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Palladio Journey 2014

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Program Information for the UM SOA / ICAA Palladio Program

    WINTER 2013

    P A L L A D I O VENICE 2014


    For centuries students of architecture have visited Venice and the Veneto to study the work of the 16th century Renaissance Architect An-drea Palladio. This is so because of the inherent beauty of the built works and their corresponding landscapes and also because Palladios work is a testimony to a political culture and humanist ideal which would reso-nate throughout the world and America. Jeffersons reliance on Palladios conception of architecture is explained as much by the practical content evident in Palladios drawings and buildings, as it is by the ability of his work, individually and collectively, to project a cultural ideal. In Jeffersons case it would be the political program of a new republic, manifest in reas-sembled pediments and columns against the geography of a new world. In winter time, the city of Venice and its region of influence, the Veneto, are most beautiful and evocative as the mist from the ocean moves across the Lagoon and the marshes of this extraordinary geog-raphy. The architecture of Andrea Palladio, in the city and the territory, is impacted by this northern winter light, luminous and clear. This pro-gram proposes a visit to the city of Venice and to the work of Andrea Palladio. The artistic and cultural heritage of the city, present along its canals and squares, in museums and churches, expose a dazzling culture, which spans a thousand years. In Palladios architecture this extraordi-nary legacy is manifest in the theory behind the works and the build-ings themselves. The program would include visits to the specific work of Palladio in Venice and Vicenza but also the cultural sphere which af-fected his work such as the painting schools of Venice and the frescoes of Giotto in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padova, and the masterpieces of Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Mantegna and Giulio Romano in Mantova. OPPOSITE: Villa Barbaro, Andrea Palladio ABOVE: II Redentore, Palladio, painting Conrad van Wyk

  • 2itinerary

    Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday


    Thursday, January 2 Venice Hotel Bel Sito 2517 Campo Santa Maria del Giglio 30122 Venezia [email protected] Tel: 011-39-0415223365 Friday, January 3 Padova Hotel Majestic Toscanelli Via dellArco 2 35122 Padova Tel: 011-049-663-244 [email protected]

    Saturday, January 4-7 Vicenza Albergo Due Mori 24 Contra Do Rode 36100 Vicenza Tel: 011-39-044-321-886 Wednesday, January 8- 9 Mantova Hotel Broletto Via Accademia 1 46100 Mantova Tel: 037-632-6784 Friday, January 10-12 Venice Hotel Bel Sito 2517 Campo Santa Maria del Giglio 30122 Venezia [email protected]


    Jan. 2 Venice Jan. 3 Venice-PadovaJan. 4 Padova-VicenzaJan. 5 VicenzaJan. 6 VicenzaJan. 7 VicenzaJan. 8 Vicenza-VeronaJan. 9 MantovaJan. 10 Mantova-Parma Jan. 11 Venice

    Carlos Domenech

  • 3itinerary

    Thursday - Classes Begin8:30 Depart hotel (Walking)9:00 Introduction10:00 Museo Correr, Piazza San Marco11:00 Palazzo Rezzonico, Grand Canal12:00 Lunch1:30 CaGoldoni, San Toma3:30 Cadoro, Grand Canal4:00 Pallazo Mocenigo, San Stae5:00 Drawing & Reading Review

    Friday - Venice to Padova7:30 Depart Hotel (vaporetto-train)8:30 Travel to Padova (Train)9:00 Arrive Padova; Hotel Check-in10:00 Cafe Pedrocchi, Univ. of Padova 11:30 Loggia Cornaro, FaconettoBasilica S. Antonio, 12:30 Palazzo della Ragione, Piazza Fruta 1:00 Lunch 2:00 Basilica St. Antonio, Stat. Gattamelata3:30 Basilica S. Giustinia, Prato della Valle5:00 Church of the Eremitani 6:00 Scrovegni Chapel, Giotto Frescoes

    Saturday - Padova to Vicenza8:00 Depart Hotel (taxi to trainstation)9:00 Travel to Vicenza10:00 Hotel Check-in11:00 Free Morning1:00 Travel to Verona (walk to train)2:00 Palazzo Vechio3:00 Porto Bosari4:00 Piazza della Signoria5:00 Drawing & Reading Review6:00 Free Evening


  • 4itinerary


    Sunday - Vicenza8:00 Depart Hotel (walking)8:30 Basilica 1546, Loggia Capitanato1572 9:30 Palazzo Chiericati, 155010:00 Teatro Olimpico, 155611:00 Palazzo Barbarano CISA12:00 Lunch2:00 Villa Capra (Rotunda), 15653:30 Casa Civena, 15404:00 Palazzo Porto Breganze, 15714:30 Palazzo Valmarana, 15655:00 Palazzo Thiene, 15425:30 Palazzo Iseppo Porto, 1542 Monday - Vicenza area (Bus Travel)8:00 Depart Hotel (Bus, Campo Marzio)8:30 Villa Trissino, Cricoli, Trissino 15389:30 Villa Coldogno, Coldogna, 154210:30 Villa Chiericati, Vancimugnlio, 154711:00 Villa Godi, Lonedo di Lugo, 154212:00 Villa Piovene, Lonedo di Lugo12:30 Lunch Al Magazine3:00 Villa Valmarana Bressan, Monticello 4:00 Villa Thiene, Quinto Vicentino, 15435:00 Villa Gazzoti-Curti, Bertesina, 1542

