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Part 1 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6...

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Page 1: Part 1 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas.

Part 1

Page 2: Part 1 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas.

1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced

6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857Expanded into Arkansas and Texas

Crop increase: 2,500,000 bales in 1850 to 5,300,000 in 1860Crop Value: In 1800, $8 million: In 1860, $250 millionTobacco by 1860 : 200,000,000 lbs. to 430,000,000 lbs.

Cotton Production

The invention which changed

the South, cotton and

slavery.

The invention which changed

the South, cotton and

slavery.

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Trial of tears

•Total U.S. population

was 3.5 million…

•700,000 slaves in the U.S. at this

time.

•Still bought slaves

through the slave trade.

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Trial of tears

•Total U.S. population was 18

million

•2 million slaves in the U.S. at this time.

•1808, importation of slaves was illegal

•Slave trade within the U.S.

•Increase of slave population was

from natural reproduction

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Trial of tears

33 million U.S. population, 4 million slaves in the South

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Map Crops in South

COTTON COTTON BELTBELT, Cotton , Cotton

KingdomKingdom

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Map/Cotton Belt

COTTON BELTCOTTON BELT, Cotton Kingdom, Cotton Kingdom

Page 9: Part 1 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas.

Federal

•Southern society was Southern society was similar to a similar to a Feudal systemFeudal system

that existed in Europe that existed in Europe during the Dark and Middle during the Dark and Middle Ages…..(Ages…..(Manorial System)Manorial System)

•Caste systemCaste system and difficult and difficult to move up the social to move up the social

ladder.ladder.

•Based on white supremacy Based on white supremacy and the slave was inferior.and the slave was inferior.

Plantation Plantation owners owners

AristocracyAristocracyMiddle Middle ClassClassSmall Small

farmersfarmersPoor Poor

WhitesWhitesFree Blacks, 2Free Blacks, 2ndnd class citizens class citizens

Slaves---no rights, considered Slaves---no rights, considered propertyproperty

No No political political or civil or civil rights.rights.

Upper Upper classclass

Owned some Owned some slaves. Achieve slaves. Achieve

American American DreamDream

Owned no Owned no slaves….Hated white slaves….Hated white

upper class…upper class…American American DreamDream

Page 10: Part 1 1791: 4,000 bales of cotton are produced 1849: 2, 246, 900 bales of cotton are produced 6 cents a lb. to 14 cents in 1857 Expanded into Arkansas.

•At the Constitutional Convention At the Constitutional Convention •3/5’s Compromise3/5’s Compromise•1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S.1807, imported slaves was abolished in the U.S.•Fugitive Slave LawFugitive Slave Law

•90% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 186090% of Europe’s cotton came from the South by 1860•1/2 of U.S. exports were from cotton1/2 of U.S. exports were from cotton•More money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 More money invested in slaves than land and tools---$2 billionbillion Facts on Slavery

Conditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage.

Conditions on a slave ship were horrible. This was called the Middle Passage.

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Picture/Slavery

•More slaves you had the greater social status

•2/3’s of presidents since independence were slaveowners

•Majority of Supreme Court justices were from the South

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•More millionaires in the South than the NorthMore millionaires in the South than the North

•75% of the cotton harvest was done by 75% of the cotton harvest was done by plantations with10 or more slaves.plantations with10 or more slaves.

•Slave population grew from natural reproductionSlave population grew from natural reproduction•There was a slave trade within the U.S.There was a slave trade within the U.S.

Facts on slavery

Slaves being Slaves being sold at an sold at an

auction was auction was prevalent prevalent

throughout the throughout the Southern U.S. Southern U.S. right up to the right up to the

Civil War.Civil War.

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Picture/Cotton Kingdom

•No political or civil rights to No political or civil rights to protect slavesprotect slaves

•U.S. was the largest slave U.S. was the largest slave institution in the world by institution in the world by

18601860

•U.S. produced 7/8’s of U.S. produced 7/8’s of world’s cotton supplyworld’s cotton supply

•Peculiar Institution, to own Peculiar Institution, to own another human being is another human being is

immoral.immoral.

•Cotton is King/King CottonCotton is King/King Cotton

•South was not willing to South was not willing to changechange

•Always felt isolated and Always felt isolated and threatened from the rest of threatened from the rest of

the U.S.the U.S.

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Chart/Total slaves

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Chart/Life expectancy

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

US White Eng. Holland France US Slave Italy Chile NY, Phil

Country/Age Life Expectancy of Working Men, 1830 to 1920Life Expectancy of Working Men, 1830 to 1920

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0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

1 2+ 5+ 10+ 20+ 50+

Non Slaveholders SlaveholdersChart: Total Deaths

About 1,150,000 About 1,150,000 Southern white families Southern white families owned no slaves---75%owned no slaves---75%

About 384,000 Southern About 384,000 Southern white families owned 1 white families owned 1

slave or more---25%slave or more---25%

Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000….

