the correct preposition. 1 We stopped on /at the traffic lights. 2 She's travelling to/for Canada tomorrow. 3 They emigrated in / to Australia. 4 There are new restrictions in / on immigration. 5 We were furious with /about the delay.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 3 bumpy journey a on the pavement

2 check in at the airport the desk 3 the plane lands at six have a smooth

4 a smooth crossing everything went

5 a terrifying experience I was absolutely

В Complete the sentences with the correct words from the words in brackets.

1 The government is worried about the amount of from the country, (emigrate)

2 The police searched the lorry for illegal (immigration)

3 They took me into a small room to me. (interrogation)

4 The government wants to the freedom of the press, (restriction)

5 I'd like to make a at the hotel, please, (reserve)

WORD BUILDING

A Complete the sentences with the correct adjective.

1 It was just a mistake. 2 I couldn't say anything - 1 was

with surprise. 3 I've had a few nights recently. 4 It is a simple and operation. 5 This kettle doesn't work - it's !

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

overtake pack stamp travel

reserve set

1 a lorry on the motorway 2 around Europe by train 3 their passports when they come

into the country 4 your bags before you goon

holiday 5 a seat in the theatre 6 your alarm clock for 7 o'clock

В Match the two halves of the collocations. 1 abend a) around the airport 2 the top deck b)camp 3 security c) in the road 4 a fence d)of the bus 5 a refugee e) cameras

С Complete the collocations with nouns and adjectives from the unit.

1 the first-class c__ __e 2 a pedestrianc__ __g 3 turn left at the t с I s 4 apply for a v __ a 5 We were s d to the bone after being out

in the rain. 6 There may be some I t rain this afternoon.

PHRASAL VERBS

A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb.

1 Just try and calm down /up. 2 What time do we have to check up /in? 3 I can pick you up/ off at the station. 4 We'll set off / up at about 10 o'clock tomorrow. 5 The plane takes up /off at 7 in the evening. 6 I bought her some chocolates to make up

with I for her disappointment.

careless painless speechless useless

VOCABULARY BUILDER 53

TECHNOLOGY

PACES 9 8 - 9

AIDS AIDS is a disease that makes your body unable to fight other infections: he died of - / the -epidemic in parts of Africa / deaths from - are increasing / he's got -

ASAP if you do something ASAP, you do it As Soon As Possible: Can you do it ~> /I'll get back to you with an answer - / we need to sort this out -

attachment an attachment is a document you add to an email message. The verb is attach: / got your email, but I can't open the - / I'll send it as an - 11

forgot to attach the file back-up if something is a back-up, it is an extra thing,

person or idea which you can use if necessary. The verb is back something up-.you should always make - copies of files /do we have a - plan? / the police officer called for - (extra people) / they've asked for more troops to back them up

cable a cable is a thick wire that carries electricity or digital information: she tripped over a loose - /an electric - /an underground -

click if you click on something,you move your computer mouse to show that thing and then press the mouse: - on the icon at the top of the screen / right - (with the button on the right of the mouse) /double - on the file to open it

connection a connection is a point where wires, pipes, etc, join. The verb is connect: if the Internet isn't working, start by checking the - / there's a loose - / this machine isn't connected to the Internet

delete if you delete something from your computer, you remove it. The delete button is the button on a keyboard that you press to delete something: I ~d an important file by mistake /she read the message and then -d it / think carefully before you press the - button / simply select the file and press -

54 OUTCOMES

difference if something makes a difference, it changes a situation and usually makes it better: the extra money will definitely make a-/ raising the minimum wage will make a huge - to people's lives /1 tried talking to her again, but it made no -(didn't change the situation)

display to display something means to show it clearly so that people can see it. A display is a set of things arranged so that people can see them. The display on a computer is what is shown on the screen: the program will - a drop-down menu/shops - their goods in their windows /the college always ~s the exam results on the noticeboard / there were some lovely works of art on display (arranged for people to see) / a nice display the shop window / we looked at the display on the screen

external something that is external is on the outside or comes from outside an object, building, organization, etc.The opposite is internal.The adverb is externally: the computer has an - hard-drive / the - walls of the house / this medicine is

for - use only (you mustn't eat or drink it) / the managers decided to consult an - advisor (from outside the company) the project is externally financed

file a file is a named document on the computer. It is also a place where you can keep important papers: / deleted the - by accident / create a new - / a --sharing website /1 keep a - of all my receipts

good if something is no good, it is not useful or has no success: this old computer's no good now / it's no good asking Mark - he doesn't know anything about computers /1 tried saving the file again, but that didn't do any good (wasn't successful)

icon an icon is a little picture on a computer screen: click on the printer - /the message - on my phone was showing that I had a new message

keyboard a computer keyboard is the part you use to write on the computer. Each letter or number is a key that you press: be careful not to spill coffee over the - I get a new - /you will need good -skills/ press the delete key

log if you log on to a computer or website, you write a name or password to start using it.The opposite is log off: / can't - on to the network / you need a password to - on /1 -ged off at 6 o'clock

major something that is major is very big, serious or important: we have a - problem / this is becoming a - issue / he had a - operation on his heart /

fund a - project / the gallery is putting on a - new exhibition

microphone a microphone, or mike, is something you speak into to record your voice or make it sound louder: plug the - in to the computer / he used a -to make himself heard / please speak into the - / turn the - off

network a network is a group of computers, machines or people which are connected. To network computers means to connect them together. When people network, they meet new people and make new contacts: / logged on to the - / the - 'sdown at the moment (not working) / he has a good - of friends / there are plans to network all the computers /you should get out and network more

plug a plug is the part ofa machine that you put into a wall or another machine to connect it. The verb is plug it in: put the - into the socket /is the computer plugged in? / plug your MPs player into the computer

scan if you scan something, you use a machine (called a scanner) to create a picture of it on a screen. Scan is also a noun:you can - the pictures onto your computer / put the documents in the scanner / they did a - of his brain to check for problems

socket a socket is a hole in the wall or in a machine where you can put a plug: there's a - on the wall / make sure you plug the keyboard into the right -

spill if you spill a liquid or powder, you make it fall out of its container by accident: mind you don't -coffee over the keyboard / he -ed sugar all over the table / I've -ed some wine on your carpet

trip if you trip, your foot hits something by accident and you fall or lose your balance: / -ped over the cable /he -ped and fell I she -ped down the stairs

PACES 1 0 0 - 1

bitter a bitter argument or fight is very angry: they had a - argument / a - fight with his family /a -dispute

boom if something is booming, it is increasing and very successful. Boom is also a noun: the property market is -ing / business is -ing at the moment/ tourism has -ed in recent years / there's been a huge - in exports

creator the creator of something is the person who made or created it: the - of the first personal computer / the - of the website/ he was the car's -

decline if there is a decline in something, it decreases in amount or becomes less successful. Decline is also a verb.The adjective is declining: the housing market is in - / there has been a - in standards in schools / student numbers have ~d / his popularity is declining / he can't go out now because of his declining health

destination your destination is the place you are going to: we finally arrived at our - / they never reached their - / it's a popular holiday -

