+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for...

Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for...

Date post: 26-Aug-2018
Category:
Upload: doanhuong
View: 219 times
Download: 0 times
Share this document with a friend
26
Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson, Mark Broman Thin-Film Technology 1
Transcript
Page 1: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications

Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes

Verigy

Mike Howieson, Mark Broman Thin-Film Technology

1

Page 2: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Introduction

Current state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) that are in volume production already contain tens of I/O cells running at speeds between 5Gb/s and 10Gb/s [1]. With the increased availability and quality of these high-speed I/O cells in standard CMOS processes, this trend will continue with near-future devices containing hundreds of these I/O cells. When taking into account all the pins of a device including high-speed, power, low-speed, etc…, device pin counts will then be above one thousand,.

The challenge for the automated test equipment (ATE) industry is to be able to provide the

tools for testing and characterizing these I/O cells at-speeds. This means that the ATE platform must be able to measure a large number of high-speed pins. This is one of the toughest challenges facing the ATE industry [2]-[3].

Figure 1: Test fixture docked to a Verigy V93000 ATE system.

Some years ago, Verigy (Agilent Technologies) had already developed an option for the

V93000 (option XP13G-8) that allowed for the testing of ICs at 10Gb/s with a limited pin count [4]. The challenge is to test multi-gigabit high pin count ICs and remain cost effective. In the past, most of the devices in this speed area were intended for wired communication applications (e.g. SONET). In the near future, they will be intended for consumer markets such as desktop computers, where cost-of-test is a key factor.

In an ATE system, the DUT is connected to the ATE pin electronics through a printed circuit board (PCB) that is known as the test fixture, device interface board, or DUT loadboard. This test fixture contains a series of signal traces (microstrip or stripline) that

2

Page 3: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

connect the ATE pin electronics to the socket where the DUT will interface with the test fixture. Figure 1 shows a test fixture docked to an Verigy V93000 ATE system.

The test fixture in Figure 1 is for a graphics device with several I/O cells running at speeds

above 5Gb/s. For devices with hundreds of I/O cells, it might be necessary to use all the resources of the ATE system. This will result in test fixture signal traces with lengths of 50 cm for some of the signal traces in the V93000 ATE system. Figure 2 shows an illustration of this challenge by demonstrating the degradation of a 6.4 Gb/s waveform when travelling though a 19 cm signal trace on a test fixture trace using state-of-the-art techniques and materials (19mil width on ROGERS4350).

Figure 2: Diagram showing the challenge of long test fixture traces for high-speed digital applications.

The above figure clearly shows signal trace loss and the need to develop techniques to address this issue that go beyond the trace geometry or type of dielectric material used on the test fixture. The reason is that even using of state-of-the-art PCB materials and manufacturing techniques, we are unable to solve the issue of the signal trace loss for long trace lengths at high data rates.

Another way to look at this challenge is in the frequency domain. Figure 3 shows the power

spectrum of a 5Gb/s PCI-Express compliance data pattern before and after a lossy signal trace. It is easy to see how the signal trace changes the power spectrum of the data signal by attenuating the higher frequencies. It is reasonable to anticipate that these changes in the frequency power spectrum will be seen as jitter when looking at the time domain performance of the data signal through an inverse FFT.

3

Page 4: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 3: Power spectrum of a 5 Gb/s PCI-Express compliance data pattern before and after a lossy signal trace.

In the next section we will outline the loss components of a PCB signal trace followed by an introduction to passive equalization. We will then present a process for choosing the correct equalizer for a given application. Finally, we will present some experimental results of a real application followed by some conclusions. In the appendix we will present a quick discussion of software equalization and how it is related to passive equalization.

Microstrip and Stripline Loss The loss of a PCB signal trace can be roughly divided into three areas [5]-[6]: conductor

loss, dielectric loss, and radiation loss. The conductor loss can be also sub-divided into more terms as shown in Figure 4.

For the applications discussed in this article, we will concentrate on conductor loss, specifically skin effect and dielectric loss contributions. These are the major contributors of the high-frequency loss of signals traversing long signal traces.

Two types of geometries are typically used on test fixtures for high-speed signals. They are stripline and microstrip. If careful attention is payed to the microstrip plating process [7], the loss of a microstrip and a stripline is very similar as shown in Figure 5. At high-frequencies the microstrip does have additional signal integrity issues due to its quasi-TEM propagation mode, but for the purposes of this article the use of a microstrip or stripline is considered to be the same. Several references provide approximate analytical solutions for the losses in a microstrip or stripline trace [8]-[9], but current simulation tools are able to compute the loss profile accurately if appropriate care is taken [10].