    Tuesday - Vicenza area (Bus Travel)8:00 Depart Hotel (Bus)9:00 Villa Cornaro-Rush, Piombino Pese11:00 Villa Emo, Fanzolo di Vedelago, 155812:30 Lunch, Locanda Maser12:30 Basilica S. Giustinia, Prato della Valle2:00 Villa Barbaro, Masar, 15505:00 Ponte Bassano, Bassano di Grappa

  • 5itinerary

    Wednesday - Montova 8:00 Hotel Checkout (bus, campo Marzio)9:00 Villa Pisani, Lonigo, V. Scamozzi, 157610:30 Villa Pisani-Ferri, Bagnolo12:00 Villa Pojana, Pojana Maggiore, 15401:00 Lunch, Montagnana3:00 Villa Pisani-Placco, Fratta Polesine4:30 Villa Badoer, Fratta Polesine 1554 5:30 Bus to Mantova Thursday - Mantova8:00 Depart Hotel (walking)8:30 S. Andrea, (LB Alberti)9:30 S. Stefano Rotondo 9th century10:00 Pesceria (G. Romano)10:30 Casa del Giuglio Romano (G. Romano)11:00 Casa del Mantegna (A. Mantegna)11:30 Palazzo Te (G. Romano), 15252:30 Palazzo Ducale

    Friday - Mantova to Venice8:00 Depart Hotel (Bus)9:00 Parma Teatro Farnese, National Gallery12:00 Lunch1:00 Teatro Municipale, Sabbionetta,5:00 Villa Foscari (Malcontenta), Mira 15587:00 Arrive Venice, hotel check-in

    Saturday - Venice9:30 Il Redentore10:30 San Giorgio Maggiore11:30 S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Carpaccio, 12:00 S. Francesco della Vigna, 15631:00 Lunch3:00 Journal Review and Conclusion


    Thursday, Jan 2, 2013 CEU Course 1Venice Urban Structure and Architecture Typologies - 3 unitsLecturers Prof. Teofilo Victoria UM, Joseph S. Cronk ICAATeaching Assistant Dean ReinekingDuration: 3 hrs.Course Description: A walking tour of Venice, the Imperial capital and the Metropolis during the time of Andrea Palladio. Visit to the Correr Mu-seum to see Jacopo de Barberis engraving of the map of Venice in 1500. The formal urban structure of Venice can be studied from the map as well as the pre Palladian sites. Visits to Ca Rezzonico, Palazzo Mocenigo, Ca Goldoni, and CadOro to study the general characteristics of the Venetian house and the extent to which typology defines the architecture of Andrea Palladio. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Introduction to the history of the city of Venice and its construction. The evolution of urban form and building typology.Study of the urban morphology of Venice. Founded in the VIII Century AD, Venice is a new city, as opposed to the cities of the Veneto which are Roman, and as such it shares a common experience with the city in the New World. Notes on the specific geographic and climatologically specific building methods and materials of construction in Venice and preservation and maintenance technique.

    Friday, Jan. 3, 2013 CEU Course 2Padova Intramuro Part 1 - 3 unitsDuration: 3 hrs.Course Description: Part 1 of a walking tour of Padova, birthplace and home town of Andrea Palladio. Visits to the Loggia Cornaro, Basilica S. Antonio, Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata by Donatello, Basilica S, Giustinia and Prato della Valle provide examples of traditions and innovations in archi-tecture and urban design, and developments in humanist theory that would contribute to the formation of the architect. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Introductions to early Renaissance artists and theorists who would have a profound impact on urban and architecture design ad-




    vances in the north of Italy in the 16th century (A. Cornaro, Serlio, Trisino).Review of the urban morphologies of Padova which would have a pro-found impact on the formation of A. Palladio, architect and theorist (gal-leries, new church of S. Giustinia).Observations on the early efforts to construct environments devoted to the discovery of ancient Roman art forms such as bronze casting techniques (Gattamelata), and musical and theatrical performance arts (Falconetto).Introduction to medieval art and architecture in northern Italy (S. Anto-nio). Padova Intramuro Part 2 4 units CEU Course 3Duration: 4 hrs.Course Description: Part 2 of a walking tour of Padova. Visits to the Pala-zzo della Ragione, Piazza delle Erbe and delle Fruta, University of Padova Anatomical Theatre, Church of the Eremitani and the Scrovegni Chapel (Giotto Frescoes) Architecture, Urbanism and the Monuments of the place that would contribute to the development of certain interests in the young architect. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Understanding the urbanism of the civic center of the city, site of the ancient Roman Forum. The construction of cities over cities in time is revealed. Review of the reconstructed Church of the Er-emitani, an excellent example of post-war preservation, reconstruction and consolidation work in northern Italy. Review of the Palazzo della Ragione of Padova, a medieval meeting hall built over ancient Roman foundations (Palladio would propose to rebuild the galleries, effectively buttressing the great roof in his project for the same civic building in Vicenza).Introduc-tion to proto-Renaissance art in northern Italy (the frescoes of Giotto).