Total of 1,534,000 Southern white families in 1860……A total population of 7,981,000….

(Number of slaves)(Number of slaves)

%%

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•Statistically Statistically only 25% of only 25% of

Southern Southern families families

owned slavesowned slaves

•384,000 384,000 Southern Southern families families

owned 1 or owned 1 or more slaves.more slaves.

•75% of 75% of Southern Southern

families did families did not own not own slaves.slaves.

Chart/slave owners

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Chart/slave owners

•Out of the 25% of slaveowners, here

is the breakdown of the number of

slaves.

•75% owned 1 to 9 slaves.

•22% owned 10 to 49 owned slaves.

•3% owned 50 or more slaves.

384,000384,000

1860

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•Slaves resorted to revolts in the Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the 13 colonies and later in the

southern U.S.southern U.S.

• 250 insurrections250 insurrections have been have been documented; between documented; between 1780 and 1780 and

18641864..

•91 African-Americans were 91 African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in convicted of insurrection in

Virginia alone. Virginia alone.

•First revolt in what became the First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the at a Spanish settlement near the

mouth of the Pee Dee River in mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina. South Carolina.

Slave Revolts

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•September 9, 1739September 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles

southwest of Charleston. They took guns and powder from a store and killed the two

storekeepers they found there.

•"With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums"With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums," "the rebels raised a standard and headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine . Burned houses,

and killed white opponents.

•Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior to the American Revolution.

•Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100 slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black 20 white Carolinians and 40 black

Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed.suppressed.

Slave Revolts/Stono

Stono County Rebellion

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•Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and later in the southern

U.S.

•Gabriel Prosser•Denmark Vessey

•Nat Turner Slave Revolts

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Gabriel ProsserGabriel Prosser, (1776-1800), American leader of an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to

create a free black state in Virginia. Born near Richmond, he was the son of an African mother

who instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired perhaps by the success of the black revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of 1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill whites. On August 30, 1800August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed slaves gathered outside

Richmond ready for action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm, however, washed away a bridge

vital to the insurrectionists' march; at the same time Governor James MonroeGovernor James Monroe, the future president, was informed of the plot and dispatched the state militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his Prosser and some 35 of his

young comrades were captured and hanged.young comrades were captured and hanged.Slave Revolts/Prosser

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The leader of an American slave revolt in Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767, d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship captain before he purchased his freedom (1800) with

$600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman in Charleston, he worked at

carpentry, became a leader of his church, and read antislavery

literature. Determined to strike a blow against the institution that had

victimized him, he devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising in

Charleston and vicinity during the summer of 1822. Informers divulged

the plot, however, and 35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.

Slave Revolts/Vessey

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Nat Turner RebellionNat Turner Rebellion

Nat TurnerNat Turner,, a slave owned by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia, believed that he

had been chosen by God to lead a slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831,21st August, 1831, Turner and

seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his family. Over the next two days and

nights, Turner's band killed around 60 white people in Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state militia

were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and they were soon defeated. In retaliation,

more than a hundred innocent slaves were killed. Turner went into hiding but was

captured six weeks later. Nat Turner was Nat Turner was executed on 11th November, 1831.executed on 11th November, 1831.

Slave Revolts/Turner

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Nat Turner Nat Turner RebellionRebellion

Arrest of Nat Arrest of Nat TurnerTurner

Tree Nat Tree Nat Turner was Turner was

hung onhung on

Slave Revolts/Turner

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Slave Revolts

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Besides slave revolts, slaves Besides slave revolts, slaves resorted to other ways to resorted to other ways to

revolt…..revolt…..

•Wouldn’t work hard.Wouldn’t work hard.

•Would sabotage equipment or break Would sabotage equipment or break tools.tools.

•Sometimes poisoned their master’s Sometimes poisoned their master’s food.food.

•Tried to escapeTried to escapeSlave Revolts

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Slave Revolts would lead Slave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a plantation owners to develop a

series of series of slave laws/codesslave laws/codes which which restricted the movement of the restricted the movement of the

slaves.slaves.•Slaves were not taught to read or writeSlaves were not taught to read or write

•Restricted to the plantationRestricted to the plantation•Slaves could not congregate after darkSlaves could not congregate after dark

•Slaves could not possess any type of firearmSlaves could not possess any type of firearm•A larger slave plantation than white in some A larger slave plantation than white in some

statesstates

Slave owners wanted to keep Slave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the their slaves ignorant of the

outside world because learning outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts could lead to more slave revolts

and wanting to escape.and wanting to escape.

Slave Laws

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Chart/Net Earnings

42% 45% 50% 55% 55% 56% 56%65% 70% 74%

57% 55%47% 44% 44% 44% 39%

33% 30% 26%

1% 3% 1% 1% 5% 3%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

South CarolinaMississippiLouisianaAlabamaFloridaGeorgiaVirginia

North Carolina

TexasArkansas

White Black Free % of White to Black Population in % of White to Black Population in 18601860

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Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848

SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES.SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES.