4

Page 5: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 4: Components of a PCB transmission line (impedance mismatches in the transmission line will also add a “reflection loss”).

Figure 5: Comparison of the modeled vs. measured loss for a microstrip and stripline in ROGERS4350.

Figure 6 shows a simulation setup using the Agilent Advanced Design Simulation software package for two different stripline lengths in a ROGERS4350 type dielectric. The striplines have a width of 5.5mil.

The setup contains a model of the test fixture dielectric (ROGERS4350) and of the stripline. The modeled stripline lengths are 10 inch (25.4 cm) and 20 inch (50.8 cm). Figure 7 presents a comparison of the simulated insertion loss for both stripline lengths.

In Figure 7 it is obvious that the trace length influences the signal path bandwidth significantly. In this specific case, the doubling of the trace length reduced the bandwidth by more than half. Note, that although we did not account for the effects of the socket, pogo connections, etc..., the use of a simulation tool with simple, but appropriate models, allows the test engineer to understand the effect of the test fixture design trade-offs on the test application.

5

Page 6: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 6: Simulation setup in ADS.

Figure 7: Insertion loss comparison for two different trace lengths with the same geometry in the same dielectric material.

Similar results can also be obtained for the dielectric loss [13]. Figure 5 shows a comparison of the insertion loss for two identical trace geometries in different dielectric materials. Although only the effect of the trace length and dielectric material is presented, the reader must be aware that test fixture design decisions are not just limited to only the trace length or dielectric material. Other parameters are also very important for the test fixture performance. For example, the trace width is an important factor since losses due to skin effect are inversely proportional to the trace width. Also, the appropriate design of signal vias, including the ground vias, will influence the signal performance [14].

6

Page 7: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 8: Comparison of measured insertion loss for a 25cm 19mil stripline in two different dielectric materials (ROGERS4350 and NELCO 4000-13 SI).

To understand how the frequency dependent insertion loss of a printed circuit board signal path generates jitter, one needs to look to a digital signal in the frequency domain. The critical components of the spectral power density for a digital signal reside at or below the fundamental frequency of the signal which is one half of the data rate in Hertz when considering a Non Return to Zero (NRZ) signal.

Since most digital signals have relatively high edge rates, their frequency spectrum resembles that of square waves with odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency. Since the trace loss typically increases exponentially with frequency, therefore most of these higher harmonics are lost to the trace loss. . The spectral power density of the signal is also limited by the pattern randomness and balancing encoding at the lower frequencies. In Figure 9 a data pattern consisting of two alternating symbols is sent through a lossy signal path. The spectrum of this pattern shows two distinctive peaks representing each symbol. Due to the frequency dependent loss of the signal path, each symbol is attenuated in a different way which results in two distinct lines in the data eye diagram showing the inter-symbol interference (ISI) jitter generated between these two symbols when going through a lossy signal path.

7

Page 8: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 9: Signal path insertion loss effect on the spectral power density and data eye for a two symbol alternating pattern 11000001000001100000100000………

8

Page 9: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Passive Equalization Given the frequency dependent behaviour of the loss of a printed circuit board signal trace

can be modelled as a low pass filter, a straightforward approach is to compensate this loss through the use of a complimentary high pass filter. This technique is called equalization and when the filter is made of only passive components it is then called passive equalization. The graph in Figure 10 shows the basics of this technique in the frequency domain.

Figure 10: Basics of passive equalization of the frequency-dependent loss associated with a signal path.

This type of equalization filter approach is not new, but the use of this technique to compensate signal in the 10Gb/s range on a DUT loadboard is new, and presents different challenges given the high data rates that the equalizer must address. The basics of passive equalization was patented by Hendrik W. Bode in 1936 [11] and passive equalization has been in use for ATE application for many years, although mainly to compensate for the loss on long coaxial cables [12]. Figure 11 presents some illustrations of the original patent application from Bode and Figure 12 presents two examples of possible very simple passive equalizer circuits.

9

Page 10: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 11: Equalizer patents from H. W. Bode.

Figure 12: Equalizer circuit diagrams (left: a simple RC high-pass filter, right: a more complex one stage equalizer).

