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Ozone Drinking Water Treatment Ozone Drinking Water Treatment Ozone Drinking Water Treatment Ozone Drinking Water Treatment Applications and Operational Applications and Operational I t I t Improvements Improvements Ohio Section Ohio Section AWWA AWWA 18 September 2008 18 September 2008 Anthony Sacco Spartan Environmental Technologies, LLC & Paul Overbeck International Ozone Association
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Page 1: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water TreatmentApplications and Operational Applications and Operational

I tI tImprovementsImprovementsOhio SectionOhio Section

AWWAAWWA18 September 200818 September 2008

Anthony SaccoSpartan Environmental Technologies, LLC

&Paul Overbeck

International Ozone Association

Page 2: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier
Page 3: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

OZONE• Providing Multiple Benefits

– Oxidation• TOC• TOC• Fe/Mn• Hydrogen Sulfide • Taste & Odor• Color• CL2-DBPs• EDC

– Disinfections ect o• Bacteria• Virus• Parasites

Flocc lation– Flocculation• Less Chemical Coagulant• Lower solids Handling• Lower Turbidity &

Particles• Longer Run time• Less Backwashing

Photo Courtesy of SNWA

Page 4: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ozone destroys bacteria, viruses, y , ,cysts and parasites

Page 5: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier
Page 6: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Bacteria Inactivationby Ozone

CT = residual concentration (mg/L) x time (min)CT = residual concentration (mg/L) x time (min)

E. coli 0.02 - 0.06 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA

CT = residual concentration (mg/L) x time (min)CT = residual concentration (mg/L) x time (min)

Streptococcus faecalis 0.01 - 0.025 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA

Legionella pneumophila 0.3 - 1.1 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA

Total Coliform 0 19 mg-min/L = CT (6-log) LAAFPTotal Coliform 0.19 mg-min/L = CT (6-log) LAAFP

HPC 0.19 mg-min/L = CT (3-log) LAAFP

Page 7: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ct Values (mg x min./L) For 99.9 % Inactivation of Giardia and 99.99%Virus

Data for 5°CFree Chlorine Chloramine Chlorine Dioxide Ozone( pH 6 to 7 ) ( pH 8 to 9 ) ( pH 6 to 7 ) ( pH 6 to 7 )

Giardia 122 2200 26.0 1.9

Virus 8 1988 33.4 1.2

Taken from: “Optimizing Water Treatment Plant Performance UsingComposite Correction Program.” prepared by Process Applications, Inc.,for the U.S. EPA, Office of Drinking Water, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Page 8: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

US EPA CT Valuesf i i ifor Virus Inactivation

by Ozoneby OzoneTemperature °C

i iInactivation <1 5 10 15 20 25

2-log 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.25 0.15g

3-log 1.4 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.25

4-log 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3

Page 9: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier
Page 10: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Drinking WaterRegulatory Backdrop

Longstanding DilemmaR

isk

bial

R

Ris

k

men

t st

Mic

ro

DB

P

vern

mnt

eres

Level of Chemical Disinfection

M

Gov In

Page 11: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Disinfection By-Products

ChlorineTrihalomethanes

OzoneBromate-Trihalomethanes

(THM)H l i A id

-Bromate-Assimilable

-Haloacetic Acids(THAA5)

Organic Carbon(AOC)

-Bromate

Page 12: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

How does ozone/biofiltration work?Synergy between Synergy between

ozone and biofiltrationozone and biofiltration

NOM O3Results in

Breaks macro molecular NOM and

ozone and biofiltrationozone and biofiltration

O i

Results in TOC/COD/BOD

reduction

molecular NOM and many SOC to biodegradable OM

Organics NOM

Biofilter HO• break SOCTO bi d d bl OM

Increases microbial th i filt

TO biodegradable OM

growth in filters

Page 13: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

By-Product Formation – THM/HAABy Product Formation THM/HAA

Ozonation & PostchlorinationPre- and Postchlorination

50607080

n (p

pb)

1020304050

Con

cent

ratio

n

TTHMHAA5

010

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

C

Courtesy of Gwinnett County, Georgia

Page 14: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

D ti di i f ti b d t d ti1 2 0

Dramatic disinfection-by-product reductions

1 0 0

R A A M C L

6 0

8 0

(ug/

L)

