+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Petroleum Abstracts

Petroleum Abstracts

Date post: 20-Feb-2015
Category:
Upload: ataliba21
View: 346 times
Download: 10 times
Share this document with a friend
of 127 /127
Volume 47, Number 01 January 6, 2007 Abstract Nos. 913,957—914,656 PETROLEUM ABSTRACTS® Electronic Edition Document Delivery Photocopies of most articles and patents abstracted for Petroleum Abstracts can be obtained from Petroleum Abstracts Document Delivery Service, McFarlin Library, 2933 E. 6th Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104-3123. Phone: 918-631-2231. Toll-free (US and Canada only): 800-247-8678 Fax: 918-631-3823. E-mail: [email protected]
Transcript
Page 1: Petroleum Abstracts

Volume 47, Number 01Januar y 6, 2007Abstract Nos. 913,957—914,656

PETROLEUMABSTRACTS®

Electronic Edition

Document DeliveryPhotocopies of most articles and patents abstracted for Petroleum Abstracts can be obtainedfrom Petroleum Abstracts Document Delivery Service, McFarlin Library, 2933 E. 6th Street,Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104-3123. Phone: 918-631-2231. Toll-free (US and Canada only):800-247-8678 Fax: 918-631-3823. E-mail: [email protected]

Page 2: Petroleum Abstracts

PETROLEUMABSTRACTS®

Volume 47, Number 01 Januar y 6, 2007 Abstract Nos. 913,957—914,656

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T SAbstract

Page Number

GEOLOGY ...........................................................................................................3 .................913,957GEOCHEMISTRY ................................................................................................28 .................914,119GEOPHYSICS .....................................................................................................35 .................914,155DRILLING (WELL) ...............................................................................................49 .................914,251WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING ........................................................................57 .................914,301WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER ...................................................................62 .................914,343PRODUCING OIL & GAS ...................................................................................71 .................914,406RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD .....................................................................82 .................914,488PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE ...........................................................................95 .................914,566ALT FUELS & ENERGY SOURCES ......................................................................102 .................914,610BUSINESS & ECONOMICS ...............................................................................103 .................914,612HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRON ...........................................................................107 .................914,633SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ..............................................................................109 .................914,645AUTHOR AND AFFILIATION INDEX ..................................................................112 ..................********

©2007 The University of Tulsa

No part of this bulletin may be reproduced or quoted without Petroleum Abstracts’wr itten per mission. A subscr iber may not make use of the abstracts for thepur pose of furnishing any infor mation to any other person, firm or cor poration, orin any way which would violate the Copyr ight Act as amended, without PetroleumAbstracts’ written permission.

The University of Tulsa is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Page 3: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

GEOLOGY

ALBERTA 913,957

IN-SITU STRESS AND COAL BED METHANE POTENTIALIN WESTERN CANADA

J.S.Bell (Sigma H Consultants Ltd). BULLETIN OFCANADIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGY v.54, no.3, pp.197-220, Sept.2006. (ISSN 0007-4802; Over 10 refs)

Laboratory testing has shown that the permeability of clasticrocks is related to confining stress. The same relationships havebeen demonstrated for coal. Production rates of coal bed methanehave been shown to be inversely proportional to stress magnitudein Australia and the U.S. Preferred fluid flow axes aligned withSHmax, the larger horizontal principal stress, have beendocumented. Relevant previous studies are reviewed and discussed.The findings are then applied to central and southern Alberta andspecifically to a horizon approximating the MacKay coals of theUpper Cretaceous Belly River Formation. Methods for determiningthe vertical stress, SV, and the smaller horizontal stress, SHmin, aredescribed and a data base is assembled from published dataconcerning micro-fracture and mini-fracture instantaneous shut inpressures, fracture breakdown pressures and leak-off pressures.This data base is used to generate a series of maps which areinterpreted using relationships established outside WesternCanada to establish optimum locations for coal bed methaneproductivity at the selected stratigraphic horizon. The paper endswith a plea to acquire more local primary data relating in-situstress to the permeability and productivity of subsurface coalseams.

................................................................

ARABIAN SHIELD 913,958

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY ANDCHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE MIDDLE EAST -PO TENTIAL GLOBAL CONSEQUENCES

R.B.Davies, P.R.Sharland, M.Simmons, D.Casey, F.Schulze andM.Oxford (Neftex Petrol Consult Ltd). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Regional research across the Arabian Plate over the past eightyears has continued to refine the sequence stratigraphic frameworkfor the Middle East. The authors have published details of 65maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) identifiable across the ArabianPlate (Sharland et al. 2001, 2004) and have identified some 40extra MFS in proprietary work. In addition, we routinely pick theassociated sequence boundaries (SB) and maximum regressionsurfaces (MRS) within each depositional or genetic stratigraphicsequence. Comparison of these surfaces to other global regionsconfirms that many equivalent surfaces on other continental platesdemonstrably occur in the same biozone, thereby suggesting thatglobal eustatic changes are proven and hence that a globalsequence stratigraphic model can be proposed. While this improvedand robust sequence stratigraphic framework has obviousimplications for hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, it hasother more academic applications. The purpose of this poster is toshow that the framework has the potential to test the relationshipsbetween standard stratigraphic surfaces (MFS, SB, MRS) and theboundaries to Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points(GSSP). Examples from platformal and basinal settings on theArabian Plate are presented. These examples compare the detailedstratigraphic surfaces that we routinely map to the globalchronostratigraphic timescale. On the basis of these, we suggestthat with further work, it will be possible to tie industrialsubsurface sequence stratigraphic schemes more closely to theglobal chronostratigraphic timescale. (Original not available fromT.U.)

................................................................

ARAFURA SEA 913,959

IDENTIFYING EXPLORATION RISK IN THE ARAFURABASIN - RESULTS OF A POST-DRILL ANALYSIS

K.Earl (Geoscience Australia). APPEA CONFERENCE (GoldCoast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEAJOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.670, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstractonly)

Petroleum exploration in the Arafura Basin has been restrictedto the Goulburn Graben, a dominant central feature within thebasin. The graben is more than 350 km long and up to 70 km wideand contains a highly deformed sedimentary fill up to 10 km thickof Arafura Basin sediments. To date, a total of nine wells have beendrilled in the region, testing a variety of structural andstratigraphic play types. No commercial discoveries have beenmade. The most significant drilling result is an oil and gas show inArafura-1. A review of drilling results has identified a number ofexploration risks in the basin: poor quality reservoirs in thePalaeozoic and/or restricted fluid movement; hydrocarbon chargeand timing of events; and breach of structure. Most of these issuesare related to a Triassic contractional event that caused uplift anderosion. Despite these risks, significant petroleum potentialremains for the Arafura Basin as a whole. Firstly, the identifiedrisk factors may not apply to the undrilled northern part of thebasin, which is the basin depocentre. Secondly, there is strongevidence for viable petroleum systems with source, reservoir andseal rocks present in the sedimentary succession. Evidence foractive source rock is provided by numerous hydrocarbon indicationsin the wells, including oil shows and bitumen in Arfura-1 andGoulburn-1. Analysis of these shows indicates a probable Cambriansource. There is evidence of significant vertical migration of fluidsand Cambrian oil signatures are present throughout the Palaeozoicsections. Potential exists for accumulations in the Money ShoalBasin, containing high quality reservoirs (> 20% porosity) and aregional seal. Given the limited petroleum exploration in theArafura Basin, there remains considerable untested potential inboth the Goulburn Graben and the unexplored northern region.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,960

OFFSHORE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEBROWSE AND BONAPARTE BASINS - A REVIEW

S.Haggas, E.Marshall, P.Rheinberg and R.Long (IHS Energy).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.666-667,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Over 10 refs; Abstract only)

The offshore Browse and Bonaparte basins are considered to behighly prospective with only limited exploration to date. TheBonaparte Basin joins the Browse Basin to the west and the MoneyShoals Basin to the northeast. The Timor Trough defines thenorthern boundary. Three petroleum supersystems have beenidentified in the offshore Bonaparte Basin, the TransitionalLarapintine/Gondwanan, the Gondwanan and the Westraliansupersystems. The Westralian Petroleum Supersystem is the mostproductive of the North West Shelf and is the only provenpetroleum system in the Browse Basin. The majority of plays arestructural and range in age from Carboniferous to Cretaceous,hydrocarbons are predominantly reservoired in Jurassic or Permianstrata. Since the discovery of the 163 MMboe Petrel field, in thePetrel Sub-basin, in 1969, there have been a further 62 offshorediscoveries, resulting in the addition of > 11,500 MMboe. Largediscoveries are still being made today, with ConocoPhillips’Caldita-1 well encountering a potentially significant gas resourcewithin NT/P61. Up until recently the main focus of development inthe region has been predominantly oil, with the majority of thelarge gas discoveries left undeveloped. Today, due to the increasingimportance of worldwide gas markets, several developments havebegun or are planned in the region, such as the Bayu-Undangas/condensate development in the Timor Sea JPDA and theBrowse Gas Project in Western Australia. Our assessment of theregional geology and existing petroleum systems indicates thatthere is significant potential for further discoveries. Thisprospectivity, coupled with the near-term development ofinfrastructure, can only serve to increase the level of interest shownin this area. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 3

Page 4: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

AUSTRALIA 913,961

SEAL CAPACITY COMPARISONS FROM SELECTEDGEOSEQUESTRATION SITES IN AUSTRALIA

R.Daniel (CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.667, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Several possible geosequestration sites within Australia are thefocus of multi-disciplinary studies by the CO2CRC to determinetheir potential for carbon dioxide storage. These sites have beenchosen for their relative proximity to coal-fired power stations andtheir potential storage volume. The sites are located in theGippsland Basin, Bowen-Surat Basin, Vlaming Sub-basin andOtway Basin, which are close to the more significant emissionsources and have ample rock pore volume for CO2 storage. One ofthe critical aspects of these studies is to determine the sea capacityi.e. carbon dioxide retention heights of the top seals and the degreeof baffling afforded by the areally limited intra-formational seals.The capacity and characteristics of the regional, local and intra-formational seals for each area were determined by mercuryinjection capillary pressure analysis (MICP), X-Ray Diffraction(XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with an EnergyDispersive X-ray Analyser (EDS). A comparison of these regionaltop seals and local intra-formational seals of varying depositionalenvironments from the four sites is presented. The seal capacitiesor CO2 column heights from these sites range from 17 to 1300 m forthe regional top seals and 4 to 1630 m for local intraformationalseals. The depositional environments of the best top seals aregenerally outer shelf to marginal marine and the intra-formationalseals are commonly muddy depositional environments of limitedthickness and areal extent. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,962

THE OZ SEEBASE(TM) PROJECTL.Pryer, J.Teasdale, P.Stuart-Smith, K.Romine, T.Loutit,

P.Henley, P.Gardner, J.Vizy and S.Petrovich (FrOG Tech Pty Ltd).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.668, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

The Oz (Australian) Seebase(TM) compilation represents manyyears of works by FrOG Tech in Australia in the petroleum,mineral and coal sectors. The result is a model of the geologicalevolution of Phanerozoic Basins of Australia that shows the majordifference between onshore and offshore basins. All onshore basinsother than the Fitzroy Trough and Bowen Basin are preservedbasins, protected from deformation by the underlying hard,immobile basement terranes. Most offshore basins are young basinsdeveloped over extended mobile belts. The Oz Seebase project hasgenerated a number of images that will be presented including: Adepth to basement Seebase image (grid) for the whole of onshoreAustralia and its offshore margins; An integrated regionalinterpretation (nominally 1:500,000 scale) of basement compositionand structure; Basement thickness; Sediment thickness; Basinoutlines; Basement age; Regional magnetics and gravity imagesthat formed the basis of the interpretation. The Oz Seebase productrepresents the first structurally consistent view of the evolution ofall of Australia’s sedimentary basins in a GIS project. Seebase setsboundaries for new geological and fluid migration models, andprovides a foundation for new maps of paleogeography, crustal heatflow, hydrocarbon generation volumes, etc. The project wassponsored by Shell Development Australia and builds on a numberof projects sponsored by government and industry and completedduring the past few years. Sponsors in addition to ShellDevelopment Australia included Anadarko, Apache EnergyAustralia, Encana, Esso Australia, Woodside, Geoscience Australia,PIRSA, MRT, and MRNSW. The Oz Seebase product is available inthe public domain as a report and GIS (ArcGIS) containing allinterpretive layers from www.frogtech.com.au. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,963

EVALUATING AUSTRALIA’S EXPLORATIONOPPORTUNITIES USING OZ SEEBASE(TM)

J.E.Blevin, T.S.Loutit, L.Pryer and K.Romine (FrOG Tech).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.668, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

The OZ SEEBASE(TM) product presents a plate-wide geologicalmodel for the evolution of Australia’s Phanerozoic sedimentarybasins that can be used to assess petroleum prospectivity andidentify exploration opportunities. The model provides the basis tosystematically classify each basin type and to understand thetectonic events that have controlled the structural andstratigraphic framework of the depocentres. The frameworkestablished by Oz Seebase also provides a regional template tounderstand the spatial and temporal distribution of the sixAustralian petroleum supersystems. The relationship betweenbasement composition and fabric, the nature of the tectonic eventsand the resulting basin architecture can be used to access thefactors that have controlled the petroleum resource potential of abasin/sub-basin, including overall sedimentary thickness, inter- andintra-basin compartmentalisation, trap style and timing offormation, distribution and depth of burial of principal source rockunits and regional heat flow. Further integration of these data canbe used to model the subsidence (accommodation) and reactivationhistories of a basin, and to develop facies models that show thedistribution of potential reservoir, source and seal rocks (e.g.structurally-constrained palaeogeographic maps). The CanningBasin and Southern Rift System are examples from the Oz Seebasemodel that demonstrate the diversity in Phanerozoic basinarchitecture and its link to the underlying basement framework.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,964

PETROLEUM PROSPECTIVITY OF THE DISCOVERY BAYHIGH, OTWAY BASIN

S.Menpes and G.Wakelin-King (Essential Petrol Rsces Ltd).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.671-672,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; 3 refs; Abstract only)

The Discovery Bay High was first described as a complexstructural high in the deep water Otway Basin across which theCretaceous-Cainozoic section thins compared to the adjacent slopebasins (Moore et al., 2000). Later workers refer to the structure asthe Discovery Bay High and the Bridgewater Arch. The tectonicmechanism that gave rise to the Discovery Bay High is poorlydefined, as work has been focused on the adjacent Morum andNelson sub-basins. Essential interprets the onshore-shelfal part ofthe Discovery Bay High formed by movement along a NNEtrending basement fault, the Miakite Creek Fault, that separatesthe Nolans and Harrow basement subzones (Bernecker and Moore,2003). Late Cretaceous extension was transferred from theTartwaup Fault Zone to the Mussel Fault Zone via the MiakiteCreek Fault. Large structures that developed in response to thismovement are highly prospective. The Discovery Bay Highseparates the Late Cretaceous Morum and Nelson sub-basins of theOtway Basin. Late Cretaceous structural and depositionalhistories of the two sub-basins are different. The Late Cretaceoussection in the Morum Sub-basin is sandier after ca 89.5 Macoincident with the rapid decline in extension rates recognised byPalmowski et al (2004). Essential interprets the Discovery BayHigh acted as a barrier to sand distribution in the Late Cretaceous.Seismic data acquired over the continental shelf show thinning ofthe Late Cretaceous section over the Discovery Bay High andsuggest that Shipwreck Group equivalent reservoir sands of theMorum Sub-basin are confined to the western margin of the high.The interpretation is supported by petrological studies, palynologyand well intersections. Seismic amplitude and AVO anomalies arecoincident with closures on the western side of the high. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

4 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 5: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

AUSTRALIA 913,965

BASIN EVALUATION: A TOOL TO HELP ASSESS THEPETROLEUM PROSPECTIVITY OF AUSTRALIA’SFRONTIERS

A.E.Stephenson (Geoscience Australia). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.672, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Australia’s comparative advantages in attracting explorationinvestment include ready access to pre-competitive data at low cost,a transparent fiscal regime and political stability. Another keyadvantage is that Australia is vastly underexplored, with a largenumber of frontier basins of diverse geology. From aCommonwealth Government perspective, there is a need toevaluate the petroleum prospectivity of these basins, particularlythose lying within Australia’s offshore Exclusive Economic Zoneand extended continental shelf as defined by the Law of the Sea.Geoscience Australia is now evaluating the prospectivity forpetroleum of Australia’s offshore frontier areas, using a newlydeveloped methodology. For this purpose, a frontier is defined asany area, or part of a basin, not now producing hydrocarbons.Frontiers can be conceptual as well as geographic. This evaluationserves several purposes. Firstly, it enhances Geoscience Australia’sability to provide advice to Government on our maritimejurisdiction, including known and potential resources and regionalmarine planning. Secondly, the evaluation process identifies the keyunknown factors in each frontier that are hindering perceptions ofprospectivity. This is already feeding into Geoscience Australia’sfuture program, by pinpointing areas where we can make thebiggest difference by resolving particular questions, and by high-grading frontiers for future data acquisition and/or research.Thirdly, it complements existing resources assessment methodology(AUSTPLAY), which is used in producing basins but is not suitablefor assessments of frontiers. (Longer abstract available) (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,966

BASEMENT TERRANE FABRIC, TECT ONIC EVENTS ANDTHEIR INFLUENCE ON THE EVOLUTION OFAUSTRALIAN BASINS

P.Stuart-Smith, S.T.de Vries, J.Teasdale, P.Gardner, P.Henleyand T.Loutit (FrOG Tech). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.673-674, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

The evolution of sedimentary basins is controlled by crustal andlithospheric responses to tectonic forces. The nature of thisresponse depends on the magnitude of these forces and thestrength, composition and fabric of the basement at the time of atectonic event. The overlying sediments record the resultantchanges in basin morphology. A rigorous model for basin evolutioncan be developed through understanding basement character,coupled with knowledge of tectonic events that were responsible forbasin formation. Australia is made up of 128 tectonostratigraphicterranes, and experienced 29 basin-forming tectonic events sincethe late Neoproterozoic. Events during the Archaean andProterozoic (such as Barramundi and Leichardt) set up a distinctbasement structural fabric in each terrane that responded in adifferent way to each tectonic event, and resulted in the formationof a suite of basins and sub-basins of markedly differentarchitecture. Significant basin-forming tectonic events for whichfault-response maps have been made include for example theCentralian, Larapintine and Westralian. All faults are attributedwith data source, confidence in interpretation, positional accuracy,orientation, basement involved or detached, dykes, initiation age,reactivation ages, reactivation kinematics and reactivationdisplacement. Differences in fabric of the underlying basementresulted, for example, in different evolution (and architecture) ofvarious basins along the Southern Australian Margin during eventsin the Mesozoic to Tertiary. The OZ SEEBASE(TM) product isavailable in the public domain as a report and GIS (ArcGIS)containing all interpretative layers from www.frogtech.com.au.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,967

A HOLISTIC MODEL TO DESCRIBE CHARGE ANDRETENTION HISTORY OF THE NORTHERN BONAPARTEBASIN, AUSTRALIA

M.Lisk and W.Bailey (Woodside Energy Ltd) and A.Gartrell andM.Brincat (CSIRO Petroleum). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Northern Bonaparte Basin has proved to be a challengingregion for exploration offering considerable promise but yieldingmore modest success. Despite more than two decades ofexploration drilling and significant attention by the researchcommunity, there continues to be contentious debate regarding thecharge history and likely controls on hydrocarbon retention duringsubsequent periods of intense Neogene fault reactivation.Disparities between the predictions derived from basin models andthe nature of hydrocarbon fill have led to contrasting charge modelsthat often ignore hard observational data. Similarly, the number oftheories put forward to describe the controls on hydrocarbonretention is varied, ranging from fault facilitated leakage controlledby either stress or strain related processes to fault independentcontrols related to regional water-washing effects. Despite thissustained effort there remains no widely held agreement ordemonstrable validation for any of these proposed mechanisms thathold true for the region as a whole. This review seeks to highlightthe limitations associated with previous models and to proffer anew unified model that more effectively honours the hardobservational data. Key elements of this evaluation include acomprehensive examination of the charge history of drilled traps toprovide validation of existing structural models proposed for theNorthern Australian Margin and a more holistic approach tointegrating the key datasets. The result is a coherent interpretationof the critical observations that produces a plausible explorationmodel that can be used to more effectively risk the remainingdrilling opportunities in this prospective basin. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 913,968

THE MENTELLE BASIN - A DEEPWATER, FRONTIERGONDWANAN BASIN

I.Borissova, A.A.Krassay, C.Nicholson, E.D.F.A.Monteil,C.Boreham and B.Bradshaw (Geoscience Australia). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Mentelle Basin is a deep-water, offshore basin located onthe southwest Australian continental margin to the southwest ofPerth. The Mentelle Basin formed near a triple junction betweenAustralia, Antarctica, and India during the breakup of easternGondwana in the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The basinhas rank frontier status with no petroleum wells drilled. In order toimprove the level of geological understanding and petroleumprospectivity of the basin, Geoscience Australia has acquired 1,450km of regional 2-D seismic, together with sub-bottom profiler andswath bathymetry data. Dredge and core material were alsocollected. These datasets form the basis of a new regional-scalebasin framework from which petroleum systems elements areassessed. Seismic interpretations suggest that the maindepocentres in the western part of the basin contain at least 5 kmof sedimentary section. These half graben host a relatively thicksyn-rift section that is inferred to be Middle Jurassic to EarlyCretaceous in age. A thin, Late Cretaceous to Recent post breakupsection blankets the region. The shallower-water eastern parts ofthe Mentelle Basin contain a thinner section, within a series oftilted fault blocks related to Valanginian breakup of the westernmargin. There is also potential for Permo-Triassic rocks to bepresent at depth. The Mentelle Basin is likely to have petroleumsystems elements akin to the southern Perth Basin, with potentialfor similar generated hydrocarbons. Regionally, Mentelle Basinarchitecture favours eastward migration from a western sourcekitchen updip into structural and stratigraphic traps. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 5

Page 6: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

BAHAMA ISLANDS 913,969

CAT CAY SHOALS REVISITED: CONTRASTINGMORPHOLOGIES IN A BANK MARGIN SYSTEM, BAHAMAS

F.E.Cruz, G.P.Eberli and E.C.Rankey (Miami Univ, Florida).AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The modern 1-3 km wide and 35 km long sand belt aroundOcean Cay, western margin of Great Bahama Bank, includesconsiderable variability in sand body geometries and facies. Theshoals north of Ocean Cay, commonly referred to as Cat Cay Shoals,and flood tidal deltas (south of Ocean Cay) are the only examples ofshoal complexes on the leeward side of the Great Bahama Bank.Our observations indicate contrasting characteristics in shoalgeometry and composition between the north and south areas. Wecompared the two areas of Holocene deposits by examining about220 bottom sediment samples, and bathymetry and tidal flowpatterns from 60 acoustic Doppler current profiles. South of OceanCay, Pleistocene eolianite island ridges provide sufficient tidal flowrestriction to promote stronger currents during flood tide.Elongate, narrow sand shoals consisting of moderately sorted,medium-sized skeletal grains abruptly pass laterally to bioturbatedfacies or to areas with rocky bottom and a thin sediment cover. Ebbflows, with lower velocities, shape morphology of sand bars creatingsmall-scale bedforms. The size and type of sands of the Cat Cayshoal are less variable than southern areas. These results illustratethat bedforms, constituents, grain size and sorting of the sandbodies are related to the tidal flow dynamics and are linked to thebathymetry and physiographic setting of each area. Heterogeneitywithin these deposits is similar to that expected in the ancientrecord. Sediment textures and information such as size, shape,orientation and lateral facies variation within these geobodies canbe used in the construction of meaningful geologic models. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

BELGIUM 913,970

DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE RUPELIAN RU-1TRANSGRESSIVE SURFACE IN THE TYPE AREA(BELGIUM)

N.Vandenberghe and E.Steurbaut (Leuven Katholieke Univ)and J.Herman (Belgian Geological Survey). AAPG HEDBERGRES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.57, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

BOLIVIA 913,971

AGE, DISTRIBUTION, TECT ONICS, AND EUSTATICCONTROLS OF THE PARANENSE AND CARIBBEANMARINE TRANSGRESSIONS IN SOUTHERN BOLIVIA ANDARGENTINA

R.M.Hernandez and A.D.Farjat (XR Consultants), T.E.Jordan(Cornell Univ), L.Echavarria (Colorado Sch Mines), B.D.Idleman(Lehigh Univ) and J.H.Reynolds. JOURNAL OF SOUTHAMERICAN EARTH SCIENCES v.19, no.4, pp.495-512, Sept. 2005.(ISSN 0895-9811; Over 10 refs)

Marine transgression onto the South American continent tookplace at least twice in the Miocene along distinct paleogeographiccorridors. The first event occurred between 15 and 13 Ma and thesecond between 10 and 5? Ma. Each event has particular dominantvariables (tectonism, eustacy, sediment accumulation rate) thatpermitted the preservation of the record and development of the seaon the continent. The 15-13 Ma transgression was tectonically andeustatically controlled, flooding older sedimentary accommodationzones on the South American plate during a global high sea level,whereas the 10 ca 5? Ma event was predominantly tectonicallycontrolled, generated by tectonic loading created in the CordilleraOriental fold-and-thrust belt. A new 7.72 ± 0.31 Ma 40Ar/39Ar datefrom the Rio Parapeti in Bolivia suggests that the 15-13 Matransgression registered in Argentina produced no continentalconnection to the Caribbean transgression, registered in Bolivia,because of temporal constraints. (c2005 Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

BRAZIL 913,972

LATE CARBONIFEROUS PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THEITARARE SUBGROUP, NORTHEASTERN PARANA BASIN,BRAZIL

P.A.Souza (Rio Grande Sul Fed Univ). REVIEW OFPALAEOBO TANY AND PALYNOLOGY v.138, no.1, pp.9-29, Jan.2006. (ISSN 0034-6667; Over 10 refs)

A new biozonation is proposed for the Late Carboniferous strataof the northeastern Parana Basin (Sao Paulo and Parana States),based on well-preserved palynological assemblages recovered fromoutcrops and core samples retrieved from the Itarare Subgroup.Assemblages include forty-nine species of trilete spores and twenty-five pollen species. The oldest biozone, the Ahrensisporites cristatusInterval Zone (AcZ), in the basal portion of the Itarare Subgroup,includes eleven exclusive spore species, and is assigned aPennsylvanian (late Bashkirian to Kasimovian) age. The overlyingproposed biozone, the Crucisaccites monoletus Interval Zone (CmZ),dated late Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian to Gzhelian), rangesapproximately from the top of the lower portion to the middleportion of the Itarare Subgroup, bears only one exclusive species ofpollen. Both zones are characterized by the dominance of triletespores and monosaccate pollen grains, including also few taeniatepollen grains. Furthermore, the basal Protohaploxypinus goraiensisSubzone of the Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone (VcZ) is broadlyrecognized for the first time in the upper portion of the ItarareSubgroup in the northeastern Parana Basin. ... (c2005 ElsevierB.V.) (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

BRAZIL 913,973

FACIES ANALYSIS OF TERTIARY ALLUVIAL FANDEPOSITS IN THE JUNDIAI REGION, SAO PAULO,SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

M.A.Neves, N.Morales and A.R.Saad (Paulista State Univ).JOURNAL OF SOUTH AMERICAN EARTH SCIENCES v.19,no.4, pp.513-524, Sept. 2005. (ISSN 0895-9811; Over 10 refs)

This article presents an analysis of facies of sedimentarysequences that occur as discontinuous bodies in the Jundiai region,west of the main Tertiary continental basins of the southeasternBrazil continental rift. Nine identified sedimentary facies, groupedinto four associations, suggest the existence of an ancient alluvialfan system whose source area was the Japi mountain range (Serrado Japi). The deposits are considered Tertiary in age andchronocorrelated with those identified in the Atibaia region and atother sites up to 100 km east and northeast of Jundiai. Thedepositional model adopted to explain the filling of the basinproposes that the alluvial fans, which directly derive from thesource area, terminated in a braided channel longitudinal to thebasin axis that flowed to northwest, in a similar configuration tothat of the present day. This basin may have extended to theAtibaia region or formed a set of small basins laterally contiguousto the faults associated with the rift. Such occurrences show thatthe formation of rift basins was broader than the area presentlyoccupied by the main deposits. (c2005 Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

CARBONATE RESERVOIR 913,974

INPUT FOR CARBONATE RESERVOIR MODELS: TRENDMETRICS OF MODERN PLATFORMS AND REEF SYSTEMS

B.Vlaswinkel and E.Rankey (Miami Univ, Florida) andP.M.Harris (Chevron Energy Technol Co). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

An accurate facies model is essential for reservoir developmentand realistic reservoir modeling, as depositional facies can be amain parameter controlling heterogeneity in porosity andpermeability. Prediction of the quantitative attributes and variationof facies dimensions is also required for enhanced Multiple PointStatistics simulations for carbonate systems. To address theseneeds, we generated quantitative data on sizes and shapes of facieswithin and among different sized and shaped platforms. Landsatimages from 19 modern carbonate platforms from the Caribbeanand Indo-Pacific regions are used as analogs to offer insights into

6 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 7: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

potential facies heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs. The workflowfor identifying and quantifying attributes of facies tracts includedintegrating literature and satellite images in a GIS, followed bystatistical analysis. Based on objective reproducible criteria, up to 9different facies classes were mapped and hand-digitized on allplatforms using ER Mapper. Reservoir facies included fullyaggraded reef, partially aggraded reef, reef apron, shoals andshallow platform interior. A GIS provided a tool for quantitativecharacterization, measuring for every polygon of each faciesattributes such as area, perimeter, width, length, orientation, andthe variability within those metrics. Subsequent statisticalanalyses demonstrate the existence of certain predictive rulesbetween the configuration and composition of facies tracts on andamong carbonate platforms. These kinds of rules provide bothgeneral concepts and raw data that can be used as input forenhanced carbonate models. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

CHILE 913,975

THE TRIASSIC SANTA JUANA FORMATION AT THELOWER BIOBIO RIVER, SOUTH CENTRAL CHILE

S.N.Nielsen (Berlin Freie Univ). JOURNAL OF SOUTHAMERICAN EARTH SCIENCES v.19, no.4, pp.547-562, Sept. 2005.(ISSN 0895-9811; Over 10 refs)

A sequence of Triassic rocks is exposed near the town ofConcepcion, Chile. These clastic strata are interpreted as thedeposits of rivers, lakes, playas, and alluvial fans. The depositscomprise conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, and sand-, silt- andmudstones. Four facies associations comprising eight sedimentaryfacies can be distinguished. Plant fossils from the sedimentarysequence of the Santa Juana Formation indicate a Carnian age.The flora includes ferns (Gleichenites, Cladophlebis, Dictyophyllum,Thaumatopteris, Asterotheca, Saportaea) and seed ferns (Kurtziana,Antevsia, Dicroidium), ginkgophytes (Sphenobaiera), cycads(Pseudoctenis), conifers (Heidiphyllum, Telemachus, Rissikia), andgymnosperms of uncertain affinities (Linguifolium, Gontriglossa).Two new species are presented: Pseudoctenis santajuanensis andGontriglossa reinerae. (c2005 Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

CHINA 913,976

THE FORMING MECHANISM AND ITS COMBINATIONMODE OF STRATIGRAPHIC RESERVOIR IN TERTIARY INJIYANG DEPRESSION

F.Shi (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd), L.Zhao, H.Lin et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.I,1-5, 12/25/2005.(ISSN 1009-9603; 9 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,977

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OFABRUPT SLOPE BELT IN JIYANG DEPRESSION

B.Chen (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd), B.Wang, B.Li et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.II,13-15,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,978

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RESERVOIR SANDBODY OFDELTA FRONT IN JIYUAN REGION OF ORDOS BASIN

S.Li (Chinese Academy Sciences), D.Wang, H.Qin et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.II-III,19-22,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 9 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,979

ANALYSIS ON THE ACCOMMODATION STRUCTURE INDAWANGBEI AREA, CHEZHEN SAG

W.Xiong (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.III,23-25, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs;In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,980

STUDY ON CHARACTERISTIC AND CONTROLLINGFACT OR OF MESOZOIC AND PALEOZOIC RESERVOIRS INQUDI AND WANGPANZHEN REGION

Y.Yang (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.III,26-28,36, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 9 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,981

DISTRIBUTION OF LARGE-MIDDLE SIZED GAS FIELDSIN CHINA: GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND KEYCONTROLLING FACTORS

T.B.Wang (Sinopec). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.1-8, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,982

FORELAND THRUST-FOLD BELT FEATURES AND GASACCUMULATION IN MIDWEST CHINA

C.Z.Jia (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.9-15, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color;Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,983

RESERVOIR FORMATION AND RESOURCE POTENTIALOF BIOGENIC-LOW MATURITY GASES IN CHINA

Y.Zhang (China Univ Geosci, Beijing), J.Li (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev) and C.Y.Hu (China National Petrol Corp).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.37-41,69, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,984

NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENTSITUATION IN ORDOS BASIN, NW. CHINA

X.H.Ma (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.50-53, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; 9refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,985

NATURAL GAS ACCUMULATION IN THE UPPERPALEOZOIC OF ORDOS BASIN, CHINA

J.Li, X.Luo, X.Q.Shan, C.H.Ma, G.Y.Hu, Q.T.Yan and R.E.Liu(Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) and H.H.Chen (China Univ Geosci,Wuhan). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT(SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.54-59, Aug. 2005.(ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 7

Page 8: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

CHINA 913,986

RESERVOIR PREDICTION OF FEIXIANGUAN FORMATIONIN PUGUANG GAS FIELD, NORTHEAST SICHUANPROVINCE

Y.S.Ma, X.S.Guo and R.Fan (Sinopec). PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.60-64, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; 7refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,987

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PALAEOENVIRONMENT ANDTHE DISTRIBUTION OF H

2S IN FEIXIANGUAN

FORMATION, NE. SICHUAN PROVINCEG.Y.Zhu, S.C.Zhang and Y.B.Liang (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev).

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.65-69, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,988

TERRESTRIAL HEAT FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN KUQAFORELAND BASIN, TARIM, NW. CHINA

L.S.Wang, C.Li, S.W.Liu, H.Li, M.J.Xu and D.Y.Yu (NanjingUniv) and C.Z.Jia and G.Q.Wei (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.79-83, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,989

FORMATION MECHANISM, DISTRIBUTION FEATUREAND EXPLORATION PROSPECT OF THE QUATERNARYBIOGENIC GAS IN QAIDAM BASIN, NW. CHINA

G.Q.Wei, Y.Zhang, B.L.Li, G.Y.Hu and J.Li (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev) and D.L.Liu (PetroChina Explor Prod Co).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.84-89, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,990

GAS GENESIS AND ACCUMULATION HISTORY OFWENLIU GAS POOL IN DONGPU SAG, CENTRAL CHINA

H.Z.Xu and X.K.Zhou (Sinopec). PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.118-124, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color;Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,991

ACCUMULATION DYNAMICS AND DISTRIBUTION OFLITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC RESERVOIRS IN SOUTHSONGLIAO BASIN

C.N.Zou, C.Z.Jia, W.Z.Zhao, S.Z.Tao and Z.D.Gu (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev) and Q.J.Hou, Z.Y.Zhao and L.Z.Song (PetroChina).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.125-130, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,992

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COAL DEPOSITIONAL MODESAND HYDROCARBON GENERATION OF THE EARLYPERMIAN TAIYUAN AND SHANXI FORMATION IN HUABEIPLATFORM

K.M.Cheng, Y.Xiong and X.J.Li (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) andL.Y.Ma (Lanzhou Inst Geology). PETROLEUM EXPLORATIONAND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.142-146, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,993

STRUCTURAL DIVISION IN GANSU-QINGHAI-TIBETPETROLIFEROUS SUB-PROVINCE AND EVALUATION OFOIL-GAS POTENTIALS

K.Zhang (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). XINJIANGPETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5,pp.467-471, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 5 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,994

PALAEOKARST OF CAMBRO-ORDOVICIAN AND OIL-GASDISTRIBUTION IN TARIM BASIN

Y.Z.Kang (Sinopec). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY(XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.472-480, Oct. 2005.(ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,995

MAIN FACTORS OF PETROLEUM ACCUMULATIONS ANDORIGIN TYPES OF NON-STRUCTURAL RESERVOIRS INJUNGGAR BASIN

W.X.Yang (Xinjiang Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.481-484,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,996

HYDROCARBON-ENRICHED ACCUMULATION BELTS INJUNGGAR BASIN

L.D.Lin (Xinjiang Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5,pp.499-501,528, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,997

PALAEOHIGHS AND TARGETS FOR PETROLEUMEXPLORATION IN JUNGGAR BASIN

J.Kuang (Xinjiang Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.502-509,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 7 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,998

EFFECT OF F1 FAULT ON FORMATION ANDPRESERVATION OF KELA-2 GAS FIELD

G.Fu, Y.H.Zhu and X.F.Fu (Daqing Petroleum Inst). XINJIANGPETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5,pp.513-516, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 913,999

ON HYDRODYNAMISM IN PETROLEUM MIGRATION ANDACCUMULATION

Y.Fu and Z.Q.Jiang (China Univ Mining Technol) and L.Ma andY.Guo (Henan Petrol Explor Bur). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.517-519,

8 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 9: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]

................................................................