-friendly we add -friendly to a noun to show that something is easy or good for a particular person or thing: all our products are environmentally--(they don't harm the environment) /the website is user— (easy for people to use) / a child--restaurant (willing to accept children)

gossip gossip is informal information about other people's private lives. If you gossip, you talk about other people's private lives: he told me all the latest - / have you got any ~? /1 never pay attention to- / they seem to spend their time -ing about the boss

inferior something that is inferior is not of very good quality.The opposite is superior: it's an - product / this model is - to the older one (not as good as it) / he feels - to them

revealto reveal information means to make it known to people, especially when it had been hidden or secret: a look at the history books -s the names of many old inventions /he promised he would never -her secret /the documentary -s the truth about the drug trade

revival if there is a revival, something becomes popular or successful again after a period of time when it was unpopular or unsuccessful.The verb is revive: the product is enjoying a - / music from the 1980s is having a bit of a-1 there has been a - of interest in home cooking / the success of the team has revived interest in the sport

saturated if a market is saturated, it is completely full of products. If something is saturated, it is extremely wet: the market is already - / the market has been - with cheap imports /he was - in sweat / my clothes were -

short-lived if something is short-lived, it only exists or lasts for a short time: their success was - / the government was -

technological something technological uses machines and is based on science and modern knowledge.The noun is technology: therehas been a lot of- innovation in the last ten years/great -advances / they are confident they will find a -solution to the problem / this is one of the benefits of modern technology

PACES 1 0 2 - 3

allow if a thing allows you to do something, it makes it possible for you to do it: the machine ~s you to make copies of documents / the service -s customers to access their Internet account from any computer / the money will - the organization to buy new equipment

automatically if a machine does something automatically, it has no human help. If a person does something automatically, they do it

VOCABULARY BUILDER 55

immediately, without needing to think about it. The adjective is automatic: the machine does it all - / the system shuts down ~ / it adjusts the temperature -/1 - put my hand in front of my eyes / he asked me for help and I ~ said yes / the automatic doors opened

bulb a bulb, or light bulb, is the glass object that you put in a lamp or light: we use energy-efficient lights / the -'s gone (it is broken) /you need to change the - /put a new - in /a 6o-watt -

ceiling the ceiling is the top surface in a room: the room has a low ~ / a high ~ / a -fan / hang something from the -

cool something that is cool is fashionable and attractive: their new phone looks - / she's very - / he was wearing a really - T-shirt

efficient if a person or thing is efficient, they do a job well, without wasting time or energy.The noun is efficiency. The opposite is inefficient: the newer machines are more energy— (they use less energy) / the car's very fuel— / it's not a very - way of doing it / make ~ use of resources / the admin staff are highly - / the department needs to improve its efficiency

fan a fan is a machine that makes air move so that a place is cooler, hotter or less smelly: he turned on the ceiling - /turn offthe- /an electric -/an extractor -(to take old air out of a room) /a - heater

COMPOUND NOUNS

We often put two nouns together in English, for example ceiling fan. The first noun is like an adjective - it describes the second noun.The first noun is never plural - ceiling fans but never ceilings fan. Look at these other compound nouns.

an AIDS epidemic /a flu epidemic admin staff / teaching staff cableTV / closed-circuit TV a telephone company / a car company a computer display / a window display the printer icon / the paste icon keyboard skills / people skills a brain scanner / a computer scanner

format a format is the design or type of technology which is used to keep information. Format is also a

yerb-.you can change videos into different -s / what -is the file in? /1 tried to change the - of the file / it's important to - the document correctly

gadget a gadget is a small machine or device which helps you do something useful: a - for opening cans / a clever kitchen - / he loves all the latest ~s

overnight if something happens overnight, it happens from one night until the next morning: you shouldn't leave machines on standby - / would you like to stay -? / take the - train / the film was an - success (very quick)

panel a panel of material is a large flat piece of it: a -of wood / the water is heated by solar -s (panels of material that make energy from sunlight) /fit solar -s on the roof

plant if you plant something,you put it in the ground so that it will grow: - a tree in the garden / they -ed flowers in the front garden / the thought someone might have -eda bomb (hidden it in a place)

run we use run off or run on to say what type of energy a machine uses: a radio that -s off solar power /its on batteries / most cars - on petrol / some cars - off electricity

solar solar means connected to the sun: - power / -panels / - energy /the biggest planet in the-system

standby if a machine or person is on standby, they are not being used, but are waiting and prepared to be used. When machines are on standby, they often have a little red light: / always leave my computer on- / the police are on - in case they are needed / the hospital has a - generator (for producing electricity)

straightforward if something is straightforward, it is simple and easy: the photocopier is very - to use / applying for a passport is a - process / he gave -instructions / it's a - question

subsidise if the government subsidises something, it provides some of the money for it so that it is cheaper for people to buy or use. The noun is subsidy: the transport system is ~d by the government / the EU -s farmers / they want to increase government subsidies to industry

switch if you switch something off or on,you press a switch to start or stop the electricity: - the light on / the computer -es itself off / - off your mobile phone / Where's the light ~?

56 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 There has been a decline standards. 2 Click the'save'icon. 3 I tried to log to the network. 4 Plug the computer the socket. 5 I scanned the photos my computer. 6 She tripped a cable. 7 You shouldn't leave your computer

standby.

В Choose the correct preposition. 1 I spilled orange juice in/overthe keyboard. 2 He was the original creator of /from this

program. 3 I'll send the document as/for an attachment. 4 The new model is inferior to / of the old one. 5 It's a useful gadget to I for opening bottles. 6 His car runs with/on electricity.

WORD FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 a loose connection the printer to the computer

2 a revival of interest it might in his films interest in the sport

3 a lot of technological the benefits of innovation modern

4 the doors open an door automatically

5 an efficient heating we must improve system

6 the government increase government subsidises farming to industry

В Which TWO words in the list are NOT both a noun and verb?

boom decline display format gossip icon network scan socket switch

WORD BUILDING

A Match the two halves of the compound nouns. 1 an AIDS a) display 2 a brain b) icon

3 the admin 4 good keyboard 5 a window 6 the printer

c) epidemic d) scanner e) skills f) staff

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you need help.

• allow delete display plant reveal switch

1 Be careful you don't an important file by mistake.

2 They usually the exam dates on the notice board.

3 He promised he wouldn't her secret.

4 The system you to store a lot of information.

5 We decided to a tree in the back garden.

6 Don't forget to the computer off when you've finished.

В Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-f) if you need help.