4 0

Ave

rage

0

2 0

Q 3 - 0 4 Q 4 - 0 4 Q 1 - 0 5 Q 2 - 0 5 Q 3 - 0 5 Q 4 - 0 5 Q 1 - 0 6 Q 2 - 0 6 Q 3 - 0 6

Q t r ly T T H M A v g R u n n in g A n n u a l A v g

MWRA

Page 15: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

SummarySummarySummary Summary Bromate Formation ControlBromate Formation Control

• Chemical Addition Options– ChlorineChlorine– Ammonia– AlkalinityAlkalinity – Organic Matter

pH Adjustment– pH Adjustment• Temperature Control

i i i• Lower O3 Applied Dose & Reaction Time

Page 16: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

µg/

L)en

tial (

BrO

3 rm

atio

n Po

teFo

r

B. Daw, et.al. 2001Ct

Page 17: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Microflocculation

• Improved Floc/Clarification & Filtration• TOC ReductionTOC Reduction • Dosage Influenced by pH, TOC

E d Fil R• Extends Filter Runs• Reduces Solid Handling

Page 18: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Microflocculation

Page 19: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Organic Color Reduction

Page 20: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Taste & Odor

• Oxidation – Ozone AloneOzone Alone– Advanced Oxidation Processes

• Algal Sources• Algal Sources– methyl isoborneal (MIB)

G i– Geosmin• Other Organic Matter

Page 21: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Use of Ozone for Taste and Odor Control has been Successful:

Tastes great, less chlorineMay 14, 1994

Ozone treatment makes water safer, taste betterJuly 25, 1995

Page 22: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Water Treatment PerformanceEmerging ContaminantsEmerging Contaminants

EDC Removal<50% 50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-89% 90-99%

Monylphenol Atrazine Meprobromate Acenaphtylene Trimethoprim Diazepam

BHC Naphtalene Iopromide Phenolythrene Acetaminophen Oxybenzone

Musk Ketone Heptachlor Aldrine Anthracene Caffeine Progesterone

Dieldrin DDE Galaxolide Erythromyein-H2O Ethynylestradin

Endrin Metolachlorine Sulfamethozazone Testroterone

Benzo (a) Fluoxetine Andeostenedione( )pyrene

Chrysene Pentoxifylline Naproxen

Methoxychlor Pilantin Ibuprofen

Carbcamazepine DiclofenaeCarbcamazepine Diclofenae

DEET Triclosan

Fluorene Gernfibrozil

Pyrene Octylphenol

Fluoraythene

Courtesy of SNWA

Page 23: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Components of an Ozone SystemO G tiFeed-Gas Supply Options (Select 1)

Power Supply Unit

Fl

Ozone Generation

Ambient

Air

CRYO O System

Moisture RemovalSystem

O2

O3 %wt

FlowMeter

AmbientAir

Supply

O2Purchased LOX

CRYO O2 System

PSA O2 System

VPSA O2 SystemO2

O2

Ozone Generator

Flow Control

Purchased LOX

ValveMOzone Contacting Options (Select 1) Flow Meter

Blower

O3 Destruct

Off-GasInjectionOzoneC t t

BubbleDiffuserO O3 DestructContactorOzoneContactor

Page 24: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Important Advancements in OzoneImportant Advancements in Ozone System Design and Operation

• Lowered capital and O&M cost by switching to oxygen feed-gas (LOX and VPSA) and yg g ( )improvements in ozone generator design

• Developed/implemented robust process p p pmonitoring and control

• Improved fine bubble diffusion & side streamImproved fine bubble diffusion & side stream dissolution

Page 25: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

From Air to Oxygen: Pre-1987From Air to Oxygen: Pre 1987,1987 to 1993 and Post 1993

910b Low Frequency Air fed

kWh/kg

6789

ergy

, kW

h/l Low Frequency Air-fed

Medium Frequency Air-fed

13.2

17.615.4

2345

peci

fic E

ne

Medium Frequency Medium Frequency High Efficiency

6.68.810.0

4 4

012

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Ozone Concentration, %wt

Sp

q yOxygen-fed

High Efficiency Oxygen-fed 2.2

4.4

Page 26: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ozone Equipment is SimplifiedDesiccant Earlier air-fed ozone systems