CHINA 914,000

PETROLEUM SYSTEM OF UPPER TRIASSIC IN WESTSICHUAN DEPRESSION

L.Cao (Chengdu Univ Technology) and Y.Zeng (Sinopec).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.520-524, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color;Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,001

EFFECT OF XIAKOU FAULT ON FIELD DISTRIBUTIONAND PETROLEUM MIGRATION IN LINNAN SLOPE AREA

Y.M.Du (Shengli Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.525-528,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,002

CHARACTERISTICS OF FAN DELTA MICROFACIES ANDITS HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTION IN ANPENG FIELD

C.Q.Chen, Y.Z.Zhang, L.Y.Wu, C.M.Jiang and Z.P.Tao (ChinaUniv Geosci, Beijing). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY(XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.529-532, Oct. 2005.(ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,003

BASE LEVEL CYCLE AND RESERVOIR PREDICTION OFLOWER CARBONIFEROUS IN HADEXUN UPLIFT, TARIMBASIN

Z.J.Tang and Q.M.Li (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) and F.Y.Zhao,H.L.Di, S.R.Yang, X.Z.Xie and C.L.Zhang (Tarim Oilfield Co).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.533-535, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 4refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,004

SIGNIFICANCE OF DISCOVERY OF CHITINOZOANSFROM LATE ORDOVICIAN TO EARLY SILURIAN INSHUN-1 WELL, TARIM BASIN

X.Y.Cai, S.H.Mao, Y.Chen, Y.R.Zou, Q.L.Chen and D.H.You (ResInst Petrol Explor Dev) and S.H.Mao (Jianghan Oilfield Co).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.536-539, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Over 10refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,005

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND SOURCE-RESERVOIR-CAPROCK ASSEMBLAGES OF LOWER CRETACEOUS INBAORAO TROUGH

D.H.Yi, Y.R.Jiu and L.T.Shi (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.540-543, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 4refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,006

APPLICATION OF CLAY MINERAL STUDY RESULTS TOHYDROCARBON PROSPECTING IN TARIM BASIN

X.Y.Zhao (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) and J.C.Luo and F.Yang

(Tarim Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY(XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.570-576, Oct. 2005.(ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 5 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,007

MAKING CURVES OF BASE LEVEL CHANGES BY FACIESSERIES SHIFT METHOD - AN EXAMPLE OF SULIGE GASFIELD

G.M.Hu and Y.L.Ji (Tongji Univ) and A.L.Jia (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANGSHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.577-579, Oct. 2005. (ISSN1001-3873; Color; 1 ref; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,008

APPLICATION OF HOMOGENEOUS TEMPERATURE OFFLUID INCLUSIONS TO RECOVERY OF DENUDEDSTRATA THICKNESS

L.B.Zhao, Z.L.Huang and J.Li (Petroleum Univ, Beijing) andW.Xue (Xinjiang Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.580-583,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,009

CLASSIFICATION OF UPPER YANGTZE RIVER BASINAND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

Z.X.An, J.Ma and Q.W.Pang (Petroleum Industry Press).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.584-586, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color;Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,010

DISCUSSION ON ABNORMALLY HIGH PRESSURE INKUQA DEPRESSION

C.L.Li (Southwest Petroleum Inst) and H.H.Jin (Yumen OilfieldCo). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.592-593, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; 5 refs;In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,011

DISCUSSION OF THE MODE AND MECHANISM OF OILAND GAS ACCUMULATION IN THE NANBAXIAN POOL INTHE NORTH OF THE QAIDAM BASIN

F.Li, Q.Luo and F.Tian (Petroleum Univ, Beijing), S.Chen(Daqing Oilfield Co Ltd) and Y.Liu (Tarim Research Subcenter).PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.1-8, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107;5 refs)

Because of the difference of oil and gas accumulation conditionbetween the hanging wall and the footwall of a fault, there is apeculiar accumulation mechanism that oil and gas mainly exists inthe hanging wall of the basement fault, but in the footwall of theshallow detachment fault in the Nanbaxian pool. The oil and gas ofthe Nanbaxian pool came from the mature Jurassic hydrocarbonsource rock of the Yibei depression located at the south of theNanbaxian pool. Finally, the oil and gas accumulated in the traps ofthe hanging wall of the basement fault by way of the unconformityand the basement faults, and turned into some primary deep pools;and then, the shallow detachment fault that formed in the latertectonic movement broke into the deep primary pools, which causedthe oil and gas migration upwards along the basement faults andthe shallow detachment faults and the evolvement into somesecondary oil and gas pools later. The history of the Nanbaxian oiland gas accumulation can be summarized successively as thesyndepositional upheaval controlled by faults; single hydrocarbon

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 9

Page 10: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

source rock; unconformities and faults as migration channels;buoyancy, overpressure and tectonic stress as dynamic forces;multistage migration and accumulation of oil and gas; and finallyan overlapped double-floor pattern of oil and gas accumulation. Themost important explorative targets in the north of the QaidamBasin are traps connected with the primary pools in the footwall byshallow detachment faults.

................................................................

COAL ANALYSIS 914,012

VISUAL DETECTION OF GAS SHOWS FROM COAL COREAND CUTTINGS USING LIQUID LEAK DETECTOR

C.E.Barker (US Geological Survey). BULLETIN OFCANADIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGY v.54, no.3, pp.292-297, Sept.2006. (ISSN 0007-4802; Color; 6 refs)

Portions of core or cutting samples that have active gas showscan be identified by applying a liquid leak detector to the coresurface. Although these gas shows can be caused by manmadechanges to the coals’ internal structure and surface of the coreduring the coring process, in many cases, the marked gas showsoverlie changes in maceral composition, subtle fractures or coal,coal structure and so forth that seemingly are places where naturalprimary permeability is higher and gas shows would be favored.Given the limited time available for core description before a core isclosed in a canister, using the liquid leak detector method to markgas shows enhances core description by providing a photographicrecord of places of apparently increased gas flow likely related toenhanced coal permeability that cannot be easily detectedotherwise.

................................................................

COLOMBIA 914,013

PALYNOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EARLYCARBONIFEROUS SEDIMENTATION IN THE LLANOSORIENTALES BASIN, COLOMBIA

H.Duenas (Academia Colombiana Cienc) and S.N.Cesari (MuseoArgentino Naturales). REVIEW OF PALAEOBO TANY ANDPALYNOLOGY v.138, no.1, pp.31-42, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0034-6667;Over 10 refs)

Early Carboniferous palynological assemblages from the SM-4well located in the Llanos Orientales Basin constitute the onlydefinitively geological evidence of Carboniferous strata in thisBasin. Stratigraphically significant species include:Anapiculatisporites concinnus, Apiculiretusispora mutiseta,Grandispora spiculifera, Indotriradites dolianitii morphon,Spelaeotriletes pretiosus and Prolycospora rugulosa. The presence ofscarce acritarchs indicates a shallow marine environment. ATournaisian age, probably reaching the Visean, is proposed for theinterval 2010-2340 ft based on the presence of distinctive sporespecies with previous records in the Visean and Tournaisian ofWestern Europe and Western Gondwana. This report increases theknowledge about the distribution and composition of the EarlyCarboniferous palynological assemblages in Northern Gondwana.(c2005 Elsevier B.V.)

................................................................

CONGLOMERATE RESERVOIR 914,014

STUDY ON THE FAVORABLE SEDIMENTARY FACIESBELT OF CONGLOMERATE RESERVOIR BY USINGGRAIN-SIZE ANALYSIS DATA

Z.Song (Xi’an Shiyou Univ), J.Yang, L.Pan et al. PETROLEUMGEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YUCAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.II,16-18, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603;5 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CORAL 914,015

CORALS OF THE K/T-BOUNDARY: SCLERACTINIANCORALS OF THE SUBORDERS ASTROCOENIINA,FAVIINA, PHIPIDOGYRINA AND AMPHIASTRAEINA

R.C.Baron-Szabo (Smithsonian Institution). JOURNAL OFSYSTEMATIC PALAEONT OLOGY v.4, no.1, pp.1-108, March 2006.(ISSN 1477-2019; Over 10 refs)

This taxonomic review of the scleractinian corals of theMaastrichtian and Paleocene period focuses on the scleractiniansuborders Astrocoeniina, Faviina, Rhipidogyrina andAmphiastraeina. This, the first extensive compilation of coralspecies of the K/T (Cretaceous/Tertiary) boundary, deals with morethan 2500 records of 550 nominal taxa. In addition to the re-examination and re-evaluation of described forms, this study alsoincludes the first description of the largest Maastrichtian coralassemblage known (consisting of about 4000 specimens fromJamaica), as well as new material from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Argentina, Lower Maastrichtian of Mexico(Cerralvo), and the Paleocene of Austria (Kambuhel-Kalke). Adiagnosis is provided for each species, as well as for each higher-level taxonomic category and issues concerning taxonomicassignment are discussed in detail. The descriptions areaccompanied by illustrations of representatives of each species and,in many cases, include illustrations of type or original material.Also included is the first comprehensive overview of thestratigraphical and geographical ranges of each taxon. In the foursuborders evaluated in this paper, 123 valid species can be reliablydocumented as occurring in the Maastrichtian and/or thePaleocene. The largest number of species is in the subordersFa viina and Astrocoeniina. In the Faviina 62 valid species areknown from the Maastrichtian, of which 35 (56.5%) crossed theK/T-boundary, while in the Paleocene 14 new species appeared. Inthe Astrocoeniina 18 valid species occurred in the Maastrichtian,eight of which (44.4%) crossed the K/T-boundary and 16 new speciesappeared in the Paleocene. Only eight species of Rhipidogyrina andfive species of Amphiastraeina occurred in the Maastrichtian andalthough two amphiastraeinid made it into the Paleocene, only oneof the rhipidogyrinids crossed the K/T-boundary. No new species ofAmphiastraeina appeared in the Paleocene. According to thisrevision on the genus level 44 out of the 65 genera crossed theK/T-boundary, which is 67.7% (12 genera went extinct, 9 generahave their first occurrence in the Paleocene). In comparison toprevious estimates this result (generic extinction of around 32%)represents the best estimation for scleractinian corals at presentand corresponds to recently reported results of othermacroinvertebrate groups after taxonomic revision (e.g., echinoids).

................................................................

CYCLO THEM 914,016

STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PENNSYLVANIANCYCLO THEMS WITH ALLOSTRATIGRAPHY ANDSEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

C.P.Weibel (Illinois State Geol Survey). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.59, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

CZECH REPUBLIC 914,017

RECORD OF PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN ALOWER PERMIAN ORGANIC-RICH LACUSTRINESUCCESSION: INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ANDGEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE RUDNIK MEMBER,KRKONOSE PIEDMONT BASIN, CZECH REPUBLIC

K.Martinek, V.Danek and R.Johnova (Charles Univ), M.Blecha(Hydrotech SG), J.Francu (Utah Univ), J.Hladikova and D.Ulicny.PALAEOGEOGRAPHY, PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY,PALAEOECOLOGY v.230, nos.1-2, pp.85-128, 1/17/2006. (ISSN0031-0182; Over 10 refs)

This study presents an integrated sedimentological andgeochemical analysis of the Lower Permian Rudnik member--themost extensive lacustrine deposits in the Krkonose PiedmontBasin. Grey to black and variegated lacustrine mudstones,laminites and carbonates of the Rudnik member have a lateralextent of more than 400 km2. In the studied sections four faciesassociations were recognised: (A) anoxic offshore, (B) suboxic to oxicoffshore, (C) nearshore and mudflat, and (D) slope deposits. In thenorthern part of the E-W elongated basin, anoxic to suboxicorganic-rich offshore lacustrine facies dominate and form asuccession up to 130 m thick. Fan-delta and turbidite facies occurlocally along the faulted northern basin margin. The central part of

10 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 11: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

the basin is occupied by anoxic to oxic offshore facies interfingeringwith nearshore carbonate and mudflat facies of the low-gradientlacustrine margin. In the central part of the basin, the thickness ofthe lacustrine deposits of the Rudnik member reaches up to 60-70m. In the southern part of the basin fluvial and alluvial plain faciesdominate and alternate with minor lacustrine nearshore facies. ...(c2005 Elsevier B.V.) (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,018

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SEISMIC AND WELL LOGSEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

J.M.Armentrout (Cascade Stratigraphics). AAPG HEDBERGRES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.13, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,019

A PROPOSED BIPARTITE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHICNOMENCLATURE

W.A.Berggren (Woods Hole Oceanogr Inst), N.Christie-Blick,M.P.Aubry, R.M.Carter, A.Hallam, K.G.Miller, D.E.Owen, J.A.VanCouvering and J.S.Watkins. AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.16-17, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 4 refs;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,020

ALLOSTRATIGRAPHY VERSUS SEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHY

J.P.Bhattacharya (Texas Univ, Dallas). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.18, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,021

A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON SEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE

N.Christie-Blick (Columbia Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.20-21, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 4refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,022

FREE MARKET THEORY AND SEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHY

A.D.Donovan (BP Corp). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.22, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,023

ALLOSTRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTSL.E.Edwards (US Geological Survey). AAPG HEDBERG RES.

CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.23, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Color;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,024

THE SIX SURFACES OF SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHYA.Embry (Canada Geological Survey). AAPG HEDBERG RES.

CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.26-27, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,025

THE MANY FACES OF SUBMARINE EROSION: THEORYMEETS REALITY IN SELECTION OF SEQUENCEBOUNDARIES

W.E.Galloway (Texas Univ, Austin). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.28-29, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,026

ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHY AND ALLOSTRATIGRAPHY: A FLUVIALPERSPECTIVE

J.M.Holbrook (Southeast Missouri St Univ). AAPG HEDBERGRES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.30-32, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Over 10 refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,027

RUMINATIONS ON SEQUENCE TERMINOLOGY WITHSPECIFIC REFERENCE TO "SEQUENCE" AND SEQUENCEBOUNDARY TYPES

H.W.Posamentier (Anadarko Canada Corp). AAPG HEDBERGRES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.39-41, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006;Color; Over 10 refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,028

REVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF AND RECOMMENDEDTERMINOLOGY FOR UNCONFORMITY-RELATED UNITS

A.Salvador (Texas Univ, Austin). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.46-47, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 5refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,029

THE CORRELATIVE CONFORMITIESA.Salvador (Texas Univ, Austin). AAPG HEDBERG RES.

CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.48-49, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 1ref; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,030

STRATIGRAPHIC NUMERICAL MODELING:CONTRIBUTION TO SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

D.J.P.Swift (Old Dominion Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.55, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

EVENT STRATIGRAPHY 914,031

RESERVOIR SEQUENCE ANALYSIS: A NEW TECHNOLOGYFOR THE 90’S AND ITS APPLICATION TO OIL AND GASFIELDS

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 11

Page 12: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

W.W.Wornardt (Micro-Strat Inc) and P.R.Vail (Rice Univ).AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001)ABSTR. p.61, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

FLUID INCLUSION 914,032

DISCUSSIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF INCLUSIONS TOHYDROCARBON RESERVOIR FORMING STAGES

L.Zhao (Tarim Oilfield Co), Z.Huang, G.Gao et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.I,6-9,18,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

FOLD (GEOLOGY) 914,033

FOLD PROFILER: A MATLAB(R) - BASED PROGRAM FORFOLD SHAPE CLASSIFICATION

R.J.Lisle, J.L.F.Martinez, N.Bobillo-Ares, O.Menendez, J.Allerand F.Bastida (Oviedo Univ). COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCESv.32, no.1, pp.102-108, Feb. 2006. (ISSN 0098-3004; Over 10 refs)

FOLD PROFILER is a MATLAB code for classifying the shapesof profiles of folded surfaces. The classification is based on thecomparison of the natural fold profile with curves representingmathematical functions. The user is offered a choice of fourmethods, each based on a different type of function: cubic Beziercurves, conic sections, power functions and superellipses. Thecomparison is carried out by the visual matching of the fold profiledisplayed on-screen from an imported digital image and computedtheoretical curves which are superimposed on the image of the fold.To improve the fit with the real fold shape, the parameters of thetheoretical curves are changed by simple mouse actions. Theparameters of the mathematical function that best fits the realfolds are used to classify the fold shape. FOLD PROFILER allowsthe rapid implementation of four existing methods for fold shapeanalysis. The attractiveness of this analytical tool lies in the way itgives an instant visual appreciation of the effect of changing theparameters that are used to classify fold geometry. (c2005 ElsevierLtd.)

................................................................

GRAIN ORIENTATION 914,034

3-D SYMBOLIZATION OF L-S FABRICS AS AN AID TO THEANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES

E.A.de Kemp and K.Sprague (Natural Resources Canada) andE.M.Schetselaar. COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCES v.32, no.1,pp.52-63, Feb. 2006. (ISSN 0098-3004; Color; Over 10 refs)

The digital capture and management of primary fieldobservations has expanded the potential to represent site-specificgeological information in a more intuitive manner, ultimatelyoptimizing the interpretation of map-related geological fieldobservations. In structural mapping, for example, the geometry andkinematics of large-scale structures needs to be reconstructed fromlocal measurements and observations of linear and planar fabricelements. The traditional methods for fabric representations areinherently restrictive because they do not allow simultaneousrepresentation of the orientation and nature of the fabric withrespect to the structural level of observation. To overcome theselimitations we represent planar (S) fabric elements as the flatportion of a 3-D ellipsoid or "surfboard" symbol according to theirstrike/dip attributes. The associated linear (L) fabric elements arerepresented by the elongation direction of the "surfboard", thusreflecting the pitch of the linear element in the fabric plane. Theresulting composite linear-planar fabric (L-S) representation ispositioned in 3-D space according to its location in (x, y, z) space. Byadjusting the principal axis of the "surfboard", variations in theshape of the elements can be used as an additional symbolization ofthe strain-state of the fabric, ranging from pure L to L > S, S > L topure S fabrics. Various colour mappings of the "surfboard" can beused to indicate the degree of co-planarity between lineations andplanar fabric orientations. This 3-D visualization of L-S fabrics aidsin first-order interpretation of regional scale ductile structures,

such as thrusts and low-angle detachment faults. ... (CrownCopyright c2005 Elsevier Ltd.) (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

GUERRERO 914,035

PLIOCENE MARINE DEPOSITS AT PUNTA MALDONADO,GUERRERO STATE, MEXICO

E.Juarez-Arriaga, A.L.Carreno and J.L.S.Zavala (Mexico NacAuton Univ). JOURNAL OF SOUTH AMERICAN EARTHSCIENCES v.19, no.4, pp.537-546, Sept. 2005. (ISSN 0895-9811;Over 10 refs)

Diverse and abundant Foraminifera and Ostracodaassemblages were recovered from a measured stratigraphic sectionat Punta Maldonado, Guerrero state, Mexico. The planktonicspecies indicate an early Pliocene age, between 5.3 and 3.6 Ma; anearly late Pliocene (around 2.4 Ma) planktonic assemblage also wasrecorded from isolated deposits. These ages contradict theCretaceous-Paleogene age previously assigned to the sedimentarysuccession at Punta Maldonado. All indicators--benthicassemblages, ichnofacies, lithology, grain size, primary structures,mineralogy, body rock geometry, and facies--suggest deposition inthe foreshore and offshore transition zones of a storm-dominatedshallow siliciclastic shelf. The Ostracoda and Foraminifera indicatedeposition around the outer neritic/upper bathyal boundary, whichsuggests an uplift of 320-400 m in the area during the Pliocene.This study represents the first report of Pliocene marine rocks inthe southwestern coast of Mexico; the data presented contribute toregional geotectonic models. (c2005 Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,036

FACT ORS INFLUENCING WHETHER INDUCEDHYDRAULIC FRACTURES CROSS PRE-EXISTINGDISCONTINUITIES

E.M.Llanos and R.Hillis (Adelaide Univ) and R.Jeffrey andX.Zhang (CSIRO Petroleum). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Hydraulic fractures are generally modelled as simple, planar,tensile fractures that propagate awa y from the wellbore in a planethat is perpendicular to the minimum principal stress. A hydraulicfracture mine through experiment at Northparkes, carried out in anaturally fractured rock, documented fracture branching andoffsetting interactions. As the hydraulic fracture approaches pre-existing discontinuities, it may dilate the discontinuity or form anew fracture on the other side of the discontinuity. Therefore theinduced fractures have a more complex shape than predicted byplanar models. We have studied the interaction of hydraulicallyinduced/pre-existing fractures in our laboratory to help in designingeffective hydraulic fracturing jobs. Existing criteria that are used topredict whether or not the hydraulic fracture will cross the pre-existing discontinuity are based on simplified stress distributionson the interface and require information difficult to obtain(Blanton) or were developed using non-hydraulic loading (Renshawand Pollard). Our laboratory and theoretical study was conductedto extend Renshaw and Pollard’s and Blanton’s work. Fluidviscosity effects were considered, as they were shown to play asignificant role at the beginning of the interaction and have beenpostulated to be important in crossing mechanics. Our experimentswere designed to produce fracture growth in regimes dominated byeither viscous dissipation or by rock fracture toughness. The resultsshow that the higher fluid viscosity in a medium-low permeableenvironment resulted in fracture propagation through the pre-existing discontinuities that were not crossed when a low-viscosityfluid was used. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL 914,037

NEW CONCEPTS IN 3D GEOLOGICAL ANDHYDRODYNAMIC MODELLING

S.N.Zakirov, E.S.Zakirov and I.M.Indrupskiy (Russian AcademySciences). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1,pp.34-41, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; Over 10 refs; In

12 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 13: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

Russian)The necessity of revision of approaches to construction and use

of 2D and 3D gas-hydrodynamic models are marked. An attempt ismade to reveal non-matings between the separate scientificdisciplines participating in creation of 3D hydrodynamic model of alayer. The formulation of criterion of rationality of petroleum (gas)deposit development system and construction of surface fieldfacilities is offered.

................................................................

INDIA 914,038

FACIES ANALYSIS AND RESERVOIRCHARACTERIZATION OF EOCENE CARBONATES IN EASTOF DAMAN, MUMBAI OFFSHORE BASIN, INDIA

S.Uppal and R.R.Sharma (India Oil & Nat Gas Corp). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Gas indication in Paleocene-lower Eocene sediments hasbrought exploration impetus in the area east of Daman, MumbaiOffshore Basin. Additionally, a seismic feature was mapped andidentified as a carbonate buildup within Eocene. The present paperdeals with reservoir characteristics in terms of facies analysis,porosity distribution and understanding diagenetic processes whichcontrol the porosity in Eocene carbonates and to validate theexistence of carbonate buildup. Based on core and petrographicstudies, the microfacies identified are argillaceous-foramwackestone, foram-algal wackestone and rarely foram algalpackstone within Bassein Formation equivalent. Upper part of thisformation is mostly limestone with few shale layers in between andchanges to argillaceous facies towards northeast part. Whereasmiddle and lower Bassein Formation is highly argillaceous withthin bands of limestone except in the area around well ED-B. Thestudy indicates poor to moderate secondary porosity (8-10%)preserved within foram algal packstone/wackestone facies, whichnormally decreases downward. The porosity is mainly of secondaryorigin and preserved in form of network of solution channels andinterconnected vugs with some micritic porosity enhanced bysolution activity. The secondary porosity lost at several placesprimarily due to cementation in freshwater phreatic zone, whereasthe imprint of marine cementation is rare. The evidence of freshwater phreatic cement includes blocky calcite spar occupying thechannels at many places. Based on the limited porosity data, it isapparent that porosity development is better in the central partaround well ED-B as compared to the areas in northeast. Themicrofacies study suggests doubtful existence of carbonate buildup.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

INDONESIA 914,039

INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION FOREVALUATING DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES INMATURE OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS (MIOCENE KAISCARBONATES), SALAWA TI ISLAND, PAPUA, INDONESIA

M.Wahyudin and S.Sardjono (Job Pertamina), I.Setiawan (PtPertamina EP), A.M.Ibrahim (BPMIGAS) and P.Sa (Bandung InstTechnology). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Miocene Kais Carbonates was one of the mature hydrocarbonreservoirs of Salawati Basin, which has been producing oil and gassince 1936 in Papua-Indonesia. Enhanced petrographic analysiswas employed to 290 thin sections from 19 selected wells to resolvethe relationship between reservoir quality and depositional facies,especially in massively dolomitized reservoirs. Petrophysicalanalysis and facies determination were also conducted to well-logdata from 32 selected wells. Careful examinations from previousstudies, combined with this study come to the idea that onegeological model applied to the whole Salawati Island area is notsufficient. Reservoir compartmentalization, either structurally orstratigraphically, is necessary. Three distinct carbonate lithofaciessubdivisions identified within the reservoir unit include OpenMarine Carbonate Shelf Facies, Shallow Marine Back ReefLagoonal Bays Facies, and Shallow Marine Back Reef CarbonateBays Facies. Each forms a separate flow unit, which is

characterized by different stratigraphic and organic skeletalcharacteristic based mainly on thin section analysis from cuttingsand controlled by petrophysical analysis. Within the reservoir unit,three distinct fluid flow pathways are defined. First, the MostConductive Flow Unit consists of wacke-packstone to packstonelithologies, rich skeletal organic grains and dominated byintercrystalline, mouldic and vuggy porosities within matrix andgrain, recrystallized to dolomitized cementation. Second, the LessConductive Flow Unit consists of wackestone to packstonelithologies, low skeletal organic grains and dominated byinterparticle to intraparticle porosities within matrix and grain,low recrystallized or dolomitized cementation. Third, the NonConductive Flow Unit consists of mudstone, wackestone, andwacke-packstone lithologies, very low skeletal organic grains anddominated by chalky porosities within matrix and grain, very lowrecrystallized or dolomitized cementation. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

IRAN 914,040

REMO TE SENSING, FUZZY LOGIC AND GIS INPETROLEUM EXPLORATION

S.R.Taheri and A.Tait (Curtin Univ Technology). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The changing nature of the Earth’s surface and its environmentmakes the remote sensing approach most suited for monitoringmany aspects of energy exploration, distribution, and consumption.Although oil and gas reservoirs are deep below the surface, theyhave some indicators, which can be detected on the ground. Hazypatches in Landsat MSS images were considered by Collins (1973)as a clue to explore oil due to their high correlation with existing oiland gas fields, but since the phenomenon was never explained it fellout of favor. This research will try to identify more of these surfacephenomena (e.g., surface temperature derived from satellite data,vegetation cover, alteration zones and any other available surfacedata) and study their correlation with the presence of oil and gasregardless of the fact that they can be explained or not. Byemploying GIS and fuzzy logic, a dynamic model will be introducedwhich can be applied to any new petroleum exploration target usingvariable input data of that particular exploration target. Theselected study area consists of almost 50 existing petroleumreservoirs onshore Iran. Following fieldwork in the project area,other valuable layers of information were collected. Twenty ASTERscenes over the study area have been purchased from NASA anddata are being retrieved from these satellite images. These datawill finally be integrated with all the other available data layers toproduce the dynamic model. The probability of applicability of thenew model within the Gondwana continent will be extremely highwhen it is approved to be applicable in the pilot area. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

LOUISIANA 914,041

BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMCHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALTBASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO:ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT (5/1/2004-4/30/2005)

E.A.Mancini (Alabama Univ). U.S. DOE REPORT NO.840272May 2005. (DE-FC26-03NT15395; Color; 200 pp; Over 10 refs)

The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has beendata compilation and the determination of the burial and thermalmaturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basinmodeling and petroleum system identification. Oil and gasreservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supportedanticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures andpiercement domes); with normal faulting associated with thenorthern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combinationstructural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts)and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleumreservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and UpperCretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 13

Page 14: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to thehydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North LouisianaSalt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is UpperJurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation ofhydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated duringthe Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbonexpulsion commenced during the Early Cretaceous and continuedinto the Tertiary, with peak expulsion occurring during the LateCretaceous.

................................................................

MALAYSIA 914,042

CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF CENTRALLUCONIA BUILD-UPS - NEW THINKING NEEDED

S.Coca (Sarawak Shell Berhad). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Core and well log data from 28 Miocene carbonate fields wereanalysed in a sequence stratigraphic context. Paired withinterpretation of regional seismic lines a new sequencestratigraphic scheme for the carbonate section of the CentralLuconia province was developed. Analysis of data showed goodagreement between the stratigraphic record and published globalsea level curves, clearly indicating that eustasy was the maincontrolling mechanism in carbonate platform development.However, localised tectonics played a role at times and wasresponsible for considerable facies variations. The sequencestratigraphic scheme is supported by chronostratigraphic data (Sr-isotopes) and was used to aid reservoir correlations at a regionallevel. Extensive periods of subaerial exposure marked by intensekarstification are part of the carbonate record. Based on the newinterpretation, the vast majority of Central Luconia build-ups wereterminated at three different third-order sequence boundariesduring periods of sea level lowstand, being thereafter progressivelydrowned by advancing pro-deltaic clastics. This is in contradictionto the current understanding, whereby the demise of build-ups wasas a result of rapid transgression and terminal back-stepping.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

MALAYSIA 914,043

ARCHITECTURE AND GROWTH HISTORY OF A MIOCENECARBONATE PLATFORM: LUCONIA PROVINCE,MALAYSIA

V.Zampetti (Midland Valley), W.Schlager (Amsterdam VrijeUniv) and J.H.Van Konijnenberg and A.J.Everts (Shell E&P AsiaPacific). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Using 3-D seismic reflection data, wireline logs and core datawe reconstruct the architecture and growth history of a MioceneCarbonate platform in the Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak,Malaysia. Platform growth started in the Late Oligocene to EarlyMiocene, by coalescence of isolated patch reefs. The growth historyincludes phases of progradation, backstepping and occasionalcollapsing of platform flanks, guided by syndepositional faulting.The most pronounced seismic reflections in the platform correspondto flooding events (thin transgressive system tracts). Subaerialexposure preceding the flooding could be demonstrated in only onecase. Platform growth was terminated by gradual submergence(drowning) indicated by smooth, concentric seismic reflectionsforming a convex mound. Seismic response is strongly influenced byvariation in porosity. Three different processes have significantlycontributed to porosity in the carbonate rocks: selective leachingduring exposure, dolomitization and leaching during deep burial,probably related to warm fluids rising from depth. As most of thecarbonate porosity formed by carbonate dissolution under deepburial, the slide masses and related turbidites may contain highlyporous rocks in the basin between platforms. These porous bodiesmay onlap other platform slopes, terminate there and becomeenveloped in clay-rich hemipelagic sediment. On the other hand,the porous layers may establish fluid conduits betweenneighbouring platforms if slides and turbidites from differentplatforms touched one another on the basin floor. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

MANIT OBA 914,044

GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF THE NORTHWESTERNSUPERIOR PROVINCE: CLUES FROM GEOLOGY,KINEMATICS, AND GEOCHRONOLOGY IN THE GODSLAKE NARROWS AREA, OXFORD-STULL TERRANE,MANIT OBA

S.Lin (Waterloo Univ), D.W.Davis and E.Rotenberg (TorontoUniv) and M.T.Corkery and A.H.Bailes (Manitoba GeologicalSurvey). CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43,no.7, pp.749-765, July 2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Over 10 refs)

The study of lithology, geochronology, and structure in theOxford-Stull terrane, in particular in the Gods Lake Narrows area,has led to the recognition of three distinct supracrustal sequences:ca 2.8-2.9 Ga volcanic rocks; a ca 2720 Ma fault-bounded package ofvolcanics and sandstones; and ca 2705 Ma conglomerate andalkaline volcanic rocks of the Oxford Lake Group. Detrital zirconas old as 3647 Ma is present in the Oxford Lake Group. An earlygeneration of folding and shearing occurred prior to deposition ofthe Oxford Lake Group and was probably synchronous withemplacement of 2721 Ma tonalite dykes. The second generation ofdeformation caused south-over-north thrusting of volcanic rocksover the Oxford Lake Group. The youngest fabric resulted fromeast-southeast-trending, dextral, south-over-north shearing. Theyoungest rock dated in the area is the 2668 ± 1 Ma Magill Lakepluton, which records crustal melting following deformation. Thepattern of sedimentation and deformation in this area is similar tobut slightly older than that found in the southern half of theSuperior Province, which shows a southward-youngingdiachroneity. The south-dipping north-vergent shear zones observedin the area contrast with dominantly north-dipping south-vergentstructures observed and interpreted south of the North Caribousuperterrane (NCS). The limited size of the study area precludesany strongly based large-scale tectonic interpretation; however,data and observations from the Gods Lake Narrows area are mosteasily accommodated in a model where the NCS served as anucleus onto which other terranes were accreted and both thenorthern and southern margins of the NCS were Andean-typecontinental margins with opposite subduction polarities.

................................................................

MANIT OBA 914,045

STRIKE-SLIP JUXTAPOSITION OF CA 2.72 GA JUVENILEARC AND > 2.98 GA CONTINENT MARGIN SEQUENCESAND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHEAN TERRANEACCRETION, WESTERN SUPERIOR PROVINCE, CANADA

J.A.Percival and V.McNicoll (Canada Geological Survey) andA.H.Bailes (Manitoba Geological Survey). CANADIAN JOURNALOF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7, pp.895-927, July 2006. (ISSN0008-4077; Color; Over 10 refs)

The North Caribou terrane of the western Superior Provinceattained continental thickness (ca 35 km) by 2997 Ma. It records asubsequent 300 million years history of continental fragmentation,arc magmatism, and terrane accretion. At Lake Winnipeg the ca2978 Ma Lewis-Storey quartzite-komatiite-iron formationassemblage marks Mesoarchean breakup. Unlike the relativelycontinuous 2980-2735 Ma stratigraphic record of the Red Lake andBirch-Uchi greenstone belts to the east, little of this interval isrecorded at Lake Winnipeg. Rather, two belts of younger, juvenilerocks are tectonically juxtaposed: the Black Island assemblage ofisotopically depleted, 2723 Ma basalt, and calc-alkaline andesite;and Rice Lake greenstone belt of basalt, calc-alkaline andesite, anddacite (2731-2729 Ma). Collectively these terranes represent ashort-lived island-arc-back-arc system that docked with thesouthwestern North Caribou margin along a northwest-trending,dextral, transpressive, D1 suture. This zone is marked by the highlydeformed coarse clastic Guano Island sequence (< 2728 Ma) thatcontains detritus of North Caribou affinity and is interpreted as astrike-slip basin deposit. Younger clastic sequences, including theHole River (< 2708 Ma), San Antonio (< 2705 Ma), and EnglishRiver (< 2704 Ma) assemblages, occur in east-west belts that mayhave been deposited during the terminal collision (D2, D3) betweenthe North Caribou terrane and continental crust of the WinnipegRiver terrane to the south. Several terrane docking events within aframework of north-dipping subduction and continental arc

14 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 15: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

magmatism appear necessary to explain structural andstratigraphic relationships in the 2735-2700 Ma interval.

................................................................

MANIT OBA 914,046

STRATIGRAPHY, STRUCTURE, AND GEOCHRONOLOGYOF THE 3.0-2.7 GA WALLACE LAKE GREENSTONE BELT,WESTERN SUPERIOR PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTMANIT OBA, CANADA

C.Sasseville (Quebec Univ), A.Hynes (McGill Univ), V.McNicoll(Canada Geological Survey) and K.Y.Tomlinson. CANADIANJOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7, pp.929-945, July2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Over 10 refs)

In western Superior province, the North Caribou terrane (NCT)constitutes a Mesoarchean proto-continent heavily overprinted byNeoarchean magmatism and deformation resulting from thewestern Superior Province accretion. Locally, along the southernmargin of the NCT, Mesoarchean (ca 3.0 Ga) rift sequences arepreserved. These sequences are of key importance to ourunderstanding of the early tectonic evolution of continental crust.The Wallace Lake greenstone belt is located at the southern marginof the NCT and includes the Wallace Lake assemblage, the BigIsland assemblage, the Siderock Lake assemblage, and the FrenchMan Bay assemblage. The Wallace Lake assemblage exposes one ofthe best-preserved Mesoarchean rift sequences along the southernmargin of the NCT. The volcano-sedimentary assemblage (3.0-2.92Ga) exposes arkoses derived from the uplift of a tonalite basementin a subaqueous environment, capped by carbonate and ironformation. Mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks exhibiting crustalcontamination and derived from plume magmatism cap this riftsequence. The Wallace Lake assemblage exhibits D1 Mesoarcheandeformation. The Big Island assemblage comprises mafic volcanicrocks of oceanic affinity that were docked to the Wallace Lakeassemblage along northwest-trending D2 shear zones. The timing ofvolcanism and docking of the Big Island assemblage remainuncertain. The Siderock Lake and French Man Bay assemblageswere deposited in strike-slip basins related to D3 and D4 stages ofmovement of the transcurrent Wanipigow fault (< 2.709 Ga).Regionally, the Wallace Lake assemblage correlates with the Lewis-Story Rift assemblage observed in Lake Winnipeg, whereas the BigIsland assemblage appears to correlate with the Black Islandassemblage observed in the Lake Winnipeg area. Thus, the NorthCaribou terrane appears to preserve vestiges of a Mesoarcheanrifted succession together with overlying Neoarcheanallochthonous, juvenile, volcanic successions over a considerabledistance along its present-day southern margin.

................................................................

MEXICO 914,047

HORIZONTAL DEGASIFICATION ANDCHARACTERIZATION OF COALS IN THE SABINAS SUB-BASIN MEXICO: IMPLICATIONS FOR CBM PRODUCTION

T.Gentzis (CDX Canada Co), R.Klinger (CDX Gas LLC),M.Santillan (Mineral Monclova SA de CV) and K.Murray.BULLETIN OF CANADIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGY v.54, no.3,pp.221-237, Sept. 2006. (ISSN 0007-4802; Color; Over 10 refs)

The Sabinas sub-basin in northern Mexico contains gassy coalsin the Upper Cretaceous Los Olmos Formation, based on bothhistorical evidence and current desorption testing. The DoubleSeam coal is present at shallow depth (< 500 m), has high vitrinitecontent (> 86 vol%), is well-cleated, shows high diffusivity [averagetau (τ) value is 56 hours] and has high natural fracturepermeability (> 30 mD) in the minesites. The coal averages 2.2 m inthickness but has a high ash content (32 wt%). A tonstein band ispresent in the middle of the Double Seam, consisting of vitriniteand inertinite embedded in a matrix of fine clays and quartz.Average desorbed gas content of this medium-volatile bituminouscoal (Romax = 1.30%) is highest in Mine V (Esmeralda Mine at > 9.0cu cm/g). Maximum methane adsorption at an equivalent depth of300 m is 15 cu cm/g (as-received basis; arb). Coal bed methane ismainly methane (98%) with heating value of 38.21 MJ/cu m (1026Btu/cu ft). The coal is under-pressured and reported to be dry, withpossibly free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence ofdiscrete mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior tolongwall mining has resulted in the significant reduction of in-situ

gas contents and in an increase of mined coal production per shift.The Sabinas sub-basin coals are suitable for a full-scale coal bedmethane (CBM) development using in-seam single horizontal andmulti-lateral horizontal drilling. Similarities, but also differences,exist between the Sabinas coals in Mexico and the same coals in theMaverick Basin, Texas.