    Saturday, Jan. 4, 2013 CEU Course 4Verona Intramuro Palazzo Vechio, Porta Borsari, Piazza della Signoria

    Sunday, Jan. 5, 2013 CEU Course 5Palladio a Vicenza Part 1 - 2 unitsDuration: 2 hrs.Course Description: Walking tour of the civic center of the city. The Basil-ica and the Loggia del Capitanato employ classical orders at varying scales


  • 8to create a balanced and well defined urban space. A review of the famed Serlian motif employed in the reconstruction of the gallery surrounding the Basilica by Palladio. The Palazzo Chiericati and the Teatro Olimpico are presented as manifestations of the principled theories for city build-ing by A. Palladio, described in his treatise on architecture. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives:An understanding of the dimensional flexibility and formal rigor inherent in the Serlian motif employed by Palladio at the gallery of the Basilica. Geometry and Scale.Review of the use of stone construction in public buildings and structures which warrant the consideration for longevity and striking singularity in the urban design ensemble.Review of the Teatro Olimpico; visionary project aimed at reconstructing the humanist ideals embodied in the architecture of the classical world and describing a new Vicenza.Observations of a principled urban architecture. The importance of galler-ies running the length of the street at specified points and along paths of travel within the city. Palladio a Vicenza Part 2 - 4 units CEU Course 6Duration: 4 hrs.Course Description: A walking tour beginning at the Villa Rotonda, a re-treat house situated upon a hill just outside the city, and proceeding into the city to review a number of palazzi by Palladio. Review of the centrally planned building. Review of palazzi in consideration of the design of the vertical surface; designs aimed at a specific scale of urban space defined by the faade, from the narrow street to the broad piazza. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: An understanding of the importance of establishing relevant criteria for the selection of a site; practical and esthetic considerations in the selection of the site for the Villa Rotonda.Understanding the structure; compartition and proportioning systems em-ployed in the centrally planned building.



  • 9Review of the use of basements, colossal orders and minor orders, and at-tics in the design of building facades. The modulation of scale in consider-ation of the urban spaces created.An introduction to Palladios application of the Roman palace type and its constituent elements in the development of a new urban domestic archi-tecture.

    Monday, Jan. 6, 2013Villa Trisino, Caldogno, Chiericati, Godi & Piobene CEU Course 7Course Description: Visits to the early villas of Palladio, where one can see quite explicitly, the organizational structure of the Venetian house applied to the design of the country house. This vernacular type, characterized by a central hall, often repeated on two stories, with flanking suites, is a sort of presumptive vernacular reality that is not to be denied. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: The Venetian house plan. The central hall (portego and androne), the introduction of the hearth, natural light and ventilation to the principal corner rooms. (Godi, others).Understanding the impact that humanist theory and political develop-ments made on the suburban landscape in Northern Italy. Implications of a new political reality on the form of the country house (Trisino).Palladios practical understanding of the barchessa; its role in his formal schemes for the Villa.Understanding of the villa as manifestation of locality, beyond the walls and ramparts. The new architecture of the territory. (Trisino, Caldogno, Godi)

    Villa Valmarana, Thiene, Gazzoti & Chiericati 3 units CEU Course 8Course Description: Visits to villas by Palladio in the vicinity of Vicenza. Examples of adaptive re-uses of the 470 year old buildings. The Municipal Building of Quinto Vicentino is a fraction of the very large Villa Thiene planned by Palladio. Review of Roman brick construction techniques. Re-views of buildings in progressing phases of reconstruction/rehabilitation work on site (Gazzoti). Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Observations of structures (Gazzoti, Caldogno, oth-ers). Masonry walls, groin vaulting between load-bearing walls, and the timber framing at roofs.


  • 10

    COURSE DESCRIPTIONApplicability of villa building to new uses. Excellent example of adapted reuse (QV). Historic Preservation, public functions, day lighting and envi-ronmental systems.Dimensions and proportions of specific rooms; plan, section and elevation, including openings.Dimensions and proportions of building volumes.

    Tuesday, Jan. 7, 2013 CEU Course 9Villa Gustinian, Villa Cornaro-Rush, Villa Emo - 4 unitsDuration: 4 hrs.Course Description: This course presents an opportunity to compare and contrast a villa of anonymous authorship (Gustinian), with those of A. Palladio. The Villa Cornaro-Rush is presented as an example of the de-velopment of the stacked classical orders applied to domestic buildings. The formal composition of the Villa Emo is considered in terms of the functional elements of the working farms of northern Italy. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: An understanding of the functional elements of the working farm and the formal compositional strategies employed by Palla-dio at work with them (threshing ramp, dove cotes, barchese-barn).Introduction to Palladios efficient use of cut stone in combination with load-bearing brick masonry and stucco in domestic buildings.The building mass and scale in the context of the complex site. The role of two-fronted buildings. The canal entry and the working farm. References to the parallels between the Architecture of the Veneto and Antebellum America. Villa Barbaro and the Ponte Bassano 3 units CEU Course 10Duration: 3 hrs.Course Description: At Maser, the frontispiece, the object and the cross-axial composition combine in this complex, delicately fitted to its site at the northern foothills overlooking the productive agricultural plains. Interiors decorated with masterful frescoes by P. Veronese. The wooden bridge at Basano spans the head waters of the Po River at the foothills of the Italian Alps. The Po is the life-source of the fertile plain, providing irrigation and


  • 11

    transport for goods and people, as it drains toward the Venetian Lagoon. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: An understanding of the intentions of Palladios patrons to extend and commemorate Venetian influence to the far reaches of the Veneto. Introduction to Palladios intent to deliver decisively proportioned interior sequences of spaces with a keen sense for the framed view and day lighting. Dimensions and proportions.Understanding of composition of the section in consideration of opportu-nities presented by the sloping site and the creation of a formal garden in the context of a working farm. Review of the site. The creation of an urban event with a minimum num-ber of essential elements.