Air Compressor Refrigerant Dryer Dryer Ozone GeneratorEarlier air fed ozone systems

Less equipment = Lower maintenance, capital cost, and operating cost

Liquid Oxygen Storage & Ambient Vaporizers Ozone Generator

Current oxygen-fed ozone systems

Page 27: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ozone Residual Monitoring hasOzone Residual Monitoring has Improved

• “Indigo Trisulfonate” Standard Method ozone residual test

• Trustworthy on-line residual analyzers and robust sampling systemsp g y

Display Range: 0-200.0 PPB, 0-2.000 PPM Accuracy: ± 0.02 PPM or 0.5% of F.S.Accuracy: ± 0.02 PPM or 0.5% of F.S.Repeatability: ± 0.01 PPM or 0.3% of F.S.Linearity: 0.1% of F.S.Zero Drift: < 0 01 PPM per monthZero Drift: < 0.01 PPM per month

Page 28: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Las Vegas AMS WaterLas Vegas, AMS Water Treatment Plant 7 days of hourly data

• Water flow varies from 150 to 550 MGD twice per daytwice per day

• Dose target = 1.1 mg/L Range = 1.0 tomg/L Range 1.0 to 1.2

• Gas flow is constant

• Ozone production range is 1500 to 5500 lb/dlb/day

Page 29: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Controlling Disinfection is the Performance GOAL (e g Giardia)Performance GOAL (e.g., Giardia)

MWD Jensen – August 2007

100% f ti PR 2 (1 l )100% of time PR>2 (1-log)

1% of time PR>4 (2-log)

Average PR = 3 or 1.5-logs

Page 30: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Ozone Dissolution Options

Bubble Diffuser Side Stream

o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo o

o oo oo oo o

OzoneGL High Efficiencyo o

o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo o- - - -

Water Flow

L High Efficiency Venturi Injectors

Historically, the most common ozone contacting option

For many reasons, the side stream option is g pbecoming more popular today

Page 31: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Fine Bubble Diffuser Material Improvements

Hypalon diffuser gaskets after 2-yr service in ahigh ozone

Alternative expanded-Teflon gaskets that are

One-piece design is formed of a gas permeable porous alumina diffuser ceramic

high-ozone-concentration (8%wt) oxygen-fed ozone application

gaining popularity for use in oxygen-fed ozone applications

bonded at high temperature yielding a corrosion resistant product. Stainless steel components, polymer gaskets and cements of any kind have been eliminated.

Page 32: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Option 1 - Designed to maximize ozone transferOption 1 - Designed to maximize ozone transfer within the side stream flow

Liquid Trap

M Heater

OzoneDestructFM

M

Gas flow control valve

Fail-close Shut-off Valve

M P

High Pressure Switch

P PP

From Ozone

Generators

M HeaterTo

AtmospherePressure Control

sP

Check Valve

PressureControl

(Optional)FM PP

PP

Sidestream Pump

Degas Vessel

VenturiInjector P

Water Flow Mixing-enhancement

nozzles

Page 33: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

Option 2 - Designed to utilize ozone contactorOption 2 - Designed to utilize ozone contactor for ozone transfer assistance

Liquid Trap

M Heater

To Atmosphere

FMM

Gas flow control valve

Fail-close Shut-off Valve

M P

High Pressure Switch

PP

From Ozone

Generators

M Heater

Destruct

s

PGCheck ValveFM PP

P

G

LSidestream Pump

VenturiInjector

Mixing-enhancement nozzles

L

Water Flow

Page 34: Ozone Drinking Water TreatmentOzone Drinking Water ...€¦ · – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal SourcesAlgal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) – GiGeosmin ... Earlier

International Ozone AssociationInternational Ozone AssociationInternational Ozone AssociationInternational Ozone Associationwww.io3a.orgwww.io3a.org

Joint IOA & IUVA ConferenceJoint IOA & IUVA Conference0404 06 M 200906 M 200904 04 –– 06 May 200906 May 2009

Boston, MABoston, MA

Anthony SaccoSpartan Environmental Technologies, LLC

&&Paul Overbeck

International Ozone Association


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