One important consideration of a passive equalizer is that it will, add a DC attenuation to the signal path. However in a test and measurement application, this is easily calibrated out. One needs to keep in mind that the test requirements for a given I/O cell will define a maximum allowed DC loss for the equalizer that still fulfils the test requirements (e.g. the maximum level swing needed for a given test).

In general, the amount of DC attenuation induced by the passive equalizer is weighed against the the achievable bandwidth of the overall signal path.

Figure 13 presents a graphic description of the trade-offs of passive equalization in regards to the two variables that compose the problem. These variables are the loss of the signal path to be equalized and the amount of loss on the equalizer allowed by the application.

10

Page 11: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 13: Passive equalization trade-off matrix.

Verigy (Agilent Technologies) has a long history in developing several generations of

equalizers in coaxial packages for compensating for the loss in the long coaxial cables used in the integration of external equipment with the Verigy V93000. Figure 14 shows some of those equalizers.

For the integration of an equalizer on a DUT loadboard it is necessary to use a very small footprint component. For the data-rates under discussion [5-10Gb/s], the passive equalizer manufacturer Thin Film Technologies has developed an equalizer on a 0603 package size for this use. Figure 15 shows a photograph of the Thin-Film Technologies 0603 equalizer.

The equalizer uses a face down footprint optimized to 20Ghz, with low parasitics and very tight application tolerances making this component ideal for compensating PCB trace loss.

11

Page 12: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 14: Examples of passive equalizers developed for compensating for the loss in long coaxial cables (top left: equalizer for a 3.6Gb/s application (PCT3600), top right: equalizer for a 3Gb/s application (XP3G), bottom left: equalizer for a 6.4Gb/s application (XP13G-64), bottom right: equalizer for a 10GB/s application (XP13G-8).

Figure 15: TFT Passive equalizer in a 0603 package size for assembly on a DUT loadboard (left) and assembled on a coaxial module for bench evaluation (right).

12

Page 13: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Selecting the Appropriate Equalizer through Simulation This section presents a methodology for selecting a test fixture equalizer by using a defined process. Figure 16 presents the design flow for determining which equalizer to use for a specific signal path of a test fixture.

Figure 16: Design flow to select the appropriate equalizer.

As you can see from the design flow, the test engineer needs to provide the signal trace

geometry and material to be used on the construction of the test fixture. With this information it is then possible to construct a model of the signal trace and determine the loss. In addition, the test engineer needs to determine the maximum loss allowed by the I/O cell and ATE in order to determine the range of passive equalization that will work for a given test application/system.

The loss of the equalizer determines to what extent the frequency response of the trace can be flattened. The drawback is that this loss needs to be compensated by the ATE resources. One needs to make sure that the ATE has enough margins to be able to test the application with the chosen loss for the equalizer.

After the maximum allowable loss is determined, an optimal RC equalizer can be found

through simulation. This step can be very complex since the definition of optimal equalizer might depend on the application. Figure 17 shows one possible approach that consists of simulating different RC configurations to find the one with the highest bandwidth. Note that it is also very important to keep the ripple of the frequency response below a certain minimum value.

With the optimal equalizer determined, it is now possible to perform a time and frequency domain simulation of the test fixture performance with the optimal equalizer. This allows the test engineer to view the performance improvement that can be obtained with a custom design equalizer.

13

Page 14: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Because making a custom equalizer for each application is more expensive, and requires longer lead-times, a better approach is to select an off the shelf equalizer from a matrix of available equalizers. This would significantly reduce the cost and lead-time.

Figure 17: Optimization procedure by testing different equalizers into the same signal path loss.

This means that after determining the performance of the optimal equalizer, an equalizer from the available matrix must be chosen. Figure 18 shows this procedure where the optimal equalizer was found and one equalizer from the matrix must now be chosen to best fit the requirements.

Figure 18: TFT equalizer family matrix.

14

Page 15: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

After an equalizer is chosen, a more detailed simulation including models of the ATE pin electronics (if available) and the DUT driver/receiver need to be completed to confirm the performance.

If the simulated performance is not acceptable, additional compromises might be needed (e.g. allow additional loss or even change the test fixture trace geometry) so that the final performance meets the test engineer’s needs. Another important point is the distribution of the DC loss on the manufactured equalizers. As previously mentioned, this DC loss can be calibrated out of the measurements relatively easily. In order to do this, it is important the DC loss value is known and has a tight distribution within a given group of equalizers. If the DC loss distribution is very large then it would be necessary to calibrate each equalizer individually through a focus calibration procedure. Figure 19 shows an example of the expected loss distribution for a real implementation of the 0603 equalizer.