    Wednesady, January 8, 2013 CEU Course 11Villa Pisani, Pisani-Ferri, Pojana & Placco - 4 units Duration: 4 hrs.Course Description: Visit to the Roca Pisani by V. Scamozzi. Review of the centrally planned building structure from top to bottom. Pisani-Ferri and the introduction of a Roman scale; colossal groin vault and thermal window. Canal fronts and court yard fronts, barcesa and garden wall. The stacked orders and the prismatic form of Pisani-Placco are explained as is the shocking urbanity of the site. Private historic preservation project in progress (Pisani-Placco). Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Observations and reviews of structures (Villa Pisani). Masonry walls, basement vaulting, great dome. (Villa Pojana) basement, piano nobile, roof attic. Applicability of villa building to new uses. Public Historic Preservation Project (Pojana).Dimensions and proportions of specific rooms; plan, section and elevation, including vaulting (Pojana, Pisani-Placco).Dimensions and proportions of building volumes, interior/exterior (Pisani-Placco).


  • 12


    Thursday, January 9, 2013 CEU Course 12S. Andrea, S. Stefano, Casa Mantegna and Pallazo Te 4 unitsDuration: 4 hrs.Course Description: Walking tour of monuments of Mantova. Visit to S. Andrea by L.B. Alberti, built in the 15th century, dome added nearly 100 years later by Juvarra. S. Stefano is from the 9th century and reveals the historic medieval brickwork and spaces in an exceptional reconstruction of a once lost building. Visit to the house of Mantegna and the suburban Pal. Te. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Introduction to the significance of Alberti to Palla-dio. The Ten Books of Architecture. Review of the faade design by Alberti. A new Roman city is here already proposed.Review of G. Romano buildings. Iterations on a classical language, narra-tive architecture.Dimensions and proportions of building volumes, interior/exterior (Pisani-Placco)

    Friday Jan. 10, 2013Parma, Sabionetta, Villa Badoer and Foscari 3 units CEU Course 13Course Description: Visit to Sabionetta and the Teatro Municipale by V. Scamozzi. A walk through the new town.Visits to two of the most formative buildings to architects in England and America. The Villa Badoer and the Villa Foscari. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Review of the site plan at Badoer. The forecourt and the canal.Review of the piano nobile floor plan at Badoer and Foscari.Review of the site plan at Foscari. The forecourt and the canal.Dimensions and proportions of building volumes, interior/exterior (Ba-doer and Foscari).


  • 13


    Saturday, Jan. 11, 2013Palladio a Venezia 4 units CEU Course 14Duration: 4 hrs.Course Description: Walking tour of the churches of Il Redentore, S. Gior-gio Maggiore and S. Francesco della Vigna. Reviews of urban design con-cepts and building design innovations in the Palladio projects. Review of building material pallets. Visit to Scuola S. Giorgio degli Sciavoni to see paintings of Carpaccio. Sketching and journal entries.Learning Objectives: Review of the section at Il Redentore. Understanding of natural lighting, structure and the building volume.


    Saturday, Jan. 12, 2013Murano visit Travel home.

    1) ICAA Tuition: (22 CEU Course) $ 750.002) Airfare Travel: Miami Venice $1,100.003) Housing:($ 85/day x 10, 8 days of class / 2 days of travel ) $ 850.004) Board: ( $50 x 11 days ) $ 550.00 5) Museum fees and ground transportation: $ 400.006) Miscellaneous $ 300.00


  • 14



    Ackerman, James. Palladio, Penguin, London 1990.Palladio, Andrea. The Four Books of Architecture., Isaac Ware Trans. Dover Publication, NY, 1965 MIT Press Cambridge, MA, 1989. (A copy of the Four Books will be available during the program.)