1 make a a) destination 2 die of b) panel to the roof 3 use a c) difference 4 reach your d)AIDS 5 change the e) microphone to make

yourself heard 6 fit a solar f) light bulb

С Complete the missing adjectives. 1 Fix the aerial to an e __lwal lofthe

house. 2 That old computer's nog__d now. 3 His success didn't last long - it was

quite s t -1 d. 4 The market is already s _ __dwith

products. 5 I love your T-shirt - it's really с II 6 There's room if you want to stay о _ _ _ t . 7 It's not difficult - in fact it's quite s __

f d. 8 They had a b r argument about the

money. 9 The website is quite user-f_ _ __y.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 57

INJURIES AND ILLNESS

PACES 1 0 4 - 5

adverse adverse effects or conditions are bad or harmful.The adverb is adversely: he had an -reaction to the drug / the flight was cancelled because of - weather conditions I the industry has been adversely affected by the poor economy

antibiotics antibiotics are drugs that are given to people to cure infections and to kill bacteria: the infection should clear up with - / the doctor prescribed a course of - / I'm on - at the moment I I'm taking - for my chest infection

blood pressure your blood pressure is the force with which your blood moves around your body:youVe got very high - / the doctor took my - (measured it) / / need to lower my - / she suffers from low-

chest your chest is the upper front part of your body, between your stomach and your neck: I've got a -infection / I've been having pains in my- / my -felt really tight and I could hardly breathe

consciousness consciousness is the condition of being awake and being aware of what is happening around you. The adjective is conscious. The opposite is unconscious: he lost - / she finally regained - two hours later /he was drifting in and out of - / he was fully conscious during the operation /she was knocked unconscious when shefell

cough if you cough,you force air out of your throat with a short, loud noise. Cough is also a noun: the smoke was making me - I he's -ing a lot at night /1 couldn't stop - ing / I've had a nasty -for weeks /a smoker's - / have you got anything for a ~?

diarrhoea if you have diarrhoea, a lot of liquid waste comes out of your bottom because you are ill: have you had any - at all? /1 had awful - after that meal / the food gave me an attack of-

dizzy if you feel dizzy, you feel as if you are losing your balance and are going to fall over.The noun is dizziness: It was really hot on the underground and I felt - and then I just fainted / have you had any dizziness at all?

infection if you have an infection, there is a bacteria or virus in part of your body that is making you ill. You can also say that a part of your body is infected. Diseases can be infectious if they can move from one person to another.The verb is infect: / had a nasty chest - /an ear - / a viral - / have you come into contact with an infected person? /he is infected with HIV/a highly infectious disease / it's important not to infect other people

itchy if a part of your body is itchy, you feel as if you want to scratch it.The noun is itchiness.The verb is itch: a really - rash /1 feel - all over / I'll give you some cream for the itchiness /1 know it itches but don't scratch it

medication a medication is a drug that you take to cure an illness: the main side effect of the - is that it makes you feel sleepy / the doctor recommended trying a different - /1 don't want to take - / a re you on any - at all?

nasty if something is nasty, it is bad and unpleasant: I've got a - cough / I've developed this - rash on my hand /1 hit my head and got a - cut / he picked up a - viral infection when he was on holiday

painkillers painkillers are drugs which reduce or remove physical pain: the doctor gave me some - / I need some stronger - / take a couple of-

rash a rash is an area of red spots that you get on your skin if you are allergic to something or if you are ill: I've got a - on my legs /I've developed a nasty - /an allergic - / when I'm stressed, I come out in a -

reaction if you suffer a reaction to a drug or a type of food, it affects you in a bad way.The verb is react: have you ever had any ~s to any drugs? / she had an allergic - to the prawns/she suffered an adverse - to the treatment / some patients react badly to the medication

sneeze when you sneeze, you blow air out of your nose with a loud sound. When you sneeze, other people often say bless you: the dust was making me- / he starts sneezing as soon as he goes near a cat /1 think I'm going to -

sprain if you sprain a joint in your body, you hurt it byturning it too much.The adjective is sprained: / think I've -ed my ankle / I've -ed my wrist / he's -ed his knee / it's probably just -ed but you should have it X-rayed

swollen (up) if a part of your body is swollen (up), it is bigger than usual because of an injury or illness. The verb is swell (up).The noun is swelling: his knee was painful and - / the joints in her hands

are really - / my arm had swollen up from the bee sting /put some ice on it to reduce the swelling

symptoms symptoms are the signs you notice in your body that show you have an illness: apart from a headache, doyou have any other ~? / the - ofa cold include coughing and sneezing / I'd been ignoring the-for ages

vomit vomit is a more formal, medical word for be sick or throw up. When you vomit, food and drink comes back up from your stomach and leaves your mouth. Vomit is also a noun: have you -edat all? / he was -ing up blood / the smell made me want to - /he was lying in a pool of -

PACES 1 0 6 - 7

acne acne is a skin condition which causes a lot of bad spots on your face. It particularly affects teenagers: washing too much can make - worse / I used to have terrible - as a teenager / she suffers

from -1 my - eventually cleared up

addictive if something is addictive, you cannot stop taking it or doing it once you start. You become addicted (to it). The person who is addicted is an addict: coffee is very - /a highly - drug /some computer games are - / he's completely addicted to chocolate / he became a heroin addict

arthritis arthritis is a medical condition in which the joints in your body swell up and become painful: my grandma's got - / he suffers from severe - / new drugs to treat -

attack to attack a person or a place mea ns to try to hurt or damage them by using violence. Attack is also a noun: the dog suddenly-ed me and bit my leg / the virus ~s the brain / a violent racist - / the soldiers came under - /she suffered an - of nerves

childhood your childhood is the time when you are a child: о poor diet in - can lead to problems in later life / I've got very happy memories of my - /she had a difficult -

cholesterol cholesterol is a fatty substance in your blood. If you have too much,you might have a heart attack: try to eat foods which are low in - / there is a definite link between - and heart disease / he's got high - / drugs to reduce - in the blood

condition a medical condition is a long-term illness or health problem: she's got some kind of medical - / he's got a genetic - / she was born with a serious heart -

crack if you crack the joints in your hands, you pull or bend your fingers so that they make a loud sound: -ing the joints in your fingers can cause arthritis / don't - your fingers - it's horrible!