Figure 19: Example of the distribution of the equalizer DC loss for four lots (left) and for one lot (right).

Figure 19 shows it is difficult to keep a tight distribution across multiple lots. However, this problem can be reduced by an additional laser trimming process. The best solution for a given test fixture is that all the equalizers should be from the same production lot to minimize the spread of the loss distribution.

15

Page 16: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Experimental Results This section presents some results obtained by applying the methodology outlined in the previous section to real applications.

Example 1 Figure 20 presents a picture of a test fixture developed to teach the basics of signal integrity

and equalization when using the Verigy 12.8Gb/s Pin Scale HX ATE pin electronics card. In this board there exists several different test structures. They are intended to provide examples of the signal integrity challenges inherent to the design of high-speed digital test fixtures. One of the examples is the challenge of compensating for the loss of a 45 cm long, 21 mil microstrip signal trace in ROGERS4350. The surface plating (NiAu with solder mask on top) is also not optimal, which increases the signal trace loss [7].

Figure 20: Pin Scale HX signal integrity demonstration test fixture.

The Verigy V93000 Pin Scale HX pin electronics card used in the measurements already

includes an integrated passive equalizer [7]. This equalizer is designed to compensate for approximately 10 inches of a 19 mil stripline in ROGERS4350. The left image shown Figure 21 shows a picture of the pin electronics card showing the integrated equalizer on the driver and receiver blocks of the ATE card. The integrated equalizer is clearly not enough for the 45 cm microstrip example and additional equalization is needed in the form of an additional passive equalizer on the test fixture.

16

Page 17: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 21: Picture of the Verigy V93000 Pin Scale HX pin electronics showing the integrated equalizer (left) and the passive equalizers assembles on the microstrip traces of the test fixture.

In this application, the DUT is an OC192 10Gb/s transceiver. Following the procedure described in the previous section, an equalizer was selected to compensate for the signal trace loss. Note that in this selection process, one needs to take into account the equalizer that is already integrated on the ATE card. The right image in Figure 21 shows the two equalizers selected for the 45 cm (17.7 inches) microstrip differential pair in the test fixture. An identical microstrip trace with no equalizer also exists on the test fixture for comparison.

The selection of the equalizer was done primarily by evaluating the frequency and time

domain response simulations. An equalizer with 4dB loss was chosen for this specific application. The frequency domain simulation results are presented in Figure 22.

The simulated results show an improvement of more than 5GHz in the signal path bandwidth of the trace with the integrated equalizer (Figure 22) and the 4dB test fixture passive equalizer in regards to the signal path without equalization. Figure 23 show the simulation results in the time domain.

17

Page 18: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 22: Frequency domain simulation results. Note that the equalizer response is shifted by 4dB for easier readability.

Figure 23: Time domain simulation of the data eye after the test fixture only with the integrated equalizer (left) and after the test fixture with the ATE integrated equalizer and the test fixture equalizer (right).

The time domain simulation results show a clear improvement in the data eye performance. The overshoot observed in the data eye is due to the fast rise time of the simulated source and also to the fact that the insertion loss curve is not completely flat after equalization. Experience has shown us that a slight overshoot in simulation is preferred, as the real driver is typically slower and the signal path’s loss is slightly higher, thus eliminating the overshoot in the real application. Figure 24 presents a block diagram of the measurement setup showing the different measurement points included in this section.

18

Page 19: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 24: Block diagram of the measurement setup.

Figure 25 shows the DUT output data eye at 10GB/s. This is clearly a high-performance driver, delivering a very low jitter data eye with a very fast rise time. Note that this data eye is taken at the output of the DUT with a small (30cm) coaxial cable as shown in Figure 24. Figure 26 show the output data eye measured further along the signal path after the 45cm of a microstrip line. This is shown both with, and without, the test fixture equalizer. The data eye in the left image of Figure 26 shows a significant amount of ISI added by the signal trace loss, while the date eye in the right image of Figure 26 shows how the equalizer, by compensating for the frequency dependent loss of the signal trace, is able to reduce the ISI significantly. Although there is an amplitude decrease due to the DC attenuation of the equalizer, it can easily be calibrated out in the measurements.

Figure 25: DUT output data eye at 10Gb/s with a PRBS7 pattern.