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,048

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY OF LOWER CRETACEOUSSTRATA, U.S. EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

E.A.Mancini and T.M.Puckett (Alabama Univ). AAPGHEDBERG RES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.35,2001. (Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

MICHIGAN 914,049

MIOSPORE BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE LOWERMISSISSIPPIAN CLASTICS OF THE MICHIGAN BASIN,USA

J.G.Richardson (Columbus St Community Coll). REVIEW OFPALAEOBO TANY AND PALYNOLOGY v.138, no.1, pp.63-72, Jan.2006. (ISSN 0034-6667; Over 10 refs)

Two moderately diverse, moderately abundant miosporeassemblages are recorded from the Lower Mississippian ColdwaterShale and Marshall Sandstone of the Michigan Basin. Themicrofloral assemblage from the older Coldwater Shale is similar toassemblages of the Spelaeotriletes balteatus-Rugospora polyptychaBiozone of western Europe. This biozone is generally absent fromNorth America. The overlying Marshall Sandstone has a miosporeassemblage representative of the oldest Osagean Spelaeotriletespretiosus-Raistrickia clavata Biozone of western Europe.Identification of these assemblages indicates the presence of theKinderhookian-Osagean boundary within or between the twoclastic units. The identification of this boundary has importantstratigraphical and sedimentological implications for age relationswith Lower Mississippian rocks in adjacent basins and alsoprovides information on regional sedimentology and depositionalpatterns. (c2005 Elsevier B.V.)

................................................................

MICROBIALITE 914,050

RECOGNIZING CONDENSED SECTIONS AND THEIRSIGNIFICANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR-SCALE MICROBIAL REEFS IN UPPER JURASSICCARBONATE SEQUENCES

W.C.Parcell (Wichita State Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.38, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

MOROCCO 914,051

THE LATE MESSINIAN EROSIONAL SURFACE AND THESUBSEQUENT REFLOODING IN THE MEDITERRANEAN:NEW INSIGHTS FROM THE MELILLA-NADOR BASIN(MOROCCO)

J.J.Cornee (Lyon I Univ), M.Ferrandini, J.P.Saint Martin,P.Munch, M.Moullade, A.Ribaud-Laurenti, S.Roger, S.Saint Martinand J.Ferrandini. PALAEOGEOGRAPHY,PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY, PALAEOECOLOGY v.230, nos.1-2,pp.129-154, 1/17/2006. (ISSN 0031-0182; Over 10 refs)

New field investigations in the Cape des Trois Fourchespeninsula (northern Morocco) allow us to bring new insights on thelate Messinian erosional surface and the overlying marine deposits.Our results show that the late Messinian erosional surface,characterized by an erosional plateau, is interrupted by an up to 70m deep paleovalley, thought to result from a landslide. Theminimum relative sea-level drop is 70 m, probably much more withregard to the indication that a large-scale landsliding has occurred.The post-erosional deposits (Cycle 3) comprise one major

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 15

Page 16: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

depositional sequence composed of two high-order sedimentarysubcycles. Deposits of the first subcycle 3A filled in the erosionalbasin and the paleovalleys; deposits of the second subcycle 3Boverflowed the paleovalleys and the erosional plateau. We foundevidence of the transgressive systems tract of the depositscorresponding to the post-Messinian crisis reflooding, for which alatest Messinian onset can neither be proved nor entirely ruled outbecause the rare biostratigraphic data are not sufficientlyconclusive. The uppermost part of the reflooding deposits (subcycle3A) is shown to be definitely Pliocene in age based on theoccurrence of Globorotalia puncticulata and the composition of theassemblage of pectinids. (c2005 Elsevier B.V.)

................................................................

MOROCCO 914,052

THE TECTONO-SEDIMENTARY FRAMEWORK OF THEJURASSIC CARBONATE PLATFORM IN ATLANTICPASSIVE MARGIN OF MOROCCO

M.Zizi (ONHYM) and M.Nahim (Onarep). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

This paper will focus on the tectono-sedimentary features of thecarbonate Atlantic continental passive margin of Morocco. Thegeological interpretation of the passive margin is based principallyon the data acquired from petroleum industry, including seismicreflection surveys and wells. Prior to the opening of the AtlanticOcean, a continental rifting during the Upper Triassic - Lower Liaswas marked by the deposition of continental red beds which gradeupward to evaporates. The break up unconformity is believed to beToarcian in age. Carbonate sedimentation prevailed in the Jurassictime. More than 4,000 m carbonate sequences were deposited onthe shelf. Laterally, the Jurassic becomes thinner towards the slopeand the abyssal plain reflecting starved sedimentation with most ofthe carbonate being deposited in the shelfal areas. The carbonatesedimentation is marked by high energy carbonates which areexpressed on seismic profiles as prograding reflectors. Theseprogradations correspond to sand shoal oolitic carbonate bedswhich were deposited during the high stands. During the Lias andDogger, these sand shoal oolitic deposits were prograding andaggrading. The carbonate platform evolved from ramp typeplatform in the Lower and Middle Jurassic to shelf margin platformin the upper Jurassic. This evolution is associated with rapid rise ofsea level and the carbonate platform was catching up in the upperJurassic. However, locally, salt tectonic prolongated the ramp typeto up to upper Jurassic. The salt uplift compensated for the rapidsea level rise and prevented the carbonate platform to evolve to selfmargin carbonate platform. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

NATURAL FRACTURE 914,053

INTEGRATED CONDITIONAL GLOBAL OPTIMISATIONFOR DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK MODELLING

N.H.Tran, Z.Chen and S.S.Rahman (New South Wales Univ).COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCES v.32, no.1, pp.17-27, Feb. 2006.(ISSN 0098-3004; Over 10 refs)

This paper presents a methodology to simulate discrete fracturenetworks for naturally fractured reservoirs by combining statisticaland spatial analyses, object-based modelling and conditional globaloptimisation. The methodology examines and utilises bothcontinuum and discrete fracture information, such as spatialdistribution of fracture density, statistical and geostatisticaldistributions of fracture size and orientation. The output is anetwork of discrete fractures, with their corresponding details oflocation, size and orientation. The methodology is illustrated by acase study on the surface fault system in New York region. Theresults show that it is able to produce discrete fracture networkthat match closely to the target fault map, even in the case wheredata are limited. The results show that it is also able to improveresults of several recent fracture models, such as integratedstochastic simulations as well as grid-based simulations. (c2005Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

NEW SOUTH WALES 914,054

NATURAL ACCUMULATION OF CO2

IN COALS FROM THESOUTHERN SYDNEY BASIN - IMPLICATIONS FORGEOSEQUESTRATION

M.M.Faiz, S.A.Barclay, N.Sherwood, L.Stalker and D.J.Whitford(CSIRO Petroleum) and A.Saghafi (CSIRO Energy Technology).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.455-473,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The southern Sydney Basin is an ideal natural analogue forCO2 geosequestration because of the widespread CO2 occurrence,extensive data sets available and general knowledge of gasdistribution. The CO2 mainly occurs adsorbed in coal, incorporatedinto carbonate minerals and dissolved in formation water. On thisbasis, an area of ca 900 sq km has been chosen for detailedexamination. Gas in the coal seams of this area contains mainlyCH4 and CO2, the CO2 content ranging from < 1 to 20 cu m/tonne.The 13C values indicate multiple sources including thermalmaturation of coal, microbial alteration of pre-existing gases andmagmatic activity as the main source. The highest concentrationsof adsorbed CO2 occur mainly in anticlines and between ca 300 and600 m possibly reflecting inverse relationship with CO2 solubility information water. Carbon dioxide appears to have migrated from thedeep-seated magmatic sources along faults and permeable strata,towards structural highs and stratigraphically shallower coalseams. Calculations indicate that about 78 x 10 E+06 tonnes of CO2are presently stored in coaly intervals in the study area. Assuminga storage capacity of 20 cu m/t for these coal seams, the total CO2storage capacity for the coaly intervals is ca 880 x 10 E+06 tonnes.Using the study area as an analogue for enhanced coal seammethane production, 175 x 10 E+06 tonnes of CO2 could be stored,assuming a 50% CH4 recovery factor and an average CO2 sorptioncapacity 1.5 times that for CH4.

................................................................

NORTH AMERICA 914,055

HOW SHOULD NACSN RESPOND TO PROPOSALS FORINCORPORATION OF SEQUENCE-STRATIGRAPHICUNITS INTO THE NORTH AMERICAN STRATIGRAPHICCODE?

D.E.Owen (Lamar Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.36, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 1 ref; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

NORTH ISLAND 914,056

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CENTRAL ANDNORTHEASTERN EAST COAST BASIN, NORTH ISLAND,NEW ZEALAND

C.I.Uruski, B.D.Field, R.Funnell, C.Hollis, A.Nicol andG.Maslen (Inst Geol Nuclear Sciences). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.215-235, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

During early 2005, Crown Minerals, the New Zealandgovernment group charged with promoting and regulating oil andgas exploration, commissioned a high specification regional 2Dsurvey intended to address some of the main data gaps in theoffshore East Coast Basin. A broad grid was planned with severalregional lines to be acquired with a 12,000 m streamer and infilllines to be acquired with a streamer 8,000 m long. It was expectedthat the long streamer would increase resolution of Paleogene andCretaceous units. Several of the lines were actually acquired with a4,000 m streamer due to unexpectedly high rates ofunserviceability. The resulting 2,800 km data set consists of aseries of northwest-southeast lines approximately orthogonal to thecoast at a spacing of about 10 km as well as several long strikelines. GNS was contracted to produce a series of reports coveringsource rock distribution, a catalogue of reservoir rocks, a regionalseismic interpretation, thermal models and structuralreconstruction. The data package and reports are available free ofcharge to any interested exploration company to accompany the

16 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 17: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

licensing round that was announced on 1 September 2005. The newdata set has confirmed the existence of a large, little-deformedbasin to the north of North Island and the Bay of Plenty; it haselucidated the complex structure of a large part of the East CoastBasin and has enabled generation of a general sequencestratigraphic model which assists in delineating reservoir targets.On 1 September 2005, the New Zealand government launched alicensing round covering about 43,000 sq km of the East CoastBasin, from the far offshore East Cape Ridge in the north to thenorthern Wairarapa coast in the south. Four blocks (I,J,K and L)were on offer for a competitive staged work programme bid, closingon 17 February 2006.

................................................................

NORTH SEA 914,057

TYPES OF LATE CRETACEOUS AND CENOZOICSEQUENCES IN THE SOUTHERN NORTH SEA AREA

N.Vandenberghe and E.Steurbaut (Leuven Univ) andJ.Hardenbol (GSC Inc). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF. (Dallas,TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.58, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,058

THE ANGEL FORMATION: A CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF ASHEET TURBIDITE RESERVOIR FROM THE NORTHWEST SHELF, AUSTRALIA

D.Dharmayanti and A.Tait (Curtin Univ Technology) andR.Evans (BHP Billiton Petroleum). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Deepwater sheet sandstones, deposited from deceleratingturbidity currents, are considered to be excellent hydrocarbonreservoir systems due to their geometry, lateral continuity, sortingand internal high net-to-gross (NTG) ratios. The Late JurassicAngel Formation of the Dampier Sub-Basin on the NW Shelf ofAustralia contains classic examples of sheet turbidite sandstonebodies, which are reservoirs for the oil and gas fields in this area.Sandstone sheets in the Angel Formation can be subdivided intotwo distinct groups based upon their internal architecture: (1)layered sheets and, (2) amalgamated sheets. Sheets exhibit adecrease in thickness and NTG and are transitional from anamalgamated to a layered form in a down dip direction.Examination of wireline logs and cores between the Wanaea Fieldand Madeleine-1 well reveals layered sheets within a low NTG (i.e.,approx. 0.25) setting that contains interbedded heterolithic/clayand sandstone beds, which occasionally showing upper classicBouma turbidite sequence. Amalgamated sheets are recognised inthe Angel and Cossack fields, which are characterized by higherNTG values (i.e., approx. 0.9) and contain stacked event bedscommonly form flat-based sandbodies with fewer interbeddedheterolithic/clay layers. This change in sandbody architectures hasa significant control on reservoir heterogeneity. Additionalheterogeneity is created by stratigraphic pinch-out and sandstoneinjection features, as well as localised dolomite cementation, whichappears to be at least partially structurally controlled. The AngelFormation is also a regional aquifer and field developmentstrategies are thus impacted by the various reservoirheterogeneities encountered in different fan settings.Heterolithic/clays are also very laterally extensive and field scalepressure barriers. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,059

BASEMENT AND CRUSTAL CONTROLS ONHYDROCARBONS MATURATION ON THE EXMOUTHPLATEAU, NORTHWEST AUSTRALIAN MARGIN

A.Goncharov (Geoscience Australia), I.Deighton (Burytech PtyLtd) and S.McLaren (Australian National Univ). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

A consistent approach to the assessment of basement andcrustal controls on hydrocarbons maturation in mature explorationarea of the Exmouth Plateau is justified by the availability of highquality refraction seismic data recorded in the area during twomajor ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) projects undertaken byGeoscience Australia, and jointly by the Scripps Institution ofOceanography, USGS, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and theUniversity of Hawaii. The tectonic elements of the ExmouthPlateau, which contains the largest oil-producing fields inAustralia, developed as a result of rift tectonics initiated in theEarly Jurassic and continuing until the Late Jurassic, precedingthe final continental separation of Greater India from Australia.The Palaeozoic evolution and stratigraphy of the area is poorlyknown but it seems to be increasingly important for petroleumgeology. Measurements of radioactive elements contents in rocksamples taken from outcrops of Pilbara Craton allow an estimationof heat production in the Exmouth basement and crust below it.These estimates and presence in the area of several wells for whichgeohistory was modelled using Winbury software (Brigadier 1,Jupiter 1, Sirius 1) allows advanced burial and thermal geo-historymodelling to be carried out using Fobos Pro modelling softwarewithout relying on default or inferred values such as heat flow orgeothermal gradient. Estimates of total crustal thickness (only30-34 km) prior to rifting were derived from onshore refractionwork in the Pilbara Craton. Crustal thickness and compositionunderneath major depocentres of the Exmouth Plateau wereconstrained by results of OBS studies in the area indicating thattotal crustal thickness (excluding up to 18 km of sediments) isreduced to just 4 km. The effect of possible underplating in thelower crust of the Exmouth Plateau on hydrocarbon maturationneeds to be accounted for in geohistory modelling. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES 914,060

LESSONS FROM THE LOWER-MIDDLE TRIASSICSEQUENCE BOUNDARY

A.Embry (Canada Geological Survey). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.25, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

OIL AND GAS ENTRAPMENT 914,061

AN APPROACH TO HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATIONPERIOD

M.C.Li (China Univ Geosci, Beijing) and X.Q.Shan, C.H.Ma andG.Y.Hu (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.587-591,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

OIL RESERVOIR 914,062

PALEO-OIL LEG RECOGNITION AND ITS APPLICATIONTO PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

F.Y.Wang, X.Q.Pang, H.S.Zeng and Y.L.Shi (Petroleum Univ,Beijing), J.F.Hu (Tarim Oilfield Co) and K.Y.Liu (CSIROPetroleum). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANGSHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.565-569, Oct. 2005. (ISSN1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

ONTARIO 914,063

NEW HIGH-PRECISION U-Pb AGES FOR THE ISLANDLAKE GREENSTONE BELT, NORTHWESTERN SUPERIORPROVINCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONALSTRATIGRAPHY AND THE EXTENT OF THE NORTHCARIBOU TERRANE

J.Parks and S.Lin (Waterloo Univ), D.Davis (Toronto Univ) andM.T.Corkery (Manitoba Geological Survey). CANADIANJOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7, pp.789-803, July

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 17

Page 18: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Over 10 refs)A combined U-Pb and field mapping study of the Island Lake

greenstone belt has led to the recognition of three distinctsupracrustal assemblages. These assemblages record magmaticepisodes at 2897, 2852, and 2744 Ma. Voluminous plutonic rockswithin the belt range in age from 2894 to 2730 Ma, with aconcentration at 2744 Ma. U-Pb data also show that a regionalfault that transects the belt, the Savage Island shear zone, is not aterrane-bounding structure. The youngest sedimentary group in thebelt, the Island Lake Group, has an unconformable relationshipwith older plutons. Sedimentation in this group is bracketedbetween 2712 and 2699 Ma. This group, and others similar to it inthe northwestern Superior Province, is akin to Timiskaming-typesedimentary groups found throughout the Superior Province and inother Archean cratons. These data confirm that this beltexperienced a complex geological history that spanned at least 200million years, which is typical of greenstone belts in this area. Agecorrelations between the Island Lake belt and other belts in thenorthwest Superior Province suggest the existence of a volcanicmegasequence. This evidence, in combination with Nd isotopic data,indicates that the Oxford-Stull domain, and the Munro Lake,Island Lake, and North Caribou terranes may have been part of amuch larger reworked Mesoarchean crustal block, the NorthCaribou superterrane. It appears that the Superior Province wasassembled by accretion of such large independent crustal blocks,whose individual histories involved extended periods ofautochthonous development.

................................................................

ONTARIO 914,064

STRUCTURE OF THE ARCHEAN ENGLISH RIVERSUBPROVINCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TECTONICEVOLUTION OF THE WESTERN SUPERIOR PROVINCE,CANADA

R.B.Hrabi and A.R.Cruden (Toronto Univ). CANADIANJOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7, pp.947-966, July2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Over 10 refs)

The English River subprovince is one of two metasediment-dominated terranes in the western Superior Province. It has beeninterpreted as an accretionary complex, a foreland, or a fore-arcbasin that developed and was subsequently deformed between themetavolcanic-rich Uchi subprovince and the orthogneiss- andmetaplutonic-dominated Winnipeg River subprovince during aprolonged transpressive orogeny. To test these hypotheses, wecombined a satellite image, aeromagnetic image, and Lithoprobereflection seismic profile interpretation with detailed structuralmapping to better characterize the internal geometry andsignificance of structural features in the western part of thesubprovince in Ontario. Northward-directed subduction andcollision of the Winnipeg River subprovince with the Uchisubprovince at ca. > 2713-2698 Ma can account for the deposition ofthe sedimentary rocks, initial metamorphism, and the main phaseof deformation in the subprovince, whereas the subduction ofWabigoon crust generated extensive tonalite magmatism in theWinnipeg River and English River subprovinces during the sameperiod. A period of extension, after the docking of the WinnipegRiver and Wabigoon subprovinces at ca. 2698 Ma, punctuated thecompressive phases of the orogeny and was responsible for high-grade metamorphism upward bending of the Moho, and localizeddeposition of late, coarse, alluvial-fluvial metasedimentary rocks.Renewed compression caused by the docking of the Wawasubprovince at ca. 2689-2684 Ma is likely responsible for a largelyunrecognized upright folding and faulting event that controls thedominant structural geometry of the subprovince. Late in itstectonic evolution, strain was partitioned into dextral deformationthat was strongly domainal and limited to the subprovince margins.

................................................................

ONTARIO 914,065

NEOARCHEAN TRANS-SUBPROVINCE SEDIMENTTRANSPORT IN SOUTHWESTERN SUPERIOR PROVINCE:SEDIMENT OLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ANDGEOCHRONOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

P.Fralick and R.H.Purdon (Lakehead Univ) and D.W.Davis(Toronto Univ). CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES

v.43, no.7, pp.1055-1070, July 2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Over 10 refs)At ca 2700 Ma volcanism spawned by northward-directed

subduction under Wabigoon subprovince, Canadian Shield, fedsediment into an adjacent fore-arc basin-trench system.Volcanically active island arcs to the south (Wawa subprovince)were transported northward during this interval and at ca 2690 Macollided with the accretionary complex (Quetico subprovince).Metamorphosed sedimentary units intercalated with the ocean floorand island-arc volcanic rocks of northern Wawa subprovinceprovided the opportunity to amass data useful in extending thepaleogeographic interpretation of the area. This study examines theMcK ellar Harbour Formation, a several kilometre thick assemblageof graded metasandstone beds outcropping to the north of LakeSuperior. Its sedimentology, geochemistry, and detrital U-Pb zircongeochronology were investigated in conjunction with the sameattributes of possible correlative units in the region. Similaritiesbetween the McKellar Harbour Formation and sedimentary rockscomposing the fore-arc basin and Quetico trench to the northindicate that by 2696 Ma the trench had been overwhelmed bysediment, to the point where turbidity currents were overflowingonto the abyssal ocean plain, building a prograding submarineramp-fan that was to become the McKellar Harbour Formation.The turbiditic ramp-fan assemblage comprising most of thisextensive depositional system crosses much of southern SuperiorProvince, highlighting the interrelated genesis of rocks formedduring amalgamation of the individual subprovinces.

................................................................

ORGANIC DIAGENESIS 914,066

BIO-THERMOCATALYTIC TRANSITIONAL ZONE GASESW.H.Liu (Sinopec) and Y.C.Xu (Chinese Academy Sciences).

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.30-36, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE 914,067

PREDICTING AND UPDATING GEOPRESSURE 1000 FEETAHEAD OF THE BIT AT THE WELLSITE

J.Coker and M.D.Matthews (Knowledge Systems Inc). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Predrill pore pressure predictions are typically made forplanning purposes using analog wells, seismic and or basinmodeling. Once onsite, pore pressure estimation from steamingLWD data often deviates from this prediction. The pre drillprediction becomes suspect and is usually not referred to again. Afit for purpose basin modeling capability that runs on a PC and canbe employed at the rig site enables the model to be updated as newinformation becomes available, continually extending the predictionof pore pressure to in excess of 1,000 feet ahead of the bit. Themodel includes both compaction and internally generated pressures(hydrocarbon maturation, etc.). Examination of the first wells thissystem on which this capability was deployed reveals that over 40%of the predrill predictions held within one half a pound per gallonover the entire depth of the well. By applying this technique on siteand updating the model as new data becomes available theaccuracy of the predictions rose to over 80% for the first 1,000 feetand over 60% within one half pound per gallon for greater depths.Selected cases (including some from Australia’s NW shelf) arereviewed and lessons learned presented. The biggest cause ofinaccuracy of prediction is in the ability to estimate the depth atwhich particular stratigraphic sequences will be penetrated. Thisoften results in a pressure ramp coming in higher or lower thananticipated, altering casing depths. Anticipating thesemodifications to the drilling plan reduces non productive time andincreases rig safety. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

PAPUA GULF 914,068

PROSPECTIVITY OF THE DEEPWATER GULF OF PAPUAAND SURROUNDS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA (PNG) - A NEW

18 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 19: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

LOOK AT A FRONTIER REGIOND.Jablonski and O.A.Larsen (Chinampa Explor Pty Ltd) and

S.Pono (PNG Dept Petrol & Energy). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.179-200, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

Despite limited well control and paucity of seismic data, aregional study of the deepwater portion of the Gulf of Papua, PapuaNew Guinea (PNG), indicates a number of large structures at avariety of stratigraphic levels that are capable of holding significantvolumes of hydrocarbons. The main structural elements east of theFly River Platform the Pandora Ridge, Pandora Trough, AureTrough, Port Moresby Trough and the northern portion of theEastern Plateau were established during the Paleozoic and furtherenhanced by Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene Coral Sea riftingin the southeast. Structuring in the region is mostly basementinvolved and extensional, and is overprinted by a latercompressional pulse. Extensional and compressional regimesproduce many potential traps. To date, exploration in the Gulf ofPapua has been sporadic and mainly focused in shallow waterdepths. The new reprocessed seismic data indicate the followingPaleozoic to Recent plays, some of which contain multiple reservoir-seal pairs, sourced by non-marine and marine source rocks: (1)extensional Paleozoic rift fault blocks; (2) Upper Jurassic to LowerCretaceous turbidites (Iagifu-Hedina-Toro sandstone equivalents);(3) Campanian to Middle Paleocene Coral Sea synrift sandstoneand basin floor fan equivalents (Pale/Barune Formations andequivalents); (4) Middle Paleocene break-up unconformity faultblocks and intra-basinal highs; (5) Upper Paleocene to LowerEocene Pima Sandstone equivalent associated with the MiddlePaleocene uplift and erosion; (6) Oligocene to Lower Miocenelowstand deltas and turbidites; (7) Miocene to Recent biohermalbuild-ups (possibly including a new limestone high, the Box Ridge,in front of the Pandora Ridge); (8) Karstified Darai Limestoneequivalent sealed by Aure Beds claystones; (9) Miocene to Recentlowstand deltas and turbidites; (10) Eocene to Pliocenestratigraphic onlaps flanking main structural highs; and, (11)Compressional plays associated with the Pliocene to Recentcollision of the PNG and Pacific plates.

................................................................

PAPUAN BASIN 914,069

A NEW MODEL FOR PETROLEUM OCCURRENCE ALONGTHE PAPUAN FOLD BELT

K.Y.Ma, M.Glikson and S.Golding (Queensland Univ), J.Readand T.Kurtz (Triassic Geol Svcs Pty Ltd) and B.McConachie (BHPBilliton). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,p.671, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Based on the analysis of a wide range of geochemical andgeological data, a new model has been established to illustrate thepetroleum accumulation exclusively along the Papuan Fold Belt,the Papuan Basin. Sufficient source-related isotopic and molecularevidence derived by oil and gas geochemistry highlight facies-variation of Jurassic sources in parallel with the Papuan Fold Belt,and support the formation of current commercial petroleumdeposits by mixing of oils and gases associated with differentsedimentary facies, depositionally controlled by the Kubor-Mendiand Om-Muller Jurassic depressions, as well as the BosaviLineament. The oils were mainly derived from a set of shallower-marine source rocks marking shelf-slope facies. The co-reservoirednatural gases, despite possibly with multi-sources, primarilysuggest a substantial gas input from the basinal facies developedfurther to the north, reflecting more deeper-marine influence, highmaturity, and thermal-cracking attributes. The basinal facies mayhave contributed only the residual hydrocarbon potential to currentpetroleum deposits, as indicated by the Juha, Puri, and Bwatacondensates of high maturity. The earlier-generated black oils ofbasinal facies might have not been caught and preserved, thereforeonly detectable through some fluid inclusions. Represented by theSE. Mananda, Moran, and Paua waxy-oils showing more terrestrialsignatures, source area around the Bosavi Lineament mayrepresent a Jurassic depositional-high between the major regionaldepressions, awa y from which, along the fold belt, the oil and gasshow an increase in marine influence. (Original not available fromT.U.)

................................................................

PENNSYLVANIA 914,070

FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF LOWSTAND,TRANSGRESSIVE, AND HIGHSTAND SYSTEMS TRACTS INTHE UPPER DEVONIAN LOCK HAVEN FORMATION,COUNCIL RUN FIELD, NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

C.D.Laughrey (Pennsylvania Geol Survey), M.R.Canich(Equitrans) and D.A.Billman. AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.33, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

PERMEABILITY (ROCK) 914,071

EFFECT OF PORE PRESSURE ON LAMINATED ANDHOMOGENOUS ROCKS PERMEABILITY UNDERHYDROSTATIC AND TRIAXIAL LOADING

E.M.El-M.Shokir (King Saud Univ) and A.A.Al-Quraishi(KACST). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Accurate knowledge of reservoir physical properties such aspermeability is crucial for accurate prediction of reservoirperformance. Single-phase permeability measurement is normallyperformed at hydrostatic external loading. Reservoir rocks aresubjected to stress anisotropy and tectonic movements thus in-situstress state is non-hydrostatic. Pore pressure decreases or increaseswith production or injection operations result in an increase ordecrease in the net effective stress exerted on the rock mass. This,in turn, causes permeability to be a dynamic property throughoutthe reservoir life. Experimental work was performed on laminated(lamination parallel to flow direction) and homogenous sandstonerock samples to investigate the effect of pore pressure variation onabsolute rock permeability when subjected to hydrostatic andtriaxial stress state conditions. Experimental results of all testedrock samples indicate that permeability tends to decrease as porepressure decreases for both hydrostatic and triaxial stressconditions. Permeability reduction is much more pronounced whenrock samples are subjected to external triaxial stress compared tothat obtained under hydrostatic stress loading. The permeabilityreduction occurs early on the reservoir depletion process in lowpermeability laminated rocks while it occurs at very late stage inhigh and low permeability homogenous rock samples. Theseobservations indicate that permeability is stress type dependentand that permeability - external pressure state - internal porepressure relationship is mainly affected by rock microstructures.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

POROSITY (ROCK) 914,072

POROSITY VERSUS DEPTH RELATIONSHIP DERIVEDFROM ROCK MECHANICAL ARGUMENTS

E.Fjaer and A.E.Lothe (SINTEF Petroleum Research) andO.Sylta (Migris AS). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE(Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006.(Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p;Abstract only)

During formation of sedimentary rocks, the porosity isgradually reduced as a result of the increasing weight of theoverburden. Prior to diagenetic processes, the porosity at a givendepth depends on the rock composition--which is defined duringsedimentation, as well as stress and pore pressure and rockmechanical properties--which change gradually during the burialprocess. The relationship between porosity and depth in asedimentary basin has been derived on the basis of simplifiedassumptions about stress-paths and rock compressibility, incombination with a published empirical relation between meangrain size and sea-floor porosity and a simple assumption relatingmean grain size to clay content. The porosity-depth relation istested on a set of published data (Yang and Aplin, 2004: PetroleumGeoscience, 10, 153-162). They estimated several parameters,including porosity, pore pressure and clay content, from well logsfor four different wells, making use of neural network methods. Ourresults show a good match between the theoretical relation and thelog derived porosities, even when only two free parameters (related

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 19

Page 20: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

to rock mechanical properties) are used to fit the data for all fourwells. The results indicate that the parameter relationshipsgenerated by the neural network to a large extent agree with thetheoretically based relations derived here. This supports thevalidity of the physics used to derive these relations. The relationsprovide a foundation for practical estimation of pore pressures andthe rock mechanical parameters involved. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

PORTUGUESE TIMOR 914,073

EAST TIMOR: STRUCTURAL AND TECTONIC HISTORY OFDEFORMED PASSIVE MARGIN SEQUENCES

M.K eep and E.McCartain (Western Australia Univ). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Timor Island preserves vast tracts of the northern Australianpassive margin, with the full stratigraphic record represented onthe eastern side (East Timor). Striking similarities with Australianformations throughout the Permian to Jurassic of East Timor. TheTimor succession would have been among the first involved in thecollision between Australia and the Banda Arc during the Neogene.Despite its relatively turbulent recent history, many of the pre-Neogene sections remain remarkably relatively undeformed,preserved as thick sections in thrust stacks, with little internaldeformation in some cases. The identification of previously un-recognised slices of potential oceanic crust (MORB compositionsand textures, with cumulates) allows for the possibility that theoceanic material carried thick sequences of the passive margin withit during emplacement. The fact that most of the material remainsun-metamorphosed and that conodont and spore-pollen indicesgenerally indicate low temperatures, it is likely that the passivemargin sequences remain shallow and protected from high strainduring early stage orogenesis. The presence of oil and gas seepsalong the southern coast of Timor attests to the presence of apetroleum system at some point in the recent past and, perhaps,the present day. This paper presents a comparison of the structuralstyle of the Timorese sections and their (undeformed) Australianequivalents, and explores models for the preservation of anAustralian petroleum system in East Timor. In addition the effectsof significant mud-diapirism on the petroleum potential will beexplored. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYS 914,074

INTERACTIVE EXPLORATION OF TENSOR FIELDS INGEOSCIENCES USING VOLUME RENDERING

B.Zehner (UFZ Ctr Environ Research). COMPUTERS &GEOSCIENCES v.32, no.1, pp.73-84, Feb. 2006. (ISSN 0098-3004;Color; Over 10 refs)

Volume rendering methods enable the user to exploreinteractively scalar data on regularly spaced three-dimensionalgrids. This article discusses how to use this method to explore andanalyse three-dimensional tensor fields. The proposed visualizationmakes use of the programmability of modern graphics hardwareand of "Line Integral Convolution", a texture-based technique forthe visualization of vector fields. While an example fromgeomechanics is used for presentation purposes, the renderingmethods introduced are generic and would suit other applicationareas that involve volumetric data with several attributes equallywell. (c2005 Elsevier Ltd.)

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,075

MORE WELLS, MORE OIL - A CASE STUDY OF RESERVESGROWTH IN THE KENMORE FIELD

J.E.Skinner, M.J.Altmann and T.H.Wadham (Beach PetroleumLtd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,pp.35-46, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 7 refs)

The Kenmore oil field in the Eromanga Basin of southwestQueensland was discovered in 1985. Since then, a further 32 wellshave been drilled and more than 12.5 MMSTB of oil has been

produced from the Birkhead Formation/Hutton Sandstone. Oilproduction over the last year has averaged 1,220 barrels per daytotalling some 0.45 million stock tank barrels per day totallingsome 0.45 million stock tank barrels (MMSTB). Oil reserves inKenmore were originally estimated at 2.2 MMSTB following theKenmore-1 discovery well drilled in 1985. In the following 20years, infill drilling, a 3D seismic survey, various reservoir studiesand better-than-expected recovery efficiency, have steadilyincreased the ultimate recoverable reserves to the current estimateof 14.3 MMSTB. The growth of reserves at Kenmore is primarilyattributed to better drainage of the complex reservoir frameworkwithin the lower Birkhead Formation resulting from recognition ofthe variable lateral connectivity of the reservoir. Due to the initialestimate of the ultimate field reserves being significantly smallerthan now recognized and the resultant conservative drillingprogram, the economic value of the field was not maximized. Thisexperience has implications for the ongoing development of theKenmore field and suggests that other Birkhead/Hutton oil fieldsshould be developed more aggressively to prevent history repeatingitself.

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,076

DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE KOGANNORTH AND TIPTON WEST COAL SEAM GAS (CSG)FIELDS, SURAT BASIN, SOUTHEAST QUEENSLAND

R.W.Day, R.F.Prefontaine, P.A.J.Bubendorfer, M.H.Oberhardt,B.J.Pinder, D.J.Holden and R.A.Gunness (Arrow Energy NL).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.367-383,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

In 2001, Arrow Energy NL, a fledgling coal seam gas (CSG)explorer, drilled the first wells of a multi-well exploration programin two Authorities To Prospect (ATP) permits--ATPs 683P and676P--that covered an area totalling 13,817 sq km of the JurassicWalloon Coal Measures in the eastern Surat Basin. The objectivewas to discover significant CSG resources and, if successful, tocommercialise to reserve status. Early exploration success in 2002saw the discovery of the Kogan North and Tipton West CSG fields.This paper reviews the discovery and subsequent appraisal anddevelopment work that Arrow Energy has completed to establishproduction from these fields. By 2004, Arrow Energy hadindependently certified probable reserves in the Kogan North fieldof 85 PJ, and possible reserves of 157 PJ. Results from a five-wellCSG pilot operation demonstrated the feasibility of commercial gasflow rates sufficiently to justify commercialising CSG from theWalloon Coal Measures in the Kogan North field. Under the termsof a staged development agreement, CS Energy Ltd.--Queensland’slargest electricity generator--farmed into the Kogan North Projectto earn a 50% interest in PL194 and an adjoining portion of ATP676P by funding A$13.1 million of the project’s development andappraisal costs. The funds provided by CS Energy covered themajority of the development costs required for Arrow’s KoganNorth development project. The initial gas sales contract fromKogan North will supply sales gas of 4 PJ/a for 15 years to CSEnergy from March 2006. Arrow Energy retains the remaining 50%interest and operates the project.

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,077

GEOLOGICAL MODELING: FROM START TO FINISH: PT.1AND PT.2

A.Scott, C.Marsh and J.Sayers (Geoscience Australia) andY.Cinar (New South Wales Univ). APPEA CONFERENCE (GoldCoast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEAJOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.665, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstractonly)

About one quarter of Australia’s CO2 emissions come fromsoutheast and central Queensland. This poster presents thegeoscientific interpretations which lead to constructing a simplified3D model of a potential geological storage site for CO2. The BowenBasin is located in northeast Australia, about 200 to 500 km frommajor CO2 emission hubs in southeast Queensland. The resourcesof the Bowen Basin include coal, oil and gas, and there are waterresources within the overlying Great Artesian Basin. Defining trap

20 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 21: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

integrity within the Bowen Basin is important to ensure that noneof these resources are compromised. The Wunger Ridge area hasbeen the focus of petroleum exploration for hydrocarbons.Geological, geophysical, hydrodynamic, petrological, petrophysicaland seal capacity interpretations of datasets from the area wereundertaken. These interpretations indicate that the Triassicfluvial-deltaic Showgrounds Sandstone is the most suitable for CO2storage and injection as it is permeable and saturated withbrackish to saline water except where hydrocarbons haveaccumulated. Geological profiles were developed using sequencestratigraphic concepts and combined with rock properties,measured from core, to produce simplified 3D models with the goalof assessing parameters for CO2 injection and migration.Simulation runs using simple models, based on a coarse-scale grid,suggest that either one horizontal or two vertical wells are requiredto inject at the proposed rate. Geological heterogeneity increasesinjection pressure around the wellbore and reduces injection ratescompared to homogeneous models, resulting in the need for moreinjection wells. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,078

OUTCROP ANALOGUES OF THE ALDEBARANSANDST ONE IN THE DENISON TROUGH, QUEENSLAND,FOR IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERISATION

B.Royal and T.Payenberg (CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.667, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Studies are underway in Queensland to identifyenvironmentally sustainable sites for CO2 injection (ESSCI). Thisspecific study focuses on the potential of reservoirs (saline aquifersand/or depleted oil/gas reservoirs) and seals in the Denison Trough,Bowen Basin for CO2 storage. A sedimentological and sequencestratigraphic analysis of the outcropping Aldebaran Sandstone inthe Denison Trough is being undertaken to provide the frameworkfor correlation of reservoirs and seals in the subsurface. TheAldebaran Sandstone is composed of a thick sequence ofsandstones, conglomerates, mudrocks and minor coals thataccumulated in a range of fluvio-deltaic to nearshore marineenvironments in a mixed fluvial-tidal-wave dominated setting. Aspart of this research, investigation of outcrops were undertaken toprovide insights into reservoir quality, geometry and connectivity,and to help ascertain the viability of subsurface CO2 storage in theAldebaran Sandstone. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,079

GALILEE BASIN: A BIG OPPORTUNITY?A.Kalinowski and I.Newlands (CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol).

APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.670, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Covering an area of approximately 247,000 sq km, the GalileeBasin is a significant feature of central Queensland. Three maindepocentres contain several hundred metres of Late Carboniferousto Middle Triassic sediments. Sedimentation in the Galilee Basinwas dominated by fluvial to lacustrine depositional systems. Thisresulted in a sequence of sandstones, mudstones, siltstones, coalsand minor tuff in what was a relatively shallow intracratonic basinwith little topographic relief. Forty years or more of exploration inthe Galilee Basin has failed to discover any economicaccumulations of hydrocarbons, despite the presence of apparentlyfair to very good reservoirs and seals in both the Permian andTriassic sequences. Despite some relatively large distances(upwards of 500 km) between sources and sinks, previous andongoing work on the Galilee Basin suggests that it has potential tosequester a significant amount of Queensland’s carbon dioxideemissions. Potential reservoirs include the Early Permian AramacCoal Measures, the Late Permian Colinlea Sandstone and theMiddle-Triassic Clematis Sandstone. These are sealed by severalintraformational and local seals as well as the regional TriassicMoolayember Formation. With few suitable structural traps andlittle faulting throughout the Galilee sequence, residual trappingwithin the saline reservoir is the most likely mechanism for storing

CO2. The current study is aimed at building a sound geologicalmodel of the basin through activities such as detailed mapping, wellcorrelation, and reservoir and sea analyses leading to reservoirsimulations to gain a better understanding of the basin. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

ROCK MECHANICS 914,080

ROCK STRENGTH DETERMINATION FROM WELL LOGS:A REVIEW

A.Khaksar and C.McPhee (Helix-RDS). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Accurate knowledge of rock strength is essential for in situstress and wellbore stability analysis and prediction of solidproduction. Quantitative data on rock strength can only beobtained from cores. However, in most cases the core strengthdatabase will be limited, discontinuous and often biased towardstronger reservoir intervals and rarely available in non-reservoirsections where most of instability problems occur. Consequently,rock strength evaluation is primarily based on log strengthindicators, calibrated where possible against core measurements.There are many published log-core strength correlations that canbe used to develop a rock strength model. These empiricalrelationships are developed for specific rock types and theirapplication to other rocks needs to be verified before they areutilized. Applicability of about 45 empirical rock strength models issummarized and compared with an extensive rock strength coredatabase from hydrocarbon wells around the world includingseveral wells from Australia and Southeast Asia region. Whilesome equations work reasonably well, rock strength variations withindividual rock property show considerable scatter, indicating thatmost of the empirical models are not sufficiently generic to fit allthe data in the database. Although rock strength estimation can beimproved by multi-variable analysis, this requires additional logsand petrophysical interpretation that may not always be available,particularly during exploration and appraisal stages. Fieldexamples illustrate the application of novel computing techniques,such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms, which optimise andimprove the strength estimation, are compared to commonly usedempirical rock strength models. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

ROCK STRESS 914,081

PRESENT-DAY STRESS IN SEDIMENTARY BASINS:INSIGHTS FROM 20 YEARS OF THE WORLD STRESS MAPPROJECT

M.Tingay, B.Mueller and J.Reinecker (Heidelberg AcademyScience). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The World Stress Map (WSM) Project has, since 1986, compileda free and public global database of over 16,000 quality-rankedpresent-day stress indicators. This global database providesfundamental insights into the state and origin of present-day stressin the crust and, in particular, has revealed that the plate-scalepresent-day stress field is primarily controlled by plate boundaryforces. However, petroleum geomechanics applications, such aswellbore stability and hydraulic fracture stimulation, requireknowledge of the present-day stress at smaller basin- and field-scales. The WSM database contains stress information fromapproximately 70 sedimentary basins worldwide, allowing a uniqueexamination of the controls on stresses in the oil patch. While somesedimentary basins exhibit roughly uniform stress fields (e.g., theWestern Canada Basin, Northern North Sea), many others exhibitnumerous regional and local variations in stress orientation (e.g.,Central North Sea, North German Basin, Baram Delta Province,Permian Basin). Basin- and field-scale stress fields result from thecomplex combination of numerous factors, including far-field forces(e.g. plate boundary forces), basin geometry (e.g., the shape ofdeltaic wedges), geological structures (e.g., diapirs, faults),mechanical contrasts (e.g. evaporites, overpressured shales,detachment zones), topography and deglaciation. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 21

Page 22: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

RUSSIAN REPUBLIC ASIA 914,082

THE FORECAST OF PROPAGATION OF LITHOLOGICALRESERVOIRS IN ACHIMOVSKAYA STRATA OF THESURGUT ARCH

M.V.Salmin (SurgutNIPIneft). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO(OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.13-18, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448;Color; 2 refs; In Russian)

Maps of distribution of the maximal thicknesses area ofachimovskaya sandstones for individual clinoforms are analysed.Zones of the maximal total thicknesses of achimovskayasandstones, being sites of prospective lithological trapsconcentration, are revealed.

................................................................

RUSSIAN REPUBLIC EUROPE 914,083

THE FORECAST OF INTENSITY AND DIRECTIONS OFPRIMARY FRACTURING OF DEVELOPED MEASURES OFROMASHKINSKOYE DEPOSIT

M.N.Mingazov, T.N.Khvoronova, A.A.Strizhenok andM.M.Anoshina (TatNIPIneft) and R.M.Minullin (Almetyevneft).NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.19-21,Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; In Russian)

Opportunities of lineaments analysis of remote shootings atdetermination of a primary direction of tectonic fracturing ofspecific stratigraphic sections measures are considered.Dependence of horizontal wells efficiency on their occasionality tovarious zones of lineaments (predicted tectonic) fracturing is given.The map of predicted fracturing and block structure ofSemilukskoye and Turneyskoye measures is given.

................................................................

SAN JUAN BASIN 914,084

SEQUENCE-STRATIGRAPHIC SUBDIVISION OF THEBURRO CANYON FORMATION, DAKO TA SANDST ONE,AND LOWER MANCOS SHALE (CRETACEOUS) OF THESAN JUAN BASIN, NEW MEXICO AND COLORADO

D.E.Owen (Lamar Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.37, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 1 ref; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

SAUDI ARABIA 914,085

EXPLORING THE "EMPTY QUARTER" IN SAUDI ARABIA -THE APPLICATION OF A PLAY BASED EXPLORATIONSTRATEGY TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES OF A NEWUPSTREAM VENTURE

P.Allman-Ward and W.Voggenreiter (South Rub Al-Khali CoLtd). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The South Rub Al-Khali Company Limited (SRAK) has enteredinto an agreement with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for theexploration, appraisal, development and production of non-associated gas, condensate and natural gas liquids in ContractAreas 1 (Blocks 82-85) and 2 (Blocks 5-9) in the South Rub ’al KhaliBasin of Saudi Arabia. SRAK is an Incorporated Joint Venturebetween Shell (40%), Saudi Aramco (30%) and Total (30%).Exploration activities are governed by a first five year explorationterm. Work commitments for the first exploration term encompassa major seismic acquisition programme of 16,000 km of 2D dataand the drilling of seven exploration wells. The exploration acreagecovers an area of approximately 210,000 sq km, equivalent to 10%of Saudi Arabia’s land area. SRAK’s exploration efforts are focusedon the Palaeozoic reservoirs. The remote South Rub ’al Khali Basinis only lightly explored, and the presence of a working (Palaeozoic)hydrocarbon system has yet to be demonstrated. Two years into thefirst exploration term, this paper focuses on the venture related aswell as technical challenges that have been and are continuing tobe faced and how they are being addressed and overcome throughthe rigorous application of play based exploration methodologies.The South Rub Al-Khali Company Limited will have spudded its

first exploration well in May 2006 and the preliminary results fromthis rank wildcat exploration well and the implications on theprospectivity of the area will be discussed. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

SAUDI ARABIA 914,086

THE WAFRA MAASTRICHTIAN RESERVOIR,PARTITIONED NEUTRAL ZONE (SAUDI ARABIA ANDKUWAIT) - RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION, STOCHASTICMODELING, AND DYNAMIC SIMULATION

W.S.Meddaugh, S.Griest, D.W.Dull, R.A.Garber, R.Sablock andW.W.Todd (Chevron Energy Technol Co) and A.J.Contreras (TexasUniv, Austin). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Maastrichtian reservoir is one of five prolific oil reservoirsin the giant Wafra oil field. Maastrichtian oil production is fromsubtidal dolomites that average 15% porosity and 30 millidarciespermeability though porosity values up to 40% and permeabilityvalues over 1,000 md are common. Discovered in 1959, theMaastrichtian reservoir has produced less than 1% of its 1.5 billionbarrels of low API, high sulfur oil in large part due to reservoirheterogeneity. The carbonates were deposited on a very gentlydipping, shallow, and restricted ramp setting that transitionedbetween normal marine conditions and restricted lagoonalenvironments. The Maastrichtian interval is part of the ArumaGroup (Tayarat Formation) and is divided into an upper and lowerportion by the Second Maastrichtian shale. The lower intervalconsists largely of peloidal mud-lean dolopackstones and minorgrainstones deposited under humid conditions during atransgressive phase that evolved into a high stand. The upperportion consists of dolorudstones and dolofloatstones alternatingwith peloid-rich, fine-grained dolostones that grade upward intoargillaceous dolowackstones and dolopackstones deposited during arelative high-stand under arid conditions. Ten high frequencysequences have been correlated across the field. A detailedgeostatistical model of the reservoir constrained by the sequencestratigraphic interpretation and stochastic seismic inversion showsthe layered and compartmentalized nature of the reservoir anddemonstrates that paleotopography had a critical influence ondepositional facies and subsequent dolomitization. Analysis of FMIdata enabled a fracture characterization to be incorporated in thedynamic model of the reservoir. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 914,087

METHOD FOR MORPHOLOGICAL FILTERING IN SEISMICDATA PROCESSING

Q.Li, R.Wang, W.Huang and G.Zheng (Petroleum Univ, Beijing).PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.20-29, 2005. (ISSN1672-5107; 5 refs)

A new method is introduced to suppress the noise in seismicdata processing. Based on the subtle difference in shape betweenthe noise and the actual signal, we introduce morphologic filteringinto seismic data processing. From the shape and the S/N we cansee that the effect of morphologic filtering is superior to othermethods like id-value filtering, neighbor average filtering, etc. TheSNR of the signal after morphological filtering is comparativelygreat. In addition, the precision of the seismic data aftermorphological filtering is high. The characteristics of the actualsignal, such as frequency and amplitude, are preserved. We give anexample of the real seismic data processing using morphologicalfiltering, in which the actual signal is retained, while the randomhigh intensity noise was removed.

................................................................

SOURCE ROCK 914,088

DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM SOURCE ROCKS INTIME AND SPACE

J.M.Armentrout (Cascade Stratigraphics Inc). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

22 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 23: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

Kinetic modeling suggests that for a potential petroleum sourcerock to be an effective oil source it must have an original minimum2.4 wt% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) with a hydrogen index of 400mg HC/g TOC. This capacity to generate hydrocarbon is necessaryto saturate the rock matrix and migrate significant volumes of oil.Source rocks with this generative capacity occur most often withintransgressive mudstone. The concentration of oil-prone source rocksin the transgressive facies results from two factors. Relative rise ofsea level impounds gas-prone terrigenous organic matter in fluvialvalleys and coastal plains rather than offshore where it dilutes theoil-prone kerogens. Additionally, the relative rise of sea levelassociated with transgression brings oceanic upwelling systemsonto the outer shelf where the nutrient rich waters support highorganic productivity. When this productivity impinges on the outershelf and over shelf basins, the relatively shallower water columnenhances the potential for undegraded oil-prone marine algalmatter to be buried in anoxic bottom water and sediment. If therate of burial is sufficiently fast to bury the organic matter but notto significantly dilute the concentration, a potentially effectivesource rock is deposited. Understanding the geologicalrelationships behind these processes provides a model forpredicting the location of probable petroleum system kitchens. If wehave confidence of where the kitchen is located and we know wherecurrent production has found economic products, we can use thestratigraphic analysis of seismic record sections to predict where oiland gas may occur along the more probable migration avenues.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

SOUTH AFRICA 914,089

DISTRIBUTION OF TURBIDITES AND DELTAIC FACIES INTHE UNDERFILLED KAROO BASIN: A MODEL FORFORELAND SEDIMENTATION

O.Catuneanu (Alberta Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.19, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

SOUTH CHINA SEA 914,090

NEOGENE CARBONATE PLATFORMS IN THE SOUTHCHINA SEA AND INDONESIAN BACKARC REGION ASRECORDERS OF THE EVOLVING EAST ASIAN MONSOON

S.L.Dorobek (Texas A&M Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Miocene to Recent carbonate platforms from southern parts ofthe South China Sea and Indonesian backarc region have variableinternal growth patterns that likely reflect the gradualstrengthening of the East Asian Monsoon, an annual seasonal cyclewhere precipitation and wind directions change dramatically acrossSoutheast Asia. Extensive high-quality seismic-reflection data andpublished data were examined across the study area and showedthat Neogene isolated carbonate platforms commonly haveasymmetrical facies distributions and internal stratal patterns thatreflect prevailing paleowind directions during growth. Early tomiddle Miocene platforms throughout the study area showconsistent windward-leeward asymmetry, which suggests thatprevailing winds were fairly constant over long time scales.Starting at about 11 Ma, however, growth patterns became muchmore variable in many platforms, especially those from the EastNatuna Basin and offshore Vietnam. These complex growthpatterns continue until the present day. In the Indonesian backarcregion, middle to late Miocene isolated platforms show stronglyasymmetrical but consistent growth patterns that also reflectstrengthening of the East Asian Monsoon at this time becauseprevailing winds during the winter monsoon are out of the west andstronger than the weaker, easterly winds of the summer monsoon.The gradual change to modern monsoonal wind patterns across theSouth China Sea and Indonesian backarc region began at about 11Ma, which is consistent with other proxy records for the timing ofmajor uplift in the Tibetan Plateau and associated strengthening ofthe East Asian Monsoon. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

SOUTH CHINA SEA 914,091

ARCHITECTURE OF RECENT REEFS IN THE SOUTHCHINA AND CELEBES SEAS - THE PERFECT ANALOGUE

S.Coca and N.Hadfield (Sarawak Shell Berhad). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Submarine mapping of reefal architecture and carbonate faciescarried out on several recent reefs in the South China and CelebesSeas, offshore Borneo has revealed new data that can be used toimprove understanding of Miocene gas-bearing carbonate build-upsin the Central Luconia basin. In this respect, a wide range of recentcoral reefs, ranging from proximal low relief mounds to distalisolated atolls and incipiently drowned reef complexes in waterdepths of up to 60 meters, were investigated. The results areparticularly interesting with regard to flank geometries andpreferential progradational directions influenced by submarinecurrents. Mapping of flanks revealed the rate of reefal accretionsince the last sea level lowstand. Furthermore, it was shown thatthe depth of submerged open caves in the flanks of recent reefs canbe correlated with an uncertainty of ±2 meters from one side ofBorneo to the other, over a distance of 650 km. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

SOUTHEAST ASIA 914,092

RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT OF CENOZOICCARBONATES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

M.Wilson (Durham Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Almost half of SE. Asia’s considerable hydrocarbon reserves arecontained in carbonates. Although the majority of economicdiscoveries are in Miocene buildups, Paleogene reservoir intervalsalso occur. However, there is little data on how the spatial andtemporal variability in depositional and diagenetic conditionsinfluence the considerable heterogeneities in reservoir quality oftenencountered. Paleogene carbonates in SE. Asia are commonlydominated by larger foraminifera. These carbonates developed onor around the margins of highs within subsiding basins, andtypically form large-scale platforms or isolated shoals. Goodporoperms can be preserved in shoal or redeposited carbonateslacking micrite. Secondary porosities develop due to fracturing,chemical dissolution during burial, or as karstic cavities. However,the lack of aragonite, paucity of eustatic fluctuations and depositionin generally subsiding environments reduces the potential forvadose or meteoric leaching. In comparison, Neogene carbonatesoften contain abundant aragonitic bioclasts, such as corals.Neogene carbonates typically develop as reefal buildups, shelfaldeposits or as isolated platforms. Active Neogene compression inSE. Asia resulted in increasing subaerial emergence, and many ofthe platforms were affected by tectonics or eustacy. Compared withPaleogene limestones, poroperms are generally higher in Neogenecarbonates and interparticle, biomouldic, vuggy, cavernous andfracture porosities all occur. This evaluation of variability in SE.Asian carbonate reservoirs provides much needed data as thehydrocarbon industry focuses on improving recovery from existingfields and exploring for new reserves. (Original not available fromT.U.)

................................................................

SOUTHEASTERN AUSTRALIA 914,093

APPRAISING THE YOLLA FIELD IN THE BASS BASIN -HOW EFFECTIVE DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS ANDINTEGRATION INCREASED ESTIMATED HYDROCARBONVOLUMES IN PLACE

D.M.Brooks, B.A.Pidgeon, A.D.Hall, R.J.Taylor and J.L.Parvar(Origin Energy Rsces Ltd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.15-34, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

Between June and October 2004, two development wells(Yolla-3 and -4) were drilled on the Yolla field in Bass Strait by theT/L1 joint venture. The top and intra-Eastern View Coal Measures

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 23

Page 24: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

(EVCM) hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs in the field wereintersected close to prognosis. A previously undiscovered oil-bearing intra-EVCM sand was encountered in Yolla-4 and theupper EVCM gas and oil bearing reservoir section was completed inYolla-3 and its productivity confirmed. A key objective of thedevelopment drilling campaign was to collect detailed geologicaland engineering data to assist in field development andquantification of the resource. Subsequent interpretation of thesedata led to a revision of the depositional facies and reservoirparameters and provided new inputs into a complex 3D reservoirmodel. The new reservoir model resulted in an upward revision incalculated gas in-place volumes for the intra-EVCM gas reservoirsof about 100 bcf (2,832 cu m x 10 E+06) or 20% of the pre-drill fieldsize to 600 bcf (16,991 cu m x 10 E+06) and a correspondingincrease in recoverable reserves estimates. The upper EVCM is nowinterpreted to hold 16.5 MMstb (2,623,005 kL) of oil-in-place andtotal gas-in-place including the gas cap and the solution gas in theoil leg of 33 bcf (934.5 cu m x 10 E+06). These volumes add to thegas reserves for the field, and it is expected that the volatile oil legwill contribute to a richer liquids yield when the zone is produced.

................................................................

SOUTHEASTERN US 914,094

UPPER CRETACEOUS SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY, U.S.EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

T.M.Puckett and E.A.Mancini (Alabama Univ). AAPGHEDBERG RES. CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR.pp.42-44, 2001. (Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com asof 9/20/2006; 8 refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

STRATIGRAPHIC BOUNDARY 914,095

DIFFICULTY OF DEFINING SEQUENCE BOUNDARIES INDEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS WITH SUBSTANTIALAUTOCYCLIC EROSION

B.J.Willis (BP Canada Energy Co). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.60, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

STRATIGRAPHIC CORRELATION 914,096

IN SEARCH OF A PRACTICAL CORRELATIVECONFORMITY

A.Embry (Canada Geological Survey). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.24, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

STRATIGRAPHIC TERM 914,097

PRESERVING AND IMPROVING GLOBALSTRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

G.B.Vai (Bologna Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.56, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

STURGEON LAKE (ONT) AREA 914,098

SEDIMENTARY AND STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR 2.7 GACONTINENTAL ARC - OCEANIC-ARC COLLISION IN THESAVANT-STURGEON GREENSTONE BELT, WESTERNSUPERIOR PROVINCE, CANADA

M.Sanborn-Barrie and T.Skulski (Canada Geological Survey).CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7,pp.995-1030, July 2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Color; Over 10 refs)

The western Superior Province sustained rapid crustal growthin the interval 2.72-2.68 Ga through amalgamation ofmicrocontinental crustal blocks and juvenile oceanic terranes.

Recent field, isotopic, and geophysical surveys provide insight onthe nature, timing, and scale of this accretionary growth. However,few places offer the rich tectono-stratigraphic and structural detailwith which to establish accretion of oceanic and continental blocksas does the Savant-Sturgeon area. Here, 3.4-2.8 Ga continentalcrust of the Winnipeg River terrane is juxtaposed with 2.775-2.718Ga juvenile oceanic rocks of the western Wabigoon terrane across a2.85-2.75 Ga, southwest-facing, continental margin sequence. Thecontinental margin was reactivated at ca 2.715 Ga with theestablishment of an arc, recorded by 2.715-2.70 Ga tonalite andassociated intermediate volcanic rocks. This magmatic activity isinterpreted to reflect north- and east-dipping subduction that led toconsumption of a small tract of oceanic crust between the WinnipegRiver and western Wabigoon terranes, ultimately leading to theiramalgamation after 2.703 Ga. The telescoped fore arc also includescontinental-derived turbiditic wacke, siltstone, and iron formation(Warclub assemblage) that are in tectonic contact with diverseoceanic rocks of the western Wabigoon terrane. Collision isbracketed between 2.703 Ga (the maximum age of marine fore arcdeposits) and ca 2.696 Ga (the minimum age of a late-tectonicpluton). Effects include thrust stacking and the development ofshallow-plunging folds and bedding-parallel fabrics (D1),overprinted by steeply plunging inclined folds, steep foliations, andshear zones (D2). Collectively, these structures have penetrativelyreworked the suture between the ancient fore-arc and oceanic rocksin the Savant-Sturgeon area.

................................................................

SWEDEN 914,099

ASSESSING MECHANISMS OF ENVIRONMENTALCHANGE: PALYNOLOGICAL SIGNALS ACROSS THE LATELUDLOW (SILURIAN) POSITIVE ISOTOPE EXCURSION((DELTA)13C, (DELTA)18O) ON GOTLAND, SWEDEN

L.Stricanne (Lille Univ Sci Technol), A.Munnecke (ErlangenNuremberg Univ) and J.Pross (Goethe Univ).PALAEOGEOGRAPHY, PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY,PALAEOECOLOGY v.230, nos.1-2, pp.1-31, 1/17/2006. (ISSN0031-0182; Over 10 refs)

The Silurian is characterised by strong environmental changes,as indicated by several pronounced positive δ13C and δ18Oexcursions. The mechanisms responsible for these isotopic shiftsare a matter of much debate. The purpose of the present study is aquantitative high-resolution evaluation of the palynomorphdistribution across the Late Ludlow (Ludfordian) isotope excursionon Gotland. Marine and terrestrial palynomorphs have been chosenas palaeoenvironmental indicators because they are widelydistributed and exceptionally well preserved. Moreover, thecombined analysis of marine and terrestrial palynomorphs allowsthe reconstruction of contemporaneous palaeoenvironmentalchange in the marine and terrestrial realms. To correlate ourresults with the carbon isotope stratigraphy, we have sampled onlylocalities with published isotope data from diagenetically unalteredbrachiopod shells. Our results show that fluctuations in thecomposition of the acritarch assemblages are closely correlated withthe stable isotope development. Low abundances of acritarchs occurin times of high stable isotope values and vice versa, indicating thatan increase in marine productivity cannot have been the reason forthe positive δ13C excursion. ... (c2005 Elsevier B.V.) (Longerabstract available)

................................................................

SWEDEN 914,100

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS AT APALAEOPRO TEROZOIC CONTINENTAL MARGIN,VASTERVIK BASIN, SE SWEDEN

L.Sultan and P.Plink-Bjorklund (Goteborg Univ).PRECAMBRIAN RESEARCH v.145, nos.3-4, pp.243-271, 3/30/2006.(ISSN 0301-9268; Over 10 refs)

This study documents: (1) the sedimentary environments anddepositional processes and (2) the temporal and spatialrelationships of sedimentary environments within well-preservedareas in the Palaeoproterozoic Vastervik metamorphic siliciclasticsin southeastern Sweden. Based on lateral and vertical faciestransitions, seven facies associations were documented: fluvialdeposits (Facies Association 1), tidal flat deposits (FA 2), tidal

24 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 25: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

channel deposits (FA 3), upper-flow-regime tidal flat deposits (FA4), tidal bar deposits (FA 5), shoreface deposits (FA 6) and turbiditedeposits (FA 7). The documented facies associations reflectdeposition on a Palaeoproterozoic continental margin, where riversdrained the continent to the present north/northwest and carriedsediment southeastwards. The rivers became tidally influencedfurther seawards. Sediments accumulated in tide-dominatedestuaries, river-dominated deltas and in wave-dominated shallow-water environments. The documented tide-dominated estuarysuggests that the coastline at least during some periods wasmacrotidal (> 4 m). The metasediments of the Vastervik successionare locally strongly altered by tectonic deformation andmetamorphism, and detailed vertical and lateral correlation waspossible only in restricted separate areas. Vertical facies transitionsshow transgressive to regressive deposition in two of the in detailstudied areas as indicated by the vertical change from riverine to ashallow marine and back to river deposition in Area 1. In Area 3the transition occurs from river-dominated deltas into tide-dominated estuaries, succeeded above by river deposition. In thetwo remaining areas the deposition was overall transgressive asriver deposits are succeeded above by deltaic turbidites. Despite thesomewhat "fragmentized" character of the Vastervik succession thiswork enabled to recognize general character of the VastervikPalaeoproterozoic continental margin. (c2006 Elsevier B.V.)

................................................................

SYRIA 914,101

THE TRIASSIC IN SYRIA: AN OVERVIEW -LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHICCORRELATIONS WITH ADJACENT AREAS

M.Mouty (Damascus Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The new biostratigraphic data gave evidence of the presence ofTriassic in the main mountain chains in Syria. The study of theTriassic sedimentary series in these chains and in the principalboreholes leading to a new subdivision of the Syrian Triassic intofour lithological units: (1) lower unit (Habari Formation), detritic;(2) a lower carbonaceous unit (Abu Fayad Formation), with threemembers: two members without evaporite, and upper member withsome time evaporite ; (3) an evaporitic unit (Hayan GypsumFormation); and (4) an upper carbonaceous unit (Safa Formation).The boundary between Lower and Middle Triassic occurs in theupper part of Habari Formation. The boundary between Middle andUpper Triassic occurs in the upper part of Abu Fayad Formation.The boundary between Triassic and Jurassic occurs on top of SafaFormation. This subdivision extends with its characteristic facieson the entire Syrian platform. It allowed to correlate easily theformations and the lithological units inside Syria and with theadjacent areas. The lateral changes in facies of these units allowedto establish the geological and paleogeographical evolution of Syriaduring Triassic time. The correlation with the different areas inSyria and in neighboring areas, revealed two paleostructures, SW-NE in direction: Hamad Uplift in the south and Aleppo-MardinUplift in the north, which separated the Palmyrian basin from theRutba Basin in the south and the Afrine Basin in the north.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

TASMAN SEA 914,102

INITIAL REVIEW OF THE BIOSTRATIGRAPHY ANDPETROLEUM SYSTEMS AROUND THE TASMAN SEAHYDROCARBON-PRODUCING BASINS

R.A.Cook, E.M.Crouch, J.I.Raine, C.P.Strong, C.I.Uruski andG.J.Wilson (GNS Science). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.201-213, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

Understanding the genesis and habitat of hydrocarbons in asedimentary basin takes knowledge of that basin at many levels,from basic infill geology to petroleum systems, plays, prospects anddetailed sequence stratigraphy. While geophysics can define thebasins and their internal structures, biostratigraphy andpaleogeography provide greater understanding of basin geology.Micropaleontology and palynology are the chief tools that we need

to define both the environment and dimension of time. As anexample, the reconstruction of the Tasman Sea region to the mid-Cretaceous (ca 120 Ma) shows that the hydrocarbon-producingGippsland and Taranaki petroleum basins developed at similarlatitudes and in similar geological contexts. Other basins within theregion have been lightly explored and need evaluation as to thevalue of further exploration. As paleontology has developedseparately in Australia and New Zealand, comparison ofbiostratigraphic zones and their chronostratigraphy is critical tounderstand the similarity or otherwise of the sedimentary record ofthe two regions. Recent refinement of the NZ timescale andcomparative studies on Gippsland Basin wells by NZpaleontologists have provided some key insights that enable us tocompare the geological history of both regions more closely, and torecognise similarities in petroleum systems that may enhancepetroleum prospects on both sides of the Tasman Sea.

................................................................

TIME STRATIGRAPHIC UNIT 914,103

INTEGRATED CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY OF CRETACEOUSAND PALEOGENE SEQUENCES: EVIDENCE OF GLOBALEVENTS?

R.W.Scott (Precision Stratigr Assocs). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.50-54, 2001.(Available at http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 6refs; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

UNCONFORMITY 914,104

TWO CATEGORIES OF UNCONFORMITY-BOUNDEDSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS REQUIRE NOMENCLATURALCLARITY

M.P.Aubry (Rutgers Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF.(Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. pp.14-15, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; 6 refs;Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

UNITED STATES 914,105

STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE MAPPING TOOL AIDSSMALL RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT

A.J.Pyron. AAPG HEDBERG RES. CONF. (Dallas, TX,8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.45, 2001. (Available athttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstract only)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,106

IMPROVING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF GIPPSLANDBASIN GAS RESOURCES - AN INTEGRATED GEOSCIENCEAND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING APPROACH

T.Hart, B.Mamuko, K.Mueller, C.Noll, T.Snow and A.Zannetos(Esso Australia Pty Ltd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.47-65, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 6 refs)

The Barracouta and Marlin gas fields are located within theGippsland Basin, offshore Australia, and have been on productionfor more than 36 years. Combined, these fields represent over 6.5TCF of recoverable gas. Structurally the fields are relatively simple,but they are significantly warped in seismic two-way time by highvelocity channels above the reservoir that make time to depthconversion and volumetric assessment difficult. Fundamental tomanagement of these fields has been surveillance data and historymatching based on simulation of detailed geologic models. In thelate 1990s, the observation was made that actual contact movementwithin the fields was lagging behind model predictions, suggestingthat the fields were potentially larger than previously assessed.Results from the 3D seismic surveys acquired in Barracouta in1999 and both fields in 2001 were used to help answer questionsrelated to contact movement, resource size and remainingrecoverable gas. Two significant outcomes from these surveys werethe observation of double Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHIs)

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 25

Page 26: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

across both fields, representing both the original and current gas-water contacts (OGWC and CGWC respectively), and mappableamplitude features related to depositional trends. The double DHIswere used to calculate movement and sweep uniformity. Theoriginal contact DHI was also used to assist in depth conversion.

................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,107

PRESENT-DAY STATE-OF-STRESS OF SOUTHEASTAUSTRALIA

E.Nelson, R.Hillis and S.Reynolds (Adelaide Univ), M.Sandiford(Melbourne Univ) and S.Mildren (JRS Petroleum Research).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.283-305,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

There have been several studies, both published andunpublished, of the present-day state-of-stress of southeastAustralia that address a variety of geomechanical issues related tothe petroleum industry. This paper combines present-day stressdata from those studies with new data to provide an overview of thepresent-day state-of-stress from the Otway Basin to the GippslandBasin. This overview provides valuable baseline data for furthergeomechanical studies in southeast Australia and helps explain theregional controls on the state-of-stress in the area. Analysis ofexisting and new data from petroleum wells reveals broadlynorthwest-southeast oriented, maximum horizontal stress with ananticlockwise rotation of about 15° from the Otway Basin to theGippsland Basin. A general increase in minimum horizontal stressmagnitude from the Otway Basin towards the Gippsland Basin isalso observed. The present-day state-of-stress has been interpretedas strike-slip in the South Australian (SA) Otway Basin, strike-sliptrending towards reverse in the Victorian Otway Basin andborderline strike-slip/reverse in the Gippsland Basin. The present-day stress states and the orientation of the maximum horizontalstress are consistent with previously published earthquake focalmechanism solutions and the neotectonic record for the region. Theconsistency between measured present-day stress in the basement(from focal mechanism solutions) and the sedimentary basin cover(from petroleum well data) suggests a dominantly tectonic far-fieldcontrol on the present-day stress distribution of southeastAustralia. The rotation of the maximum horizontal stress and theincrease in magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress from westto east across southeast Australia may be due to the relativeproximity of the New Zealand segment of the plate boundary.

................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,108

GIPPSLAND BASIN GEOSEQUESTRATION: A POTENTIALSOLUTION FOR THE LATROBE VALLEY BROWN COALCO

2EMISSIONS

C.M.Gibson-Poole, L.Svendsen, J.Underschultz, M.N.Watson,J.Ennis-King, P.J.van Ruth, R.F.Daniel and Y.Cinar (CRCGreenhouse Gas Technol) and E.J.Nelson. APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.413-433, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

Geosequestration of CO2 in the offshore Gippsland Basin isbeing investigated by the CO2CRC as a possible method for storingthe very large volumes of CO2 emissions from the Latrobe Valleyarea. A storage capacity of about 50 million tonnes of CO2 per yearfor a 40-year injection period is required, which will necessitateseveral individual storage sites to be used both sequentially andsimultaneously, but timed such that existing hydrocarbon assetsare not compromised. Detailed characterisation focused on theKingfish Field area as the first site to be potentially used, in theanticipation that this oil field will be depleted within the period2015-2025. The potential injection targets are the interbeddedsandstones, shales and coals of the Paleocene-Eocene upper LatrobeGroup, regionally sealed by the Lakes Entrance Formation. Theresearch identified several features of the offshore Gippsland Basinthat make it particularly favourable for CO2 storage. These include:a complex stratigraphic architecture that provides baffles whichslow vertical migration and increase residual gas trapping, non-reactive reservoir units that have high injectivity; a thin, suitablyreactive, low permeability marginal reservoir just below the

regional seal providing additional mineral trapping; severaldepleted oil fields that provide storage capacity coupled with atransient flow regime arising from production that enhancescontainment; and, long migration pathways beneath a competentregional seal. This study has shown that the Gippsland Basin hassufficient capacity to store very large volumes of CO2. It mayprovide a solution to the problem of substantially reducinggreenhouse gas emissions from the use of new coal developments inthe Latrobe Valley.

................................................................

WEST AFRICA 914,109

PROBABILISTIC OOIP ASSESSMENT AND RESERVOIRCHARACTERIZATION WORKFLOW USED FOR LIANZIDEVELOPMENT, ANGOLA/CONGO 14K/A-IMI UNIT

K.E.Mabe (Chevron) and L.Fernandes (Cabinda Gulf Oil CoLtd). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Lianzi development lies on the border of Angola Block 14and Republic of Congo within the 14K/A-IMI Unit. Chevron as Unitoperator along with participants; Total, ENI, SNL P&P, SNPC, andGalp have been exploring and appraising the region since the unitagreement was signed in 2002. Lianzi field was discovered in 2004by drilling the Lianzi-1 discovery well followed by successfuldelineation in 2005 with the Lianzi-2 appraisal well. The Lianzibase case development comprises a Miocene CN3 F1B channel-levee system with two separate oil pools. Lianzi Central and WestF1B are combination structural and stratigraphic traps. Lianzi F1Breservoirs are 6,000-7,000 feet below mud line in 2,000 feet of waterand contain 37° API oil. The reservoir has been evaluated usingboth 2D map-based and 3D model-based probabilistic OOIPassessments to finalize the Reservoir Basis of Design. Subsurfaceuncertainties are prioritized using design of experiments andmitigation plans are developed to reduce associated risks withdeepwater development. Advanced modeling techniques are used tocapture the range of subsurface uncertainties and understanding ofdevelopment risks associated with fluid contacts, channeldeposition, velocity, net to gross, reservoir fluids, rock properties,etc. Multiple models are built using reservoir properties from 3Dseismic to represent subsurface uncertainties and defineprobabilistic ranges of hydrocarbon volumes, recoveries, andforecasts. Improved reservoir characterization workflows arestreamlined to quickly update models with new data. Thisimproved workflow builds upon ten years of work efforts byChevron and Unit Participants in the Lower Congo Basin. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,110

FORMATION EVALUATION AND STATIC MODELLING INTHE WHEATST ONE GAS FIELD

P.Theologou (Saros Group Pty Ltd) and M.Whelan (ChevronAustralia Pty Ltd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,pp.161-177, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The Wheatstone gas discovery is located about 110 km north-northwest of Barrow Island in the Dampier Sub-basin, northwestAustralia. Gas was intersected within the AA sands of theMungaroo Formation and within a thin overlying Tithonian sand.Core was acquired through the base of the Tithonian sand and theupper section of the Mungaroo Formation. A combination of loggingwhile drilling, wireline logging, core acquisition and special coreanalysis has formed the basis of an extensive formation evaluationprogram for Wheatstone-1. The acquisition of this dataset, andassociated interpretation, has allowed Chevron to maximise itsability to characterise the reservoir early in the field’s history, andthereby has helped our understanding of the uncertaintiesassociated with the formation evaluation and geological modeling ofthis fluvial system. Petrological studies indicate that reservoirproperties and mineralogy are strongly correlated with the meangrain size of the formation. The mineralogy of the sands isrelatively simple with minor quartz overgrowth, K-feldspardissolution and kaolinite precipitation being the dominantdiagenetic events. The better quality sands are generally devoid of

26 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 27: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

significant amounts of clays such as illite-smectite. Within theTithonian sand, more exotic mineral suites are present includingglauconitic and phosphatic minerals. A comparison of resistivitydata from wireline and logging while drilling (LWD) across andnon-cored intervals through the Mungaroo Formation has revealedthe impact that slow coring has had on formation filtrate invasion.It has been interpreted that the combination of slow rate ofpenetration, non-optimised mud properties, and coring assemblydesign resulted in deep invasion through cored intervals. Deepresistivity response through the invaded formation was subdued,and initially resulted in an underestimation of reserves. Theincorporation of saturation information from capillary pressuredata has provided for a more realistic view of gas-in-place.