    Johann Wolfgang Goethe. From Verona to Venice, Italian Journey. Penguin Books, London, 1962Peter Lauritzen, Preface, The Flight from the Barbarians, 315-815, Venice: a Thousand Years of Culture and Civilization. Atheneum, New York, 1981.Rudolf Wittkower. Part III, Principles of Palladios Architecture, Architectural Principles in the age of Humanism. WW.Norton & Co, New York, 1962.Vincent Scully, Palladio the English Garden and the Modern Age, Architecture: The Natural and the Manmade. St.Martins Press, New York, 1991.Collin Rowe. The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976.L.B. Alberti. Book one, Lineaments, Da Re Aedeficatoria. Josef Ryk-wert, Neil Leach, and Robert Tavenor Trans. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.Manfredo Tafuri. Memoria et Prudentia Patrician Mentalities and Res Aedificatoria, Venice and the Renaissance, Jessice Lavine Trans, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.Ruskin, John. The Renaissance, The Stones of Venice. Officina Ed-izion, Roma, 1981James Ackerman. Palladios Villas. Locust Valley, NY, 1967J.Thomas Oosting. Archaeological and Architectural Learning, An-drea Palladios Teatro Olimpico, UMI Press, Ann Arbor, 1970Peter Murray. Palace Design in Florence, Venice and elsewhere, Re-naissance Architecture, Electa/Rizzoli, NY, 1978Leonardo Benevolo. Venice, The History of the City, MIT Press,1978


  • 15reference


    Thursday, Jan 2 - L. B. Alberti. Book One, Lineaments, Da Re Aedifi-catoria. Josef Rykwert, Neil Leach, and Robert TavernorTrans. MIT Press Cambridge, Mass, 1988.Friday, Jan 3 - Leonardo Benevolo. Venice, The History of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma. 1978Saturday, Jan 4 - James S. Ackerman, Palladio and his Times, Palla-dio, Penguin Books, London, 1966.Sunday, Jan 5 - Bruce Boucher, Vicenza and Palladios first Palaces, Andrea Palladio: The Architect in his Time , Abbeville Press, New York, 1998Monday, Jan 6 - James Ackerman, Palladios Villas and Their Prede-cessors, Form and Ideology of Country Houses, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1990Tuesday, Jan 7 - Deborah Howard, Palladio, The Architectural His-tory of Venice, Holmes & Meier, NY,1981Ruskin, John. The Renaissance, The Stones of Venice. Officina Ed-izion, Roma, 1981

    Bruce Boucher. Andrea Palladio, The Architect in his Time. Abbeville Press, New York, 1998Anthony Blunt. The Social Position of the Artist, Artistic Theory in Italy 1450-1600. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1962Giulio Lorenzetti. Venice and its Lagoon: Historical Artistic Guide. Nero Vianello Presentation, John Guthrie Translation, Edizions Lint, Manfredo Tafuri. Venice and the Renaissance. Jessica Levine trans. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989.Peter Murray. Renaissance Architecture. Electa/Rizzoli, New York, Steer, John. A Concise History of Venetian Painting. Thanes and Hud-son, London, 1970McCarthy, Mary. Venice Observed. Penguin Books, London, 1956Palladio, Andrea. The Four Books of Architecture. Trans.by Robert Tavenor and Richard Schofield, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.Lionello Puppi. Andrea Palladio. Rizzoli, Milan. Pearl Sanders Trans-lation, New York Graphic Society, Boston, 1975Caroline Constant. The Palladio Guide, Princeton Architectural Press,



    The travel journal is an important tool for the student of Architecture for two reasons: One, it allows the architect to document and illustrate buildings visited, often once in a lifetime, to a degree useful as a reference or model in practice. The travel journal may also be useful as the exercise of freehand drawing, particularly field drawings or field sketches. The drawings can be of varied scales and empha-size different aspects of a project or construction. The siting of a building in a given landscape, or its position within a city or town fabric, for instance, can yield powerful, lyrical even, sketches and drawings. The large scale construction detail is accessible as well from personal observations of a building in-situ. Throughout history the sketch and the freehand drawing have been a valuable resource to the architect and thus a much desired skill. Among the drawings an architect might produce, the field sketch is a very telling document for the study of the work of individual architects, because they can reveal the point of view from where an architect studies a building. In the travel journal students will document in draw-ing form and written text different aspects of Palladios work employing the crite-ria explained by Leon Battista Alberti in the chapter titled Lineaments from the first book of his treaty the Re-Aedificatoria. This treatise had a great influence in the development of a humanist theory of architecture and would orient Palladio in the writing of his own work: The Four Books of Architecture. Location, Area, Compartition, Wall, Opening and Roof are, according to Alberti, the elements of which the whole matter of building is composed, and, for the purpose of this itinerant study of the work of Andrea Palladio, the subjects of drawing exercises.


    Tefilo Victoria graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1979 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts and in 1980 with a Bachelor of Architec-ture. In 1982 Mr. Victoria completed a Masters of Architecture and Urban Design from Columbia University and in 1983, became the first Town Archi-tect for the town of Seaside, Florida. Mr. Victoria teaches at the University of Miami, where he has served as the Director of the Undergraduate Pro-gram (1995-1998) and the Director of the Graduate Program (1999-2009). He has been a Visiting Professor at Cornell University and Harvard Uni-versity and lectured in the United States, Europe and Latin America.

    Adib Cure received a Bachelor of Ar-chitecture degree from the University of Miami and a Masters of Architec-ture in Urban Design degree from Harvard University. Upon graduation he went on to work for the office of Machado & Silvetti in Boston; and in 2001 he established the firm of CURE & PENABAD Architects. He is cur-rently a Lecturer at the University of Miami School of Architecture, and has taught at Northeastern University and the Boston Architectural Center. The work of the office has received numer-ous awards including American In-stitute of Architects awards, state and local preservation awards, a National Congress for New Urbanism Award, a Silver Metal prize at the 2010 Miami Biennale. Most recently, the firm was nominated as a finalist for the presti-gious Marcus Corp. Architectural Prize for emerging architectural talent.