cure to cure someone, or cure their disease or illness, means to make them better. Cure is also a noun. A disease that is incurable cannot be cured: he's now completely ~d of the disease / there's no -for the

common cold / scientists are still looking for a - for AIDS / he's got an incurable medical condition

disease a disease is an illness that affects people or animals. Diseases are often caused by infections: the - is caused by a virus / he's got heart - /an incurable - / a fatal - (causing death)/sexually transmitted -s

factor a factor is one of the things that has an effect on an event or situation: -s such as smoking and high blood pressure can lead to heart attacks / a person's weight is one of the major -s

fluids fluids are liquids that you drink.This is a formal, medical word: go to bed and drink lots of - / the doctor put me on - for two days (drinks, but no food)

genetic if a disease or medical condition is genetic, it is connected to someone's genes - the parts of a cell that control physical growth, development, etc: He's got a - condition /a - defect / they may be able to treat the disease with - engineering

insomnia if you suffer from insomnia,you find it hard to sleep: she suffers from terrible - / the medication just made my - worse

irritable if a person is irritable, they become angry or annoyed very easily.The noun is irritability.The verb is irritate: She gets very - sometimes / if you stop drinking coffee,you can suffer withdrawal symptoms such as headaches and irritability /the cream irritated my skin (made it painful)

joints your joints are the parts of your body where two bones meet and can move together,for exam pie your knee: the - in her wrists are very swollen / don't crack your - /1 sometimes get terrible pains in my -

malaria malaria is a tropical disease that is spread by mosquitoes: he caught - / mosquitoes spread - / -is carried by mosquitoes / the doctor is treating him

for - / new anti-- drugs speed up if something speeds up, or if you speed it

up, it moves or happens more quickly: coffee makes your body - / what can I do to - my computer? / we're trying to - the application process

stimulant a stimulant is a drug that makes your heart beat faster and stops you feeling tired: coffee is a - / the drug acts as a mild - /you should try to avoid -s

swallow when you swallow something, it moves from your mouth into your stomachyou shouldn't - chewing gum /1 can't - this pill / it hurts when I - / she -ed a chicken bone by accident

virus a virus is a very small living thing that can enter your body and cause a disease. A computer virus is a program that can enter your computer and destroy information.The adjective is viral: colds are caused Ьу-es/ he picked up a nasty - / I've been off work all week with a - / try not to pass the - on to other people / the email contained a - /a viral infection

58 OUTCOMES VOCABULARY BUILDER 59

withdrawal withdrawal is the process of stopping something, removing something or taking something away: People who suddenly stop drinking coffee may suffer ~ symptoms like headaches /1 need to make a - from my bank account (take money out) / the gradual - of soldiers from the area

PACES 1 0 8 - 9

bite if you bite something, you use your teeth to cut into it or make a hole in it.The past tense is bit. The past participle is bitten. Bite is also a noun: a dog bit me on the leg /don't - your nails /1 was bitten by a snake /1 woke up covered in mosquito -s / he had a nasty - on his leg

bruise a bruise is a dark mark you get on your body if you are hit. Bruise is also a verb. The adjective is bruised: he had quite a few cuts and ~s / she had a nasty - on her face /1 fell and -d my leg / a badly-bruised arm

faint if you faint,you suddenly become unconscious for a short period of time: I felt dizzy and just -ed / lots of people -ed in the heat /1 was so hungry I nearly -ed

fall off if you fall off something, you drop off it by accident: I fell off my bike and hurt myself / he fell ofa horse and broke his shoulder /1 fell off a ladder

PHRASAL VERBS WITH 'FALL'

If you slip or trip, you might fall over: / slipped on the ice and fell over /1 was running and I tripped and fell over.

You fall down the stairs: / slipped and fell down the stairs and broke my leg.

You fall off something you are standing on or riding: she fell off a motorbike and was lucky to survive.

sting if an insect stings you, it sticks a sharp part of its body into you and hurts you. The past tense and the past participle is stung. Sting is also a noun: This bee stung me on the arm and my whole arm swelled up / / got stung by a bee /1 had a painful -on my arm / a nasty -

sunburn if you have sunburn,your skin is red and painful because you have stayed in the sun for too long. The adjective is sunburnt: / spent the whole day on the beach and ended up with terrible - / take these simple precautions to prevent - / creams for treating - / put some suncream on or you 'II get sunburnt

suntan if you have a suntan, or a tan, your skin looks healthy and is a nice, dark colour because of the time you have spent in the sun. The adjective is tanned: I'm determined to get a good - this summer /put some - lotion on / she came back

from holiday with a deep tan / she looked tanned and healthy

survive if you survive an accident or a dangerous situation, you do not die.The noun is survivor: she was incredibly lucky to - the crash / he's -d three heart attacks so far / there were no survivors from the plane crash / they are still looking for survivors

60 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

3 I felt really sick and thought I was going to

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 I've got a rash my neck. 2 You've got all the symptoms a cold. 3 I've got a pain my chest. 4 The joints his hand are very painful. 5 A snake bit me the ankle.

WORD FAMILIES

Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 she lost consciousness he was during the operation

2 I feel dizzy a feeling of

3 a chest infection the disease is highly

4 his knee was swollen put ice on it to reduce the

5 doctors can cure some diseases are the disease

6 sometimes she's it can cause very irritable

7 she's got a virus a infection

8 he's got a bruise a badly-on his arm face

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the list.

J bite crack cure sprain survive swallow

1 your ankle. 2 the plane crash 3 your joints 4 illnesses 5 the pills 6 your nails

В Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the list.

j attack cough faint sneeze sting vomit

1 People often say 'bless you' when someone

2 The smoke from the fire was making me

4 Wasps won't you unless you make them angry.

5 I thought I was going to with the heat.

6 I was worried the dogs might us.

С Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-f) if you need help.

1 prescribe a course of a) fluids 2 have high b) antibiotics 3 have an ear c) reaction 4 have an allergic d) withdrawal symptoms 5 drink lots of e) infection 6 suffer f) blood pressure

D Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 The food gave me d __ __a. 2 Takesomep_ s if you've got a

headache. 3 She's got a nasty r__ h on her arms. 4 Some teenagers get terrible a __e. 5 A lot of older people suffer from a _s

in their joints. 6 She had a very happy с _ _ d . 7 He has to take drugs to reduce his

с I.

E Complete the sentences with the correct noun.

malaria condition stimulant sunburn suntan virus

1 She's got a serious heart 2 is carried by mosquitoes. 3 Coffee is a 4 I'm determined to get a decent

this summer. 5 AIDS is caused by a 6 If you stay in the sun too long, you'll end up

with

F Complete the missing adjectives. 1 a _ __e weather conditions 2 g ^engineering 3 a highly a __edrug 4 a very i у rash

PHRASAL VERBS

A Choose the correct word to complete the phrasal verb.