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,111

CORAL REEF MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH HISTORY,NORTHWEST SHELF, AUSTRALIA

L.Collins (Curtin Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The North West Shelf is a tropical ramp with Cretaceous-Tertiary carbonates and clastic reservoirs at depth. Coral reefsystems, discontinuously developed during the Late Tertiary-Quaternary, vary from fringing reefs to isolated reefs rising fromdeep-ramp settings. Quaternary evolution was documented withseismic imaging, coring and U-series dating, and sea level datafrom the Houtman Abrolhos carbonate platforms (at 28-29 deg S).The Ningaloo fringing reef at 20-22 deg S records Holocene andLast Interglacial phases of reef growth overlying Tertiarycarbonates of the Cape Range, which is flanked by uplifted Plio-Pleistocene terraces and reefs. Scott Reef (at 14 deg S) is anisolated reef which overlies a carbonate platform and a major gasdiscovery. Seismic profiles reveal a Last Interglacial (ca. 125,000year) reef system, but reefs which apparently grew to sea level are30 m below present sea level, indicating significant subsidence inthe Late Quaternary. Holocene reefs grew in the accommodationspace provided by subsidence. The Rowley Shoals (15-17 deg S)comprise a morphological series of emergent, annular reefs risingfrom depths of 200-400 m. Seismic profiles suggest LateQuaternary differential subsidence has influenced reef morphology.As the spatial association between reef systems and hydrocarbonseeps and the reservoir potential of the Tertiary section receiveattention, further exploration and development in and around coralreefs will require better understanding of human and naturalimpacts, and bio-geological controls on reef growth anddevelopment. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,112

THE ORIGIN OF OVERPRESSURE IN THE CARNARVONBASIN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA FROM POROSITY-EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS

P.J.Van Ruth, R.Hillis and P.Tingate (Adelaide Univ). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Porosity-effective stress analysis of 37 normally andoverpressured wells in the Carnarvon Basin, Australia, identified12 wells with overpressure generated by disequilibriumcompaction, and four wells with overpressure generated by fluidexpansion. Disequilibrium compaction is the dominantoverpressure-generating mechanism in wells along the RankinTrend as far South as Gorgon 1 and Spar 1. Fluid expansion is thedominant mechanism of overpressure generation in wells along theBarrow Trend and around the Alpha Arch. Disequilibriumcompaction-generated overpressures occur, as would be expected,where the Tertiary sediment thickness is greatest and fluidexpansion overpressures where the Tertiary is thinnest. Indeedwhere the N-1 (35 Ma) reflector is greater than ca 1,500 m belowseabed disequilibrium compaction overpressure is observed andwhere it is shallower than ca 1,500 m, fluid expansionoverpressures are observed. Log-based pore pressure detectionusing Eaton’s (1972) method on p-wave acoustic data yielded the

most accurate estimates with an exponent of three where theoverpressure was generated by disequilibrium compaction, and anexponent of six where the overpressure was generated by fluidexpansion. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,113

STRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK OF THE CENOZOICCARBONATES OF THE NORTHERN CARNARVON BASIN,NORTHWEST SHELF, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

B.M.Kinna, M.W.Wallace and S.J.Gallagher (Melbourne Univ).AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The North West Shelf extends 2,400 kms along the WesternAustralian margin and is divided into the Carnarvon, Canning,Browse, and Bonaparte sedimentary basins. Significant quantitiesof carbonate were deposited on this shelf during the Cenozoic.These carbonates are the dominant cover sequence to thehydrocarbon-producing Mesozoic successions and causeconsiderable problems in the seismic interpretation of structuraltraps due to strong lateral variations in sonic velocity. Despite theirlarge distribution, stratigraphic thickness and interference withseismic interpretation, these carbonates have remained poorlydocumented. Using seismic properties, geochemical analyses(carbonate and elemental), well log data, petrological data andforaminiferal analyses, this study establishes the stratigraphicframework of Cenozoic carbonates in the Exmouth-Barrow sub-basins, Northern Carnarvon Basin. These carbonates were dividedinto six lithological facies, from oldest to youngest; basinal facies,slope facies, shelf facies, planktonic ooze/canyon fill facies, sandbarrier facies, and ramp facies. The sequence represents ashallowing upwards sequence from Eocene to Early Pliocene age.The base of the sequence is dominated by deep basinal facies,overlain by prograding Oligocene-Miocene shelf and slopesediments. These are, in turn, overlain by quartz-rich sedimentsinterpreted to represent a sand barrier. A transgression during thePliocene altered the depositional environment and formed aprograding ramp. This study is one of the first to concentrate onboth the stratigraphy and the geological controls on sonic velocityin Cenozoic carbonates of the North West Shelf. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,114

NEW BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC AND SEISMIC CORRELATIONSFOR THE VLAMING SUB-BASIN, OFFSHORE PERTHBASIN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

E.D.F.A.Monteil, A.A.Krassay, I.Borissova, C.Nicholson andC.J.Boreham (Geoscience Australia) and M.MacPhail. AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Vlaming Sub-basin, which forms part of the Perth Basin onthe southwestern margin of Australia, is under-explored. However,with a petroleum system demonstrated by oil recovered at GageRoads 1 and gas at Marri 1 and oil shows at Araucaria 1 and GageRoads 2, the Vlaming Sub-basin may have significant petroleumpotential. Key exploration risks in the Vlaming Sub-basin resultfrom poor seismic data quality and the vintage and inconsistency ofbiostratigraphy and hampers well correlations and prediction andmapping of seals and reservoirs. To address these issues,Geoscience Australia has acquired, re-processed, and analysed2,300 line kilometres of 2D seismic data and reviewedcomprehensively existing biostratigraphic data. In addition, over200 samples from cores and cuttings from 11 wells have beenanalysed for palynology and organic geochemistry. Results ofsampling addressed potential source rocks of the Middle to LateJurassic Yarragadee Formation, and biostratigraphy of reservoirand seal intervals of the Late Jurassic to Early CretaceousParmelia and Warnbro Groups. The new study also considered theyounger Cretaceous post break-up section that includes asignificant unconformity, encompassing five dinoflagellate cystzones and spans the earliest Cenomanian and Early Campanian.New key markers and bioevent identification have resulted in more

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 27

Page 28: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOLOGY

detailed and confident biostratigraphic correlations, and improvedwell-seismic ties through the sub-basin and across the Perth Basin.This work allows correlation with the well-established local NorthWest Shelf biozonation and provides supplementarybiostratigraphic tie points with the international Standard Stages.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,115

GEOSTATISTICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTRICALDOUBLE-LAYER PROPERTIES OF CLAY MINERALS INSHALY SAND RESERVOIRS (CLIFF HEADS OIL FIELD,PERTH BASIN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA)

J.O.Ugbo (New South Wales Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Characterizing the conductivity of shaly sands below criticalformation water salinity can be a challenge in well log evaluationparticularly when clays with large surface areas demonstratesignificant volume of clay bound water compared to the total porevolume of the reservoir rock. Via computations of the electricaldouble layer properties of clay minerals that relates to theirexpansion and parallel conductance with pore fluids, an improvedunderstanding of their behaviour can be obtained. This paperintroduces geo-statistical methods of simulating values for doublelayer conduction and diffusion layer expansion, based on knowledgeof formation water salinity as well as the minimum & maximumrange between clay particle surface and the outer Helmholtz plane.It is an integration of (1) Rietveld based Siroquant assay forquantitative X-ray diffraction used in determining mineralpercentages and clay lattice expansion; (2) Cation ExchangeCapacity used to determine the quantity of exchangeable cations atthe shale-water interface; and (3) Normal and Uniform-ContinuousRandom number generation techniques. Measured laboratory datainclude CEC, XRD and formation water salinity on 63 core plugsfrom the Cliff Heads 3, 4 and 6. Overall, the approach is useful andtime saving in assessing the effect of the double layer properties ofclay minerals on conductivity measurements of well logs and plotsobtained depict patterns from which excess or double layerconductance of clay minerals can be distinguished from the trueconductivity of pore fluids. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,116

CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE LATE PERMIANDONGARA SANDSTONE, NORTHERN PERTH BASIN

H.Young (Hardman Resources). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Recent oil and gas discoveries in Late Permian reservoirs of theNorthern Perth Basin (Cliff Head, Jingemia, Hovea, Eremia,Tarantula, Evandra and Centella fields) have highlighted the needfor improved understanding of its depositional history. Existingpublished geological interpretations are lithostratigraphic-dominated and do not adequately address the spatial and temporalfacies complexity of the onshore Late Permian. A new high-resolution chronostratigraphic study has subdivided the LatePermian units into four retrogradational parasequences(Palynological Zones: D. ericanus - D. parvithola) with coevalfluvial, deltaic, upper shoreface, lower shoreface, and carbonatefacies. Sediments were deposited during a relative marinetransgression and represent a conformable transition from a LateCarboniferous glacial lacustrine setting (Carynginian Formation) toa Late Permian marine setting (Kockatea Shale). Siliciclasticsediment provenance is interpreted to be predominantly from thenorth. Best quality reservoirs are associated with the uppershoreface sands (Dongara Sandstone). This prospectivehydrocarbon-prone facies is mapped as a series of discretebackstepping packages and not, as previously thought, a singleregional coastal marine deposit. Reservoir quality reducesdramatically in the adjacent lower shoreface facies (WaginaSandstone), as evident from recent appraisal drilling in theJingemia oil field. The sequence stratigraphic interpretation used

biostratigraphic, wireline and core data from forty-two onshore andoffshore wells. Handheld spectral gamma was recorded over thecore to assist with facies recognition and correlation. Anomalouslyhigh thorium readings in association with a ratty gamma log motifwere interpreted as a beach or ravinement surface. Poor seismicresolution prevented a detailed seismic stratigraphicinterpretation, but isopach maps were used to define the regionalpalaeogeographical setting. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN CANADA BASIN 914,117

DIVERGENT FLUID REGIMES AND THE FORMATION OFHYDRO THERMAL DOLOMITE: EXAMPLES FROMDEVONIAN RESERVOIRS IN THE WESTERN CANADASEDIMENTARY BASIN

I.Al-Aasm (Windsor Univ) and J.Packard (BurlingtonResources). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Hydrothermal dolomites and apparently allied processes, suchas effluent leaching and hot silicification have been described fromnumerous Devonian carbonate reservoirs in Alberta and BritishColumbia. Its presence has been used as an indicator of theinteraction of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids with hostcarbonates due to tectonic influences in the Western CanadaSedimentary Basin (WCSB). The timing of the fluid flow eventsthat precipitated these dolomites and the chemistry of these fluidshave been the basis of many arguments. The Wabamun Group ofWCSB is no stranger to dolomitization. In southern andsoutheastern Alberta, the Wabamun carbonates are almostexclusively dolostone. To the north and west in Alberta and intoBritish Columbia, quite the opposite is true, with less than anestimated 0.5% of the total Wabamun Group represented bydolostone. One would suspect that the agents and fluid-flowregimes responsible for these different occurrences would besubstantively different. Basin-wide, ongoing Wabamun studysuggest that this discrimination may be possible but is commonlyobscured by significant recrystallization. Dolomitization by verysaline brines occurred under a broad continuum of temperatureregimes that were prevalent during shallow to intermediate burial.Superhot (165°C or greater) conditions apparently prevailed in thenorthwest, indications of scalding temperatures (85-125°C) arecommon over much of the Peace River Arch area, whereas hottemperatures (60-90°C) predominate in pools surrounding the WildRiver Basin. Lukewarm temperatures (30-50°C) are observed forthe Crossfield trend. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN EUROPE 914,118

TECT ONIC VERSUS EUSTATIC CONTROL IN TWOCENOZOIC FORELAND BASINS - SOUTHERN PYRENEES(SPAIN) AND MOLASSE BASIN (GERMANY)

H.Luterbacher (Tuebingen Univ). AAPG HEDBERG RES.CONF. (Dallas, TX, 8/26-29/2001) ABSTR. p.34, 2001. (Availableat http://www.searchanddiscovery.com as of 9/20/2006; Abstractonly)

[For information only - meeting paper abstract]................................................................

GEOCHEMISTRY

ALABAMA 914,119

CARBON ISOTOPE PROXY FOR THE DISCRIMINATIONOF EUSTATIC FROM TRANSGRESSIVE-REGRESSIVECHANGES IN ACCOMMODATION SPACE FORCARBONATE RAMPS: OXFORDIAN SMACKOVER OFALABAMA, U.S.A. EXAMPLE

K.Pigott, M.Engel, R.P.Philp and J.D.Pigott (Oklahoma Univ).AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Separation of vertical (eustatic) from horizontal (transgression-

28 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 29: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

regression) changes in accommodation space is commonlyconducted through the interpretation of stacking patterns ofWalter’s Law lithofacies. However, distinguishing such changes isproblematic when lithofacies changes are gradational as cancommonly occur in carbonate ramp environments. The sequencestratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover marinecarbonate sequence was investigated from a chemostratigraphicanalysis of core sequences of the Conecuh Embayment and theManila Embayment of southwest Alabama, Gulf Coast of UnitedStates. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using stablecarbon isotope chemostratigraphy as a proxy for differentiation ofvertical from horizontal forcing functions upon sedimentaryresponses. During sea level lowstands, combination of both localand global effects caused negative δ13Ccarb excursions. In theensuing transgression and relative sea level highstands, low toabsent siliciclastic contamination increased carbonatesedimentation and resulted in heavier δ13Ccarb values. In contrast,these Jurassic changes in δ13Corg appear to reflect the interplaybetween terrestrial nearshore biochemistry (heavy) with open shelfbiochemistry (light) carbon excursions, opposite to the Holocene.Chemostratigraphy can be a powerful tool for differentiating globaleffects from local effects in carbonate sequence analysis. Carbonateramp platforms such as the Smackover, owing to rapid changeswhich can occur laterally owing to small changes in vertical sealevel, make ideal proxies for testing hypotheses of global versuslocal effects of sea level upon carbonate sequence development.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

ALASKA 914,120

SECONDARY GAS EMISSIONS DURING COALDESORPTION, MARATHON GRASSIM OSKOLKOFF-1WELL, COOK INLET BASIN, ALASKA: IMPLICATIONS FORRESOURCE ASSESSMENT

C.E.Barker (US Geological Survey) and T.Dallegge (PinnacleGas Resources). BULLETIN OF CANADIAN PETROLEUMGEOLOGY v.54, no.3, pp.273-291, Sept. 2006. (ISSN 0007-4802;Over 10 refs)

Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from theOligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaskashow secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistentwith renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption.The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorptionmeasurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbedgas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement.About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas beganand continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volumereached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres,some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gasesreleased during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signatureover time of methane from δ13CCH4 of -53.60 per mill and δDCH4 of-312.60 per mill at the first day to δ13CCH4 of -57.06 per mill andδDCH4 of -375.80 per mill after 809 days, when the experiment wasarbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. Theseisotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shiftfrom a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of naturalgases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook InletBasin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source.However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissionswith a δ13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 per mill, interpreted using thecarbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986),indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operativeduring renewed gas emission. The introduction of 48% moremethane from secondary sources has a major impact on coal-bedmethane resource assessments and also in determining the true, in-situ degree of methane saturation in coal-beds using isotherms.Canister and isotherm measurements that show supersaturation ofmethane may actually be the result of additional gases generatedduring secondary methanogenesis.

................................................................

ALBERTA 914,121

HYDRAULIC, WATER QUALITY, AND ISOTOPICCHARACTERIZATION OF LATE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARYARDLEY COAL WATERS IN A KEY TEST-WELL, PEMBINA-WARBURG EXPLORATION AREA, ALBERTA, CANADA

S.M.Harrison and T.Gentzis and M.Payne (CDX Canada Co).BULLETIN OF CANADIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGY v.54, no.3,pp.238-260, Sept. 2006. (ISSN 0007-4802; Color; Over 10 refs)

A detailed evaluation of the hydraulic parameters andformation fluids of a key test-well completed in the uppermostArdley coal was undertaken in the Pembina-Warburg explorationarea, Alberta Basin, Alberta, Canada. The testing method isolatedthe target coal zone from the overlying Paskapoo Formation withan intermediate casing set in the coal. Measurements showed abuild-up of fluid (water) pressure within the coal to approximately1,470 kPa. Detailed hydrogeological testing showed that thepermeability of the coal is clearly less than 5 mD and likely on theorder of 1 mD. Formation waters sampled during the drawdownand build-up phases were Na-HCO3 type with salinities ofapproximately 1,920 mg/L TDS (calculated). Sodium and chlorideconcentrations were approximately 835 and 250 mg/L, respectively.Detailed analyses of the formation waters showed that dissolvedand total trace metal concentrations fall within Canadian drinkingwater quality standards with the exception of iron and manganese.Organic compounds including monocyclic aromatics (Benzene,Toluene, Ethyl-benzene, Xylene, BTEX) were not detected, with theexception of trace toluene concentrations. Anomalously highbicarbonate concentrations of up to 1650 mg/L (δ13CDIC +22.50 permill) and dissolved methane concentrations of up to 36 mg/L(δ13CCH4 -48.32 per mill) point to the presence of secondary biogenicgas. Formation waters are non-tritiated; δ18O and δ2H values plotalong the local groundwater line for Edmonton, Alberta indicating ameteoric origin. Data from the test-well suggest thatdepressurization (i.e., diversion of fluids) of the coal zone isnecessary for gas production.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,122

SIGNIFICANCE OF MICROBIAL ACTIVITY INAUSTRALIAN COAL BED METHANE RESERVOIRS - AREVIEW

M.Faiz (CSIRO Petroleum) and P.Hendry (CSIRO Molecular &Health). BULLETIN OF CANADIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGYv.54, no.3, pp.261-272, Sept. 2006. (ISSN 0007-4802; Color; Over 10refs)

Coal bed methane (CBM) is rapidly becoming a significantcontributor to energy needs along the eastern seaboard ofAustralia. The prospective coal seams for methane production inAustralia range from Jurassic to Permian in age with ranksvarying from sub-bituminous to low volatile bituminous coal. Thesecoals contain mixed gas compositions comprising mainly methaneand carbon dioxide with subsidiary amounts of ethane and higherhydrocarbons. Geochemical data for gases and coal indicateextensive microbial activity, especially in coal seams shallower thanabout 600 m. Microbial activity possibly occurred subsequent touplift of the eastern Australian basins during the Late Cretaceousand Tertiary. Such microbial activity has contributed toconsiderable volumes of methane presently stored in the shallowcoals of these basins. The two main pathways of biogenic methanegeneration in coal are the carbon dioxide (CO2-reduction) andacetate dependent (aceticlastic-reaction) methanogenesis byarchaea. Carbon and deuterium isotope data indicate that CO2reduction is the main pathway of secondary biogenic methanegeneration in the eastern Australian coal seams. Sweet spots forCBM production are likely to be mainly confined to permeable coalseams where microbial activity has enhanced the methanesaturation levels of the coals. In the Sydney Basin, for example, theCBM production rates are up to an order of magnitude higher inareas where coal contains considerable volumes of secondarybiogenic gas compared to areas containing only thermogenic gas. Inthe high producing wells of the Sydney Basin, the isotopefractionation factor for CO2 and CH4 is > 1.06 which indicatesextensive methane generation from CO2 dependentmethanogenesis.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 29

Page 30: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

BRAZIL 914,123

ELEMENTAL FINGERPRINTING OF BRAZILIANPETROLEUM: A LINKAGE TO GONDWANA?

T.C.O.Fonseca and P.Szatmari (Petroleo Brasileiro SA) andC.Duyck, N.Miekeley, H.Fontenelle and C.L.Porto da Silveira(Pontificia Univ Catolica). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Trace elements, such as V and Ni, are commonly used inreservoir geochemistry for source identification. The availability ofnew and powerful analytical techniques, like ICPMS with itsdifferent instrumentation (quadrupole, high resolution, time-of-flight) and hyphenated techniques (GC, HPLC) opened a newperspective for elemental characterization of crude oils, allowingtheir direct analysis at the ultra trace level. In parallel, systematicstudies on elemental distributions in crude oil fractions showedthat most elements concentrate up to ten times in the heaviestones, asphaltenes and resins, without altering the elementalcompositions when compared to the corresponding crude oil. Theinorganic petroleum geochemistry of Brazilian basins wasinvestigated based on these results. Up to 50 petroleum samplesfrom sedimentary basins of the Brazilian Atlantic passive marginsand of Venezuela, Peru, Equador, Mexico, Iran, Yemen, Niger andAngola were analyzed by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. In order to haveelemental distributions representative of the oil phase, theemulsified water was separated before fractionation of the sample;asphaltenes were separated by precipitation in heptane. Alkaline,alkaline earth and Fe-Sr-Ba were mostly concentrated in emulsifiedwater. Trace and ultra-trace elements of the transition series weredetermined in the oil and its heavy fractions. In general trends, Vwas related to biodegradation, Ni, Co, Mo and Ga were associatedto maturation processes and Zn-Cu-Pb-U-Th, to hydrothermalactivity. Similar chondrite normalized elemental patterns wereobserved in crude oil and asphaltenes of samples from Rio Grandedo Norte/Ceara and Niger, and from Rio de Janeiro (Campos) andAngola, respectively, suggesting a common origin of these oils fromGondwana basins. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

CARBONATE MINERAL 914,124

STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES IN CARBONATES AS ATOOL FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION

A.Mueller (Queensland Univ), H.McGregor (Bremen Univ),M.K.Gagan (Australian National Univ) and J.M.Lough (AustralianInst Marine Sci). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE(Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006.(Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p;Abstract only)

Early marine aragonite cements are commonly precipitatedfrom pore waters at the basal portions of coral skeletons. InorganicMg-calcite may also be added to the coral skeleton during earlydiagenesis in the marine environment. The progressive addition ofearly diagenetic inorganic aragonite and calcite toward the base ofmassive corals in Western Australia and Papua New Guineaproduces an apparent increase in density and an increase in δ13C.Both diagenetic aragonite and Mg-calcite precipitated in themarine environment are enriched in δ13C relative to coralaragonite. A comparison of the change in density and change inδ13C values in our corals leads to sound interpretations of therelation between the nature and degree of diagenesis and theireffect on the δ13C values. Additional consideration of therelationship between δ13C and δ18O signatures confirmed the aboveinterpretations. Calcite has almost the same density as aragonite(2.71 cf 2.93 g/cu cm), and, thus, the addition of similar amounts ofsecondary calcite in the Papua New Guinea coral and secondaryaragonite in the Ningaloo Reef coral would produce the samedensity increase. An apparent increase in density of about 25% dueto infilling of pores in the coral skeleton would be accompanied by aca 1.6 per mill decrease in δ13C in the coral affected by theprecipitation of secondary inorganic aragonite as the latter isenriched in δ13C, relative to coral aragonite. Inorganic Mg-calciteprecipitated in equilibrium with seawater is also enriched in δ13Crelative to pristine coral aragonite (O’Neil et al. 1969), though not

to the same extent as inorganic aragonite. Despite this, δ13C wouldstill show a decrease of ca 0.7 per mill towards the present.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

CHINA 914,125

GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES RESPONSIBLE FOR THESOUR GAS ACCUMULATION IN THE BOHAI BAY BASIN: ACASE STUDY FROM THE NORTHERN JINXIAN SAG

S.Zhang, G.Zhu, J.Dai, Y.Liang and H.Liang (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev) and M.Li (Canada Geological Survey). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Sour gases from the northern Jinxian Sag of Bohai Bay Basin(China) are highly unusual as they contain up to 92% hydrogensulfide and are associated with extremely sulfur rich oil. Becausethe current temperatures of most sour gas reservoirs in this areaare below 100°C, many researchers believe that these gases wereoriginated from bacterial sulfate reduction of mildly biodegraded S-rich oil at a location outside the current reservoirs. However, it isuncertain how the transport of hydrogen sulfide from the reactionsite to the current reservoir could change the hydrogen sulfideconcentration of a gas from < 3% to 92%, whether thiscompositional fractionation has had any impact on their sulfurisotope values, and where the unaccountable methane could havegone. An alternative source could be the thermochemical sulfatereduction occurring in deeper parts of the Eocene reservoirs. Thismanuscript contributes to this fascinating debate on the prevailinggeochemical processes by reviewing on the reservoir temperaturedistribution, regional geothermal history, and available molecularand isotopic data of various reservoir fluids and sulfur species.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

CHINA 914,126

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF THE GIANT GASACCUMULATIONS WITH OVER ONE HUNDRED BILLIONCUBIC METERS RESERVES IN CHINA

J.X.Dai, J.Li, G.Y.Hu, X.Luo, S.Z.Tao, G.Y.Zhu and J.K.Mi (ResInst Petrol Explor Dev), W.W.Ding and W.Z.Zhang. PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.16-23, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color;Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,127

ORIGIN, MIGRATION AND ACCUMULATION OF CO2

INEAST CHINA AND OFFSHORE SHELF BASINS

J.X.He, B.Xia, B.M.Liu and S.L.Zhang (Chinese AcademySciences). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT(SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.42-49, Aug. 2005.(ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,128

GEOCHEMISTRY, ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OFNATURAL GASES IN TARIM BASIN, NW. CHINA

S.F.Qin (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) and X.Q.Li, Z.Y.Xiao, M.Liand Q.C.Zhang (PetroChina). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.70-78, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,129

ADVANCES IN BIOGENIC GAS STUDIES AND PLAYSTRATEGIES

S.C.Zhang, W.Z.Zhao, A.G.Su and Y.H.Shuai (Res Inst PetrolExplor Dev), X.Q.Li (PetroChina) and H.P.Huang (China Univ

30 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 31: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

Geosci, Beijing). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.90-96, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,130

NATURAL GAS ACCUMULATION AND GEOCHEMICALCHARACTERISTICS IN YINGGEHAI-QIONGDONGNANBASIN, SOUTH CHINA SEA

W.W.Ding (Petroleum Univ, Beijing) and Y.M.Pang and A.P.Hu(Zhejiang Univ). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.97-102, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,131

COMPOSITION AND ORIGIN OF NATURAL GASES INCENTRAL BOHAI SEA AREA, CHINA

Z.G.Wen, Y.J.Tang, H.X.Song, Y.H.Xu and F.P.Li (Yangtze Univ).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.111-113, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; 9 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,132

GENESIS AND ACCUMULATION OF NON-OIL-TYPENATURAL GASES IN HUANGHUA DEPRESSION, DAGANGOILFIELD

C.Y.Yang (Yangtze Univ). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.114-117, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,133

CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS COAL MEASURES SOURCEROCKS TO OIL AND GAS RESERVOIR FORMATION

J.Z.Qin, Z.M.Li and Z.R.Zhang (Wuxi Research Inst).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.131-136,141, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,134

KINETIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAIN GAS-GENERATION PERIOD OF MARINE ORGANIC MATTERSAND ITS APPLICATION

Y.P.Wang, Y.R.Zou, J.Z.Liu, A.S.Geng, D.H.Liu and J.L.Lu(Guangzhou Inst Geochem), C.Y.Zhao, Z.Y.Wang, H.J.Wang et al.PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.153-158, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,135

ORIGIN AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF NATURAL GAS INKUQA DEPRESSION, TARIM BASIN

X.Q.Li and Q.Zhou (China Univ Mining Technol), Z.Y.Xiao(Tarim Oilfield Co), G.Y.Hu (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) andH.Tian (Guangzhou Inst Geochem). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.489-492,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CHINA 914,136

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUDE OIL INSANTAI AREA, JUNGGAR BASIN

B.Yang (Hangzhou Inst Petrol Geol), J.D.Liao, J.L.Ren, S.F.Kangand J.Han (Xinjiang Oilfield Co) and J.Qin (Zhejiang ExplorationCo). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.493-498, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 6refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

COAL BED 914,137

ORIGIN AND APPRAISAL OF COAL DERIVED GAS ANDOIL

D.H.Liu, J.M.Fu, X.M.Xiao, D.Y.Chen, A.S.Geng, Y.G.Sun andY.P.Wang (Guangzhou Inst Geochem). PETROLEUMEXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YUKAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.137-141, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Over10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

COOPERS CREEK BASIN 914,138

RESIDUAL OIL ANALYSIS REVEALS COMPLEX FILLINGHIST ORY OF MULTI-RESERVOIR FIELDS IN THESOUTHWESTERN COOPER BASIN, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

D.M.McKirdy (Adelaide Univ), K.R.Arouri (Saudi Aramco),L.Schwark (Cologne Univ), P.J.Boult (Primary Ind Rscs S Austral)and K.Byrne. AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth,Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Availableat http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

We have analysed a suite of produced and residual oils fromstacked Cambrian, Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic reservoirsin eight fields along the southwestern flank of the Cooper Basin.Here, hydrocarbons expelled from Permian coal measures inadjacent troughs can migrate up section past the erosional edge ofthe Triassic seal and into Jurassic and Cretaceous non-marinesandstones of the overlying Eromanga Basin. In addition, severalfields appear to have received charges from marine Cambriansource beds in the underlying Warburton Basin. Residual oils wererecovered sequentially from the intact pore system of sandstonecore plugs by high-pressure solvent flow-through extraction (SFTE).This analytical approach is based on the first in, last out principlewhich assumes that the last oil to enter the reservoir (free oil) isthe first to be extracted, whereas the initial charge (adsorbed oil) isrecovered last. Molecular distributions of saturated and aromatichydrocarbons in the residual oil fractions (n = 2-4) recovered fromeach core plug were compared with those of DST oils from the hostand adjacent reservoirs. Differences in maturity (0.6-1.1%equivalent vitrinite reflectance) and source affinity (30-100%Permian) help constrain the charge histories of the fields inquestion. The same oscillating balance between Jurassic andPermian charge previously reported for Cretaceous reservoirs alongthe Murteree Ridge, 50-75 km to the southeast of the study area, isevident in Jurassic reservoirs of the Muteroo, Spencer and Taloolafields. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

EAST CHINA SEA 914,139

ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATURALGASES IN XIHU SAG, EAST CHINA SEA BASIN

S.Z.Tao and C.N.Zou (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev).PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.103-110, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

EURASIA 914,140

CRUDE OIL OF PRECAMBRIAN IN EURASIAI.D.Timoshina and N.S.Kim (Russian Academy Sciences).

XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.594-604, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color;

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 31

Page 32: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

Over 10 refs; In Chinese)[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]

................................................................

GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION 914,141

MANAGING EXPLORATION RISK: LESSONS LEARNEDFROM SURFACE GEOCHEMICAL SURVEYS AND POST-SURVEY DRILLING RESULTS

D.Schumacher (Geo Microbial Technol Inc). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

It has been long known that most oil and gas accumulationsleak, that this leakage is predominantly vertical, and can bedetected with any of several direct and indirect methods. It has alsobeen documented that the areal extent of the surface geochemicalanomaly can approximate the productive limits of the reservoir(s)at depth. How reliably this can be done depends on the geologicsetting, the choice of method, survey design and sample spacing.Proponents of surface geochemical surveys contend that proper useof surface geochemistry leads to better prospect evaluation and riskassessment. This may be true but the significance of surfacegeochemical anomalies in hydrocarbon exploration is not alwaysreadily apparent. How can one quantify the value added by surfacegeochemical data when it is integrated with conventionalexploration methods? One way to do so is to compare surveyresults with results of subsequent drilling. The results of such acomparison are summarized here for more than 1,000 U.S. andInternational wells, all drilled on conventionally developedprospects after completion of surface geochemical surveys. Theprospects are from both frontier basins and mature basins, onshoreand offshore, and a wide variety of geologic settings. Targets rangedin depth from 300 meters to more than 4,700 meters and coveredthe full spectrum of trap styles. Prospects were surveyed using avariety of geochemical exploration methods, including free soil gas,sorbed soil gas, microbial, radiometrics, micromagnetics, etc. Ofwells drilled on prospects associated with positive geochemicalanomalies 83% were completed as commercial discoveries. Incontrast, only 13% of wells drilled on prospects without anassociated geochemical anomaly resulted in discoveries. Haddrilling decisions included consideration of the geochemical data,exploration success rates would have more than doubled. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

NATURAL GAS 914,142

ORIGIN AND IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL GASESY.Song (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev) and Y.C.Xu (Yangtze Univ).

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT (SHIYOUKANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4, pp.24-29, Aug. 2005. (ISSN1000-0747; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,143

LATE AUTHIGENIC PYRITE AS AN INDICATOR OF OILENTRAPMENT: CASE HISTORIES FROM THENORTHWEST SHELF, AUSTRALIA

G.K.Ellis (Eni Australia Ltd). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Late authigenic pyrite cementation is common withinsandstone reservoirs of the North West Shelf of Australia. It is welldeveloped in the Early Cretaceous to Late Jurassic AngelFormation sandstone and in the Late Triassic Mungaroo Formationin wells in the Dampier Sub-basin of the Carnarvon Basin. It isalso present in the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation sandstone insome wells in the Vulcan Sub-basin, and in the Middle JurassicLaminaria Formation sandstone in wells on the western margin ofthe Flamingo Syncline in the northern Bonaparte Basin. Thepyrite-cemented sandstone in these wells developed by bacterialand/or thermochemical reduction of formation water sulphate andthe resultant production of hydrogen sulphide at palaeo-oil/water

contacts. Development of pyrite cementation in the sandstone isdependent on the presence of sulphate-rich formation water. In theDampier Sub-basin, the present formation water is generallysulphate-rich and the presence of late authigenic pyritecementation indicates sulphate-rich formation water during oilentrapment in the past. However, in the Bonaparte Basin, theformation water sulphate content is quite variable ranging frommoderate to very low. Accordingly, the distribution of pyrite-cemented sandstones is more scattered and in many cases,indicates a change in formation water sulphate chemistrysubsequent to oil entrapment. The occurrence of late authigenicpyrite-cemented sandstone is, therefore, an invaluable indicator ofpalaeo-oil accumulations and of chemical evolution of formationwater through time. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

NORWAY 914,144

ISO T OPICALLY LIGHT METHANE EXPELLED FROMTHERMOGENIC MATURE COAL! WHAT IS GOING ON?

S.E.Ohm (ConocoPhillips Norge) and D.A.Karlsen (Oslo Univ).AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Gas composition and isotope values of gas liberated from coalson the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NOCS) by simple crushinghave been analyzed and compared to those from fluid inclusiongases. The fluid inclusions were extracted from sandstones incontact with the coals. The coal gas was found to be isotopicallysimilar to that liberated from inclusions. The methane is very lightwith δ13C values in the range of -58 to -72 per mill and isotopicallyvery different from most of the gas discovered on the NOCS inwhich methane values generally fall in the range of -42 to -45 permill. Most of the coal samples have a vitrinite reflectivity of 0.8 to1% Ro. The inclusion samples contain dominantly methane (70 to90%) while the coal gas is much wetter. The study shows that theexamined coals have expelled biogenic gas (1) over a temperaturewindow where quartz overgrowth formation takes place(80°-120°C), (2) in sufficient amounts to become trapped ininclusions, and (3) over a sufficient time interval to become trapped.This suggests that volumes of biogenic produced methane havebeen expelled from the investigated coals at a surprisingly hightemperature (depth of burial ca 4,000 m) and that this lightmethane besides being trapped in inclusions also can migratepotentially into commercial traps and mix with thermogenic highmaturity gas which is isotopically heavy and thereby skew theoverall gas isotope values towards lighter values (values in the -45to -55 per mill range). No isotope fractionation during expulsion isobserved. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

OIL AND GAS ORIGIN 914,145

ORGANIC MATTER EVOLUTION AND OIL-GASRESOURCE IN DEEP EARTH

X.B.Wang, J.C.Tuo, S.X.Zhou, Z.X.Li and H.Yan (ChineseAcademy Sciences). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.159-164, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PERMIAN BASIN 914,146

AN INVESTIGATION OF PETROLEUM SYSTEMS OF THEPERMIAN BASIN, U.S.A.

R.Hill (US Geological Survey), J.Zumberge (GeoMark Research),D.Jarvie (Humble Geochemical Svcs) and J.Williams. AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Permian Basin, located in western Texas and southeasternNew Mexico, is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces inNorth America, having produced 35 billion barrels of oil, 91 trillioncubic feet of gas and 5.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquidsthrough 1990. Hydrocarbons are produced from reservoirs ofCambrian through Cretaceous age, although most production is

32 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 33: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

from Paleozoic reservoirs. Potential source rocks for Permian Basinoils include the Ordovician Simpson Group, Silurian FusselmanFormation, Devonian Woodford Shale, Mississippian Barnett Shale,a source of Wolfcampian (Permian) age, two facies of the PermianBone Spring Formation, two facies of Guadalupian (Permian) age,and a Pennsylvanian (?) source. Despite the prolific hydrocarbonproduction, little published information is available regardingpetroleum systems of the Permian Basin. In this study, geochemicaldata from approximately 400 oils, including biomarker parameters,sulfur content, and saturate and aromatic carbon isotope ratios,were used to differentiate oil types as a first step in definingPermian Basin petroleum systems. Hierarchical cluster analysisand principle components analysis were used to differentiate oilfamilies utilizing the detailed geochemical analyses, and revealedthe complexity of Permian Basin petroleum systems. Mixing of oiltypes is widespread and biodegradation has occurred in somereservoirs. The recent exploration focus on unconventional shalegas resources in the Permian Basin highlights the need forunderstanding details of the petroleum systems. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,147

GEOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON EXPLOITABLE COAL SEAMGAS DISTRIBUTION IN QUEENSLAND

J.J.Draper (Queensland Geol Survey) and C.J.Boreham(Geoscience Australia). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.343-366, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

Methane is present in all coals, but a number of geologicalfactors influence the potential economic concentration of gas. Thekey factors are (1) depositional environment, (2) tectonic andstructural setting, (3) rank and gas generation, (4) gas content, (5)permeability, and (6) hydrogeology. Commercial coal seam gasproduction in Queensland has been entirely from the Permian coalsof the Bowen Basin, but the Jurassic coals of the Surat andClarence-Moreton basins are poised to deliver commercial gasvolumes. Depositional environments range from fluvial to deltaplain to paralic and marginal marine--coals in the Bowen Basin arelaterally more continuous than those in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins. The tectonic and structural settings are importantas they control the coal characteristics both in terms of depositionand burial history. The important coal seam gas seams weredeposited in a foreland setting in the Bowen Basin and anintracratonic setting in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basins.Both of these settings resulted in widespread coal deposition. Thecomplex burial history of the Bowen Basin has resulted in a widerange of coal ranks and properties. Rank in the Bowen Basin coalseam gas fields varies from vitrinite reflectance 0.55% to > 1.1% Rvand from Rv 0.35%-0.6% in the Surat and Clarence-Moreton basinsin Queensland. High vitrinite coals provide optimal gas generationand cleat formation. The commercial gas fields and the prospectiveones contain coals with > 60% vitrinite. Gas generation in theQueensland basins is complex with isotopic studies indicating thatbiogenic gas, thermogenic gas and mixed gases are present.

