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Personality Dr. Radwan Bani Mustafa MD MRCpsych. DPM

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  • Personality Dr. Radwan Bani MustafaMD MRCpsych. DPM

  • PersonalityCharacteristic pattern of thinking,feeling and acting.Four major perspectives on PersonalityPsychoanalytic - unconscious motivationsTrait - specific dimensions of personalityHumanistic - inner capacity for growthSocial-Cognitive - influence of environment

  • Psychoanalytic Perspectivefirst comprehensive theory of personality(1856-1939)University of Vienna 1873Voracious ReaderMedical School GraduateSpecialized in NervousDisordersSome patients disordershad no physical cause!

  • Psychoanalytic Perspectivefirst comprehensive theory of personalityQ: What caused neurologicalsymptoms in patients with noneurological problems?Unconscious

  • The Unconsciousthe mind is like an iceburg - mostly hiddenConscious Awarenesssmall part above surface(Preconscious)Repressionbanishing unacceptablethoughts & passions tounconsciousDreams & Slips

  • Freud & Personality StructurePersonality arises from conflict twixt agressive,pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints

  • Freud & Personality StructureId - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drivesPleasure PrincipleEgo - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic waysReality Principle Super Ego- voice of consciencethat focuses on howwe ought to behave

  • Freud & Personality Developmentpersonality forms during the first few years of life,rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhoodPsychosexual StagesOral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouthAnal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim.Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/Oedipus Complex(Identification & Gender Identity)Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormantGenital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward othersStrong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3

  • Defense MechanismsIdSuperEgoEgoWhen the inner wargets out of hand, theresult is AnxietyEgo protects itself viaDefense MechanismsDefense Mechanisms reduce/redirectanxiety by distorting reality

  • Repression - banishes certain thoughts/feelings from consciousness (underlies all other defense mechanisms)Regression - retreating to earlier stage of fixateddevelopmentReaction Formation - ego makes unacceptable impulses appear as their oppositesProjection - attributes threatening impulses to othersRationalization - generate self-justifying explanations to hide the real reasons for our actionsDisplacement - divert impulses toward a moreacceptable objectSublimation - transform unacceptable impulse intosomething socially valuedDefense Mechanisms

  • Thematic Apperceptions Test (TAT)Rorschach Inkblot TestThe Unconscious & AssessmentHow can we assess personality?(i.e., the unconscious)Objective Tests?No - tap the consciousProjective Tests?Yes - tap the unconscious

  • Evaluating the Psychoanalytic PerspectiveWere Freuds theoriesthe best of his timeor were they simplyincorrect?Current researchcontradictsmany of Freudsspecific ideas

  • Freuds Ideas as Scientific TheoryTheories must explain observationsand offer testable hypothesesFew Objective ObservationsFew Hypotheses(Freuds theories based on his recollections &interpretations of patients free associations,dreams & slips o the tongue)Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits

  • Trait PerspectiveNo hidden personality dynamicsjust basic personality dimensionsTraits - peoples characteristicbehaviors & conscious motives How do we describe & classify different personalities?(Type A vs Type B or Depressed vs Cheerful?)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - classify peoplebased upon responses to 126 questions

  • Are There Basic Traits?What trait dimensions describe personality?Combination of 2 or 3genetically determineddimensionsExpanded set of factorsThe Big 5Extraversion/IntroversionEmotional Stability/Instability

  • The Big FiveEmotional StabilityExtraversionOpennessAgreeablenessConscientiousness Calm/Anxious Secure/Insecure Sociable/Retiring Fun Loving/Sober Imaginative/Practical Independent/Conforming Soft-Hearted/Ruthless Trusting/Suspicious Organized/Disorganized Careful/Careless

  • Assessing TraitsHow can we assess traits?(aim to simplify a persons behavior patterns)Personality InventoriesMMPI most widely used personality inventory assess psychological disorders (not normal traits) empirically derived - test items selected basedupon how well they discriminate twixt groupsof traits

  • The Humanistic PerspectiveMaslowsSelf-ActualizingPersonRogersPerson-CenteredPerspectiveHealthy rather than SickIndividual as greater than the sum of test scores

  • Maslow & Self-ActualizationSelf-Actualizationthe process of fufilling our potential Studied healthy, creative people Abe Lincoln, Tom Jefferson &Eleanor Roosevelt Self-Aware & Self-Accepting Open & Spontaneous Loving & Caring Problem-Centered not Self-Centered

  • Rogers Person-Centered PerspectiveGiven the right environmentalconditions, we will developto our full potentialsGenuineness, Acceptance, EmpathySelf Concept - central featureof personality (+ or -)

  • Assessing & Evaluating the Self?Primarily through questionnaires in whichpeople report their self-concept.?Also by understanding others subjectivepersonal experiences during therapyXConcepts are vague & subjective.Assumptions are navely optimistic.

  • Social-Cognitive PerspectiveBehavior learned throughconditioning & observationWhat we think about our situationaffects our behaviorInteraction ofEnvironment & Intellect

  • Reciprocal DeterminismPersonal/CognitiveFactorsBehaviorEnvironmentFactorsInternal World + External World = Us

  • Personal ControlInternal Locus of ControlYou pretty much control your own destinyExternal Locus of ControlLuck, fate and/or powerful others control your destinyMethods of Study Correlate feelings of control with behavior Experiment by raising/lowering peoples sense ofcontrol and noting effects

  • Outcomes of Personal ControlLearned HelplessnessUncontrollablebad eventsPerceivedlack of controlGeneralizedhelpless behaviorImportant Issue Nursing Homes PrisonsColleges

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