COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
• What is CBE?
• Characteristics of CBE
• Elements of CBE
• Competency based assessment
• Differences between traditional and competency based assessment
• Types of CBA approaches
What is Competency based education?
Competency based education focuses on learner performance often called learning outcomes in reaching specific goals and objectives of the curriculum.
How do we look at CBE?
What is competence?
• Competence equating to performance – that is the ability to perform nursing tasks
• a psychological construct – that is the ability to effectively integrate cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills when delivering nursing care.
What is competency?
•K- KNOWLEDGE•S- SKILLS•A- ABILITIES
Characteristics of CBE• Explicit & aligned with expected
competencies.• criteria driven and focus on
accountability• is grounded in real life experiences• Fosters learner’s ability to self assess• Individualized, providing more
opportunity for independent study.
Competency based assessment• Competency assessment in nursing
includes demonstration of theoretical content knowledge , technical skills and also assessment of a candidate’s attitudes and practice.
Designing Competency based assessment process1. Identify units of competency
2. Develop competency profile
3. Identify evidence requirements
4. Review possible evidence gathering techniques
5. Select the appropriate technique
6. Prepare the evidence plan
7. Document the evidence
8. Review the assessment process
Differences between TA & CBA
• Theoretical• Curricular outcomes
defined by college/board
• Integrated with learning
• Norm referenced
• Actual performance• Outcomes are
determined by experts/research
• Independent of learning program
• Criterion referenced
Tools for assessment of competence• Assessment of competence must
include more than one indicator• Technical skills can be assessed by
standardized tools such as Nurse competence scale
• Non technical skills can be assessed using paper and pencil tests, observational checklists and patient feedback or patient satisfaction.
Indicators for competence in clinical nursing practice• portfolios • examinations • peer review (assessment) • direct observation • self-assessment • interview • patient outcomes
PORTFOLIOS• Portfolios are a collection of evidence
to demonstrate skills, knowledge, attitudes and achievements.
• Portfolios may be used as a personal development tool or an assessment tool.
• Portfolios rely on a level of self-regulation, writing and critical reflection skills.
• Consider the need for clarity, defined limits and adequate preparation of individuals and assessors.
• Confidence in the use of portfolios for both students and assessors will only develop with time and experience.
Evidences of portfolioPatient profile/community profile Notes of care givenReflective account of a critical practice
incident Review of an individual patient’s needs
and care Citation of published literature to justify
particular aspect of care
Tips to use Portfolio in CBA • the evaluation tool should be clear and specific• a tripartite approach- student, mentor, assessor • assessors should be trained• consider formative assessment for reflective
components• consider a summatively assessed clinical skills list • provide opportunities for assessors to network with
each other to share experiences and encourage a consistent approach
Objective structured clinical examination• An OSCE is a series of stations/exercises
through which students rotate individually to demonstrate a range of skills and knowledge.
• OSCEs provide the opportunity for teaching and assessment.
• OSCEs are costly and can be time-consuming.
• Adequate preparation of participants, assessors and actors is important.
Peer Assessments• Peer assessment/review provides a
mutually supportive approach for ensuring accountability and fostering professional growth.
• peer review is often regarded as a mechanism for demonstrating professionalism and promoting professional development.
Who is a peer?• a colleague of equal status in the same
• a colleague of equal status from another ward in the same specialty/department
• someone of higher status in the same ward or another ward in the same specialty
• someone of equal or higher status from another hospital.
Benefits of peer review• confirmation of previously held beliefs in an
individual’s skills/lack of certain skills
• provides clarity to self-assessment findings
• provides a medium for sharing colleagues’ experiences
• helps to identify problems
• provides an opportunity for feedback on performance.
Issues with peer review• Assessment is dependent on the reviewer’s
expertise and familiarity with the individual’s work and role expectations
• can be a source of anxiety for both parties
• issues around negative comments
• risk of feedback being overcritical or judgmental
• can cause disagreement among peers
• depends on availability of peers or of opportunities for peer assessment.
Recommendations to use peer review in CBA• Use peer review in combination with portfolios to encourage self-reflection prior to seeking critical comment.
• Define terms and scoring criteria and provide training for reviewers.
• Reviewers should be familiar with the individual’s role expectations and relevant standards.
Direct Observation• ‘observation of nursing activities in the clinical
setting instead of a contrived examination format’.
Issues highlighted for consideration in relation to direct observation include:
• the need for accuracy and consistency of assessment
• awareness of the range of variables that can influence practice in the clinical setting
• the role of personal characteristics.
Factors causing bias in direct observation • Familiarity
• the assessor favoring or disfavoring the person being assessed
• nervousness of the person being assessed • resource deficiencies with which an
external assessor is unfamiliar • educators who are not sufficiently
involved in practice• successful performance on one day is no
guarantee of it on another.
Self assessment• Most common and most favored in
nursing competence surveys• Formalised method of self monitoring
and self reflection• cost-effectiveness • gives individuals conscious control over
practice.• Helps nurses to identify own strengths
in practice and the weaknesses.