    Joseph Cronk graduated from The University of Florida School of Archi-tecture with a Bachelor of Design in Architecture and a Masters of Architec-ture with an emphasis on preservation. Mr. Cronk is a board member of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Art FL and is on the Classical Caribbean commitee focusing on the study of Classical architecture in the caribbean basin. He is currently a partner with Cronk Duch Architects with studios in St Augustine and Jacksonville Florida. The firm focuses on classical and tra-ditional projects throughout the south-eastern United States and Caribbean.

    Carlos Domenech

  • 18Ca D oro

    CA DOro was built in the early years of the fifteenth century on the spot where a Veneto-byzantine palace belonging to the Zen family had once stood, for Marino Contarini who supervised the work; it is called the Ca DOro because of the abundant gilding and colour which once adorned the faade, and it may be said to have been completed in 1434. The design was, perhaps, by Marco DAmadio but it was carried out and decorated by Lombard craftsmen under Matteo Raverti and later by Venetians su-pervised by Giovanni and Bartolomeo Bon. Typical of Venetian palaces, the building has a large opening at water-level with a flight of stairs run-ning out of an entrance hall and a number of store-rooms occupying the rest of the ground floor just above the water-level. The piano nobile is thus even more important in Venetian palaces than in any other Italian examples. In addition, the faade is divided into three vertical elements. The main room on the first floor, known as the Gran Salone, occupies the whole of the centre of the faade, and the smaller rooms on either side of it are expressed externally by smaller windows. This in turn, means that the windows of the Gran Salone must be as large as possible since the great room inside can be lit only from the back and the front, there be-ing no possibility of side lighting and no internal court. Hence the most characteristic feature of all Venetian palaces, the great mass of window openings in the centre of the faade. 1

    1 Peter Murray, The Architecture of the Renaissance, (New York: Schock-en Books, 1963), 95.


    Donatellos equestrian monument of Erasmo da Narni (ca. 1370-1443), the Gattamelata at Padua was commissioned by the Venetian Signoria soon after the generals death in that city in 1443. Gattamelata was an Italian soldier of great audacity, swiftness, and a certain feline slyness. His men proudly nicknamed him the honey cat, Italian la gatta melata, and the sobriquet stuck to him. The Venetian Senate gave him a marshals baton and a title of nobility for his victory against the Milanese. The Re-public recognized his later service of expelling the Milanese from Venetian territory by voting him a bronze statue at Padua. Donatello completed the monument in 1453, ten years after Gattamelatas death. The statue, inspired by the Marcus Aurelius in Rome and the bronze horses on the faade of San Marco at Venice (which were believed to be by Phidias), establishes a theme of victory allantica in terms of recognized classical precedents. The heros gesture of imperial adventus (ceremony of an em-peror's formal arrival at a city) and elaborate fictive armor confirm the gen-eral idea that the Gattamelata represents a kind of equestrian apotheosis, a victory in both the military and spiritual senses, facing as it did the para-diso, or cemetery, of the Santo. The statue of the general posseses a gaze of Julius Caesar-like intensity, while the Medusa head on the breastplate of Gattamelatas lorica (latin for body armour) is derived from examples commonly found on Roman military statues. In the fifteenth century, the Paduan humanist-physician Michele Savonarola (ca.1384-1468) described the figure as seated just like a triumphant Caesar, and with scarcely less magnificence.

  • 20palazzo chiericati

    Plate from the Four Books of Architecture

  • 21vicenza 1548/9-57

    In Vicenza upon the piazza, which is vulgarly called the Isola, the Count Valerio Chiericato, an honorable gentleman of that city, has built according to the following invention. This fabric has in the part below a loggia forwards, that takes in the whole front : the pavement of the first order rises above ground five foot ; which has been done not only to put the cellars and other places underneath, that belong to the conveniency of the house, which would not have suc-ceeded if they had been made entirely under the ground, because the river is not far from it; but also that the order above might the better enjoy the beautiful situation forward. The larger have rooms the height of their vaults, according to the first method for the height of vault : the middle-sized are with groin vaults, and their vaults as high as those of the larger. The small rooms are also vaulted, and are divided off. All these vaults are adorned with most excellent compartments of stucco, by Messer Bar-tolomeo Ridolfi, a Veronese sculptor; and paintings by Messer Domenico Rizzo, and Messer Battista Venetiano, men singular in this profession. The hall is above in the middle of the front, and takes up the middle part of the loggia below. Its height is up to the roof; and because it projects forward a little, it has under the angles double columns. From one part to the other of this hall, there are two loggias, that is, on each side one; which have their soffits or ceilings adorned with very beautiful pictures, and afford a most agreeable sight. The first order of the front is Doric, and the second Ionic. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware,