................................................................

SOURCE ROCK 914,148

SOME ISSUES ABOUT EVALUATION ON HIGH-OVERMATURED GAS SOURCE ROCKS

Y.S.Liao (Sinopec). PETROLEUM EXPLORATION ANDDEVELOPMENT (SHIYOU KANTAN YU KAIFA) v.32, no.4,pp.147-152, Aug. 2005. (ISSN 1000-0747; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 914,149

A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON EXPLORING THECOOPER/EROMANGA PETROLEUM PROVINCE -EVIDENCE OF OIL CHARGING FROM THE WARBURT ONBASIN

C.O.E.Hallmann (Curtin Univ Technology), K.R.Arouri (SaudiAramco R&D Centre), D.M.McKirdy (Adelaide Univ) andL.Schwark (Aachen Technical Univ). APPEA CONFERENCE

(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.261-281, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

The history of petroleum exploration in central Australia hasbeen enlivened by vigorous debate about the source(s) of the oil andcondensate found in the Cooper/Eromanga basin couplet. Whileearly workers quickly recognized the source potential of thickPermian coal seams in the Patchawarra and Toolachee Formations,it took some time for the Jurassic Birkhead Formation and theCretaceous Murta Formation to become accepted as effective sourcerocks. Although initially an exploration target, the Cambriansediments of the underlying Warburton Basin subsequently werenever seriously considered to have participated in the oil play,possibly due to a lack of subsurface information as a consequence oflimited penetration by only a few widely spaced wells. Dismissal ofthe Warburton sequence as a source of hydrocarbons was base onits low generative potential as measured by total organic carbon(T OC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses. As most of the coresamples analysed came from the upper part of the basin successionthat has been subjected to severe weathering and oxidation, theseresults might not reflect the true nature of the Warburton Basin’ssource rocks. We analysed a suite of source rock extracts, DST oilsand sequentially extracted reservoir bitumens from the Gidgealpafield for conventional hydrocarbon biomarkers as well as nitrogen-containing carbazoles. The resulting data show that organic faciesis the main control on the distribution of alkylated carbazoles insource rock extracts, oils and sequentially extracted bitumens. Thedistribution patterns of alkylcarbazoles allows to distinguishbetween rocks of Jurassic, Permian and pre-Permian age, therebyexceeding the specificity of hydrocarbon biomarkers. While no pre-Permian signature can be found in the DST oils, it is present insequentially extracted residual oils.

................................................................

TIMOR SEA 914,150

NEW INSIGHTS INTO SOURCE AND MATURITY OFSEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER FROM THE VULCANSUB-BASIN (TIMOR SEA) USING STABLE ISOTOPERATIOS OF INDIVIDUAL HYDROCARBONS

D.Dawson, K.Grice and R.Alexander (Curtin Univ Technology)and D.E.Edwards (Geoscience Australia). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Recent work demonstrates the use of delta values ofsedimentary hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, pristane and phytane) toevaluate the maturity of marine source-rocks from the Perth Basin(Western Australia). Distinct deltaD signatures were observed forimmature source-rocks (%Ro = 0.53), where pristane (Pr) andphytane (Ph) were significantly depleted in deuterium (D) relativeto the n-alkanes. With increasing maturity (up to %Ro = 1.13), thedifference between the deltaD values of n-alkanes and isoprenoidsreduces as Pr and Ph become progressively enriched in D. Theenrichment of D in isoprenoids was attributed to isotopic exchangeassociated with thermal maturation. This work has been extendedfurther to a series of highly-matured sediments (%Ro = 0.6-1.6)from the Vulcan Sub-basin (Timor Sea), where the deltaD values ofn-alkanes and isoprenoids show similar trends to those observed inthe Perth Basin and indicate that D-enrichment in isoprenoidscontinues at much higher maturities. Further work is being carriedout on additional sediment extracts from the Vulcan Sub-basin toenable a detailed comparison of the isotopic profiles. Crude oilsfrom this region have also been studied to evaluate their source andthermal maturity, adding new ideas on exploration plays andenhancing previous studies at this locality based on molecular andcarbon isotopic analysis. In addition, these new isotopic results maybe used in conjunction with molecular parameters to provideinsights into migration pathways. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,151

SOIL GAS SAMPLING TO VERIFY GEOMECHANICALPROBABILITY OF FAULT REACTIVATION

C.Rogers, M.N.Watson and P.J.Van Ruth (CRC Greenhouse GasTechnol) and R.R.Hillis (Adelaide Univ). AAPG INTERNATIONAL

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 33

Page 34: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOCHEMISTRY

CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

There is much evidence to suggest that recently reactivatedfaults act as permeable conduits for fluid flow. Soil gas samplingover faults which propagate to the near surface has been proposedas a method of verifying the migration of fluid along faults. Suchfluid migration can test the geomechanical methodology used todetermine the likelihood of fault reactivation. The likelihood offault reactivation is assessed by determining the present day stressfield from drilling data, constructing a 3D model of the pre-existingfaults and establishing the mechanical properties of the fault rocksin the area. This data is used to determine relative fault stability ofdifferently oriented faults according to the Griffith-Coulomb failurecriteria. Sediments in the Port Campbell Embayment in theeastern Otway Basin are highly faulted and traps in the area hostseveral CO2-rich gas accumulations. The Port CampbellEmbayment thus provides an ideal location to study potential fluid(CO2) migration along faults. Seismic interpretation of the areaindicates that the Boggy-Creek and Buttress CO2-richaccumulations are bound by faults which extend near to thesurface. The relative likelihood of fault reactivation is high forthese faults. Sixty-seven gas samples were collected in the vicinityof the faults bounding the Boggy-Creek and Buttressaccumulations. The background concentration of CO2 wasdetermined to be 300-1,000 ppm, with concentrations above thisregarded as anomalously high. Seventy-five percent of anomalouslyhigh samples were associated with the surface locations of thefaults. This finding suggests that these faults are acting as conduitsfor the flow of fluid (CO2). However, isotopic analysis suggests thatthe CO2 detected at the surface may be from a shallower sourcethan the Buttress and Boggy-Creek CO2 accumulations. (Originalnot available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,152

STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES IN REEFALCARBONATES

A.Muller, H.McGregor, M.K.Gagan and J.M.Lough (QueenslandUniv). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,p.665, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Early marine aragonite cements are commonly precipitatedfrom pore waters at the basal portions of coral skeletons. Inorganiccalcite may also be added to the coral skeleton during earlydiagenesis in the marine environment. The progressive addition ofearly diagenetic inorganic aragonite and calcite toward the base ofmassive corals in Western Australia and Papua New Guineaproduces an apparent increase in density and an increase in 13C.Both diagenetic aragonite and calcite precipitated in the marineenvironment are enriched in 13C relative to coral aragonite. Acomparison of the change in density and change in 13C values inour corals leads to sound interpretations of the relation between thenature and degree of diagenesis and their effect on the 13C values.Additional consideration of the relationship between 13C and 18Osignatures confirmed the above interpretations. Calcite has almostthe same density as aragonite (2.71 cf 2.93 g/cu cm), and thus theaddition of similar amounts of secondary calcite in the Papua NewGuinea coral and secondary aragonite in the Ningaloo Reef coralwould produce the same density increase. An apparent increase indensity of about 25% due to infilling of pores in the coral skeletonwould be accompanied by a ca 1.6 per mill decrease in 13C in thecoral affected by the precipitation of secondary inorganic aragoniteas the latter is enriched in 13C relative to coral aragonite.Inorganic calcite precipitated in equilibrium with seawater is alsoenriched in 13C relative to pristine coral aragonite (O’Neil et al.1969), though not to the same extent as inorganic aragonite.Despite this, 13C would still show a decrease of ca 0.7 per milltowards the present. Based on our results we suggest new means ofidentifying the degree and nature of diagenesis in carbonates andsuggest ways to interpret geochemical indicators of diageneticprocesses in potential reservoir environments. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,153

MOLECULAR AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF GASACCUMULATIONS FROM THE EXMOUTH PLATEAU ANDEXMOUTH SUB-BASIN, CARNARVON BASIN

D.Edwards, C.Boreham, J.Hope, S.LePoidevin, T.Buckler andZ.Hong (Geoscience Australia) and J.Preston (Explor GeochemConsult Pty). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,p.669, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Molecular and stable isotopic (carbon and deuterium) analyseshave been undertaken on fluid samples from Carnarvon Basin gasaccumulations, with emphasis placed upon examining the recentdiscoveries in the Exmouth Plateau and Exmouth Sub-basin. Thisstudy maps regional trends in gas composition to identify areaswith high concentrations of non-combustible gases (viz. nitrogenand carbon dioxide), predicts gas wetness in undrilled prospectsand recognises gas-gas correlations. It also discusses the origin ofthe gases, their relative level of thermal maturity and degree ofalteration. Although these Carnarvon Basin gases are inferred tohave been predominantly sourced from Triassic-Early Jurassicfluvio-deltaic to marginal marine source rocks, their hydrocarboncompositions are varied as a result of differing thermal maturityand secondary alteration effects, including biodegradation andevaporitive fractionation. The bacterial degradation of thermogenicwet gases has resulted in the incorporation of isotopically lightbiogenic methane into the reservoirs at Scarborough on theExmouth Plateau, and in most Exmouth Sub-basin accumulations.In addition, the remaining wet gases (propane in particular) showsignificant enrichment in 13C and 2H. In addition relatively highconcentrations of inorganic-derived carbon dioxide are recorded inthe Greater Gorgon gases, with carbon dioxide concentrationsincreasing with depth. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,154

GEOCHEMISTRY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIAN CRUDEOILS: USE OF CARBON ISOTOPE MODELS TODELINEATE ACTIVE PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

L.Stalker and J.Van Holst (CSIRO Petroleum) and C.Barber andB.Hartung-Kagi (Geotechnical Svcs Pty Ltd). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Bulk carbon isotopic compositions of crude oils and their sub-fractions (saturate, aromatic and polar fractions) have long beenused in conjunction with conventional biomarker data as aninterpretive tool in the oil industry. Many geochemical modelshowever, tend to be developed using data from specific regions suchas the Gulf of Mexico or North Sea. Australian basins, however, canboast a number of unusual factors that are difficult to compare withthe more explored northern hemisphere basins, such as therelatively low TOC contents and high terrigenous affinity of manyknown source rocks. As a consequence, some of the better knowninterpretative tools often cannot be applied effectively to Australianoil accumulations. For example, while Jurassic marine sedimentsremain the most widely attributed source rocks on the North WestShelf, numerous source horizons ranging from Permian toCretaceous age, and containing varying degrees of terrigenousinfluence, are also known to contribute to commercial oilaccumulations. This influence is generally more clearly reflected inthe carbon isotopic compositions of respective sediments and crudeoils. Over the years, a large amount of carbon isotope data has beencollected from most basins within Australia. Here, we present dataand interpretive models for a number of Western Australian basinsto highlight the combined use of biomarker and bulk carbon isotopeanalyses to, for example, delineate marine and terrestrialinfluenced source horizons. Thus models may be successfullyapplied, in a regional context, to distinguish for example, activepetroleum systems in Western Australia. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

34 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 35: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

GEOPHYSICS

ACCELEROMETER 914,155

OPTICAL ACCELEROMETERA.Berg and T.Heglum, asrs. (Optoplan AS). Gr. Brit.

2,422,661A, p. 8/2/2006, f. 12/6/2005, pr. U.S. 12/21/2004 (Appl.18,944) (G01P-0015/093; G01V-0001/18). (41 pp; 24 claims)

An optical accelerometer includes a rigid frame, a massmovably suspended on the frame, a fixed element having a roundedsurface that does not move with respect to the frame, a movableelement having a rounded surface that moves with the mass and asensing coil of optical waveguide (e.g. optical fibre) wrapped aroundthe rounded surfaces to detect movement of the mass in response toacceleration based on interferometric sensing of a change in lengthof the sensing coil. A method of fabricating the accelerometerincludes suspending the mass in the frame and wrapping theoptical waveguide around the rounded surfaces. The accelerometeris suitable for integration within an ocean bottom seismic cable.Embodiments of in-line and cross-line accelerometers are disclosed.

................................................................

ACCRETIONARY WEDGE 914,156

3-D ANALOGUE EXPERIMENT AND ITS SYNTHETICSEISMIC PROFILES OF AN ACCRETIONARY PRISM

Y.Yamada, K.Shiraishi and T.Matsuoka (Kyoto Univ). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

Scaled physical experiments using analogue materials(analogue models) are an excellent technique to model developmentprocesses of geologic structures and examine their complexgeometry, thus they have been widely used as templates tointerpret seismic profiles in petroleum exploration industry. Sincethe structural geometry on a particular profile of such anexperiment is sometimes complex, we have to understand itsseismic expression. This can be achieved with a seismic modelingtechnique. In this study, we combine the analogue and seismicmodeling techniques to acquire the seismic responses of a complexgeological structure at a subduction margin. First of all, a sand-box-type experiment is conducted to produce subsurface deformationgeometry, then the model is sequentially sliced to record thedeformation geometry on each profile. Its 3D geophysical modelincluding reflection boundaries and velocity structure is thenconstructed from the serial model sections. The seismic modelingtechnique is applied to this geophysical model to obtain thepseudo-3D staked data finally. This becomes the key data-set toproduce 2D migration profiles and their depth images. The modelresults show typical structural features of an accretionary prism.These features are of exclusively simplified accretionary prism anddo not include any variety due to heterogeneity of local geology.Thus, their difference from seismic profiles of natural geologicalstructures can be interpreted as the characteristic feature of thereal structure. For instance, the Nankai prism shows that thedecollement horizon has an extraordinary physical property andthe deformation behaviour of the sedimentary sequences is lessbrittle. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

AEROMAGNETIC EXPLORATION 914,157

AIRBORNE VERTICAL MAGNETIC GRADIENT FOR NEAR-SURFACE APPLICATIONS

W.E.Doll, T.J.Gamey, L.P.Beard and D.T.Bell (Battelle). THELEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.50-53, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 1070-485X;Color)

Many specialized applications in near-surface geophysicsrequire greater spatial and amplitude sensitivity than conventionalgeophysical systems can provide. Recently developed boom-mounted airborne magnetometer and electromagnetic systems aredesigned to map unexploded ordnance or other small metallicobjects over large tracts of government land. These systems operateat altitudes of 1.5-2.0 m to detect ferrous objects with a mass assmall as 2 kg. In this low-amplitude environment, factors

controlling the applicability of a vertical gradient configurationmust be reassessed. Our results demonstrate the superiority ofmeasured vertical gradient over calculated gradient (from totalfield configurations) for data acquired at these low altitudes. Webelieve the effectiveness is related to reduction of secondarygridding effects associated with several types of positioning errors,and reduction of correlated rotor and compensation noise.

................................................................

AEROMAGNETIC EXPLORATION 914,158

GRADIENT ENHANCEMENT OF THE TOTAL MAGNETICFIELD

S.Reford (Paterson Grant Watson Ltd). THE LEADING EDGEv.25, no.1, pp.59-62,64,66, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

The collection of magnetic gradiometer data using aconfiguration of two, three, or four magnetometers has becomecommonplace. One use of these data is to improve the accuracy andresolution of the gridded total magnetic field beyond what can beinterpolated from a single magnetometer. This is especiallyimportant for anomalies over small magnetic sources that liebetween survey lines and over linear sources that strike obliquelyto the survey lines. As an alternative to improved accuracy andresolution, one can consider increasing the survey line spacing toobtain the equivalent total magnetic field, thereby reducing thesurvey cost.

................................................................

ALASKA 914,159

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKANPERMAFROST: 3D VERTICAL SEISMIC PROFILE SURVEY:TOPICAL REPORT (10/1/2001-1/31/2005)

D.McGuire (Anadarko Petroleum Corp), T.Williams (MaurerTechnology Inc) and B.Paulsson and A.Goertz (Paulsson GeophysSvcs Inc). U.S. DOE REPORT NO.839334 Feb. 2005. (DE-FC26-01NT41331(2); Color; 148 pp)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath thepermafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gasindustries for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canadaand the U.S. have documented numerous problems, includingdrilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases in arctic regions.Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining tothe extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates.Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agreethat the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaskaalone, it has been estimated at 590 tcf. However, little informationhas been obtained from physical samples taken from actualhydrate-bearing rocks. The purpose of the project is to build onprevious and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydratedeposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential forhydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Results of thisproject suggest that the presence of hydrate-bearing strata may notbe related as simply to HSZ thickness as previously thought.Geological complications of reservoir facies distribution withinfluvial-deltaic environments will require sophisticated detectiontechnologies to assess the locations of recoverable volumes ofmethane contained in hydrates. High-resolution surface seismicdata and more rigorous well log data analysis offer the best near-term potential. The hydrate resource potential is huge, but bettertools are needed to accurately assess their location, distributionand economic recoverability.

................................................................

ALBERTA 914,160

CONTINUOUS HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMICMONIT ORING OF SAGD

E.Forgues, J.Meunier and F.X.Gresillon (Cie GeneraleGeophysique), C.Hubans (Total) and D.Druesne (ConocoPhillipsCanada Ltd). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.TL 2-4, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 2 refs; Extended abstract)

We used a pre-existing buried geophone array located on aheavy oil SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) pilot project in

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 35

Page 36: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

Alberta. This array has been used to evaluate the ability of a newseismic technique based on permanent sources and receivers toprovide a fast indicator of steam motion. The high repeatability ofthis technique enabled observation of the steam’s progression overa period of one month. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

ANGOLA 914,161

ESTIMATION OF POSITIONING REPEATABILITY NOISEIN 4D STREAMER ACQUISITION

J.M.Mougenot, D.Vaxelaire and P.Spindler (Total). 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.TL 2-1, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

During the 4D surveys acquired by Total on the Girassol field,strong and unpredictable currents prevented any attempt to repeatsource and streamer positions. The present study was performed toestimate the 4D noise generated by these non-repeated source andstreamer positions. Two different approaches were used. (1) A 3Dfold decimation test performed on the Girassol first monitor data inan area having strong fold redundancy. (2) Repeatability test linesacquired during the last Girassol monitor survey. Both methodsindicate that a 10% average amplitude variation within thereservoir window can be regarded as an upper limit of the 4D noisegenerated by this nonrepeatability of positioning. This 4D noiselevel is acceptable considering the strong 4D signal measured onGirassol. Repeating source and streamer positions would decreasethis 4D noise level but is not achievable in the local currentconditions. A modeling approach was also performed to see whetherthe impact of this non-repeatability of positions could be predictedfrom navigation data. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

BRAZIL 914,162

A NEW 3D SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHIC METHODOLOGYAPPLIED TO AN OFFSHORE BRAZIL CASE

P.Le Guern, B.Savary, H.G.Borgos, G.V.Dahl and L.Sonneland(Schlumberger Stavanger Res) and A.R.D.Elias and J.F.Rosalba(Petroleo Brasileiro SA). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 4 refs; Extended abstract)

Seismic stratigraphic interpretation is a powerful method foranalyzing the depositional history of the subsurface. However, thelack of support of such interpretation methods in the state-of-the-art tools limits its application. A novel technology allowing a highlyautomated procedure for seismic stratigraphic interpretation ispresented. The technology includes an automated high resolutionextraction step of all the stratigraphic primitives prior to theinteractive session. The technology supports a dual domain conceptthat enables to interpret transparently in the seismic domain andthe chronostratigraphic time domain. The interpreter controls thismapping by selecting the appropriate set of stratigraphic primitivesto define this transformation. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CALIFORNIA 914,163

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS AND GEOBODYVISUALIZATION: DETECTION AND DELINEATION OFHIGH-GAMMA SAND SEQUENCES IN A STEAM-AFFECTEDAND MERGED 3D SEISMIC DATASET OF A HIGHLYHETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIR

S.N.Mahapatra and M.G.Imhof (Va Polytech Inst St Univ).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-3, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 4 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

The paper describes the use of seismic attributes and geobodyvisualization of 3D seismic data for characterizing a clasticreservoir. The attributes are useful to ascertain structure,lithofacies, and reservoir parameters of a field as attributeproperties can vary significantly with variations in lithology,

geometry, and structural patterns of deposition for variouslithofacies in an area. We use various instantaneous attributes(computed from complex trace) and geometrical attributes(comparison between adjacent traces) and geobody visualizationtechniques to image subsurface near-shore parallel high-gammasand bodies of the Temblor heavy oil reservoir of Coalinga,California. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CHINA 914,164

RESULTS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF SECOND-TIME 3DSEISMIC PROSPECTING IN HINTERLAND OF JUNGGARBASIN

D.W.Lei, H.T.Lv and X.H.Yang (Xinjiang Oilfield Co) andY.P.Huang (Xinjiang Geologic Survey). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.510-512,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; 2 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

CISCAUCASIA 914,165

GEOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF RESERVOIRSFORMATION IN TRIASSIC SEDIMENTS OF CISCAUCASIAAND AN OPPORTUNITY OF THEIR FORECAST

S.A.Dudaev (Stavropolneftegeofizika) and S.M.Dudaev(Tatneftegeofizika). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OILINDUSTRY) no.1, pp.22-27, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; InRussian)

Low efficiency of exploration in deep-buried regional oil-and-gasbearing complexes (RNGK) of Ciscaucasia Trias is established. It ismarked that structures revealed by seismic prospecting do notalways contain payable reservoirs. The technique of their forecastaccording to complex geophysical researches is offered.

................................................................

COLOMBIA 914,166

A COMPREHENSIVE VELOCITY MODEL BUILDINGAPPROACH - CUSIANA CUPIAGUA SUR TTI PSDM

U.Egozi, M.Yates, J.Omana and B.Ver West (Veritas DGC),N.Burke, M.Mesa, E.Moreno, J.Checa, M.Martinez et al. 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-4, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 9 refs; Extended abstract)

We propose a new workflow for anisotropic depth imaging. Wedeveloped a new technology, a tilted transverse isotropy (TTI) wellmis-tie (WMT) tomography to determine the anisotropy. It wassuccessfully incorporated into a workflow with multi-azimuthreflection tomography and TTI Kirchhoff prestack depth migration(PSDM) to produce a good velocity model. The image produced withthis velocity model is reducing the risk for future well drillingdecisions and has already made impact on some of those decisions.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CONGO 914,167

ANISO TROPIC VELOCITY MODEL BUILDING ANDDEPTH-IMAGING FOR GEOSTEERING OF EXTENDEDREACH DRILLING WELLS

F.Adler, S.Gancarski, P.Lays, A.Cherrett, H.Bideaud andJ.M.Guemene (Total). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 6 refs; Extended abstract)

Anisotropic velocity model building and depth imaging wereused to reduce structural uncertainties in depth from about ±50 m(isotropic model) to about ±20 m in order to allow successfulgeosteering of extended reach drilling wells into reservoirs offshoreCongo. Structural uncertainties predicted from tomographicinversion were consistent with drilling results. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

36 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 37: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

CROSS CORRELATION 914,168

FAST LOCAL CROSS-CORRELATIONS OF IMAGESD.Hale (Colorado Sch Mines). 76TH ANNUAL SEG

INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.TL 2-3, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

Consider two multi-dimensional digital signals, each with Nssamples. For some number of lags Nl << Ns, the cost of computing asingle cross-correlation function of these two signals is proportionalto Ns x Nl. By exploiting several properties of Gaussian windows,we can compute Ns local cross-correlation functions, again withcomputational cost proportional to Ns x Nl. Here, local means thecross-correlation of signals after applying a Gaussian windowcentered on a single sample. Computational cost is independent ofthe size of the window. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,169

RECONNAISSANCE MARINE CSEM SURVEY DESIGNUSING DETECTION THEORY

D.A.Pavlov and R.T.Houck (ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-1, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 4 refs; Extended abstract)

Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM)reconnaissance survey design is a challenging problem because ofthe lack of specific information about prospective reservoirs and thecost of the acquisition. This paper presents a method for evaluatingcompeting designs for a reconnaissance CSEM survey. (Longerabstract available)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,170

MARINE CSEM DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUESX.Lu, D.Willen and I.Gallegos (ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co)

and J.Zhang (ExxonMobil Exploration Co). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 6 refs; Extended abstract)

Marine CSEM data processing techniques have evolved rapidlyto accommodate the proliferation of marine controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) surveys. Processing methods developedfor marine MT surveys are not directly applicable to marine CSEMdata. Basic marine CSEM data processing eliminates the signatureof the acquisition system and extracts the normalized spectralresponse of the earth from the receiver time series data. Moresophisticated methods have been developed to simplifyinterpretation and to ensure that the highest-quality data areavailable for inversion. These methods include determining the 3Dreceiver orientations by inversion, extending the range of usefuloffsets by noise suppression, and minimizing the effect of air wavesby model-based subtraction. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,171

RAPID INTERPRETATION OF CSEM RECONNAISSANCEDATA

L.A.Wahrmund, K.E.Green and D.Pavlov (ExxonMobilUpstream Res Co) and B.A.Gregory (ExxonMobil Exploration Co).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-3, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 2 refs; Extended abstract)

A new method called Quasi-3D Resistivity Mapping (Q3DRM)has been developed for rapid interpretation of controlled-sourceelectromagnetic (CSEM) reconnaissance data. Q3DRM is based onscaled resistivity profiles generated from single or multi-frequency1D inversion of amplitude and/or phase measurements from online,inline electric fields (Ex). Application of Q3DRM to model andactual grid-style reconnaissance surveys is shown. Results show

that the method recovers the shallowest and largest reservoirs.Reservoir non-detections are due to combinations of reservoir size,depth, resistivity contrast, and survey density. Three-dimensionalmodeling also shows that incorporating phase measurementsincreases reservoir detectability and stability of the results.Although Q3DRM has limited sensitivity and accuracy due toassumptions and data limitations, it can be applied rapidly toCSEM surveys, even when very little is previously known aboutsubsurface resistivities. This technique allows real-time detection ofresistive anomalies during coarse-grid reconnaissance surveys forsubsequent finer-grid surveying during the same vesseldeployment. Q3DRM results also provide useful starting modelsfor more detailed 3D interpretation and for full 3D imaging.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,172

INTEGRATION OF MULTIPLE ELECTROMAGNETICIMAGING AND INVERSION TECHNIQUES FOR PROSPECTEVALUATION

G.M.Hoversten and G.A.Newman (Lawrence Berkeley Lab),T.Rosten and K.Hokstad (Norwegian State Oil Co) andD.Alumbaugh and S.Horne (Schlumberger). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-5, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 6 refs; Extended abstract)

The use of controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) in themarine environment has grown rapidly in the past few years from asimple anomaly fluid-hunting technique used in geologically simpleenvironments to a modeling and inversion based technique appliedin structurally and lithologically complex environments (Carazzoneet al., 2005). The tool set most commonly available to interpretersincludes one-, two- and three-dimensional forward and inversemodeling codes. All previous examples, reported in the literature,of inversion codes applied to marine CSEM data have been cell-based regularized techniques designed to produce the smoothestpossible isotropic conductivity model (in two- or three-dimensions)which fits the observed data. We report on the development of anew technique, anisotropic sharp-boundary inversion in which themodel is parameterized by two-dimensional interfaces. In thisapproach anisotropic conductivity can have sharp contrasts acrossinterfaces. Regularization is applied to the smoothness of theinterface and the lateral variations of conductivity betweeninterfaces. We demonstrate a work flow that progresses fromforward modeling through fast depth migration to smooth cellbased inversion, concluding with sharp boundary inversion for thefinal interpreted conductivity image. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,173

MARINE CSEM IN SHALLOW WATER: ACQUISITION ANDINTERPRETATION STRATEGIES

P.Dell’Aversana (Eni Exploration & Prod). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-6, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 10 refs; Extended abstract)

In the last few years, Eni acquired large data sets in relativelyshallow water environments using the Marine CSEM methodology.Additional efforts have been required for recording meaningful datasets and for a proper interpretation. In fact, it is well known thatshallow water represents a difficult environment for thisgeophysical application. In this paper, we introduce a completework flow aimed at optimizing the MCSEM methodology in thishostile condition. It is addressed to solve the main problems relatedwith the acquisition, processing and interpretation steps. Synthetictests and real applications are discussed. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,174

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROSPECT SCANNING: THE NEXTFRONTIER FOR EXPLORATION USING SEABED LOGGING

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 37

Page 38: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

D.Ridyard, B.P.Lindhom and T.A.Wicklund (EMGS). 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-8, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 4 refs; Extended abstract)

Over the last five years, SeaBed Logging has gained rapidacceptance as a valuable technique to determine the presence orabsence of hydrocarbons in structures defined by traditionalseismic techniques. In this paper, we will use modeling and datadecimation to explore some of the challenges associated withmoving SBL technology into frontier exploration areas, where it canbe used to drive effective licensing strategies, focus seismicprograms in the most prospective areas, and improve the efficiencyof expensive deep water drilling programs. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

CSEM METHOD 914,175

OPTIMISED MULTI-FREQUENCY SIGNAL FOR SEA-BEDLOGGING

T.S.Petterson, asr. (Electromagnetic Geoserv AS). Gr. Brit.2,422,673A, p. 8/2/2006, f. 2/1/2005 (Appl. 0,502,064)(G01V-0003/12; G01S-0013/32). (14 pp; 9 claims)

An optimised electromagnetic signal transmitted by an antennacomprises two or more desired harmonic frequencies of optimisedamplitude ratios such that substantially equal amplitude ratios ofeach frequency are received at a receiver, and when the receiver isat maximum range the total power in the desired harmonicfrequencies is the maximised proportion of the maximised powerdeliverable to the transmitting antenna. The signal is used in thefield of sea-bed logging and is optimised to improve data inversion.A method of producing the optimised signal is included.

................................................................

DATA MINING 914,176

[R] METHOD FOR PACKING AND FILTERINGGEOPHYSICAL EVENTS TO RETRIEVE THEREFROMDATA ON THE TYPE OF SUBSOIL

O.Voutay, F.Fournier and J.J.Royer. U.S. 2006/0,155,470A1, p.7/13/2006, f. 3/25/2004, pr. Fr. 9/10/2002 (Appl. 0,211,200), Fr.2/17/2003 (Appl. 0,301,900) and World 3/25/2004 (Appl. 0,302,543)(G01V-0007/00). (12 pp; 32 claims) SRPA# 837,181

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #837,181]................................................................

DATA PROCESSING 914,177

INNOVATIVE DATA PROCESSING METHODS FORGRADIENT AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL DATA SETS

D.J.FitzGerald (Intrepid Geophysics) and H.Holstein (WalesUniv). THE LEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.87-88,90,92-94, Jan.2006. (ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

Have you ever wondered whether the data you have collected,or have had collected for you, have been distorted or containmisrepresentations due to poor software algorithms? Next-generation potential field data sets are arriving fast, yet fewsoftware providers have redesigned their code to deal properly andformally with the vector and tensor nature of these data. Wepresent several informative examples to demonstrate how and whynoise in the data may not be all due to the hardware and whyradical rethinking of the software can aid in exploration efforts. Wehave adapted existing object-oriented software to include a newseries of classes that can be used when processing gradient datasets. These have the purpose of hiding the details (abstraction) ofexactly what components of a field have been observed in a surveydata set.

................................................................

DIP MOVEOUT 914,178

METHOD OF DMO CALCULATION FOR USE IN SEISMICEXPLORATION

R.L.Abma. U.S. 2006/0,155,476A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 4/18/2005, pr.U.S. 1/13/2005 (Appl. 60/643,671) (G06F-0019/00). (18 pp; 5 claims)

According to a preferred aspect of the instant invention, thereis provided herein a system and method for improving the

computational efficiency of DMO transformation that has manyuses in the seismic processing arts. More particularly, the instantinventor has conceived and invented a faster method of calculatinga log-stretch DMO transformation that utilizes multipleindependent time windows, each with its own starting and endingtime. A particularly preferred usage of the improved DMO methodis as an element of a multiple attenuation program such as SRME.

................................................................

DIP MOVEOUT 914,179

[R] METHOD OF MULTIPLE ATTENUATIONK.H.Matson and R.Abma. U.S. 2006/0,155,477A1, p. 7/13/2006,

f. 4/18/2005, pr. U.S. 1/13/2005 (Appl. 60/643,671) (G06F-0019/00).(18 pp; 9 claims) SRPA# 914,178

[For abstract, see Abstract #914,178]................................................................

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SRCE 914,180

[R] SOURCE FOR SEABED ELECTROMAGNETICLOGGING

T.Schaug-Pettersen, S.Ellingsrud, T.Eidesmo andJ.A.Langeland, asrs. (Electromagnetic Geoserv AS). Gr. Brit.2,420,855A, p. 6/7/2006, f. 12/2/2004 (Appl. 0,426,505)(G01V-0003/165). (25 pp; 29 claims) SRPA# 906,827

[For abstract, see Abstract #906,827]................................................................

FOUR DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC 914,181

A SIMPLE METHODOLOGY FOR 4D NOISE REDUCTIONAND REPEATABILITY IMPROVEMENT

A.Zamorouev, D.Whitcombe, M.Dyce and L.Hodgson (BPExploration). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.TL 2-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

We present a filtering method to significantly reduce 4D noisein repeat seismic surveys. The method is applied post processing,but can also be applied to pre-stack offset planes. The amount offiltering is controlled by the dimensions of a moving data box. It isour experience that these dimensions can be selected to providesignificant noise reduction, while preserving the underlying 4Dsignal. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

FOUR DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC 914,182

SIMULATION AND MONITORING OF GEOMETRICREPEATABILITY FOR 4D STREAMER ACQUISITION

R.T.Houck (ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.TL 2-7, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

The degree of geometry matching between 4D base and monitorsurveys is commonly considered to be a predictor of therepeatability of the processed image. During survey planning, wecan use simulations of monitor source and receiver locations tocompute a quantitative measure of geometric repeatability foralternative acquisition approaches. Based on the simulated valuesof geometric repeatability, empirical predictions of imagerepeatability can aid in deciding which acquisition approach to use.During monitor survey acquisition, we can apply this process to theactual monitor geometry to evaluate infill opportunities. This paperdemonstrates this procedure using a recent deepwater 4D survey.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

FOUR DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC 914,183

ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION INDUCED STRESSCHANGES FROM 4D FINITE OFFSET TIMESHIFTS

K.Hawkins and G.Conroy (Veritas DGC) and P.Harris (RockSolid Images). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL

38 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 39: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

PROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-5, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 8 refs; Extended abstract)

Significant stress changes are generated when producingreservoirs compact due to large reductions in the reservoir pore-pressure. These stress changes are not confined to the reservoir.The stress and strain is redistributed to the surroundingformations, modifying both velocity and thicknesses in theseformations. These changes often manifest themselves as significanttimelapse time differences on migrated 4D images. Various authors(Hatchell et al., 2003 and Barkved et al., 2005) have usedgeomechanical modelling to explain these 4D timeshifts, therebygaining valuable insight into the behaviour of the whole subsurfacearound some compacting reservoirs. This has so far beenaccomplished by assuming a simple relationship between thicknessand velocity changes. The modelling is presumably repeated usingvarious updated relationships until a match is obtained with theobserved 4D timeshifts. We present an approach in which the 4Dtime differences are measured on prestack data. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

FRACTURE MAPPING 914,184

SIMULATION-ENHANCED FRACTURE DETECTION:RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION IN U.S. BASINS:PHASE II FINAL REPORT

P.J.Ortoleva. U.S. DOE REPORT NO.838815 Jan. 2005. (176pp; Over 10 refs)

Remote detection and characterization of fractured reservoirsare facilitated in this project by developing a revolutionary softwaresystem. The Model-Automated Geo-Informatics (MAGI) softwareintegrates basin modeling, seismic data, synthetic seismic wavepropagation and well data via information theory. The result is aseismic inversion cast in terms of fracture and other reservoircharacteristics. The MAGI software was fully tested on syntheticdata to verify program accuracy and robustness to data error. InPhase II, a few of the important tasks completed were as follows:collected geological information (stratigraphic, structural, thermal,geochemical, fracturing and other information across the studyarea); created a GIS database that is compatible with the inputrequirements of MAGI; implemented a web-based interface for userfriendly access; gathered and preprocessed seismic data for inputinto MAGI; developed two- and three-dimensional wavepropagation simulators (in time domain) for fluid saturated porousmedia; and implemented matching layer methodology for absorbingboundary conditions. With these accomplishments, we are preparedto carry out a demonstration in the Illinois Basin. A database of theproposed study area and the web-based system to facilitate geologicand seismic data input are ready for this demonstration, as aremapping tools for comparison and observations.

................................................................

FRACTURE MAPPING 914,185

METHOD FOR DETECTING EARTH FORMATIONFRACTURES BY SEISMIC IMAGING OF DIFFRACTORS

M.T.Taner and E.Landa, asrs. (RDSP I LP). U.S. 7,085,195B2, c.8/1/2006, f. 3/30/2004 (Appl. 813,577) (G01V-0001/28). (13 pp; 6claims)

A method is disclosed for seismic imaging of subsurfacediffractors. The method includes performing migration velocityanalysis on a seismic time record section and depth migrating thetime section for offsets exceeding one-half a distance between aseismic energy source and a seismic receiver most distant from thesource during acquisition of seismic data used to generate the timerecord section.