Patient outcomes• Patient oucomes and patient views are
very valuable in assessment of competence.
• Patients may find it difficult to differentiate between the caring aspect and technical aspect
• Anxiety over nurses response to competence assessment
• May not separate caring and judging
Tips to use CBA• Timing and environment must be conducive to
• It should be a supportive process that is beneficial rather than punitive.
• It is part of the developmental process
• It must allow for the provision of supportive feedback
• Link with appropriate opportunities for professional development
• Recognize and minimize bias in the assessment process.
• Develop different methods of assessment for different domains of competence
• Observational contexts must be limited, defined and calibrated .
• Adequate training in the field of competency assessment to assessors
• Reliable competency assessment processes.
Criticisms of CBA • Difficulties and inconsistencies in implementing
non-graded assessment systems:
• Inconsistencies in judgments between assessors.
• Limited understanding of the design and implementation of assessment tools.
• Difficulty in separating summative purposes of assessment with formative purposes.
Key points:• Competence is a complex concept and
debates continue about the most appropriate definition and method of assessment.
• In broad terms, competency standards recommend expected levels of knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviors.
• A key challenge in competence assessment is ensuring objectivity.
• Assessment of competence should use more than one indicator.
• Regardless of the tool or indicator, it is essential that there is adequate preparation of the individual being assessed, the assessors and mentors.
• It has been suggested that the first step in competence assessment should be self-reflection.
ConclusionNursing as a profession is constantly under assault
and variety of other roles encroach upon the nursing roles. The competency movement has contributed to this continuing debate. The distinguishing aspects of nursing, the ways in which it can be developed and implemented by its practitioners, and the recognition of what is unique in nursing are the features that have been enhanced by the scrutiny. All nurse educators should be encouraged to explore and implement the innovative assessment approaches such as CBA and OBA in order to ensure that nursing education in India is on par with the developed countries.
References1. Lenburg, C. Redesigning Expectations for Initial and Continuing
Competence For Contemporary Nursing Practice Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 1999. Available http://www.nursingworld.org /ojin
2. Artis, LH. Identifying core competencies for the Army Nurse. Research paper, US Army Command and General Staff College; Kansas 2003.
3. Standards Of Professional Nursing Practice. American Nurses Associatio(ANA). Scope and Standards of Nursing Practice, 2004
4. Entry to Practice Competencies For Ontario Registered Nurses as of January 1, 2005.College of Nurses of Ontario. Pub. No. 41037; 2004
5. Common Competencies for Registered Nurses. WPSEAR: ANMC Australia; March 2006
6. Practice Standards for Nurses in India. Teaching Material for Quality Assurance Model: Nursing. Indian Nursing Council, New Delhi.2006
7 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. ACGME Outcome Project. 2005. www.acgme.org/Outcome
MRS HEMALATHA R
PROFESSOR AND PRINCIPAL
UNIVERSAL COLLEGE OF NURSING
OUTCOME BASED ASSESSMENT
• What is outcome based education (OBE)?
• Why do we choose OBE?
• What instructional strategies go with OBE?
• How to design assessment tasks in line with OBE?
Outcome based approach
• an emphasis on the results of learning (outcomes);
• a focus on learning by doing;
• a focus on what learners can do as well as learning of content;
• opportunities for the recognition of prior learning
• Outcomes are more detailed and specific statements derived from the goals.
• What you want the end result of your efforts to be.
It is not what you are going to do to the student
• Use active verbs such as articulate, illustrate, conduct, synthesize, analyze, etc.
• Terms: construct, locate, dissect, categorize, compose, invent…..
• Identify and solve problems
• Work in a team
• Organise and manage
• Collect, analyse and evaluate information
• Communicate effectively
• Use science and technology
• Recognise problem solving contexts
outcome statements • Fuzzy: Students will understand and apply
Principles of pediatric nursing in different situations
• In between: Students can articulate how principles of pediatric nursing can help in different situations.
• Precise: Students will describe how applying Pediatric nursing principles can facilitate change in the care of Ms Liza , a terminally ill child.
1. Students will be able to compare and contrast various leadership styles.
2. Students will be able to identify when students are cheating.
3. Students will be able to locate all of the items they need for a balanced diet.
4. Students will demonstrate care when using the hospital equipment.
What is OBE?
What topics do I teach?
• OBE:What do I intend my students to be able to
do after my teaching that they could not do before, and to what standard?
What is OBE?
What teaching methods do I use?
How do I supply learning activities that will help them achieve those outcomes?
Normal teaching:• Teaching is conceived as a process of
transmitting contents to the students.
OBE:• It is stated clearly not what the lecturer
is going to teach, but what the outcome of that teaching is intended to be and at what standard.
Principles of obe
1. Clear goals
2. Standard referenced
3. Learning for all
• To address mismatches between employers and graduates.
• Students main concerns are GRADES, employers are looking for KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE and SKILLS.