  • 22palazzo della ragione

    Plate from the Four Books of Architecture

  • 23vicenza 1548/9-57

    As the ancients made their Basilicas, that men in winter and sum-mer might have a place to assemble, and treat about their occasions and affairs; so in our times in every city, both in Italy and out of it, some public halls are made, which may rightly be called basilicas, because, that near to them is the habitation of the supreme magistrate. Hence they come to be part of it. [the word basilica properly signifies a royal house.] Here also the judges attended to administer justice to the people. The basilica of our times differ in this from the ancients, viz. the ancient ones were upon, or even with the ground, and ours are raised upon arch-es, in which are shops for diverse arts, and the merchandizes of the city. There the prisons are also made, and other places belonging to public business. Besides which, the modern basilicas have porticoes in the part within, as has been seen in the above mentioned designs; and the ancient, on the contrary, either had not porticoes, or had them in the part without upon the piazza.Of these modern halls there is a very noble one at Padua, a city illustrious for its antiquity, and celebrated for learning throughout the world, in which the gentlemen every day assemble, and it serves them as a covered piazza. The city of Brescia, magnificent in all her actions, has lately made one which for its largeness and ornaments is wonderful. And another is at Vicenza, of which only I have put the designs, because the porticoes it has round it are of my invention; and ranked among the most noble, and most beautiful fabrics, that have been made since the ancient times; not only for its grandeur, and its ornaments, but also for the materials, which is all very hard live stone, and all the stones have been joined and banded together, with the utmost diligence.1

    1 1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book III, P. 76.

  • 24palazzo thiene

    Plate from the Four Books of Architecture

  • 25vicenza 1527-77

    The following designs are of a fabric in Vicenza, of the Count Ot-tavio De Thieni: it belonged to Count MarcAntonio, who began it. This house is situated in the middle of the city, near the piazza, and therefore I have thought proper to dispose of that part towards the piazza into shops: because the architect is also to consider the advantage of the builder, when it can be done conveniently, and where the situation is sufficiently large. Every shop has over it a mezato for the use of the shop-keeper; and over them are the rooms for the master.This house is insular, that is, encompassed by four streets. The principal entrance, or as one may say, the master-gate, has a loggia forwards, and fronts the most frequented street of the city. The great hall is to be above; which will project even with the loggia. There are two entrances in the wings, which have columns in the middle, placed there not so much for ornament, as they are to render the part above it secure, and to make the height proportionable to the breadth. From these entrances one goes into the court encompassed all round with loggias of pilasters. In the first or-der there are Rustic, and in the second of the Composite order. In the angles, there are octangular rooms, that succeed well, as well with respect to their form, as for diverse uses to which they may be accommodated. These rooms of this fabric that are now finished, have been adorned with the most beautiful stuccoes, by Messer Alessandro Vittoria, and Messer Bartolomeo Ridolfi; and with paintings, by Messer Anselmo Canera, and Messer Bernardino India of Verona, not inferior to any of the present age. The cellars, and such like places, are under ground; because this fabric is in the highest part of the city, where there is no danger that water should prove any inconvenience. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 39,40.

  • 26the scrovegni chapel

    The Scrovegni Chapel, or Capella degli Scrovegni, also known as the Arena Chapel is located in Padua and contains a fresco cycle by Giotto, completed in about 1305. Giotto came to Padua at the invitation of the Franciscans, to decorate their chapterhouse and Enrico Scrovegnis private chapel. The chapel, which stands inside the area of Paduas Roman amphi-theater, commonly referred to as Arena, consists of a single vaulted room measuring 20.5 by 8.5 meters and 18.5 meters high. The architecture appears to have been designed to suit the needs of the painted decoration, and so it has been suggested that it was the work of Giotto himself. Ac-cording to John Ruskin, Giotto was not indeed one of the most accom-plished painters, but he was one of the greatest men who ever lived. He was the first master of his time, in architecture as well as in painting; he was the friend of Dante, and the undisputed interpreter of religious truth, by means of painting, over the whole of Italy. The works of such a man may not be the best to set before children in order to teach them drawing; but they assuredly should be studied with the greatest care by all who are interested in the history of the human mind. The frescoes painted by Giotto in the Arena chapel mark an entirely new stage in the development of empirical perspective, as in that of every other aspect of pictorial art. In his depiction of the human figure the emphasis on weight and volume is striking as his concentration, as a story-teller, upon the dramatic essentials. The most exciting development of all in the conception of the chapel as a single whole is the emergence of a tendency to adapt the viewpoints in the scenes themselves to that of a spectator standing at the center of the build-ing. It may be generally stated that the innovations of Giotto consisted in the introduction of lighter colors, broader masses and of more careful imitation of nature than existed in the works of his predecessors.

  • 27villa badoer 1556/7-63

    The following fabric belongs to the magnificent Signor Francesco Badoero, in the Polesine, at a place called La Frata, on a site somewhat el-evated, and washed by a branch of the Adige, where formerly stood a castle, belonging to Salinguera de Este, broter-in-law to Ezzelino Da Romano.The base of the whole edifice is a pedestal, five feet high; the pavement of the rooms is level with this height, which are all with flat ceilings, and have been adorned with grotesque work of a beautiful invention, by Giallo Fiorentino. The granaries are above, and the kitchen, cellars, and other places belonging to its convenience, are below. The columns of the loggias of the masters house, are of the Ionic order. The cornice, like a crown, encompasses the whole house. The frontispiece, over the loggias, forms a beautiful sight, because it makes the middle part higher than the sides. Lower on the plane are found the places for the steward, bailiff or farmer, stables, and other suitable for a villa. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 49.