1 She fell off/ over in the street. 2 He fell off/ down his motorbike. 3 I fell over /down the stairs. 4 Some drugs make your body speed up/down.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 61

NEWS AND EVENTS

PACES 1 1 0 - 1 1

affair if someone has an affair, they have a sexual relationship with a person who is not their wife or husband: she found out her husband was having an - /he had an - with his secretary

attacker an attacker is a criminal who uses violence to hurt someone.The verb is Mack: he didn't know his - (the person who attacked him)/she was able to identify her - / he gave a description of the - / did you see who attacked your

back together when something is back together, it is joined again after it was broken. If people are back together, they are in a relationship again after they were separated: / took the TV apart, then couldn't get it- /I managed to glue it - / did you hear that lay and Selma are -? / they've split up, but they may get -

VERBS TO DESCRIBE HOW TO ATTACH THINGS

We often make verbs from the names of things we use to attach things together. For example, we glue things back together.

In the same way, we can nail things to a wall, staple or clip pieces of paper together - and sellotape (or just tape) things together.

ceasefire if there is a ceasefire, the two sides in a war agree to stop fighting for a period of time: the two sides have agreed a - / they are calling for an immediate - / they are trying to negotiate a ~ / it's not clear which side broke the - / the -has ended

close down when a business closes down, it closes forever: the shop might have to - / a lot of people

were made unemployed when the factory closed down / the shop's having a closing-down sale

exchange exchange is the buying and selling of foreign money. The exchange rate is the price of foreign money: what's the - rate for dollars at the moment? / the - has gone down

horoscope a horoscope is a prediction of the future based on the month or year you were born in: / always read the -s in the newspaper/a daily - /do you believe in ~s? / what does my - say?

midfielder a midfielder is someone whose position in a football team is mainly in the middle of the pitch, the midfield:o brilliant young -/one of the best -s around /he managed to dominate the midfield

pass away if someone has passed away, they have died. Pass away is a more formal and polite way of saying die: did you see in the paper that Sven Larstrom passed away? / my grandmother passed away last year / he passed away in his sleep

premiere a premiere is the first time a play, film or show is shown to people: hundreds of celebrities will attend the - / the - of a new film / go to the - of the latest Hollywood film / be invited to the -

redundant if someone is made redundant, they have to leave their job because the company is changing or is having economic problems.The noun is redundancy: 5,000 people will be made - / I was made - when the factory closed down / 500 workers are now facing redundancy

review a review in a newspaper is a comment about how good a new book, film, show, etc, is: the film has had great -s / the show got terrible ~s I mixed -s (some good, some bad) / / always read the -pages / the - said it's amazing

ridiculous something that is ridiculous is crazy, unreasonable or looks silly. The adverb is ridiculously: That's -I / she spends a - amount of money on clothes / it was a - waste of time / she was wearing a - outfit / it was ridiculously expensive

sign if you sign someone,you make a legal written agreement to give them work: Manchester United have -ed a new striker / they've -ed three new players / one of the big music companies wants to -them

stab to stab someone means to put a knife or another sharp object into their body: He was -bed 15 times and left to die/she was -bed to death / he was -bed in the neck / she -bed a fork into my hand

star sign a star sign is one of 12 characters associated with the month you were born (Pisces, Capricorn, Leo, etc). Some people believe they determine your character and future: what - are you? / let me guess your - / our -s don't match / my - is Aries

62 OUTCOMES

PACES 1 1 2 - 1 3

activist an activist is someone who does things to try and change political or social policy, often as part of an organization: a human rights - who campaigned for the rights of black people / a gay rights - / trade unions -s

athlete an athlete is someone who is very fit and takes part in competitive sport, especially athletics (running,jumping and throwing).The adjective is athletic: He's the greatest - of all time / the country's top ~s / she belongs to an athletics club / he's very athletic (fit and strong)

charity a charity is an organization which does not make a profit. It collects money to help people or to provide information: He set up a - to help poor children / we're raising money for - /the company donates a lot of money to -

composer a composer is someone who writes music, especially classical music. The verb is compose: a -who wrote piano music / one of the greatest living -s / he composed his first symphony when he was only 13

consider if you consider something,you think about it carefully before making a decision. If something is considered (to be) the best, etc, then lots of different people have that opinion: Euclid is -ed the father of geometry / it is widely -ed to be his best film / I'm still -ing the offer / it's not -ed polite to talk with your mouth full

dictator a dictator is a leader ofa country who was not elected by the people and often uses violence or strict laws to control the people. A country ruled by a dictator or a system where a dictator rules is called a dictatorship: Pol Pot was a - in Cambodia / they left the country during the dictatorship / millions of people all over the world live under dictatorships

founder the founder of an organization is the person who first started it.The verb is found: the - of the Turkish republic / the - of the company / the city was founded in the tenth century / the newspaper was founded in 1864

grant a grant is an amount of money that a government or organization gives someone to help them do something: the scheme provides ~s to teachers to pay for training / he applied for a - / she got a research - / he was awarded a - to study abroad / a home improvement -

influential an idea or a person that is influential changes other people's thinking or way of doing things.The verb and noun is influence: his ideas were very - / a highly - actor / he was strongly influenced by hip-hop music / my parents had a huge influence on my life

liberation liberation is when a person or a country is made free. The verb is liberate: the country is

still fighting for - /he was part of the - struggles in Brazil / the women's - movement / soldiers moved in to liberate the city from the occupying army / they are trying to liberate the country from a dictator

mathematician a mathematician is someone who teaches or studies mathematics, or maths: a famous - / he's a brilliant -

memorabilia memorabilia is objects from the past which people collect to remind them of a particular person or time: the bar is decorated with - from the 1960s / she collects Elvis - /an auction of pop -

military something which is military is connected to the army. The military is a country's armed forces: a - leader / they have to do compulsory -service /the government should take - action / a -dictatorship /he served in the -for20years

name after if you name something after a person, you give it the same name in order to remind you of the person or show respect: they named the metro station after Eddy Merckx / the street is named after the country's first leader / I'm named after my grandfather

radiation radiation is the form of energy that is sent out from nuclear reactions, and from substances such as uranium.The adjective is radioactive: Marie Curie studied - / some of the workers were exposed to- / they got - sickness / a highly radioactive substance

radical things which are radical are extreme or involve a big change in the way something is done: some of his ideas are very - /a - solution to the problem / - left-wing politics /a- preacher in a church

record a record is the best time, distance, number, etc, that a person or group has ever achieved when doing something: he set a new world-for the 100 metres /she broke the world - / who currently holds the world -

right a right is somethingyou are allowed to do by society or by the law: trie struggle for human -s (rights that all people should have) /they campaign for the -s of immigrants /the women's ~s movement /you'vegot no - to say that

scheme a scheme is a plan or programme of action by an organization to help people do somethings government - to help unemployed people find jobs / go on a training - I join the company pension -

unify to unify a country or group means to join separate parts of it together. The adjective is unified: he was a military leader who helped -Italy / - the different groups / a unified approach to the problem (with everyone working together)

vaccine a vaccine is a kind of medicine you take so you do not get a disease in the future.The verb is vaccinate: they are hoping to develop a - against