................................................................

FRANCE 914,186

ONSHORE 4D SEISMIC REPEATABILITY AT THE GASST ORAGE GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY

P.Faure (Total) and S.Spitz (Cie Generale Geophysique). 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.TL 2-6, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of

9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 6 refs; Extended abstract)Seismic measurements have been conducted between 2002 and

2004, among other geophysical experiments, on the domestic gasstorage buffer at Izaute. The seismic measurements have beenfocused on time lapse (surface-to-borehole and on surface-to-surface) imaging and on an attempt to continuously monitor thegas storage facility. From the wealth of data we have chosen toillustrate in this paper the relationship between expected reservoirbehavior, acquisition signal-to-noise and processing. In particular,we analyze the seismic repeatability and show that it is a matter ofconcern where, as at Izaute, the time-lapse signature of thereservoir is expected to be weak. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

FULL TENSOR GRADIENT METHD 914,187

THE MAGNETIC GRADIENT TENSOR: ITS PROPERTIESAND USES IN SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION

P.W.Schmidt and D.A.Clark (CSIRO Industrial Physics). THELEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.75-78, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 1070-485X;Color)

Airborne magnetic surveys have improved dramatically overthe past three decades with advances in both data acquisition andimage processing techniques. Magnetic surveys form an integralpart of exploration programs and are now routinely undertakenbefore geological mapping programs. These advances have beenmade despite treating the magnetic field as a scalar, whereinvarious processing procedures that assume a potential field arecompromised. If the vector information could be retrieved, either bydirect measurement or by mathematical manipulation, magneticsurveys could be improved even further. For instance, the totalmagnetic intensity (TMI) could be corrected so it represents a truepotential field.

................................................................

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION 914,188

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION: PAST AND FUTUREE.A.Robinson. THE LEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.96-99, Jan.

2006. (ISSN 1070-485X)The National Academy of Engineering, under the authority of

the charter granted to it by the U.S. Congress in 1863, has amandate that requires it to advise the federal government onscientific and technical matters. Yet the president of the NationalAcademy says that Wall Street financiers who believe that researchhas no lasting value apparently exert a decided influence, perhapsthe dominating influence, on research. Exploration geophysics iscaught up in this maelstrom. However, the danger is even greater.In exploration research, there was never any self-reinforcingtriangle. The government has never funded exploration researchexcept for the occasional token, and universities except for a fewhave generally been unreceptive to exploration geophysics.Historically, the oil and geophysical industries alone havesupported exploration research.

................................................................

IMAGING 914,189

ACOUSTIC IMAGING THROUGH SEA ICEL.M.Liberty, J.H.Bradford and T.R.Brosten (Boise State Univ)

and D.Dickins (DF Dickins & Associates). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.NSE 1-3, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

We use marine transducers to determine whether acousticmethods are practical to identify the presence of crude oil trappedbeneath sea ice. Here we present the modeled results and comparethe theoretical response to a field test conducted in March 2006.There is a clear contrast in acoustic velocity values between typicalsea ice, average density crude oil, and salt water near freezingtemperatures. Our selected field results match the expectedresponse for amplitude and travel time values, however, to obtain aclear signal from the ice/fluid interface and sea bed, we must alterthe ice surface. In situ sea ice conditions often consist of a layer ofsnow and/or trapped air above the solid ice surface. We removedthis layer and coated the ice surface with a thin layer of sea ice.

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 39

Page 40: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

Once prepared, we obtained consistent reflections from the ice/oil,ice/water, and water/sea bed interfaces. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

KANSAS 914,190

REPEATABILITY OBSERVATIONS FROM A TIME-LAPSESEISMIC SURVEY

S.L.Walters, R.D.Miller and A.E.Raef (Kansas GeologicalSurvey). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.TL 2-8, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

Time-lapse seismic surveys have proven extremely valuable inrecent years, having numerous economical and environmentalapplications. To fully utilize this monitoring technique, problemsassociated with recording repeatability must be minimized. Muchwork has been done to equalize data from one survey to the nextvia processing techniques (Huang et al., 1998). The purpose of thisstudy is to investigate the potential for minimized processing,allowing study of extremely small changes in subsurfacecharacteristics. The goal is to evaluate source and receiver terraincombination to optimize signal repeatability, and to improvedeconvolution with the ground force to suppress different types ofnoise and increase repeatability. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

LATIN AMERICA 914,191

A LATIN AMERICAN CONTRASTH.Shields and E.Poveda (Grant Geophysical). E&P v.79, no.6,

pp.47-48,50, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)Just as the geographical and environmental conditions vary in

land surveys, so the technology and methodology must adapt tomeet the challenges presented by these contrasting regions. LatinAmerica is one of the most beautiful and diverse continentsimaginable. The landscapes range from the world’s mightiest riverto some of the highest mountain ranges and vast areas of swamp orpantanal. This diversity is captured in this insight into three recentseismic surveys conducted by Grant Geophysical in Colombia andBrazil.

................................................................

LOGGING WHILE DRILLING 914,192

SENSITIVITIES OF DIRECTIONAL ELECTROMAGNETICMEASUREMENTS FOR WELL PLACEMENT ANDFORMATION EVALUATION WHILE DRILLING

D.Omeragic, A.Dumont, C.Esmersoy, T.Habashy, Q.Li,G.Minerbo, R.Rosthal, J.Smits and J.Tabanou (SchlumbergerOilfield Serv). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.RC 1-8, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

We present sensitivities of first generation of directionallogging-while-drilling electromagnetic measurements using tiltedand transverse antennae technology. These measurements areprimarily used for pro-active geosteering to determine the wellboreposition with respect to geological boundaries. They can also beused for enhanced formation evaluation. A novel tool layout withsymmetric transmitter-receiver arrangement is implemented. Thisconfiguration enabled removal or amplification of sensitivities todip, anisotropy and nearby boundaries, resulting in simplifiedresponses and interpretation. In addition, we present how thesemeasurements can be used for determination of structural dip,resistivity anisotropy at any angle, as well as detection fracturesand their orientations. Measurement specifics for LWD applicationsand their relationship to conventional 3D induction couplings arediscussed. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MACKENZIE DELTA 914,193

IMAGING TAGLU: ANISOTROPIC PSDM [PRESTACKDEPTH MIGRATION] IN A PERMAFROST ENVIRONMENT

M.Mah (Veritas DGC Asia Pacific), S.Cheadle (Veritas DGC Inc)

and G.Reed and P.Chang (Imperial Oil Resources). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-7, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; Extended abstract)

A case history of anisotropic prestack depth imaging of datarecorded over the Taglu Gas Field in the Mackenzie River Delta ispresented. Seismic data processing in general, and PSDM inparticular, faces a significant challenge in the presence ofpermafrost. Specifically, perennial water bodies act to create meltzones in the otherwise frozen near-surface, resulting in a complexpattern of low velocity anomalies that induce significant travel timedistortions in surface seismic data. First-arrival turning raytomography proved useful during the initial time domainprocessing for deriving statics corrections to minimize thesedistortions. The ultimate processing objective, however, was togenerate an image in depth using prestack migration that takesanisotropy into account. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MALAYSIA 914,194

DETECTING HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR WITH SEABEDLOGGING(TM) IN DEEPWATER SABAH, MALAYSIA

C.K.Choo, E.Rollett and J.Voon (Sarawak Shell Berhad),M.Rosenquist (Shell Int Explor & Prod) and K.A.Abd Ghaffar andH.F.Wong (PETRONAS). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-4, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 2 refs; Extended abstract)

SeaBed Logging(TM) (SBL), a technique that utilises Controlled-Sourced Electromagnetic (CSEM) fields to probe subsurfaceresistivity, has been applied in Malaysia to decrease the critical riskof having blown traps in thrusted anticlines. Integration of thistechnology with pre-drill prospect evaluation techniques hassuccessfully de-risked the recent Alpha* discovery. Besides helpingto add material reserves, this technology continues to de-risknearby prospects and improves Shell’s drilling successes in thebasin. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MARINE EXPLORATION 914,195

MAPPING MARINE FERROUS TARGETS USING REAL-TIME 3D ANALYTIC SIGNAL DATA

D.Hrvoic and M.R.Pozza (Marine Magnetics). THE LEADINGEDGE v.25, no.1, pp.54-56, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

The analytic signal is a well-known magnetic data form thatprovides a high-frequency, symmetric response that is centered oversource bodies regardless of the effects of permanent (remnant)magnetization or the inclination of the ambient field. This, and itsimmunity to the effects of diurnal variation, make it an ideal dataform when searching for ferrous objects such as pipelines,unexploded ordnance (UXO), mines, or archaeological remains. TheU.S. Naval Underwater Warfare Center (NUWC), Keyport divisionrecently conducted a marine magnetic site clearance survey inwhich SeaQuest, a new three-axis marine gradiometer, wasemployed. Using highly accurate total-field Overhauser sensors,this gradiometer system simultaneously measures all threecomponents of the total-field magnetic gradient vector, thusallowing the calculation of the 3D analytic signal in real time. Thepresented results highlight the advantages of interpretingmeasured analytic signal data when attempting to quickly locatethe position and depth of ferro-metallic objects.

................................................................

MARMOUSI MODEL 914,196

3D ACOUSTIC AND ELASTIC MODELING WITHMARMOUSI2

N.P.Symons, D.F.Aldridge and M.M.Haney (Sandia NationalLabs). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (NewOrleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SM1-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

40 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 41: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

Three-dimensional (3D) seismic wave propagation is simulatedin the newly-developed Marmousi2 elastic model, using bothacoustic and elastic finite-difference (FD) algorithms. Althoughacoustic and elastic ocean-bottom particle velocity seismogramsdisplay distinct differences, only subtle variations are discernible inpressure seismograms recorded in the marine water layer. (Longerabstract available)

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,197

IMAGING DIPPING SEDIMENTS AT A SALT DOME -FLANK - VSP SEISMIC INTERFEROMETRY ANDREVERSE-TIME MIGRATION

R.Lu, M.Willis, X.Campman, J.Ajo-Franklin and M.N.Toksoz(Massachusetts Inst Technol). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SM 1-6, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 9 refs; Extended abstract)

We present results of applying seismic interferometry to imagedipping sediments abutting a salt dome. We create a set ofsynthetic traces representing a multi-level, walk awa y VerticalSeismic Profile (VSP) for a model composed of a simplified Gulf ofMexico vertical-velocity gradient and an embedded overhangingsalt dome. The sediment reflectors in the model dip up towards thesalt dome flank. To process these data, we create a set ofredatummed traces using seismic interferometry. This is donewithout having to perform any velocity analysis or moveoutcorrections. Each of these redatummed traces mimics the output ofa downhole source and down-hole receiver pair. The linear v(z)gradient enables the redatummed data set to illuminate andcapture reflections from both the salt-dome flank and the upwardturning sediments. We then apply pre-stack depth migration tothese traces to produce the final image of the beds and the saltdome flank. The final migrated results demonstrate that thereflected turning ray energy from both the salt flank and sedimentsare adequate to create structurally correct images using thecombination of seismic interferometry and prestack depthmigration. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,198

SHORT CABLE 4D INVESTIGATION - CASE HISTORYFROM THE AMBERJACK FIELD IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

W.J.Kaldy, K.Hartman, P.Sen, C.Barousse and D.Stauber (BPAmerica Inc) and E.Xu (BP). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.TL 2-5, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 1 ref; Extended abstract)

This study was performed to determine if a 4D monitor surveycould be acquired using shorter cables than were used for thebaseline survey without significantly degrading the seismicresponse to reservoir changes. If so, this could reduce acquisitionand processing costs, improve acquisition repeatability and reducecycle time. We chose an existing monitor survey possessing highsignal to noise ratio and clear 4D response to test this idea. Studyresults indicate that a 4D response can clearly be seen on the shortcable data; however it is more difficult to interpret because eventsare less continuous, and the long offset amplitude contributionshave been removed. Another consideration is that intercept andgradient volumes will be of poor quality and will not be of use inexamining the seismic response. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,199

SUBSALT WAVEFIELD ILLUMINATION AND AMPLITUDESTUDY ON MARS FIELD IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

N.Kabir, T.Burch and J.Etgen (BP America). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-6, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 4 pp; Extended abstract)

Seismic amplitudes have been successfully used as direct

hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) for the supra-salt and extra-salt sandreservoirs in Mars field. For future production, as the target movesto subsalt plays, questions are asked if we could use the seismicamplitudes as DHIs subsalt. Wavefield illumination providesinteresting and important information helping betterunderstanding of the subsurface amplitude map, especially undercomplex salt bodies. An innovative methodology for the wavefieldillumination study is presented in this paper with an application toMars field in the Gulf of Mexico. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,200

IMPROVED PRE-STACK DEPTH IMAGES OF POMPANOFIELD, MISSISSIPPI CANYON, DEEPWATER GULF OFMEXICO

M.Chang and C.Contrino (Kerr-McGee) and Z.Li, G.Rodriguez,L.Zhang, I.Chang and C.B.Su (Parallel Data Systems). 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-7, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 4 pp; Extended abstract)

The deepwater Pompano field is located in Mississippi Canyonin the Gulf of Mexico. Two major salt bodies (Pompano andLexington) are located in the study area of approximately 27 OuterContinental Shelf blocks. Many passes of pre-stack depthmigrations had been applied in the past few years. One of the majorchallenges is to image the steeply dipping sediment truncationsagainst the base of the salt in the area. The most recent 3Dprestack depth migration was performed in 2004. Advances inimaging technology (subsalt tomographic velocity inversion, multi-model imaging and detailed salt reinterpretation) showedsignificant image improvement subsalt for exploration prospectsand provided better well-tied seismic images for development wellplanning. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MEXICO GULF 914,201

DEEP IMAGING OF MESOZOIC SECTION AND CRUSTALFEATURES IN THE NORTH CENTRAL GULF OF MEXICO

T.Stieglitz (GX Technology) and R.Fillon (Earth Studies Group).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-8, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

Regional understanding of Gulf of Mexico (GOM) tectonichistory is predicated upon a union of advanced seismic imaging andgeological interpretation. Historical deep imaging of the GOM hasbeen limited to Tertiary objectives. In a general sense, the accuracyof geo-tectonic models are limited by our ability to see and imagethe Earth’s stratigraphy. We will present examples from a regional2D composite ocean bottom cable (OBC) and streamer seismic linedesigned to image the deep North central Gulf of Mexico (datacourtesy of GX Technology). The test line location is coincident withthe GulfSpan program line 1600 (GS 1600) and proximal to avintage line interpreted by Peel et al. (1995) showing an extendedunbroken section of Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments from cratonto basin. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MICHIGAN 914,202

BURIED MUDPIT DELINEATION FROMELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS - CASE HISTORY OF ASTUDENT PROJECT

J.P.Richardson, D.E.Moore, S.P.Trisch, D.Forel, R.M.Turpening,W.D.Pennington et al. (Michigan Technol Univ). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.NSE 1-5, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 4 pp; Extended abstract)

Two deep boreholes that are used for testing well-basedimaging techniques exist at a site in the northern reef trend ofMichigan’s Lower Peninsula. Electromagnetic surveys wereconducted in order to define the locations of the mudpits used indrilling the wells and to examine whether or not the materials

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 41

Page 42: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

contained were leaking into the surrounding subsurface. Part ofthis study was conducted as a component of a Senior Design Projectfor Geological Engineering students at Michigan Tech. The primarytool used to identify the mudpits was the GEM-2 broadbandelectromagnetic sensor from Geophex(R) Ltd. This tool transmitssignals at a variety of programmable frequencies and receives themin a single housing carried by one person in the field. Threeseparate visits to the site were required before the four mudpits onthe two sites were all fully and convincingly delineated. One of themudpits had not been identified from the usual state drillingrecords, and was not fully covered by the initial surveys. In the end,however, all four mudpits were successfully identified, and appearto be fully contained. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MICROSEISM 914,203

INTERPRETATION OF MICROSEISMICITY INDUCED BYHYDRAULIC FRACTURING

C.Dinske, E.Rothert and S.Shapiro (Berlin Freie Univ). 76THANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-7, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 8 refs; Extended abstract)

A number of basic dynamic processes related to the propagationof hydraulic fractures modify the effective stress in rocks and,therefore, they are relevant for the triggering of microseismicevents. For instance, these are the creation of the new fracturevolume, the loss of the fracturing fluid and its infiltration into thecircumjacent reservoir rocks as well as diffusion of the injectionpressure into the pore space of surrounding rocks and inside thefracture. Using real microseismic data, we show that some of theseprocesses can be seen from attributes of the spatio-temporaldistribution of the induced microseismicity. Especially, the initialstage of the fracture volume opening just as the back front of theinduced seismicity starting to propagate after the termination ofthe fluid injection can be well identified and used for reservoirengineering. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,204

PRESTACK GAUSSIAN-BEAM DEPTH MIGRATION INANISO TROPIC MEDIA

T.Zhu, S.Gray and D.Wang (Veritas DGC Inc). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-1, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; Over 10 refs; Extended abstract)

Gaussian-beam depth migration (Hill, 1990, 2001) is a usefulalternative to Kirchhoff and wave-equation migrations. Itovercomes the inability of Kirchhoff migration in imaging multiplearrivals while retaining its efficiency and its capability of imagingsteep dips with turning waves. By directionally downwardextrapolating local plane waves instead of single-trace scatteredwa ves, Gaussian-beam migration also avoids the migrationswinging noises inherent in Kirchhoff migration, resulting in cleansubsurface images comparable to those from wave-equationmigration. In this study, we extend prestack Gaussian-beam depthmigration from isotropic to general anisotropic media. Formulatedin terms of phase velocity, the newly developed raytracing systemsfor anisotropic media are much simpler and much more efficientthan the traditional elastic-parameter based raytracing systems,especially for the dynamic raytracing. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,205

OPTIMIZED IMPLICIT FINITE-DIFFERENCE MIGRATIONFOR VTI MEDIA

G.Shan (Stanford Univ). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-2, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; Over 10 refs; Extended abstract)

I develop an implicit finite-difference migration method forvertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media with laterally varying

anisotropy parameters. I approximate the dispersion relation ofVTI media with a rational function series, the coefficients of whichare estimated by least-squares optimization. These coefficients arefunctions of Thomsen anisotropy parameters. They are calculatedand stored in a table before the wavefield extrapolation. Theimplicit finite-difference scheme for VTI media is almost the sameas that of the isotropic media, except that the coefficients arederived from the pre-calculated table. In the 3D case, a phase-correction filter is applied after the finite-difference operator toeliminate the numerical-anisotropy error caused by two-waysplitting. This finite-difference operator for VTI media is accurateto 60° for the second-order approximation and 80° for the fourth-order approximation. Its computational cost is almost the same asthe isotropic migration. I apply this method to a 2D syntheticdataset to validate the method. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,206

IMAGING STEEP SALT FLANK WITH PLANE-WAVEMIGRATION IN TILTED COORDINATES

G.Shan and B.Biondi (Stanford Univ). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-3, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; Over 10 refs; Extended abstract)

Plane-wave migration in tilted coordinates is powerful to imagesteeply dipping reflectors, although the one-way wave-equationoperator is used. In plane-wave migration, the recorded surfacedata are transferred to plane-wave data by slant-stack processing.Both the source plane-wave and the corresponding slant-stackingdata are extrapolated into the subsurface, and images aregenerated by cross-correlating these two wavefields. For each plane-wa ve source, we assign tilted coordinates whose direction dependson the propagation direction of the plane-wave. For isotropic media,the one-way wave-equation operator does not change. For verticaltransversely isotropic (VTI) media, one-way wave-equationoperators for tilted transversely isotropic (TI) media are requiredbecause of the rotation of the coordinates. I apply this method tothe BP 2004 velocity benchmark, to a synthetic dataset for VTImedia, and to a real anisotropic dataset. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,207

HYBRID FOURIER FINITE-DIFFERENCE 3D PRESTACKDEPTH MIGRATION FOR VTI MEDIA

T.W.Fei and C.L.Liner (Saudi Aramco). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-4, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 7 refs; Extended abstract)

When the earth’s subsurface is anisotropic, migration based onthe assumption of isotropy will no longer produce accuratemigration images. We developed a new wave equation hybridmigration algorithm for VTI media. The hybrid migration methodis based on the one-way wave equation for VTI media, and uses thecombination of Fourier finite-difference and finite-differenceapproaches. The hybrid method can suppress the non-physicalsolution that exists in the VTI acoustic wave equation, and offerscomputation and accuracy advantages over conventional Fourierfinite-difference or finite-difference alone. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,208

TTI ANISOTROPIC DEPTH MIGRATION: WHAT TILTESTIMATE SHOULD WE USE?

F.Audebert and V.Dirks (CGG Americas) and A.Pettenati (EcoleSuperieure Electric). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-5, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 1 ref; Extended abstract)

We perform a series of numerical modelling and migrationexperiment with different homogeneous TTI anisotropic media,

42 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 43: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

characterized by tilt axis, polar velocity and anisotropy parameters.In the case of structurally conformable media, where the tilt of themedium coincides with the dip of the structure, greatsimplifications arise in the decoupling of the anisotropyparameters. In particular, positioning and short spread focusingbecome decoupled from long-spread behaviour. We show that in thiscase, the tilt of the medium can be observed with sufficientaccuracy on an image obtained by isotropic or VTI elliptic migrationwith an educated estimate of the Thomsen parameter delta.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,209

3D COMMON AZIMUTH FOURIER FINITE-DIFFERENCEDEPTH MIGRATION IN TRANSVERSELY ISO TROPICMEDIA

B.Hua, H.Calandra and P.Williamson (Total E&P USA Inc).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-6,2006. (Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting asof 9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 10 refs; Extended abstract)

We propose a 3-D common azimuth anisotropic depth migrationmethod based on the Fourier finite-difference (FFD) solution of theDSR wave equation in vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) media.The common azimuth assumption of the input seismic data reducesthe 3-D depth imaging problem to a 4-D from a 5-D computation.The FFD solution of the one-way wave equation makes it suitablefor strong lateral velocity variations as well as a wide range oflaterally-variable anisotropy rather than constant or weakanisotropy in the migration. Both synthetic and field data testsshow that the proposed 3-D prestack anisotropic migrationalgorithm works well and is feasible for 3-D applications inpractice. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,210

ON THE INFLUENCE OF OFFSET IN PLANE-WAVEMIGRATION

S.Grion and H.Jakubowicz (Veritas DGC). 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SPMI 2-8, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 4 pp; 5 refs; Extended abstract)

This paper considers the influence of offset on plane-waveillumination and migration for seismic data. It is shown that, for asingle offset, complete illumination and migration can only beachieved using plane waves encompassing all angles of incidence.By contrast, when a full range of offsets is used, it is possible inprinciple to illuminate and image the subsurface using only twoplane waves. These results are confirmed using synthetic data. Thenumber of plane waves required for plane-wave migration has adirect impact on computational cost. In practice, offset limitations,as well as other considerations, make it unrealistic to expectsuccessful imaging using as few as two plane waves. However, thetheory does support imaging with fewer plane waves than mightotherwise be thought necessary. This is illustrated by a marine dataexample for which a good migrated image was obtained using onlysix plane waves. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,211

CALIBRATING PRESTACK DEPTH MIGRATION VOLUMESWITH WELL CONTROL

S.MacKay (Custer Resources) and H.R.Jimenez, J.S.M.Romeroand M.Morford (Petroleos Mexicanos). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-5, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 2 refs; Extended abstract)

Mis-ties between well depths and prestack depth migratedseismic images are almost universal. Anisotropy is the mostcommonly invoked explanation of depthing discrepancies. However,underlying problems with the quality of the seismic interpretationand the well control can also cause significant mis-tie problems. In

Rojano et al. (2005), we described an iterative approach to velocity-model building oriented towards the integration of seismic and welldata in mature fields. In this paper, we describe an extension to thisapproach that allows for the introduction of geologic consistency inthe velocity field between wells by means of smoothing thewell/seismic calibration factors for the velocity model. In thismanner, we retain all the details in the prestack depth migrationtomographic solution. Finally, we show that the derived calibrationfactors yield a measure of the anisotropic parameter δ (Thomsen,1986). (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

MIGRATION (SEISMIC) 914,212

NUMERICAL PRECISION AND TRIANGLE FILTERANTIALIASING IN KIRCHHOFF MIGRATIONS

R.Abma (BP). THE LEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.20-23, Jan.2006. (ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

The main goal of this article is to point out and providecorrections to a somewhat subtle problem with triangle antialiasingin Kirchhoff migration that occasionally causes amplitudedistortions. Beyond that, I would like to raise the awareness ofnumerical precision issues in standard seismic processing. Whenthe range of amplitudes is large in the input Kirchhoff migration,triangle antialiasing may affect the amplitudes of weak events. Inmany seismic data sets this issue may be ignored, however, whenhighest and lowest amplitudes on a seismic trace are very different,low-amplitude events are attenuated. The problem is difficult todiagnose because, even in the most serious cases, the loss of low-amplitude events is not obvious in the migration output unless acomparison is done with the correct output. The migration imagelooks reasonable in spite of significant amplitude loss.

................................................................

NORTH SEA 914,213

HYBRID GRIDDED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE SOUTHERNNORTH SEA

A.G.Campbell and S.Elam (ConocoPhillips) and E.Evans,D.Judd and I.F.Jones (GX Technology). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH 2-3, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 10 refs; Extended abstract)

Exploration in the Southern North Sea using conventionalimaging techniques is hampered by complexities in the Mesozoicoverburden and the Zechstein evaporites with dolomitic raftingoverlying potential targets. Three-dimensional preSDM imaginghas come into widespread use in recent years in an attempt toresolve such problems. Here we present case history from theConocoPhillips acreage over block 49/14a, where a four surveymerge covering some 430 sq km was reprocessed to yield a coherentsingle input volume for 3D preSDM imaging. Hitherto, a layer-based model building approach has been commonly used for NorthSea type environments, where sedimentary interfaces delimitchanges in the velocity field and the geology lends itself to a layer-based model representation. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,214

4D PLANNING AND EXECUTION STRATEGIES FORAUSTRALIAN RESERVOIR MONITORING PROJECTS

A.S.Long, M.Widmaier and M.A.Schonewille (PGS MarineGeophysical). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,pp.67-77, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 8 refs)

Time-lapse (4D) reservoir monitoring is in its infancy inAustralia, but is on the verge of becoming a mainstream pursuit.We describe the 4D seismic acquisition and processing strategiesthat have been developed and proven elsewhere in the world, andcustomise those strategies for Australasian applications. Wedemonstrate how a multidisciplinary pursuit of real-timeacquisition and processing Quality Control (QC) is an integralcomponent of any 4D project. The acquisition and processinggeophysicists must be able to understand all the factorscontributing to the 4D seismic signal as they happen. Such an

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 43

Page 44: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

understanding can only arise through rigorous project QC andmanagement using interactive visualisation technology. In turn, theproduction geologists and reservoir engineers will then receive 4Dseismic products that can be robustly and confidently used for theconstruction of accurate reservoir models and the pursuit of reliablereservoir simulations and forecasts.

................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,215

DEMETER HIGH RESOLUTION 3D SEISMIC SURVEY -REVITALISED DEVELOPMENT AND EXPLORATION ONTHE NORTHWEST SHELF, AUSTRALIA

K.J.Bennett and M.R.Bussell (Woodside Energy Ltd). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.101-126,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 5 refs)

The newly acquired 3,590 sq km Demeter 3D high resolutionseismic survey covers most of the North West Shelf Venture(NWSV) area, a prolific hydrocarbon province with ultimaterecoverable reserves of greater than 30 Tcf gas and 1.5 billion bblsof oil and natural gas liquids. The exploration and development ofthis area has evolved in parallel with the advent of newtechnologies, maturing into the present phase of revitaliseddevelopment and exploration based on the Demeter 3D. Theobjective of the Demeter 3D survey was to re-image the NWSV areawith a single acquisition and processing sequence to reducemultiple contamination and improve imaging of intra-reservoirarchitecture. Single source (133 nominal fold), shallow solidstreamer acquisition combined with five stages of demultiple anddetailed velocity analysis are considered key components ofDemeter. The final Demeter volumes were delivered early 2005 andalready some benefits of the higher resolution data have beenrealised, exemplified in the following: Successful drilling ofdevelopment wells on the Wanaea, Lambert and Hermes oil fieldsand identification of further opportunities on Wanaea-Cossack andLambert-Hermes; Dramatic improvements in seismic data qualityobserved at the giant Perseus gas field helping define sevendevelopment well locations; Considerably improved definition offluvial channel architecture in the south of the Goodwyn gas fieldallowing for improved well placement and understanding ofreservoir distribution; Identification of new exploration prospectsand reevaluation of the existing prospect portfolio.

................................................................

NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA 914,216

IMPROVEMENTS IN SEISMIC IMAGING, IO JANSZ GASFIELD NORTHWEST SHELF, AUSTRALIA

J.Hefti and S.Dewing (ExxonMobil Exploration Co), C.Jenkins(Esso Australia Pty Ltd) and A.Arnold and B.E.K orn (ChevronAustralia Pty Ltd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,pp.135-160, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 5 refs)

The Io Jansz gas field is situated in the Carnarvon Basin on theNorth West Shelf of Australia. It is Australia’s largest gas field,estimated to hold over 20 TCF of gas reserves and covering an areaof over 2000 sq km. Following a series of appraisal wells and a 3Dseismic survey, this field is moving rapidly towards development.Image quality of the 3D provided significant uplift over existing 2Dsurveys in the area. Expectations for resolution and businesstargets have been met through careful planning and the provisionof staged deliverables. Despite the exceptional data quality, anumber of technical challenges were encountered that led tooperational changes and adaptations by the project team. Sourceheight statics and severe image distortion due to overburden areexamples of some of the challenges addressed. Consideration of theexploration history of this field and its associated imaging givesinsight into the improvements in image quality that can be realisedby careful selection of acquisition and processing parameters, highlevels of quality control (QC) and modern processing algorithms.The ultimate success of this project was achieved through closecooperation within interdisciplinary teams comprised of partnertechnical staff and the seismic acquisition and processingcontractor.

................................................................

OCEAN BOTT OM CABLE 914,217

OCEAN BOTT OM SEISMIC STATIONA.Berg, T.Helgum, R.Furuhaug and T.Bliksas, asrs. (Optoplan

AS). Gr. Brit. 2,422,670A, p. 8/2/2006, f. 12/21/2005, pr. U.S.12/21/2004 (Appl. 60/637,896) (G01V-0001/38; G01V-0001/20). (33pp; 21 claims)

Methods and apparatus for cable termination and sensorintegration at a sensor station within an ocean bottom seismic(OBS) cable array are disclosed. The sensor stations include ahousing for various sensor components. Additionally, the sensorstations can accommodate an excess length of any datatransmission members which may not be cut at the sensor stationwhile enabling connection of one or more cut data transmissionmembers with the sensor components. The sensor stations furthermanage any strength elements of the cable array.

................................................................

OCEAN BOTT OM SEISMOMETER 914,218

[R] SENSOR ARRANGEMENT AND METHOD FOR THEINSTALLATION AND MOVING OF THIS

J.F.Nas, asr. (Seabed Geophysical AS). Europe. 1,674,888A2, p.6/28/2006, f. 12/23/2005, pr. Norw. 12/27/2004 (Appl. 20,045,667)(G01V-0001/38). (11 pp; 13 claims) SRPA# 911,419

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,419]................................................................

ONTARIO 914,219

IMAGING THE UPPER PART OF THE RED LAKEGREENST ONE BELT, NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO, WITH3-D TRAVELTIME TOMOGRAPHY

F.Zeng (Veritas Energy Svcs Inc) and A.J.Calvert (Simon FraserUniv). CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES v.43, no.7,pp.849-863, July 2006. (ISSN 0008-4077; Color; Over 10 refs)

Seismic reflection line 2B was shot across the Archean RedLake greenstone belt and Sydney Lake fault zone that marks thenorthern boundary of the English River metasedimentary belt, aspart of the Western Superior Lithoprobe transect. Three-dimensional tomographic inversion of first arrival traveltimesrecorded in this survey delineate the subsurface to depths as greatas 1.5 km around this crooked two-dimensional seismic line. Withinthe Red Lake greenstone belt, P-wave velocities of 6.2-7.0 km s-1

occur at 500 m depth in the Mesoarchean Balmer assemblage,clearly distinguishable from the lower velocities of 5.1-6.1 km s-1 ofthe Neoarchean Confederation assemblage. Although the overallrange of velocities in the metasedimentary rocks of the EnglishRiver subprovince is similar to that found in the Confederationassemblage, lower velocities of 5.1-5.4 km s-1 are found in the upper300 m of the metasedimentary rocks. In particular, two 2-3 kmwide, east-northeast-striking zones of low velocity are associatedwith the Sydney Lake fault zone and the Pakwash Lake fault zone.Correlation of the velocities with the coincident reflection sectionsuggests that these two faults delineate a fault-bounded block inthe hanging wall of a more northerly fault zone that crops outwithin the Uchi subprovince. Anomalous regions of low velocity,which occur at the boundary between the Confederation andBalmer assemblages, and within the Balmer assemblage, may alsobe related to shear zones that have minimal near-surfaceexpression, felsic lithologies, or hydrothermal alteration of thebasalts.

................................................................

PAKISTAN 914,220

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED SEISMICFACIES CLASSIFICATION AND RESERVOIR PROPERTYMAPPING FOR PROSPECT GENERATION ANDDEVELOPMENT: LOWER INDUS BASIN, SOUTHPAKISTAN

K.Azem (Schlumberger Inform Solut) and M.Humanyon (Oil &Gas Development Co). AAPG INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE(Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006.(Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p;Abstract only)

Since the recent past, artificial neural network (ANN) has been

44 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 45: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

widely used to solve the various complex problems in quest for oilwhere ambiguity is involved. Mostly, ANN has been constructivelyused in reservoir characterization based on seismic faciesclassifications and log predictions. Quality results in such analysesare confined to the intelligent and optimal selection of fundamentalinputs and parameters for tuning the neural network. In presentwork, ANN is applied for pattern recognition of seismic facies anddescription of petrophysical properties of reservoir to identifydrilling targets and prognosis with reduced uncertainty as a rolemodel supported by seismic and well data. Surface and volumebased seismic attributes are used as the fundamental input to ANNalgorithms of supervised and unsupervised classification of seismicfacies reflecting the lithological variations. To complement theresults of seismic facies identified through use of ANN, reservoirproperties have been mapped using the combination of boreholedata and seismic attributes. Results of mapped reservoir propertiesare based on the number of iterations involving linear and non-linear (ANN) calibration techniques followed by the geostatisticalalgorithms from Cokrigging and Geostatistical mapping. The ANNbased procedure applied is successful in field trials for explorationand exploitation of Lower Indus basin, South Pakistan. This hassignificantly reduced the risks associated in drilling wells in theLower Goru Formation in terms of reduced exploitation costs,increased reserves discovered and increased production withadditional drilling locations. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

PAKISTAN 914,221

INTERPRETATION AND VISUALIZATION OF THRUSTSHEETS IN A TRIANGLE ZONE IN EASTERN POTWAR,PAKISTAN

M.Aamir and M.M.Siddiqui (Oil & Gas Dev Co Pakistan). THELEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.24-26,28-30,32,34,36-37, Jan. 2006.(ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

Triangle zone plays are common in the Potwar area of Pakistan.The Potwar Basin is one of the oldest oil provinces. It is located inthe western foothills of the Himalayas in northern Pakistan. Itincludes the Potwar Plateau, the Salt Range, and the Jhelum Plain.The Khairi Murat thrust-Dhurnal backthrust triangle zone in thenorthern Potwar deformed zone (NPDZ) and the Joya Mair trianglezone in the southern Potwar platform zone (SPPZ) are also welldocumented today. These tectonic settings hold several billionbarrels of reserves, and significant amounts of hydrocarbons arebeing produced. We interpreted the Domeli-Dil Jabba triangle zonegeometry which is the result of Tertiary Himalayan collisionbetween Indian and Eurasian plates. The thrust and backthrustphases in the eastern Potwar are the result of a northwest-southeast Himalayan compression.

................................................................

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 914,222

PNG BIDS TO SPIKE EXPLORATIONJ.Mueller. OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11, pp.39-41, Nov.

2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)Due to concerns over gas export pipeline development

difficulties and the decline in oil production from the Kutubu, Gobeand Moran oil fields since 2003--with the Asian Development Bank,for one, forecasting an overall oil output drop in the country in2007--the Papua New Guinea government has introduced moreamenable fiscal terms to encourage exploratory activity. Fifteenblocks, covering 107,000 sq km onshore and offshore are up forgrabs, located in the Gulf of Papua and Papuan Plateau, selectedbecause of their prospectivity and proximity to discoveries in thePapuan Basin. New fiscal incentives have been introduced for thepetroleum exploration and production sector in recognition of thedifficulty of exploring and operating in rugged and remote territory.In preparation for the bidding round, Fugro obtained 4523 km ofnew non-exclusive 2D seismic data, the largest regional surveyundertaken in PNG. Acquired between February and May this year,the data is of particular importance in the deepwater area to theeast where there was almost no existing seismic coverage.Structure in the region is mostly basement involved andextensional overprinted by a later compressional pulse. Therecognition of a thick Paleozoic depositional system has led to areinterpretation of the geology and an upgrading of prospectivity of

the whole Gulf of Papua region and opened new explorationpossibilities. A Permian petroleum system is inferred to containliquid-prone source rocks and reservoirs.

................................................................