  • 28villa barbaro 1549/51-58

    The following fabric is at Masera, a village near Asolo, a castle in the Trevigiano; belonging to Monsignor Reverendissimo Eletto De Aqui-leia, and to the magnificent Signor MarcAntonio de Barbari, brothers. That part of the fabric which advances a little forward, has two orders of rooms. The floor of those above is even with the level of the court backwards, where there is a fountain cut into the mountain apposite to the house, with infinite ornaments of stucco and paintings. The fountain forms a small lake, which serves for a fish-pond. From this place the water runs into the kitchen; and after having watered the gardens that are on the right and left of the road, which leads gradually to the fabric, it forms two fish-ponds, which is very large, and full of the most excellent fruits, and of different kinds of pulse. The front of the masters house has four columns, of the Ionic order. The capitols of those in the angles face both ways. The method of making which capitols, I shall set down in the book of temples. On the one, and on the other part, there are loggias which, in their ex-tremities, have two dovehouses; and under them there are places to make wines, the stables, and other places for the use of the villa. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 49.

  • 29villa emo-capodilista 1559-65

    The following fabric is at Fanzolo, a village in the Trevigiano, three miles distant from Catelfranco, belonging to the Magnificent Signor Leonardo Erno. The cellars, the granaries, the stables, and the other places belonging to a villa, are on each side of the masters house; and at the ex-tremity of each of them, is a dove-house, which affords both profit to the master, and an ornament to the place; and to all which, one may go under cover: which is one of the principal things required in a villa, as has been observed. Behind this fabric there is a square garden of eighty campi trevi-giani; in the middle of which runs a little river, which makes the situation very delightful and beautifulIt has been adorned with paintings by Messer Battista Venetiano. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 50.

  • 30villa cornaro

    Plate from the Four Books of Architecture

  • 31

    The following fabric belongs to the magnificent Signor Giorgio Cornara, at Piombino, a place in Castelfranco. The order of the loggia is Ionic. The hall is placed in the most inward part of the house, that it may be far from the heat and cold. The wings where the niches are seen, are in breadth the third part of its length. The columns answer directly to the last, but one, of the loggias, and are as far distant from one another, as they are high. The large rooms are one square and three quarters long. The height of the vaults is according to the first method for the height of vaults. The middle sized are square, one third higher than they are broad: their vaults are a lunette. Over the small rooms there are mezzati. The log-gias above are of the Corinthian order. The columns are one fifth less than those underneath. The rooms are with flat ceilings, and have some mezzati over them. On one part is the kitchen, and places for housewifery ; and on the other, places for servants. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 50.

  • 32villa pisani - placco 1552/3-55 padova

    Plate of plan by B. Scamozzi

    The following fabric is near the gate of Montagnana, a castle in the Padoano; and was built by the magnificent Signor Francesco Pisani; who being gone to a better life, could not finish it. The large rooms are one square and three quarters in length; the vaults are a schisso, and in height according to the second manner for the height of vaults. The middle sized are square, and vaulted a cadino. The small rooms, and the passage, are of an equal breadth: their vaults are two squares in height; the entrance has four columns, one fifth less than those without, which support the pave-ment of the hall, and make the height of the vaults beautiful, and secure. In the four niches that are seen there, have been carved the four seasons of the year, by Messer Alessandro Vittoria, an excellent sculptor. The first order of the columns is Doric, the second Ionic. The rooms above, are with flat ceilings. The height of the hall reaches up to the roof. This fabric has two streets on the wings, where there are two doors; over which there are passages that lead to the kitchen, and places for servants. 1

    1 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book II, 49-50.

  • 33villa capri (rotunda) vicenza

    Amongst many honorable Vicentine gentlemen, there is Monsi-gnor Paolo Almerico, an ecclesiastick, and who was referendary to two supreme popes, Pio the fourth and fifth, and who for his merit, deserved to be made a Roman citizen with all his family. This gentleman after hav-ing travelled many years out of a desire of honour, all his relations being dead, came to his native country, and for his recreation retired to one of his country-houses upon a hill, less than a quarter of a mile distant from the city, where he has built according to the following invention: which I have not thought proper to place amongst the fabrics of villas because of the proximity it has with the city, whence it may be said to be in the very city. The site is as pleasant and as delightful as can be found; because it is upon a small hill, of very easy access, and is watered on one side by the Bac-chiglione, a navigable river; and on the other it is encompassed with most pleasant rifings, which look like a very great theatre, and are all cultivated, and abound with most excellent fruits, and most exquisite vines: and there-fore, as it enjoys from every part most beautiful views, some of which are limited, some more extended, and others that terminate with the horizon; there are loggias made in all the four fronts; under the floor of which, and of the hall, are the rooms for the conveniency and use of the family. The hall is in the middle, is round, and receives its light from above. The small rooms are divided off. Over the great rooms (the vaults of which are ac-cording to the first method) there is a place to walk round to the stairs of the loggias there are statues made by the hands of Messer Lorenzo Vicen-tino, a very excellent sculptor. 11 Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. by Isaac Ware, 1738 (New York: Dover, 1965), Book III, P. 76.


    university of miami school of architecture



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