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PART IV Introduction to Philosophy. Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics  Morality & Ethics...

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Part IVIntroduction to PhilosophyIntroduction to EthicsWhat is EthicsMorality & EthicsMoral Philosophy/EthicsSome Classic Moral ProblemsSome Moral QuestionsEthical Assessment & ValueFocus of Ethical AssessmentValue

Introduction to EthicsSpectrum of MoralityIntroductionAbsolutismObjectivismRelativismSubjectivismMoral NihilismMoral SkepticismIntroduction to EthicsIV Ethics & Other Normative AreasIntroductionEthicsReligionLaw/RulesEtiquetteAestheticsDistinctIntroduction to EthicsMoral TheoriesAretaic/Virtue TheoryCognitivismCultural RelativismDivine Command TheoryDeontologyEthical EgoismEthical RelativismEmotivismError TheoryHedonismIntroduction to EthicsIntuitionismMoral Anti-Realism & RealismMoral SkepticismNatural LawNaturalismPrescriptivismSubjectivismTeleology

UtilitarianismIntroductionDefinedUtilityRelevant BeingsAct & Rule UtilitarianismProponentsAppealCosts & BenefitsDemocracyMoral Intuitions

John stuart millBackgroundBackgroundEducationLifeWorks

UtilitarianismWhat Utilitarianism IsFoundation of MoralsEndsThe Pig ObjectionThe ObjectionMills ReplyDifference in quality of pleasuresBasis of the difference in quality of pleasuresPreferenceHigher FacultiesHappiness & ContentmentObjectionCompetent Judges

UtilitarianismStandard, End & ScopeStandardEnd & ScopeProof of the Principle of Utility Questions of Ultimate EndsThe AnalogyAll Possible Proof

John Stuart MillObjection People desire things other than happinessVirtue & HappinessLove of MoneyLove of Power & FameVirtue contrasted with love of money, power or fameHappinessProof of the Principle of Utlity

John Stewart MillInternal ProblemsFormulationConsequencesResponseExternal ProblemsUnreasonable ExpectationsThe Rights of MinoritiesNothing is ForbiddenAbsurd ImplicationsIntegrity

DeontologyIntroductionDefinedRule-Deontological TheoriesDefinedRulesProponentsAppeal


Kantian EthicsIntroductionTheoretical ReasonPractical ReasonEthical WorksEmphasisRationalism14Categorical imperativeThe Good WillThe Good Will & QualitiesWorthiness of HappinessVirtuesThe Goodness of the Good WillMoral Worth, Maxim & Universal LawMoral WorthThe GoodLawExampleDetermining the GoodDuty


Categorical imperativeThe Categorical ImperativeLaw & WillImperativesExamples SuicideLying PromisesRusting TalentsHelping Others

16Categorical ImperativeEndsRational BeingsObjects of the InclinationRational BeingsSupreme Practical PrincipleKingdom of EndsRational Beings as LegislatorsThree Postulates of Morality IntroductionFreedomImmortalityGod

17ProblemsProblemsDutyInflexibilityRationalityTerrible Maxims seem to pass the testKingdom of Ends18AestheticsAestheticsDefinedProblemsQuestionsAestheticians, Critics & Artists19Oscar WildeBackground (1864-1900)LifePoetryPlaysProse20New AestheticsFirst PartVivianPositionMirrorCyrils Challenge to VivianNature & life imitate artVivians CaseNature & ArtChange in Londons climate is due to a school of art.Nature is our creation21New AestheticsLooking & SeeingThings are because we see them.The influence of the arts.Looking is different from seeing.One does not see anything until one sees its beautyExample: fogNatures Imitation of ArtEffectsNatureSunsetLifeArt22New AestheticsWhat Art ExpressesCyrilImitative instinctArt expressesTemper of its ageSpirit of its timeMoral & social conditionsVivianArt never expresses anything but itselfVanityCrowdNot soArt is not symbolic of any ageAges are the symbols of art.23New AestheticsImitative ArtVivianThe more imitative art is, the less it represents the spirit of the age. ExampleThe more abstract & ideal, the more it represents the spirit of the age.Architecture or musicCyrilThe spirit of the age.Arts of imitation reveal the spirit of the age.Vivian: Middle AgesImitative artsMiddle AgesNo great artist ever sees things as they really are.24New AestheticsVivian: JapanJapanese people as presented in art do not exist.No resemblance.Nothing extraordinaryJapan is a pure invention.PainterSee a Japanese effectAt homeVivian: Ancient GreeksGreek artAthenian womenArt has never told us the truth25New AestheticsVivian: Doctrines of the New AestheticsFirst Doctrine: Art never expresses anything but itselfIndependentAgeOpposesHistoryDoes not reproduce its ageTo pass from the art of a time to the time itself is the great mistake all historians make.Second Doctrine: All bad art comes from returning to Life and Nature and elevating them into ideals.Life & natureRealism is a complete failureAvoid modernityThe only beautiful thingsHecubaModernRomanticism

26New AestheticsThird Doctrine: Life Imitates Art for more than Art imitates life.Fourth Doctrine: Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of art.