• Tells students what they are supposed to learn, how and to what standard.
• OBE addresses both declarative and functional knowledge
T-l activities in obe
We need Teaching and Learning activities that require students to
• Generate new ideas
• Diagnose and solve problems
TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITIES
• Problem-based learning
• Cooperative learning
• Blended learning
• Discovery learning
What is expected of students?
• Do challenging tasks other than memorize and reproduce what was taught.
• Write project proposals, complete projects, analyse case studies, give case presentations, show their abilities to think, question, research, and make decisions based on the findings.
Traditional assessment OB assessment
• Continuous testing & permanent grading
• Mistakes on permanent record: best grades & records fast & consistent performers; slower learners never catch up
• Never assess/ document what learners can ultimately do successfully
• Macro view learning & achievement
• Mistakes inevitable steps in development, internalizing & demonstrating high level of performance capabilities
• Ultimate achievement what able to do
Traditional vs ob assessment17
Features of ob assessment
• EMPHASIS ON OUTPUT• CRITERION REFERENCED• CONTINUOUS• IS BOTH FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE• IS VALID• INTEGRATED• ALIGNED WITH PURPOSES OF THE
Not how well students have received knowledge,
how they can use it in academically and professionally appropriate ways such as
• Solving problems
• Designing experiments
• Communicating with clients
Designing Assessment Tasks• The assessment tasks (AT) must be
aligned to the learning outcomes. Eg in PBL
• The grading criteria, or rubrics,are the key to easy and successful grading. Final grades depends on how well all the outcomes have been achieved.
OB ASSESSMENT PROCESS
• Begin with your outcomes• Design/select your assessment task• Identify appropriate sections of the assessment task• Set criteria statements• Take each statement and identify the categories
where you require evidence to be produced• Take each category and describe what you would
expect a “highly competent” candidate to produce in each of these categories
• Do the same for a “competent” candidate• Do the same for a “not yet competent” candidate
Another way of looking at it
• Naturally occurring methods – writing essay, observations, student interactions, student debates
• Purposefully designed methods- surveys
DIRECT ASSESSMENT METHODS
• Student work samples• Collections of student work (e.g. Portfolios)• Capstone projects, dissertations, projects• Project-embedded assessment• Observations of student behavior• Internal juried review of student projects• External evaluations of student performance• Document analysis (e.g., clinical diary)
DIRECT ASSESSMENT METHODS
• External juried review of student projects• Externally reviewed internship• Performance on a case study/problem• Performance on problem and analysis (Student• explains how he or she solved a problem)• Performance on national licensure examinations• Locally developed tests• Standardized tests• Pre-and post-tests• Essay tests blind scored across units
• Alumni, Employer, Student Surveys• Exit Interviews with Graduates• Graduate Follow-up Studies• Percentage of students who go on to graduate school• Retention and Transfer Studies• Job Placement Statistics• Faculty/Student ratios• Percentage of students who study abroad• Enrollment trends• Percentage of students who graduate within five-six
Assessment in obe
• Outcomes are set out sequentially on a gradation of increasing complexity that students are expected to master.
• OBE focuses on how much and how well the students have learnt.
• Weaker students may have to follow a different learning path & finish later.
• Grades may…
Collapse information about several learning outcomes
Reflect other aspects of student performance
Student 1 Student2 Student3
Outcome 1 A B A
Outcome 2 B B C
Outcome 3 A C C
Tips for teachers
• Educators must reduce their reliance on written tests and exam papers;
• Educators must increase their range of assessment styles;
• These styles must be appropriate to the outcomes educators are assessing;
• Assessment should be continuous and integrated into teaching.
30Operation Models for OBE
K 70% K 70% K 70%
Distribution of K, S, A elements throughout the 4 years
A B C D A B C D
Take home messages
• You do not have to assess everything you do every year.
• You don’t have to do everything at once-start with 2 or 3 learning outcomes
• Think baby steps• Be flexible• Acknowledge and use what you have already done.• Borrow examples from other institutions to modify
as appropriate• Time for this must be re-allocated• Allocate time according to priorities
• The focus of education has shifted from the educator to learner however this shift requires change within the educational system in order to facilitate learning. Establishing an Outcome based assessment system for education is the best way for a particular learner to reach the desired outcomes. The role of the educator is to enable and encourage all learners to achieve essential outcomes while the learner actively participates in and contributes towards the learning process.
• Killen, R. Outcomes-Based Education: Principles and Possibilities. Unpublished manuscript. University of Newcastle, Australia: Faculty of Education. Retrieved September 11, 2004 from www.schools.nt.edu.au
• A brief guide to outcomes based assessment. Academic development. Rhodes University.2009
• Bresciani, M.J. The relationship between outcomes, measurement. and decisions for continuous improvement. National Association for Student Personnel Administrators, Inc NetResults E-Zine ; September, 2002.
• Palomba, C.A. and Banta, T.W. Assessment• essentials: Planning, implementing and improving• assessment in Higher Education. San Francisco:
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