VOCABULARY BUILDER 63

malaria / a safe and effective ~ /the polio - /you can be vaccinated against flu

work a work is a painting, book, sculpture, etc, by an artist: Shakespeare's most famous - is King Lear / the gallery exhibits ~s by local artists / the complete ~s of Nietzsche

PAGES 1 1 4 - 1 5

barriera barrier is something physical or mental that stops people going somewhere or doing something: they put a - across the road / a security - / physical disability is no -to a successful career / they want to break down cultural ~s

befriend if you befriend someone,you become their friend and treat them in a kind way: they ~ed an elderly widow / he ~ed me on my first day at work

bravery bravery is a quality which means you can do dangerous things or suffer pain without showing fear or showing that you are hurt. The adjective is brave: going back to rescue the children was an act of great - / he won an award for - / it was a very brave decision /you're brave!

contestant a contestant is someone who competes in a game, quiz or competitions - on a reality TV show /one of the -s won f i million /the -s on a talent show

courage courage is the ability to do somethingyou think is right even if it is dangerous to do. The adjective is courageous: he was widely praised for his - / it took real - to stand up and tell the truth /1 finally plucked up courage (found enough courage) to talk to her / it was a very courageous thing to do

elderly someone who is elderly is old. Elderly is a polite way of saying old. The elderly are people who are old: an - widow / my father's quite - now / the problems that are faced by the -

forward if you forward something to someone, you send it to them after it has been sent to you: I'll -the email from head office to you /can you - me the link for the website? / please - any post to my new address

hit if a song, film of book is a hit, it is very successful and makesa lot of money: he had a few big hits in the igSos / a number one - / their first CD was a massive -

physical something that is physical is connected to your body rather than your mind: he has a - disability / there was a strong - attraction between them / building roads is hard - work / a - punishment

praise if you praise someone or something,you say ' how good you think they are. Praise is often used in the passive. Praise is also a noun: he was widely -dfor his courage / the book was ~d by the critics / he was full of praise for our work

repay if you repay someone, you give back money that they gave you, or you do something to thank them for something they did for you: the money must be repaid in full / he can't afford to - his debts / I hope that one day we can -your kindness /how can I ever-you?

talent show a talent show is a competition on TV in which people perform in some way and judges or the public decide who is the best: he became

famous when he won a TV - / a popular - / she appeared on a - / a contestant on a - / one of the judges on a -

tune a tune is a series of musical notes which are pleasant to listen to. A tune is also a song. Tune is also a verb: she can play a few simple -s on the piano / my favourite - on the CD / she can t sing in - (with the correct notes) / / hate listening to out-of— singing (with the wrong notes) / will you help me - my guitar?

version a version of something is a form of it which is different from other forms: which - of the song do you like best? / his ~s of well-known songs are very popular /1 prefer the original - /a simplified -of the story

will a will is a legal document which says who should receive someone's money and property when they die: my aunt left me a house in her - / it's important to make a - (write and sign one)/she threatened to change her - so that I would get nothing

64 OUTCOMES

EXERCISES

PREPOSITIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1 She was stabbed three times the chest. 2 He was one of the founders the company. 3 Scientists are hoping to develop a vaccine

AIDS. 4 We went to see an exhibition of works

local artists. 5 Police have put a barrier the road. 6 She's applied to be a contestant a TV talent

show. 7 I'll forward the email you. 8 Everyone praised him his achievements. 9 I prefer the original version the song.

10 My grandfather left me some money his will.

W O R D FAMILIES

A Complete the expressions with the correct form of the word in bold.

1 recognise your attacker

2 a brilliant midfielder play in the. 3 a ridiculous idea

they threatened to

they're expensive

4 the country's top he's very athletes

5 a great composer

,i dictator

В Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets.

1 My teachers had a huge о п т у life, (influential)

2 They are fighting to the country. (liberation)

3 This is a highly substance. (radiation)

4 Most children are now against the disease, (vaccine)

5 That was a very thing to do. (courage)

COLLOCATIONS

A Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the list.

1 They are planning to several new players for the team.

2 The crisis could the country. 3 Two men attacked him and him

to death. 4 She me when I first moved

here. 5 How can I you for all your

kindness?

В Match the two halves of the collocations. Look up the nouns (a-h) if you need help.

1 call for an immediate a) charity 2 read your b) memorabilia 3 attend the c) ceasefire 4 donate money to d) grant 5 apply for a research e) horoscope 6 collect pop f) premiere of a film 7 be exposed to g) record 8 break a world h) radiation

С Complete the collocations with nouns from the unit.

1 play a t e on the piano 2 appearonat t s__w 3 pluckupc__ __e to talk to him 4 have a number one h _ _ 5 join the company pension s e 6 campaign for human r s

D Complete the sentences with the adjectives in the list.

to music back together elderly military

the country is a physical radical redundant

1 My grandfather is very now, so he doesn't go out much.

2 They keep splitting up then getting again.

3 Five hundred workers at the factory have been made

4 He's got some very ideas. 5 The school doesn't believe in

punishment. 6 Alh8 year olds have to do

service.

PHRASAL VERBS

befriend repay sign stab unify

A Choose the correct words to complete the phrasal verbs.

1 The factory may have to close up / down. 2 My grandmother passed away /over last year. 3 I was named/or/after my uncle.

VOCABULARY BUILDER 65

0 1 M Y FIRST C L A S S

PREPOSITIONS

0 2 F E E L I N G S

PREPOSITIONS

A A 1 from l at 2 of 2 about 3 into 3 with 4 of 4 with 5 against 5 against 6 with 6 in 7 on 7 about 8 with 8 from 9 for 9 in

10 to WORD FAMILIES 11 in, from A

1 manage 2 availability 3 fluently 4 improvement 5 motivate 6 reliable

В remind, policy

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 pick up 2 get by 3 dub 4 provide 5 review 6 improve

в 1 d 2 a 3 f 4 с 5 b 6 e

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 get by 2 deal with 3 picks things up 4 rushed out 5 rely on 6 run out 7 sort out

PATTERNS

A 1 working 2 to give 3 to deal with 4 trying 5 to knit 6 waiting

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 disappointed,

disappointment 2 confused, confusion 3 bored, boredom 4 pleased, pleasure 5 exhausted,exhaustion

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 relationship 2 relief 3 speech 4 mark 5 helpline 6 campaign 7 skills

8 accommodation

В 1 make 2 launch 3 make 4 get 5 give 6 solve

С 1 upset 2 isolated 3 handsome 4 successful 5 exciting

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 up 2 down 3 up 4 up

PATTERNS

A 1 to break 2 going 3 to arrive 4 to hear 5 to be 6 working

0 3 T I M E O F F

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 in 2 to 3 between 4 in 5 in 6 down 7 to 8 on 9 in 10 for