27Political PhilosophyIntroductionSocial & Political PhilosophyClassic problems in social philosophySome questions in social philosophy

28LibertyIntroductionQuestionsLibertyPositive & Negative LibertyWho/What Determines Liberty?Liberty & SecurityOther Grounds for Limiting Liberty

Benito MussoliniBackgroundLifeFascismFascismPeaceOnly WarLifeFascism & Other ViewsMarxism & FascismFascism DeniesDemocracy & FascismPredictions

FascismFoundation of FascismFascismThe Fascist StateEmpire

LibertyGoal & History of LibertyMills GoalLiberty & RulersLiberty as Limiting PowerHistory of Limiting Power of RulersThe Tyranny of the PeopleThe Will of the PeopleThe Tyranny of the Majority

LibertyLimits. Rules & PrinciplesThe Limit of Legitimate InterferenceThe Basis of RulesNo PrincipleMills PrincipleRightful Exercise of PowerLimits in Application: Children & Those in Need of CareLimit in Application: Barbarians

LibertyUtility as the Foundation of LibertyUtilityPunishmentCompellingAccountabilitySphere of Action & Regions of LibertySphere of Action1st Region of Liberty: Inward Domain of consciousness2nd Region of Liberty: Tastes & Pursuits3rd Region of Liberty: Liberty of Combination

LibertyOppositionOpposesAncient CommonwealthsModern CommonwealthsTendencies Against Liberty

Emma GoldmanBackground (1869-1940)LifeActivitiesWorks

AnarchismAnarchisms OppositionObjections to anarchismImpracticalStands for violence & destructionReply to the First ObjectionOscar WildeExisting conditionsTrue criterionAnarchism is more practicalReply to Second ObjectionThe most violent element in society is ignorance.Anarchism only destroys parasitic growths.Anarchism

AnarchismNature of AnarchismAnarchismNew social orderAll governments rest on violence.Two elements: Individual & Social InstinctNot foreignBattledAnarchismOnly philosophyAnarchism

AnarchismPernicious Influences-ReligionLiberatorAnarchism liberatesWar on pernicious influencesStrongholds of EnslavementReligionPropertyGovernmentReligionDominates mans mindKingdomAnarchismRid of dominion

AnarchismPernicious Influences-PropertyPropertyDominion of mans needsAnarchismProperty is RobberyProudhonMonopolizingProductivity exceeds demandDemandReal WealthUtilityGray & Hideous ThingsAnarchismRid of dominion

AnarchismMachine & CentralizationMachine subservienceAnarchismAnarchism & PropertyAnarchismOscar WildePerfect PersonalityAnarchisms IdealEconomic Arrangements

AnarchismPernicious Influences: The StateThe ThreeReligionPropertyStateGovernmentEmersonAbsolute subordination ThoreauInjusticeGreatest offenseOuida on the StateDemands obeyed & treasury filledClockworkDestroysState requires

AnarchismBakunin on the StateThe stateState as protector of property & monopoly. Law & OrderFatal Belief that the stateRests on natural lawsMaintains social order & harmonyDiminishes crimePrevents the lazy from fleecing his fellowsNatural LawNatural lawMachinery of governmentObeyViolenceBlackstone

AnarchismOrderOrderTerrorSocial harmonySocietyAuthority respondsArsenal of governmentDiminishing CrimeAbsurd apologyState is greatest criminalFailed to destroyCrime is misdirected energyWrong channelsLazinessFreeLazinessPresent system

AnarchismAnarchismStrip laborMaking workGovernment must be done away withDestroying government & lawsOnly in freedomHuman NatureHorrible crimesThe greater the charlatanCannot speak of human natureJohn Burroughs: experimental animalsFreedom

AnarchismAnarchism stands forLiberation of the mindLiberation of the human bodyLiberation from the shackles of governmentSocial orderOrderMethodsPolitical MachineryAnarchism opposes the use of political machineryThoreau on votingHistoryLaws

AnarchismRepresentativesRepresentativesCorruptionDirect ActionStirnerAnarchismDefianceIllegalFree

AnarchismMore on direct actionUniversal suffrageAmerican independenceJohn BrownTrade unionsDirect action

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