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Overcoming Disadvantage

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Background on Unang Hakbang Foundation
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  • Helping children since 1996

  • Unang Hakbang

    Foundation helps street

    and other children

    realize their potential,

    expand their life

    options, and grow into

    empowered and

    empowering adults.

    For the past 14 years, we

    have helped children from

    very poor urban

    communities stay in school

    and helped those out-of-

    school get back on the

    education track.

  • .Despite todays crush of people, until 1948, there were only 19MM Filipinos. When America consolidated its hold on the

    Philippines in 1903, we were even less than half that number;

    fewer still at the start of the Spanish colonial period

  • The Way We Were

    Population

    Gap In

    Years

    %

    Growth

    Spanish Period, 1591 667,612

    American Period, 1903 7,635,426 312 1044%

    First Bureau of Census & Statistics

    Data, 1948 19,234,182 45 152%

    NSO Data, 2007 88,574,614 59 361%

    National Capital Region, 13% of total

    population in 2007 11,553,427

    NCSB

  • Today, we are a country of

    over 88MM people, 11.5MM

    of whom 60% of the total population in 1948 live in the National Capital Region.

    Between 1948, three years

    after World War II when we

    numbered only 19MM, and

    today is just a little over 60

    years, a period less than the

    average persons lifetime. It should not surprise if many of

    our institutions seem fragile

    and major portions of our

    social infrastructure often

    not coherent.

  • Having said that, we need to strive harder and take better care

    of the next generation. Today, children aged 14 & below, make

    up 37% of the population. These are 28.3MM children more than triple the number of all Filipinos at the start of the American

    Colonial Period.

    In the National Capital Region alone, there are 4.3MM children.

  • The Next Generation

    Total Population, 2000 76,504,077 100%

    14 & Below 28,313,897 37%

    Under 1 1,917,431 3%

    1-4 7,752,071 10%

    5-9 9,694,781 13%

    10-14 8,949,614 12%

    National Capital Region (est.) 4,274,768

    NCSB

  • The problem is very clear in

    the area of education.

    While the national

    population grew more

    than 2% annually in the last

    10 years, school enrollment

    increased by less than 1%

    annually over the same

    period.

  • Failing To Keep Up

    Population Growth Enrollment Growth

    1990 60,703,206 2.35%

    1995 68,616,536 2.32%

    2000 76,504,077 2.36% 12,759,900 0.4%

    2001/2002 12,826,218 0.5%

    2002/2003 12,979,628 1.2%

    2003/2004 13,032,864 0.4%

    2004/2005 13,096,719 0.5%

    2005/2006 13,006,647 -0.7%

    2006/2007 13,121,648 0.9%

    2007 88,574,614 2.04% 13,396,988 2.1%

    DepEd Fact Sheet

  • The public school system

    has borne the brunt of

    educating the nations children. Over 90% of

    children who enroll are in

    the public schools.

  • An Overburdened Public School System

    Total Enrollment Public School % Share

    2007 13,396,988 12,304,207 92%

    2006 13,121,648 12,083,661 92%

    2005 13,006,647 11,990,686 92%

    2004 13,096,719 12,101,061 92%

    2003 13,032,864 12,075,013 93%

    2002 12,979,628 12,050,450 93%

    2001 12,826,218 11,916,686 93%

    2000 12,759,900 11,832,611 93%

    1999 12,707,788 11,786,622 93%

    1998 12,502,524 11,562,181 92%

    1997 12,225,038 11,295,982 92%

    DepEd Fact Sheet

  • While the public school system has been criticized severely for

    inadequate facilities, the poor quality of teaching and error-filled

    textbooks, the results of academic achievement tests show some

    hard-earned successes. Achievement test scores have risen from

    51% in 1997 to 65% in 2007.

  • Small Improvements

    Achievement

    Rate Math Science English

    1997 50.78% 51.75% 52.68% 49.13%

    1998 50.08% 52.45% 49.93% 46.40%

    1999 49.19% 45.69% 48.61% 46.32%

    2000 51.73% 49.75% 49.75% 47.70%

    2001 . . . . . . . . . . . .

    2002 . . . . . . . . . . . .