11 in

WORD FAMILIES

A l 2 3 4 5 6 7

decorations guided located miners pray ruined entitles

8 chill 9 confirmation

10 humidity 11 stormy

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 retake 2 repaint 3 rebuild 4 resell 5 remarried 6 rewrite

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 с 2 f 3 e 4 b 5 a 6 d

В 1 mine 2 temple 3 forecast 4 location 5 damage 6 nightmare

С 1 reopened 2 rejected 3 blew 4 reached 5 spoiled

D 1 с 2 e 3 d 4 a 5 b

E 1 fall 2 come 3 send 4 open 5 make

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 rip off 2 pour down 3 warm up 4 clear up 5 turn out

0 4 INTERESTS

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 in 2 at 3 at 4 about 5 in 6 of 7 in 8 from

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 defender 2 shot 3 fitness 4 injured 5 slippery 6 strength 7 training 8 challenging

В

kick, score, bat, bully

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 unreliable 2 unable 3 uncomfortable 4 unfair 5 unusual 6 unfit

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 с 2 d 3 a 4 b

В 1 scored 2 pulled 3 train 4 download 5 set 6 suits 7 persuaded

С 1 do 2 attend 3 keep 4 reach 5 build up 6 have

D 1 complicated 2 rubbish 3 straight 4 big-headed 5 stiff 6 bloody

66 OUTCOMES

0 5 W O R K I N G LIFE

PREPOSITIONS

0 6 G O I N G

S H O P P I N G

0 7 S C H O O L A N D

S T U D Y I N G

A 1 in 2 with 3 on 4 of 5 in 6 for 7 for 8 of

В 1 in 2 at 3 in 4 to 5 for 6 to 7 with 8 at

WORD FAMILI

A l deliver 2 responsible 3 train 4 variety 5 performer 6 risky

В 1 insecurity 2 competition 3 support 4 recruitment 5 reward 6 photocopier

С 1 accountant 2 civil servant 3 engineer 4 researcher

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 perform 2 expose 3 handle 4 preserve 5 slam 6 swear

в 1 b 2 с 3 d 4 a

1 get 2 fill in 3 get 4 carry 5 give 6 earn

D cramped, supportive

PATTERNS

A 1 to work 2 designing 3 cleaning 4 to be 5 losing

PREPOSITIONS PREPOSITIONS

A A 1 in 1 with 2 of 2 about 3 of 3 in 4 in 4 for

В 5 from, for

В 6 of 1 on 2 in WORD FAMILIES 3 for 4 on

A 3 for 4 on 1 dedication

WORD FAMILIES 2 revise 3 achieve A 4 encouragement

1 storage 5 push 2 unevenly 6 succeed 3 overdrawn 4 trend

label, fake, queue

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 fashion 2 danger 3 date 4 university

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 last 2 match 3 store 4 upgrade 5 fit

В 1 heels 2 label 3 mall 4 top 5 diet

С 1 made 2 went 3 eat 4 have 5 wait

D 1 b 2 с 3 a 4 d 5 e

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 hang up 2 shop around 3 hang around 4 queue up

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 inconvenient 2 inexperienced 3 invalid 4 incomplete 5 inaccurate 6 insensitive

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 deserve 2 extend 3 lighten 5 control 6 skip

В 1 d 2 b 3 с 4 e 5 a

с i got 2 do 3 hand in 4 pay 5 get

D 1 dedicated 2 concerned 3 lively 4 rough 5 rigid

PATTERNS

A 1 to pass 2 to work 3 to achieve 4 cheating 5 to do 6 to cope

0 8 E A T I N G

PREPOSITIONS

A l 2

to out from for with to to

4 5 6 7 8 for

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 diabetes 2 full 3 exceptionally 4 leftovers

5 mouldy

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 greasy 2 buttery 3 oily 4 spicy 5 watery 6 sugary

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 split 2 spread 3 transfer 4 advertise 5 attract 6 ban

В 1 stocks 2 estimate 3 overpowers 4 swap 5 stick

С 1 dish 2 products 3 goods 4 disorder 5 terrace

D 1 strong 2 find 3 get 4 big

E 1 fattening 2 raw 3 tender 4 deserted 5 generous 6 organic 7 limited

PHRASAL VER

A 1 for 2 round 3 over 4 off 5 out 6 through

VOCABULARY BUILDER 67

0 9 H O U S E S

A 1 2 in 3 to

of

with for

from 8 on

WORD FAMILIES

A

l 2

enormously separated

3 tiled 4 dramatic 5 elected 6 invest 7 connections 8 residents

WORD-BUILDINC

A 1 appointment 2 improvement 3 development 4 attachment 5 management

COLLOCATIONS

A l 2

build rent

3 fixed 4 clean up 5 leaking

В 1 b 2 d 3 a 4 e 5 с

1 garage 2 interest 3 mortgage 4 S

rate rise

6 root 7 shortage 8 distance 9 graffiti

10 outskirts

D 1 dark 2 enormous 3 run-down 4 separate 5 spacious 6 budget 7 residential

1 0 G O I N G O U T

PREPOSITIONS

A l 2 3 4 5 6 7

by

9 of

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 sculptor 2 subtitled 3 tragic 4 exaggeration 5 pleasantly 6 sweaty

В cast, stroll, sweat

WORD-BUILDING

A 1 distractions 2 appreciation 3 congratulations 4 location 5 selection 6 revision 7 operation

COLLOCATIONS

1 landscape 2 portrait 3 scenery 4 sculpture 5 still life 6 soundtrack

В 1 b 2 a 3 с 4 e 5 f 6 d

С 1 rural 2 authentic 3 dreadful 4 keen 5 weird 6 pleasant 7 spectacular

D 1 crazy 2 place 3 out 4 minute 5 way

1 1 T H E N A T U R A L

W O R L D

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 from 2 for 3 into 4 in s of 6 with 7 in 8 under

В 1 in 2 in 3 at 4 through 5 into 6 In 7 8

with in

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 disappearance 2 distracted 3 rocky 4 hunters 5 illegally 6 inhabitants 7 smuggling 8 threat

В 1 destruction 2 extinction 3 predictable 4 freedom 5 investigation 6 poison 7 sociable 8 speed

С action, habitat

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 search 2 lick 3 predict 4 threaten 5 investigate 6 stroke

В 1 hissed 2 crawled 3 breed 4 hunt 5 scratch 6 circling

С 1 b 2 d 3 a 4 с 5 g 6 e 7 П 8 f

D 1 extinct 2 illegal 3 wild 4 aggressive s set free 6 poisonous

1 2 PEOPLE I K N O W

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 to 2 in 3 with 4 with / towards 5 of 6 with 7 with 8 about