19

Page 20: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 26: Data eye at the end of the signal trace without the passive equalizer on the test fixture (right) and with the passive equalizer (left).

Figure 27 shows the eye diagrams measured by the ATE pin electronics receiver with, and without, the equalizer on the test fixture. On these measurements, a PRBS7 data pattern was used and 1E9 bits were acquired at each (voltage, timing) measurement point.

Figure 27: Data eye measured by the ATE receiver with no equalization (left) and with equalization (right).

The results show that the equalizer on the test fixture is able to improve the measured data eye width by 15 ps.

20

Page 21: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Example 2 In this example we present the compensation of a different DUT loadboard structure. Fig. 28 shows a picture of an experimental test fixture containing several structures developed to investigate DUT Loadboard design topics. One of the structures is a 50.8cm (20 inch) 9 mil stripline in ROGERS4350. As in the previous example, the expected loss from this signal trace is larger than the loss for which the Verigy V93000 PinScale HX card was designed to address.

Figure 28: Experimental DUT Loadboard used for the experiments. Figure 29 shows the measured insertion loss for the signal trace and also the insertion loss when including the Pinscale HX integrated equalizer, as well as when adding an extra passive equalizer on the Loadboard. Of course the extra equalizer was properly chosen. Note that the equalization loss was calibrated out of the measurements.

Figure 29: Measured insertion loss of the 50.6cm 9mil stripline trace in ROGERS4350 including also the PinScale HX equalizer and an extra Loadboard passive equalizer.

21

Page 22: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Figure 30 shows the results in the time domain using a PRBS31 data pattern at 10Gb/s with a bench setup that includes the entire Agilent 93000 signal path (driver + Pogo Assembly + DUT Loadboard). The time and level scales were kept the same for all measurements shown. From the results it is easy to see that without any kind of equalization the signal at the end of the signal path is significantly degraded due to the signal path loss. If one included the standard equalizer on the PinScale HX card it is possible to observe a significant improvement on the data eye but it is still outside of the specification (rise-time <40ps) due to the HX equalizer not having been designed for such a lossy trace. Finally, with an extra passive equalizer on the Loadboard, the data eye performance gets a further significant improvement with the rise-time now below 40ps. The DC attenuation of the equalizer is observed by the reduction of the data eye amplitude. It can also be noted that even though the amplitude is reduced, the eye height in fact increases due to the reduced level jitter as it has been reduced by the equalizer as well. In any case, this loss factor can be easily calibrated out in the measurements.

Figure 30: Data eye at the output of the test driver (top left), measured data eye at the end of the signal path without any type of equalization (top right), with the PinScale HX integrated equalizer (bottom left) and with the PinScale HX equalizer and an extra passive equalizer on the DUT Loadboard.

22

Page 23: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

We also have the ability to observe the data eye immediately after the driver while including the PinScale HX equalizer and the DUT Loadboard passive equalizer. Figure 31 shows the data eye before the lossy signal path. It clearly shows the overshoot or pre-emphasis effect that it is expected from the high-pass behaviour of an equalization filter.

Figure 31: Data eye at the output of a test driver with the PinScale HX equalizer and an extra passive equalizer without any lossy signal path (Pogo assembly and DUT loadboard).

23

Page 24: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Example 3 In this example we will show how equalization can have a significant effect on measurements, in this case measuring a jitter histogram. Figure 32 shows a jitter histogram measurement of the DUT at 10Gb/s with a PRBS7 data pattern using the Verigy V93000 PinScale HX receiver receiver. The figure presents three different measurement setups: a 45cm microstrip trace without test fixture equalization, the same trace with equalization on the test fixture, and a 25cm (10’’) stripline trace (19mil on ROGERS4350) with no test fixture equalization. Note that the Pin Scale HX pin electronics receiver used on the measurements includes the integrated equalizer shown in Figure 21.

Figure 32: Jitter histogram measurement of the DUT at 10Gb/s with a PRBS7 data pattern. From the above figure it is possible to see that by adding the equalizer on the test fixture, we are able to obtain a better jitter histogram measurement. Another interesting result is to look into the influence of the data rate on the measurements. Using a bench instrument as stimulus source we increased the data rate from 5 Gb/s to 10Gb/s. The peak-peak jitter from the stimulus source is constant across the different data rates. The signal was measured at the end of the 45cm signal trace with and without the passive equalizer. The results are presented in Table 1 . As the data rate increases, the ISI effects on the jitter envelop increase as well. However, since the equalizer flattens and extends the BW of the signal trace’s frequency response, the ISI effects are drastically reduced.