    2003 . . . 59.45% 52.59% 49.92%

    2004 58.73% 59.40% 54.12% 59.15%

    2005 54.66% 53.66% 46.77% 54.05%

    2006 59.94% 60.29% 51.58% 60.78%

    2007 64.81% 63.89% 57.90% 61.62%

    DepEd Fact Sheet

  • The improvement in test scores has

    been accompanied by an increase

    in the cohort survival rate the percentage of children who enter

    Grade 1 together and graduate at

    the same time. This has risen from

    65% to 75% over the last 10 years; but

    it still means that a quarter of all

    children are not completing their

    elementary schooling. More

    worrisome, a declining participation

    rate indicates that a growing number

    of school age children are not even

    entering school.

    Drop out rates are highest before

    children reach Grade 4. The good

    news is that children who make it to

    Grade 4 are likely to complete their

    elementary schooling.

  • Key Indicators

    Participation Rate Cohort SurvivalTransition Rate

    (G4 to G5)

    1997 95.09% 64.96% 95.98%

    1998 95.73% 64.09% 95.47%

    1999 96.95% 63.46% 95.50%

    2000 96.77% 63.45% 95.64%

    2001 . . . . . . 96.24%

    2002 . . . . . . . . .

    2003 88.74% 71.84% 96.22%

    2004 87.11% 71.32% 95.95%

    2005 84.44% 70.02% 95.65%

    2006 83.22% 73.43% 96.19%

    2007 84.84% 75.26% 96.97%DepEd Fact Sheet

  • 10 years ago, the school participation rate was a high 95%. The

    accompanying cohort survival rate of 65% however meant that

    more than a third of school children were dropping out. In 2007,

    the situation went the reverse with the cohort survival rate rising

    and the participation rate sadly declining.

    Under the world Education For All initiative (EFA), the Philippines stated goal is a participation rate in the elementary school level

    of 95% by 2010 and 98% by 2015 with the cohort survival rate at

    79% and 85%, respectively in the same years.

  • 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00%

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    Participation

    Transition Rate (G4 to G5)

    Cohort

    Key Indicators

  • Why do children drop out of school?

    According to the Functional Literacy,

    Education and Mass Media Survey

    (FLEMMS) conducted in 2003, the majority

    of children, aged 5-17, were simply not

    interested in school. This was specially true

    among 5-9 year-olds or those in Grades 1-4,

    the group which has had the highest drop-

    out rates.

    It is important to acknowledge this and

    relate it to the earlier data. As the students ability to cope with school improved reflected in higher achievement test scores

    more have stayed in school raising the cohort survival rate. Dropping out because

    of the cost of schooling was a factor of

    equal importance only as children reached

    working age.

  • Reasons for Dropping Out

    Summary 5-9 10-14 15-17

    Not interested in school 33% 30% 34% 32%

    Cannot afford 28% 18% 22% 32%

    Need to work 19% 17% 15% 21%

    Illness/Disability 4% 6% 7% 3%

    Family-related 2% 4% 3% 2%

    Other reasons 14% 24% 18% 11%

    FLEMMS 2003

  • The importance of the childs ability as a deciding factor in whether or not he drops out of school is confirmed by a 2007

    study completed by Bacolod and Ranjan using data from a Cebu

    Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS).

    All things being equal, a child perceived to be less able is more

    likely to be dropping out of school.

  • Child Ability & Household Wealth

    Poor households with high ability children are more likely to send them to school than poor households with low ability children. Low income households may even let their low-ability children simply remain idle.

    Even within the same household, the less able child is significantly more likely to be working or idle while his more able sibling is significantly more likely to be in full-time schooling.

    Bacolod & Ranjan (2007) Why Children Work, Attend School, or Stay Idle: The Roles of Ability and Household Wealth

  • Do a lot of children actually have such

    low abilities that a quarter of them opt

    to drop out of school?

    Perhaps its time to start recognizing the other kinds of smarts.

  • Influencing Child Ability

    Multiple intelligences: bodily-kinesthetic,

    interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-

    mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, visual-

    spatial, musical

    Illustration from http://museumofplay.org

  • Influencing Child Ability

    Children require a stimulating environment, one that engages their attention and provides a variety of experiences

    They need room to experiment: A person is what he is, not because of the teachers he has had, but as a result of that which he has done himself. (Maria Montessori)

  • Unfortunately, in a community such as this, an over-

    abundance of stimuli may leave a child unable to cope or

    stay in control of himself, leading to behaviors that get him

    labeled as unpredictable, disinterested, or of low ability.

  • What UHF Offers

    Attentiveness to the needs of invisible children

    Children who are failing in school or who may

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