WORD FAMILIES

A l 2 3 4 5 6 7

affection demonstrate determination generosity indulge intensity backpackers

8 powerful 9 egotistical

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 с 2 a 3 d 4 e 5 b

1 activity 2 character 3 common 4 touch 5 ego

С 1 competitive 2 bright 3 naughty 4 easy-going 5 intense 6 sociable 7 stubborn 8 paranoid

D 1 grown out of 2 falling out with 3 got into 4 came across 5 drifted apart 6 track down

E 1 half-2 step-3 great-4 mixed-

68 OUTCOMES

1 3 T R A V E L

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 into 2 on 3 at 4 into 5 through

В 1 at 2 to 3 to 4 on 5 about

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 bump 2 check-in 3 landing 4 smoothly 5 terrified

в i 2 3

emigration immigrants interrogate

4 restrict 5 reservation

WORD BUILDING

A 1 careless 2 speechless 3 sleepless 4 painless 5 useless

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 overtake 2 travel 3 stamp 4 pack 5 reserve

set

carriage crossing

3 traffic lights visa

5 soaked 6 light

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 down 2 in

up off off for

1 4 T E C H N O L O G Y

A 1 in 2 on 3 on 4 into 5 onto 6 over 7 on

В 1 over 2 of 3 as 4 to 5 for 6 on

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 connect 2 revive 3 technology 4 automatic 5 efficiency 6 subsidies

в

WORD-BUILDINC

A 1 с 2 d 3 f 4 e 5 a 6 b

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 delete 2 display 3 reveal 4 allows S plant 6 switch

В 1 с 2 d 3 e 4 a S f 6 b

С 1 external 2 good 3 short-lived 4 saturated S cool 6 overnight 7 straightforward 8 bitter 9 friendly

1 5 I N J U R I E S A N D

ILLNESS

PREPOSITIONS

A 1 on 2 of 3 in 4 in 5 on

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 conscious 2 dizziness 3 infectious 4 swelling 5 incurable 6 irritability 7 viral 8 bruised

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 sprain 2 survive 3 crack 4 cure 5 swallow 6 bite

В 1 sneezes 2 cough 3 vomit 4 sting 5 faint 6 attack

С 1 b 2 f 3 e 4 с 5 a 6 d

D 1 diarrhoea 2 painkillers 3 rash 4 acne s arthritis 6 childhood 7 cholesterol

E 1 condition 2 malaria 3 stimulant 4 suntan 5 virus 6 sunburn

F 1 adverse 2 genetic 3 addictive 4 itchy

PHRASAL VERB

A 1 over 2 off 3 down 4 up

1 6 N E W S A N D

E V E N T S

PREPOSITIONS

A l 2 3 4 5 6 7

in of for by across on to

8 for 9 of

10 in

WORD FAMILIES

A 1 attack

midfield ridiculously athletic compose dictatorship

influence liberate radioactive vaccinated courageous

COLLOCATIONS

A 1 sign 2 unify 3 stabbed 4 befriended 5 repay

f a d b h

8 g

talent show courage hit scheme rights

D 1 elderly 2 back together 3 redundant 4 radical 5 physical 6 military

PHRASAL VERBS

A 1 down 2 away

VOCABULARY BUILDER 69

INFINITIVE PAST S I M P L E PAST PARTICIPLE

be was/were been become became become begin began /bi'gaen/ begun /Ы'длп/ bet bet bet bite /bait/ bit bitten /'biten/ blow /Ыэи/ blew /blu:/ blown /Ыэип/ break broke broken bring brought / b n : t / brought

build /bi Id/ built/bi It/ built buy /bar./ bought /bD:t/ bought

can could /kud/ been able catch caught/k:>:t/ caught choose chose /tfauz/ chosen come came come cost cost cost cut cut cut

do did done draw / d n : / drew /dru:/ drawn / d n : n / dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed /dreamt drink drank /drasrjk/ drunk /drAt]k/ drive drove driven

eat ate /e i t/ eaten /'i:tan/

fall /Ь:1/ fell /fel/ fallen /'Ь:1эп/ feed fed fed feel / f i l l / felt /felt/ felt fight / fa i t / fought /fD:t/ fought find found /faund/ found f ly/ftai/ flew /f lu:/ flown /flaun/ forget forgot forgotten

get got got [US: gotten] give gave given

go went been/gone grow /дгэи/ grew /дш:/ grown /дгэип/

hang /haerj/ hung /гмг)/ hung have had had hear/hiэ/ heard /h3:d/ heard /h3:d/ hide hid hidden /'hidan/ hit hit hit hold held held hurt /пул/ hurt hurt

keep kept kept

kneel /ni: 1 / knelt /nelt/ knelt

know/паи/ knew /nju:/ known /пэип/

lay /lei/ laid /leid/ laid lead / l i :d/ led /led/ led learn learned/learnt learned/learnt leave left left lend lent lent

70 OUTCOMES

NFINIT IVE

se /lu:z/

PAST S IMPLE

let lay lost

PAST PARTICIPLE

let lain

lost

made met had to

made

met

had to

paid /peid/ put

paid

put

read /r i :d/ read / red/ read / red/ ride rode ridden

ring rang /гэег)/ rung/глг)/

run /глп/ ran /гэеп/ run

rid. r,n:

say /sei/

see

sell

send

set

shake /Jei к/

shine //ai n/

shoot

show

shut

sing

sink

sit

sleep

slide

speak

spell

spend

split

spoil

spread /spred/

stand

steal /sti:I/

stick

strike /straik/ swim

said /sed/

saw /so:/

sold

sent

set

shook/Juk/

shone//Dn/

shot

showed

shut

sang /saen./

sank /saerjk/

sat

slept

slid

spoke

spelled/spelt

spent

split

spoiled/spoilt

spread

stood

stole

stuck /suk/

struck /strAk/

swam /swaem/

said

seen

sold

sent

set

shaken /'Jeikan/

shone//Dn/

shot

shown

shut

SUng/SAQ/

sunk Ллг)к/

sat

slept

slid

spoken

spelt

spent

split

spoiled/spoilt

spread

stood

stolen

stuck

struck

swum /swAm/ take /teik/ took/tuk/ taken /'teiksn/ teach taught /D :t/ taught

tear /tea/ tore /tD:/ torn / О т / tell told told think thought /во-Л/ thought

throw /8гэи/ threw /9ru:/ thrown /бгэип/

understand understood understood

wake woke /wauk/ woken /'waukan/

wear /wea/ wore /WD:/ worn /w3:n/ Win won /WAn/ won Write wrote written /'r itan/

VOCABULARY BUILDER 71


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