24

Page 25: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

Table 1: Peak-peak jitter measurement dependency on the data rate for the 45cm signal trace with and without equalization.

DATA RATE

No EQU (ps)

With EQU (ps)

5Gbps 17 16.76.4Gbps 19.1 15.68Gbps 21.9 16.510Gbps 25.6 15.9

The results show that after 5 Gb/s the measured peak-peak jitter on the signal trace without equalization increases due to the bandwith limitations of the test fixture that adds ISI jitter to the signal. For the signal trace with equalization it is possible to observe that the measured peak-peak jitter value stays virtually constant due to the increased bandwidth of the test fixture through equalization. This is a very important observation, especially when testing devices with variable data rates.

Conclusions This paper has demonstrated that it is possible to address the challenges of the test fixture trace loss for high-speed and high pin count digital interfaces in current and future ICs, through the use of passive equalization integrated on the test fixture. A design methodology was presented to choose the correct equalizer, and results from real application examples using these techniques were presented. The results show the significant improvement that can be obtained by the use of passive equalization integrated on the test fixture. As more and more silicon suppliers integrate larger numbers of I/O cells running at multi-gigabit speeds, the layout of the test interfaces will require smaller trace widths and longer traces. This means that unacceptable levels of frequency dependent loss will be added to the signal to be measured. Passive equalization is not a perfect solution to this problem, as it induces its own amplitude attenuation, but it can significantly increase the usable bandwidth of the test interface, thus reducing the ISI added to the signal to be measured. Careful selection of the equalizers is crucial, as it is possible for an equalizer to cause an unacceptable reduction in the signal amplitude to be measured. The truth is that when equalizers are properly selected the test engineer does have the ability to address the test interface loss issue as shown in the results with a real application presented in this article.

Acknowledgements We would like to thank Bernd Laquai from Verigy for initially bringing together Thin Film Technologies and Verigy for the equalization investigations and development. We would also like to thank Roger Nettles from Verigy and Jonathan Kenton from Intel for their assistance in the production this paper.

25

Page 26: Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High … · Passive Equalization of DUT Loadboards for High-Speed Digital Applications Jose Moreira, Heidi Barnes Verigy Mike Howieson,

26

References [1] M. P. Li, Design and Test for Multiple Gbps Communication Devices and Systems, IEC,

2005 [2] U. Schoettmer, C. Wagner and T. Bleakley, “Device Interfacing: The Weakest Link in

the Chain to Break into the Giga Bit Domain?,” IEEE International Test Conference, 2003.

[3] M. Shimanouchi, “New Paradigm for Signal Paths in ATE Pin Electronics are Needed for Serialcom Device Testing,” IEEE International Test Conference, 2002.

[4] Jose Moreira, Gert Hänsel and Frank Koban “Addressing the Challenge of Implementing an At-Speed Production Test Solution for 10Gb/s Wafer Probing” IEC DesignCon West, 2005.

[5] Howard Johnson and Martin Graham, High-Speed Signal Propagation. Prentice Hall 2003.

[6] Stephen C. Thierauf, High-Speed Circuit Board Signal Integrity. Artech House 2004. [7] J. Moreira et al “PCB Loadboard Design Challenges for Multi-Gigabit Devices in

Automated Test Applications” IEC DesignCon West, 2006. [8] K.C. Gupta, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines. Artech House 1996. [9] Brian C. Wadell, Transmission Line Design Handbook. Artech House 1991. [10] Daniel G. Swanson and Wolfgang J.R., Microwave Circuit Modeling Using

Electromagnetic Field Simulation. Artech House 2003. [11] Hendrik W. Bode “Attenuation Equalizer” US Patent 2,096,027,027 1936. [12] Wolfram Humann “Compensation of Transmission Line Loss for Gbit/s Test on ATEs”

IEEE International Test Conference, 2002. [13] Jose Moreira et al. “Influence of Dielectric Material on ATE Test Fixtures for High-

Speed Digital Applications” Proceedings of the sixth international Kharkov symposium on physics of engineering of microwave, milimeter and submilimeter waves 2007.

[14] Heidi Barnes et al. “Development of a Pogo Pin Assembly and Via Design for Multi-Gigabit Interfaces on Automated Test Equipment” Proceedings of the 2006 Asia-Pacific microwave conference.


Recommended