1. Capital crimes when punished with 1. Capital crimes when punished with death.death.

The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to

excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white

person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be

punished with death. Slave Laws

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Georgia Slave Code, 1848Georgia Slave Code, 1848

2. Punishment of free persons of color 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slavesfor encouraging slaves.

If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid

and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in

going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on

conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.

Slave Laws

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Georgia Slave Code, 1848 Georgia Slave Code, 1848

3. Punishment for teaching slaves or 3. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read.free persons of color to read.

If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro,

or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person

of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of

the court. Slave Laws

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Arguments for Slavery

Economically profitable

Slavery was in the Bible

Duty of Southerners to Christianize the slaves, Positive Good

Provided a better life for slaves than in Africa, Positive Good

5th Amendment legalized and protected slavery because slaves were considered property.

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•Abolitionists believed slavery was immoral…..Peculiar institution or it is odd, strange or weird to own another human being.

•Abolitionists argued slavery was immoral because it violated the ideals that this country was founded on.

•All men are created equal (DOI)•If the U.S. was to succeed as a democratic society, slavery had to be abolished

Abolitionists

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•Gag ruleGag rule was passed in Congress which nothing

concerning slavery could be discussed.

•Under the gag rulegag rule, anti-anti-slavery petitionsslavery petitions were

not read on the floor of Congress

•The rule was renewed in each Congress between

1837 and 1839.

•In 1840 the House passed an even stricter rule, which refused to which refused to accept all anti-slavery accept all anti-slavery

petition.petition. On December 3, 1844, the gag rule was

repealed

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Picture/Garrison

•Through his newspaper, The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison spoke out against

slavery and for the rights of black Americans for 35 years. The tone of the paper was

established in the first issue of the paper with Garrison's editorial entitled, "To the Public,”

“On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a

man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from

the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the

present. I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single

inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD”.

Garrison, a leader among American

abolitionists, delivered his views

with great conviction, as well as great foresight.

"Posterity," he concluded in the

editorial, "will bear testimony that I

was right

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Picture/Douglass

Frederick Douglas

•Escaped slave in 1838

•Mother was a slave and father was white

•Great speaker against slavery

•Bought his freedom for $600.00

•Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of

Frederick Douglass

•Editor of the North Star--Abolitionist paper

•Friends with Garrison

•Organized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass

•Escaped slave in 1838

•Mother was a slave and father was white

•Great speaker against slavery

•Bought his freedom for $600.00

•Wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of

Frederick Douglass

•Editor of the North Star--Abolitionist paper

•Friends with Garrison

•Organized the 54th Black Regiment of Mass

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Reading/On Douglass

After hearing Frederick Douglass speak in Bristol, England, in 1846, Mary A.

Estlin wrote to an American abolitionist:

“There is but one opinion of him. Wherever he goes he arouses

sympathy in your cause and love for himself…..Our expectations were

highly roused by his narrative, his printed speeches, and the eulogisms

of the friends with whom he has been staying: but he far exceeds the picture we had formed both in

outward graces, intellectual power and culture and eloquence.”

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Picture/Tubman

•Harriet Tubman, Moses of her people.•Led over 300 escaped slaves out of the South

during the 1850’s.•$40,000 bounty was placed on her head•Conductor of the Underground Railroad

•Supplied money from abolitionists.

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Map/Underground RR

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Map/Underground RR

The Underground RailroadUnderground Railroad existed as early as 1786. It was

started by the Quakers and spread through most of the North by 1830.

One estimate places the number of African Americans who escaped

through the Underground Underground RailroadRailroad between 1830 and 1860

at 50,000.

•Underground RailroadUnderground Railroad provided food, shelter, and hiding places to runaway slaves as they escaped to

Canada

•Violated the Fugitive Slave LawFugitive Slave Law

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•Fugitive Slave Law was made law at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 as a

compromise between the North/South.

•Any escaped slaves captured in the North or free state had to be returned to their plantation

owner.

•Unpopular in the North and led to the creation of the

Underground Railroad.

•Southerners became bitter towards the North because they refused to enforce it.

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FOLLOW THE DRINKING GOURDFOLLOW THE DRINKING GOURDFollow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow

the drinking gourd

The riverbank will make a very good road, The dead trees show you the way, Left foot, peg foot, traveling on, Follow the

drinking gourd

Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow

the drinking gourd

The river ends between two hills, Follow the drinking gourd, There’s another river on the other side, Follow the drinking

gourd.

Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow

the drinking gourd

Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is a-waiting for to take you to freedom, If you follow

the drinking gourd

Where the great big river meets the little river, Follow the drinking gourd, The old man is a-waiting for to take you to

freedom, If you follow the drinking gourd.

Drinking Gourd


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