Q MEASURING 914,223

Q ESTIMATION USING GABOR-MORLET JOINT TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

S.Singleton and M.T.Taner (Rock Solid Images) and S.Treitel(TriDekon Inc). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-4, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 8 refs; Extended abstract)

Two new methods of Q estimation are presented for the firsttime. Both are based on Gabor-Morlet spectral decomposition. Theydiffer substantially from traditional Q estimation methods whichrely on the comparison of spectral characteristics of a shallow timewindow (approximating a seismic wave prior to encounteringattenuation) with those of a deeper time window (after the wavehas been attenuated). Instead, the fundamental principle in bothnew methods is a technique with which the spectral characteristicsof each time interval are determined. We consider two datavolumes. The first is the original data, while the second is theoriginal data after it has compensated for attenuation effects by useof Gabor-Morlet spectral balancing. Both methods assumedispersion can be ignored, which of course is not strictly truebecause the Kramers-Kronig relations are then not satisfied.However, to a first approximation they give reasonable results.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION 914,224

EFFECTIVE-STRESS-BASED RESERVOIRCHARACTERIZATION IN AN OFFSHORE BASIN

R.Bachrach, N.Banik, M.Sengupta, S.Noelth, J.Dai, G.Bunge,B.Flack and R.Utech (WesternGeco), L.Leu et al. 76TH ANNUALSEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA,10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-6, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 7 refs; Extended abstract)

Effective stress is a key attribute that enables the prediction ofsubsurface lithology units in overpressured basins. Because theseismic response of shales and sand depends on their compactionhistory, the effective stress will govern the sedimentary seismicresponse. This is in contrast to normally pressured regimes, wherethe depth below mudline (or overburden stress) is typically used tocharacterize the compaction effect. Effective stress enables one tomap nonstationary sedimentary compaction in space. We useseismically derived effective stress as an additional attribute in theBayesian Lithofacies classification. The other attributes in theprocess are elastic parameters such as acoustic and shearimpedances and density obtained from the multiattribute seismicinversion. The modified reservoir characterization method has beenapplied to a deepwater basin that contains reservoir units of thePleistocene to the mid-Miocene age extending over a large area andis known to contain overpressure zones. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

RESISTIVITY EXPLORATION 914,225

THE EFFECT OF ELECTRODE CONTACT RESISTANCEAND CAPACITIVE COUPLING ON COMPLEX RESISTIVITYMEASUREMENTS

T.Ingeman-Nielsen (Denmark Tech Univ). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.NSE 1-7, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 9 refs; Extended abstract)

The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitivecoupling on complex resistivity (CR) measurements is studied inthis paper. An equivalent circuit model for the receiver is developedto describe the effects. The model shows that CR measurements areseverely affected even at relatively low contact resistances. Themodel suggests proportionality between the error in the phase

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 45

Page 46: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

measurements and the product of the wire-to-ground capacitance,the contact resistance, the dipole size and the frequency of themeasurement. The model behavior is illustrated and confirmed byfield data collected with the contact resistance artificially increasedby resistors. The results emphasize the importance of keepingcontact resistance low in CR measurements. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

SAUDI ARABIA 914,226

MIDRIKAH FIELD: AN EXAMPLE OF A COMBINEDSTRUCTURAL AND STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP IN SAUDIARABIA

P.D.Rafferty (Saudi Aramco). AAPG INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Perth, Australia, 11/5-8/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM 2006. (Available at http://www.aapg.org/perth as of11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The Midrikah field, located in the Eastern Province of SaudiArabia, was discovered in 2004 by the drilling of the MDRK-1 well.Located in a down-faulted structural position, the well encountereda thick gas bearing reservoir comprising a series of stacked aeoliandune sands interbedded with fluvial and playa lake depositsassigned to the upper part of the Permo-Carboniferous agedUnayzah Formation (Unayzah A Member). This interval representsthe desiccation event which followed on from the Gondwanadeglaciation characterised by the Lower Unayzah (B/C Member).The Midrikah structure forms part of the southern nose of thegreater Ghawar anticline which initially developed due tocompressional tectonics associated with the Hercynian Orogeny.This stress regime formed the gently dipping eastern flank of theMidrikah structure together with the more steeply dipping andhigh angle reverse faulted western flank. In addition to thestructural control, trapping integrity is provided by lateral facieschanges within the reservoir unit. The Midrikah prospect wasmapped using 3D seismic data that were both pre-stack timemigrated and pre-stack depth migrated to improve image qualityand to increase the accuracy of the structural interpretation. Inaddition, the confidence in the structural interpretation wasincreased by the use of coherency and curvature seismic volumes.The prediction of reservoir distribution was aided by the use ofseismic inversion, waveform classification and frequencyattenuation in addition to other seismic attributes includingamplitude extraction. (Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

SCO TLAND 914,227

SHALLOW MARINE TEST OF MTEM METHODA.Ziolkowski, G.Hall, D.Wright, R.Carson, O.Peppe, D.Tooth,

J.Mackay and P.Chorley (MTEM Ltd). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.EM 1-7, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 7 refs; Extended abstract)

We present a test of the Multi-Transient Electro-Magnetic(MTEM) method in water 10-20 m deep in the Firth of Forth,Scotland. Using a low-cost experimental system and currents of lessthan 50 A, we recovered earth impulse responses at offsets in therange 600-8000 m, corresponding to target depths up to 2 km.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS 914,228

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE AND NON-STRUCTURALRESERVOIR EXPLORATION

C.H.Liu (Shengli Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.485-488,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 914,229

PROCESSING A SUB-VOLUME FOR EXTRACTION FROM AVOLUME

E.O.Andersen, asr. (PGS Geophysical AS). Gr. Brit. 2,403,635A,

p. 1/5/2005, f. 6/30/2003 (Appl. 0,315,261) (G06T-017/40). (34 pp; 16claims)

A sub-volume data set with a boundary is processed forextraction from a volume data set comprising a set of bricks. Atleast one brick that intersects the boundary is reduced in size in atleast one outward normal direction of the brick. Volumevisualization enables geophysicists to see and work with their datain its natural three-dimensional form. In this way, volumevisualization brings a new level of understanding. Volumevisualization provides the medium and opportunity to integratetechnologies such that the greatest amount of information can beaccurately, efficiently, and economically obtained in the search forhydrocarbons.

................................................................

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 914,230

[R] AMPLITUDE CORRECTION FOR SEISMICRECORDINGS

R.van Vossen, A.Curtis and J.Trampert, asrs. (WesternGecoLtd). Gr. Brit. 2,420,625A, p. 5/31/2006, f. 11/30/2004 (Appl.0,426,232) (G01V-0001/36). (38 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 910,882

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,882]................................................................

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 914,231

[R] PROCESSING SEISMIC DATA BY CONVOLVINGSIGNAL TRACES

R.Ferber, asr. (WesternGeco Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,420,881A, p.6/7/2006, f. 12/1/2004 (Appl. 0,426,323) (G01V-0001/28). (25 pp; 20claims) SRPA# 905,491

[For abstract, see Abstract #905,491]................................................................

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 914,232

[R] METHOD TO CONVERT SEISMIC TRACES INTOPETROPHYSICAL PROPERTY LOGS

H.Yin. U.S. 2006/0,155,475A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 2/13/2004, pr.U.S. 3/27/2003 (Appl. 60/458,093) and World 2/13/2004 (Appl.0,404,313) (G06F-0019/00). (9 pp; 14 claims) SRPA# 858,273

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #858,273]................................................................

SEISMIC EXPLORATION 914,233

BACK TO THE LANDR.Duey. E&P v.79, no.6, pp.37-38, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063;

Color)Onshore seismic acquisition has never been a pretty business.

Images of vibroseis trucks roaming the desert or tired crewsslogging through jungles carrying heavy equipment do not conjurethoughts of a glamorous occupation. However, companies that offerthese services could not be happier--the oil industry’s appetite forthis data has seriously ramped up over the past 2 years. Theindustry’s need for new prospects in its portfolio, combined withsome exciting new technologies, has enabled onshore contractors toadd new crews at a rapid pace and high commodity prices do nothurt either.

................................................................

SEISMIC EXPLORATION 914,234

LOOK AGAIN AT LAND SEISMICA.S.J.Sewell (WesternGeco). E&P v.79, no.6, pp.43-44, June

2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)Emerging digital technology may soon change the industry’s

view of seismic imaging. In the United States, where individualsmay own mineral rights, thousands of wells are privately ownedand operated. In addition to the super majors and largeindependents, the petroleum industry is populated with small, agileplayers often operating in specific locations or on relatively shortbusiness cycles. In some cases, these smaller operators have movedaway from acquiring new seismic simply because the cost and timetaken has not been reflected in the value of the informationcontained in the final deliverable seismic product, the calculationbeing that it is simply cheaper to drill. Some areas in the U.S., such

46 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 47: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

as the Delaware Basin and parts of the Rockies, are notorious forpoor seismic quality. Yet the rush to secure domestic oil reservesand the escalating demand for deep gas are refocusing attention onthese areas, both from independents and majors alike. The ever-increasing cost of drilling, coupled with the pursuit of deeper andmore complex reservoirs, opens the door to any new technology thatcan address these historical seismic problems. The incrementalvalue of the information from new single-sensor digital technologyis significant. It can be the key to turn an average field into a starproducer.

................................................................

SEISMIC RECORDING 914,235

SURVEY DESIGN USING EARTH OBSERVATION DATAA.Laake, asr. (WesternGeco Seis Hold Ltd). Gr. Brit.

2,422,226A, p. 7/19/2006, f. 1/18/2006, pr. U.S. 1/18/2005 (Appl.37,699) (G01C-0015/00; G01V-0001/00; G01V-0001/28;G01V-0001/32; G06F-0019/00). (17 pp; 25 claims)

A method for generating one or more maps of a survey areaincludes receiving earth observation data, georeferencing the earthobservation data with seismic data, extracting one or moreattributes from the earth observation data and displaying theextracted attributes.

................................................................

SEISMIC RECORDING 914,236

[R] IMPLEMENTING A NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE INA SEISMIC ACQUISITION SYSTEM

T.Arnegaard, O.Brynestad and B.L.Virgin. U.S.2006/0,155,758A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 11/21/2003, pr. Gr. Brit.11/22/2002 (Appl. 0,227,292) and World 11/21/2003 (Appl.0,350,871) (G06F-0017/30). (8 pp; 2 claims) SRPA# 846,819

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #846,819]................................................................

SEISMOELECTRIC EFFECT 914,237

[R] SYSTEM FOR GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING USINGINDUCED ELECTROKINETIC EFFECT

A.Berg. U.S. 2006/0,153,004A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 11/18/2005, pr.U.S. 2/4/2004 (Appl. 60/541,643) and U.S. 6/9/2004 (Appl. 865,524)(G01V-0001/00). (23 pp; 26 claims) SRPA# 905,508

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #905,508]................................................................

SUBSALT 914,238

MODEL-BASED DECIMATION OF INPUT DATA FORDELAYED-SHO T/PLANE-WAVE MIGRATION FOR THEPURPOSE OF SUBSALT VELOCITY MODEL BUILDING

B.Wang, F.Gao, D.Wheaton and V.Dirks (CGG Americas Inc).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SM 1-5, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 10 refs; Extended abstract)

The process of subsalt velocity model building often makes useof wave-equation migration scans using a series of perturbedvelocity models. As these methods require significant computerresources, reducing the cost is a concern to the depth imager.Historically and from a practical point of view, decimation of theinput data using a regular or random pattern of data selection isfrequently applied but does not make use of any availableillumination criteria. In this paper, we present an alternativemethodology that offers a way to optimize the decimation criteriaaccording to P-values for delayed-shot/plane-wave type migrations.Local Tau-P analysis of wave equation demigrated seismic events isused to drive the P-value selection and honor illumination effects.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

THREE DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC 914,239

EXTRACTING HORIZON PATCHES AND GEO-BODIESFROM 3D SEISMIC WAVEFORM SEQUENCES

H.G.Borgos, O.Gramstad, G.V.Dahl, P.Le Guern andL.Sonneland (Schlumberger Stavanger Res) and J.F.Rosalba

(Petroleo Brasileiro SA). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.RC 1-1, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 3 refs; Extended abstract)

A methodology for automated 3D interpretation is presented.Sequences of horizons (seismic events) are constructed from pre-computed horizon primitives. These horizon primitives aresubsequently used to generate geobodies. Classification techniquescan be applied to automatically group seismic events into classes ofsimilar seismic waveform when performing seismic interpretation,as described by Borgos et al. (2003). In this work, we describe howthe classification approach can be used to extract a set of geometryprimitives, constituting building blocks that the seismic interpretercan apply to construct a structural description of the reservoir.These primitives can be either surface segments or closed volumes,referred to as geobodies. Attributes from the classification arestored along with the primitives, allowing a later refinement of thereservoir description through further classification. (Longerabstract available)

................................................................

TIME LAPSE 914,240

SEISMIC MODELING OF COMPOSITIONAL ANDGEOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN CO

2SEQUESTRATION

R.Shekhar, R.L.Gibson, Jr., A.Kumar and A.Datta-Gupta (TexasA&M Univ). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.SM 1-3, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; Over 10 refs; Extended abstract)

Time-lapse seismic monitoring of CO2 injection into ahydrocarbon reservoir can be important for either enhancedrecovery or CO2 sequestration tasks. In the latter case, over longtime periods, the interaction of CO2 with in-situ brine and host rockminerals generates a variety of geochemical reactions thatsignificantly affect reservoir rock properties and reservoir fluidproperties. Dissolution of CO2 in brine to attain gas-brine equilibriaalters brine density, which changes the bulk properties of reservoirfluids. Furthermore, slow mineral reactions between CO2 reservoirfluids and host rock minerals change porosity and the salinity ofthe reservoir fluids. Here we present results of a modeling studythat combines direct simulation of geochemical processes with fluidflow and seismic models. The results show that the CO2 injectionleads to P-wave velocity reduction of up to 12% for the first 10years, while chemical effects largely associated with salinitychanges become observable seismically only after longer timeperiods of hundreds of years, producing small velocity changes ofabout 2%. In general, the results suggest that it will be difficult todistinguish mineral reactions and intra-aqueous reactions from thereduction in bulk modulus caused by injection of CO2 into brine,especially with noisy data. Therefore, this type of geochemicalreaction may not be too important for monitoring of sequestrationefforts. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

VELOCITY MODEL 914,241

TIME TO DEPTH CONVERSION AND UNCERTAINTYASSESSMENT USING AVERAGE VELOCITY MODELING

D.C.Bartel, M.Busby, J.Nealon and J.Zaske (Chevron EnergyTechnol Co). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING(New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap.no.SM 1-1, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 7 refs; Extended abstract)

Time to depth (or depth to time) conversion of interpretedsurfaces, seismic data, and well data is an important part of theinterpretation workflow. Velocity models provide a linkage betweentime and depth. Building the velocity model in average velocityallows direct mapping between time and depth, and avoids somepitfalls associated with interval velocity modeling. In many cases,an average velocity model can easily be built and with sufficientdetail to meet the velocity accuracy required for successful time todepth conversion. Multiple velocity models built using differentmethodologies allow for the quantitative assessment of uncertainty

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 47

Page 48: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

in velocity, and therefore depth. The data used for modeling mayinclude seismic velocity data, well velocities (from checkshot, VSP,and/or synthetic seismograms), well markers, and surfaces. Eitherinterpreted geologic or isovelocity, that is surfaces of equal averagevelocity, surfaces can be used. Our workflow for time to depthvelocity modeling includes data gathering, editing, and modeling; acareful review of the model; and a quantitative assessment as tothe uncertainty of the velocity prediction. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,242

PREDICTION OF 4D SEISMIC RESPONSES FOR THEOTWAY BASIN CO

2SEQUESTRATION SITE

R.Li and M.Urosevic (Curtin Univ Technology) and K.Dodds(CSIRO Petroleum). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.SM 1-4, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 10 refs; Extended abstract)

During CO2 sequestration, the effective elastic properties of thereservoir change, initially due to displacement of in situ pore fluidby free CO2. The magnitude of these changes depends onnumerous factors such as, rock type and its composition,temperature and pressure in the reservoir. They are also related toCO2 phase, CO2 injection rate, porosity and permeability. WhereCO2 displaces brine solely then conventional 3D surface seismicmethod is considered as the main method for monitoring the CO2sequestration process. However, the injection of CO2 into a depletedgas reservoir will in general result in very subtle changes inreservoir elastic properties. Consequently designing an optimumCO2 monitoring strategy is a challenge. To assist this process wehave developed a Graphic User Interface (GUI)-driven rock physicssimulator which is capable of modeling both short and long-term4D seismic response changes caused by CO2 injection into areservoir rock. The reservoir rock may be homogeneous,heterogeneous and/or anisotropic while the pore fluid could becomprised of any fluid mixture. The application of the 4D seismicsimulator is demonstrated with reference to the planned CO2sequestration pilot test site in the Otway Basin, Australia. For theproposed arrangement of the CO2 injection and monitoring wellsour numerical models predict that the CO2 injection process at thissite will produce both time and space variable seismic responseswhich will be incorporated into an appropriate monitoring strategy.(Longer abstract available)

................................................................

VICT ORIA 914,243

IMPROVEMENTS IN SOURCE RESOLUTION THAT CAN BEEXPECTED FROM INVERSION OF MAGNETIC FIELDTENSOR DATA

C.Foss (Encom Technology). THE LEADING EDGE v.25, no.1,pp.81-84, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 1070-485X; Color)

Airborne magnetic tensor gradiometers using SQUIDtechnology are currently being trialed, posing the problem of how tobest recover information from this new type of data. This paperinvestigates the possible advantages of magnetic field tensor datafor interpretation of an area of shallow volcanics in southernVictoria, Australia. Source models for TMI anomalies over volcanicpipe or fissure sources have been used to generate syntheticmagnetic field tensor data. Inversion of the TMI and tensor dataindicates that tensor data can substantially improve resolution inmapping these shallow volcanics. Inversion of the TMI data cannotdifferentiate between dipping bodies with induced magnetization,and vertical bodies with remanent magnetization. The simulatedmagnetic tensor data accentuates differences between these modelsand confirms that magnetic tensor data would provide greatersensitivity in resolving the magnetization directions, and therebythe dip of the sources.

................................................................

WAVE INTERFERENCE 914,244

GLOBAL-SCALE SEISMIC INTERFEROMETRY:NUMERICAL VALIDATION OF THE ACOUSTIC

CORRELATION INTEGRALE.Ruigrok, D.Draganov, K.Wapenaar and J.Thorbecke (Delft

Univ Technol). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONALMEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICALPROGRAM pap. no.SM 1-7, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 7 refs; Extended abstract)

Applying seismic reflection imaging on a global scale is harddue to the (locally) sparse source distribution. We approach thisproblem with seismic interferometry (SI). In this paper, we derivean expression for global-scale SI and test it on a simplified 2Dacoustic lossless Earth model. When we use responses from sourcesplaced all around the model, we can reconstruct the full andmultiple-free response due to a simulated source at one of thereceiver positions. When we miss the responses from near-offsetsources, we can still reconstruct the full Green’s function. Wecurrently investigate which events in the Green’s function we canstill reconstruct properly when responses from sources in the mid-and far-offset range are missing. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

WAVE INTERFERENCE 914,245

VIRTUAL AREAL SHOT RECORDS BY QUASI-MONTECARLO INTERFEROMETRY

S.A.Levin (Halliburton Digital Consul). 76TH ANNUAL SEGINTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006)TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.SM 1-8, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 6 refs; Extended abstract)

One common form of seismic interferometry correlates traces atreceivers in order to predict the signal that would have arrivedfrom a source placed at one receiver location and recorded at thesecond. From a sparse, quasi-random set of areal shot locations, Iuse interferometry to predict an areal shot record for a virtualsource situated at any selected receiver station. I illustrate andanalyze the method with 3D synthetic acoustic data generated froma dense blue reflection coefficient sequence. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

WEST AFRICA 914,246

ANISO TROPIC PRE-STACK TIME MIGRATION AND PRE-STACK DEPTH MIGRATION FOR RESERVOIREVALUATION IN OFFSHORE WEST AFRICA

L.Anquelle, J.Arnaud, M.Beele, P.Esquier and Y.Le Stunff(Total). 76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (NewOrleans, LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.CH2-1, 2006. (Available athttp://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of 9/27/2006; Color;5 pp; 4 refs; Extended abstract)

An offshore West Africa seismic reservoir characterizationstudy for an oil field appraisal using both pre-stack time and pre-stack depth migration data is presented. The known hydrocarbonseismic indicators of the region are first picked on the conventionalpre-stack time migration (PSTM). However, as the turbiditereservoirs are located on dipping layers (about 30°), thehydrocarbon indicators picked on time migration have to belaterally shifted to be correctly positioned in the final geologicalmodel. This is done through a map migration technique using avelocity model built with an approach involving 3D tomography and3D pre-stack depth migration. The pre-stack depth migration(PSDM) is also implemented with the objective to tackle thegeometrical uncertainties. (Longer abstract available)

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,247

BASEMENT AND CRUSTAL CONTROLS ONHYDROCARBON MATURATION - LESSONS FROMBREMER SUB-BASIN FOR OTHER FRONTIEREXPLORATION AREAS

A.Goncharov, P.Petkovic, H.Tassell and D.Ryan (GeoscienceAustralia), I.Deighton (Burytech Pty Ltd) and S.McLaren(Melbourne Univ). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,

48 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 49: Petroleum Abstracts

GEOPHYSICS

pp.237-260, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)A consistent approach to the assessment of basement and

crustal controls on hydrocarbon maturation in the Bremer Sub-basin, offshore southwest Australia, has been undertaken as part ofthe Australian Government’s Big New Oil initiative. GeoscienceAustralia acquired marine reflection seismic survey in this areaduring late 2004 in conjunction with recording of refraction seismicdata by sonobuoys at sea and by land stations in theonshore/offshore observation scheme. One of the key findings of therefraction seismic study is that velocities in the basement aregenerally in the 5.0-5.7 km/s range, indicating that, contrary toprior expectations, basement in the area is mostly not granitic incomposition. Results from the conjugate margin in Antarctica alsoshow low velocities in the basement on the inner side of Antarcticcontinent-ocean boundary, consistent with results from theAustralian margin. It appears that a ca 400-km-wide zone inGondwana prior to break up had basement velocities significantlylower than the normal continental values of 6.0-6.2 km/s mostcommonly associated with granites and gneisses. Low-grademetasediments of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and its Antarcticequivalent is the preferred interpretation of this observation.Granites, dredged from the sea floor in the Bremer area, mayrepresent only a small fraction of the basement, as within thebasement highs where higher velocities have been detected byrefraction work. As metasediments produce substantially less heatthan granites, a different scenario for hydrocarbon maturation inthe Bremer Sub-basin is possible. To quantify heat production inthe Bremer basement and crust below it we have used contents ofradioactive elements in rock samples taken from outcrops ofYilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen onshore, as well as inrock samples dredged from the sea floor in the Bremer Sub-basin.Advanced burial and thermal geohistory modeling in this area wascarried out using Fobos Pro modelling software for the first time inAustralia without relying on default or inferred values (such asheat flow or geothermal gradient).

................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 914,248

PRELIMINARY AVO RESULTS FROM THE BREMER SUB-BASIN

F.Kroh and P.E.Williamson (Geoscience Australia). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, p.669, 2006.(ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Preliminary Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) anomalies areidentified in seismic reflection data collected in the Bremer Sub-basin of southwest Australia by Geoscience Australia as part ofNew Oil Program Survey (s280). The relatively unexplored BremerSub-basin forms part of the rifted Southern Margin and is largelyJurassic to Cretaceous in age with up to 10 km of sediment. Theonly two major unconformities in the sub-basin are the base synrift(mid Jurassic and base Cretaceous). The seismic expression of oneof the AVO anomalies appears to have a hard response at far offsetwith a flat event at its base, and suggests a broad anticlinalstructure 5 km long. The seismic expression of another AVOanomaly appears to have a soft response and suggests a downfaulted feature. Both are in intervals where fluvial sands are likelyto occur beneath thick lacustrine mudstones. The events consideredto be volcanics are unlike the AVO anomalies and have consistentamplitude from near to far offsets of the CDP gathers. The AVOanomalies provide supporting evidence that a viable play forhydrocarbons occurs in the sub-basin. The anomalies may, however,benefit from additional processing to give more confidence in theirtrue seismic phases. Seismic processing was AVO amplitudecompliant, and CDP PSTM gathers plus near, middle and far tracestacks are available for the cost of transfer. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

WESTERN CANADA BASIN 914,249

MAGNETIC GRADIENTS IN SEDIMENTARY BASINS:EXAMPLES FROM THE WESTERN CANADASEDIMENTARY BASIN

M.F.Mushayandebvu and J.Davies (Image Interpret Technol).THE LEADING EDGE v.25, no.1, pp.69-70,72-73, Jan. 2006. (ISSN

1070-485X; Color)Mapping very weak and subtle magnetic anomalies associated

with sedimentary formations, such as those within the WesternCanada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), called for the development ofan ultrahigh-resolution three-component magnetic gradient system.Scintrex Survey and Exploration Technologies’ 3D-GM was anattempt at developing a high-precision, helicopter-towed, three-component magnetic gradient bird, combining the benefits ofmeasured gradients with low sensor ground clearance. FugroAirborne Surveys’ Heli-Triax system is a redesign of the 3D-GMplatform addressing some hardware and other limitations of theolder system. Both platforms were used to fly a combined total ofeight test surveys and 15 proprietary surveys within the WCSB.

................................................................

WYOMING 914,250

3D CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHANNEL SYSTEM IN ANOUTCROP RESERVOIR ANALOG DERIVED FROM GPRAND MEASURED SECTIONS, RATTLESNAKE RIDGE,WYOMING

H.A.Correa C., R.A.Young and R.M.Slatt (Oklahoma Univ).76TH ANNUAL SEG INTERNATIONAL MEETING (New Orleans,LA, 10/1-6/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM pap. no.NSE 1-6, 2006.(Available at http://abstracts.seg.org/techprog.cfm?meeting as of9/27/2006; Color; 5 pp; 9 refs; Extended abstract)

The Rattlesnake Ridge is an outcrop from the Lewis Shale,Wyoming, that has been extensively used as a reservoir analog fordeepwater systems. As a system, Rattlesnake Ridge outcropsrepresent a channel levee overbank complex. The rapid changes inthe channel-fill deposits over short distances makes this outcroprelevant in terms of reservoir heterogeneity studies. An integrationof measured sections, well logs and Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) can provide a better description of the internal architectureof this outcrop. The high resolution of GPR (about 1 ft) enhancesthe identification of features below seismic resolution. Fifteen 2DGPR lines and five measured sections are used in this study. Mostof the geologic boundaries described in the measured sections areidentified in the GPR profiles. Three different types of facies,according to Miall et al. (1993), are recognized from the GPRreflection signatures. First-order facies are identified by lateralvariations in amplitude and poor continuity of reflections; secondorder facies are identified as continuous reflections with lowamplitude variation; and third order facies are identified throughreflection terminations such as onlaps, downlaps and truncations.These different types of reflections correspond to different changesin the lithology within the channel complex. (Longer abstractavailable)

................................................................

DRILLING (WELL)

ANDES MT AREA 914,251

DRILLING-FLUID DESIGN FOR CHALLENGING WELLS INTHE ANDEAN MOUNTAIN REGION

M.Ramirez, D.Clapper and P.K enny (Baker Hughes DrillFluids). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102206;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 11 pp; Over 10 refs)

Wells drilled in the Andean Mountain region of South Americapresent significant challenges as a result of both operational andenvironmental factors. Well located in the foothills along the basinare particularly difficult due to tectonic stresses and unstable,probably, micro-fractured shales. Operators have experienceddifficulties drilling wells using both water-based and oil-basedmuds (OBM). In many cases OBM has not prevented wellboreinstability problems. This paper explains how a lack ofunderstanding of regional geology and the practice of usingsuccessful drilling fluid design and drilling practices from otherareas has led to wellbore problems. The water phase salinity ofOBM and the use of the appropriate inhibitors in the drilling fluidplay a key role in the minimization of wellbore problems. Althoughreactive clays are present in all the shales along the basin, they

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 49

Page 50: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

represent only 30 to 40 percent of the clay fraction, while non-expandable kaolinite clays are the major clay components. Thispaper explains how physical/mechanical effects are more importantthan inhibition in controlling these shales. Moreover, in some casesexcessive inhibition due to the presence of shale inhibitors such aspotassium and high water phase salinity in OBM exacerbate theproblems. Pore pressure transmission caused by fluid invasion is amajor contributor to the observed problems. A combination ofoperational practices and improved fluid design minimizes mud andfiltrate invasion. Contrary to experiences in many other parts ofthe world, high water phase salinity OBM and potassium basedwater-based mud (WBM) are not the answer to shale stabilityproblems. Rather, mud sealing properties, correct chemicalcomposition and appropriate drilling practices are the key factors inmaintaining wellbore stability.

................................................................

ARCTIC DRILLING 914,252

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKANPERMAFROST: DRILLING AND CORING OPERATIONS:TOPICAL REPORT (1/28/2003-3/19/2004)

A.Kadaster, B.Liddell and T.Thompson (Anadarko PetroleumCorp), T.Williams (Maurer Technology Inc) and M.Niedermayr(Noble Engineering & Dev). U.S. DOE REPORT NO.839317 Feb.2005. (DE-FC26-01NT41331; Color; 258 pp; 4 refs)

Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the U.S. havedocumented numerous drilling problems, including kicks anduncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has beengenerated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume,chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studyinghydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the NorthSlope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 tcf. However,little information has been obtained on physical samples takenfrom actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project wasa cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, NobleCorporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department ofEnergy’s Methane Hydrate R&D Program. The purpose of theproject is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area ofonshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predictproduction potential for hydrates located on the North Slope ofAlaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot IceNo. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in2004. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well wasdrilled and cored to a final depth of 2,300 ft. An on-site coreanalysis laboratory was built and implemented for determiningphysical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Nogas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth ofinformation was generated and has been documented by the projectteam. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operationsand other daily activities.

................................................................

AUTOMATIC DRILLING EQUIPMT 914,253

[R] ANTI-COLLISION SYSTEMP.Skogerbo. U.S. 2006/0,151,215A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 8/12/2004,

pr. Norw. 8/15/2003 (Appl. 20,033,654) and World 8/12/2004 (Appl.0,400,242) (E21B-0019/00). (7 pp; 14 claims) SRPA# 867,215

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #867,215]................................................................

BEARING 914,254

BEARING ARRANGEMENTL.Lee and A.Plop, asrs. (Schlumberger Technol Corp). U.S.

2006/0,171,619A1, p. 8/3/2006, f. 1/17/2006, pr. Gr. Brit. 2/2/2005(Appl. 0,502,088) (F16C-0033/02). (4 pp; 7 claims)

The use of drilling fluid or mud powered downhole motors toprovide the rotary drive to a drill bit is becoming increasinglycommon. One type of motor suitable for use in such an applicationis a progressive cavity motor having a rotor rotatable within astator or stationary housing, a bearing arrangement supporting therotor for rotation. A bearing arrangement comprises a firstcomponent and a second component, bearings being provided tosupport one of the first and second components for rotation relativeto the other of the first and second components, a radial clearance

being provided between cylindrical surfaces of the first and secondcomponents, fluid being supplied through the radial clearance tolubricate the bearings, wherein the cylindrical surface of at leastone of the first and second components is shaped to define at leastone pocket.

................................................................

BEARING 914,255

[R] BEARING ARRANGEMENTL.Lee and A.Plop, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.

2,422,880A, p. 8/9/2006, f. 2/2/2005 (Appl. 0,502,088)(F16C-0033/66; F16C-0033/10). (11 pp; 8 claims) SRPA# 914,254

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,254]................................................................

BLOWOUT PREVENTER 914,256

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ANULTRADEEPWATER SUBSEA BLOWOUT PREVENTERCONTROL SYSTEM USING SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYACTUAT ORS

N.Ma and G.Song (Houston Univ), Z.Hu (Baker Hughes),R.Samuel (Halliburton) and C.A.Ehlig-Economides (Texas A&MUniv). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio,TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101080; Availableon CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; 7 refs)

As drilling moves to ultradeepwater, conventional blowoutpreventers (BOP) actuation technologies based on full or partialhydraulics are unable to meet the API standard for control systemresponse times because of long hydraulic fluid communication pathbetween an offshore platform and a BOP stack on the sea floor. Nowthat an ultradeepwater subsea blowout preventer (SSBOP) controlsystem using shape memory alloy actuators has been demonstratedin the laboratory, several practical issues can be addressed. Theexperimental device uses nitinol smart alloy material (SMA). It canbe actuated by electrical heating, thereby replacing hydraulicactuation and hydraulic lines with electric cables. Alternatively, theSMA actuator system can be activated by chemical heating. Withsignificantly fewer components, the SMA system will dramaticallyreduce total cost and will increase operation reliability. The newdevice can easily be retrofitted to existing conventional subseacontrol system, thus enabling other methods to be used as abackup. Most importantly, the innovative all-electric BOP willprovide a much faster response than its hydraulic counterpart andwill improve safety for subsea drilling. The BOP actuator usesstrands of SMA wires to achieve large force and large displacementin a remarkably small space. Experimental results demonstratethat the BOP can be activated and fully closed in less than 15seconds.

................................................................

BO TT OM HOLE ASSEMBLY 914,257

A GENERIC SOLUTION TO BOTTOMHOLE-ASSEMBLYMODELING

M.Wu and D.C.K.Chen (Halliburton Sperry Drill). ANNUALSPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101186; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 9 pp; 8 refs)

This paper presents industry’s first generic algorithm usingLubinski’s equations for Bottom-Hole Assembly (BHA) modeling.The algorithm is designed to self-structure the BHA by dividingcomplicated BHA configurations into independent modules andsegments. Modules are bounded by two stabilizers where segmentsare bounded by BHA components such as stabilizers, bends, cross-overs, etc. A recursive process is used to derive solutions for each ofthe segments and modules, one at a time, starting from the top ofthe BHA (tangential point) down to the bit. Only two unknowns(and two non-linear equations) are left when the recursive processreaches to the bit. The two unknowns are then solved by iteration.As a result, the entire process is robust and extremelycomputational efficient. The most significant advantage of the newalgorithm is probably its accuracy as attributed to the use of closed-form equations. Field data has confirmed that the algorithm ismore accurate than the commonly used finite-element based BHAprograms, especially for the steerable motor systems and rotarysteerable systems.

................................................................

50 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 51: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

BO TT OM HOLE ASSEMBLY 914,258

[R] DOWNHOLE IMPACT SENSING SYSTEM AND METHODOF USING THE SAME

R.Henson and S.McLaughlin, asrs. World 2006/071,591A2, p.7/6/2006, f. 12/16/2005, pr. U.S. 12/23/2004 (Appl. 60/639,129)(G01V-0001/40). (11 pp; 2 claims; Assigned to S.McLaughlin)SRPA# 911,528

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,528]................................................................

BO TT OM HOLE ASSEMBLY 914,259

[R] IMPACT SENSING SYSTEM AND METHODSS.McLaughlin. World 2006/071,670A2, p. 7/6/2006, f.

12/20/2005, pr. U.S. 12/23/2004 (Appl. 60/639,129) (G01V-0001/40).(22 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 911,528

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #911,528]................................................................

CASING DRILLING 914,260

DEEP WATER DRILLING WITH CASINGR.L.Giroux, D.Reid, A.C.Odell II, G.G.Galloway and M.J.Murray,

asrs. (Weatherford/Lamb Inc). Can. 2,538,196A1, p. 8/28/2006, f.2/28/2006, pr. U.S. 2/28/2005 (Appl. 60/657,221) (E21B-0007/20;E21B-0007/12). (57 pp; 52 claims)

Methods and apparatus are provided to place a conductor pipeand a casing in a subsea environment. In one version, a conductorpipe is jetted or drilled into the subsea floor. Thereafter, a casingdrilling assembly comprising a drill casing and a drilling assemblyis connected to the drill pipe using a crossover. The drillingassembly is urged into the seafloor until a casing latch on thedrilling assembly is engaged with a casing profile of the conductorpipe. During drilling, instrumentation in the drilling assembly maybe used to measure geophysical data. The measured data may beused to optimize the drilling process. After the drill casing isengaged with the conductor pipe, cementing may be performed toset the drill casing.

................................................................

CLAY STABILIZATION 914,261

SHALE OR CLAY SWELLING INHIBITION USINGCHOLINE SALTS

D.P,Kippie and L.W.Gatlin, asrs. (Clearwater Internat LLC).Gr. Brit. 2,420,577A, p. 5/31/2006, f. 11/28/2005, pr. U.S. 11/29/2004(Appl. 999,796) (C09K-0008/05; C09K-0008/38; C09K-0008/60;C09K-0008/66; C09K-0008/70). (83 pp; 66 claims)

An underbalanced drilling fluid additive which reduces clay orshale swelling includes one or more choline salts in a water basedsolution. The choline salt may be choline carboxylate and foamersand corrosion inhibitors may be present. Also described is amethod of fracturing a formation using a solution which includes acholine salt and a viscosifier.

................................................................

CONE BIT 914,262

CUTTING ELEMENT HAVING ENHANCED CUTTINGGEOMETRY

L.T.Richman, asr. (Smith International Inc). U.S. 7,086,488B2,c. 8/8/2006, f. 8/6/2003, pr. U.S. 11/4/2002 (Appl. 60/423,561)(E21B-0010/16). (9 pp; 27 claims)

A drill bit is described which includes a bit body, at least oneroller cone attached to the bit body and able to rotate with respectto the bit body, a number of cutting elements disposed on the atleast one roller cone, and a barrel axis. At least one of the cuttingelements includes a first area defining a secondary wear surface,wherein the first area is formed as a convex surface on the trailingedge, a second area proximate the first area defining a main wearsurface, wherein the second area is formed as a convex curvedsurface having a radius of curvature substantially equal to a radiusof a borehole, and a third area defining a spherical cutting surface.Further, at least one of the cutting elements includes a non-spherical transition zone disposed between the third area and thefirst and second areas, wherein the barrel axis intersects thetransition zone.

................................................................

CUTTINGS REMOVAL 914,263

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECTIVE HOLE CLEANINGUSING "SWEEPS" IN HORIZONTAL WELLBORES

S.G.Valluri, S.Z.Miska, R.Ahmed, M.Yu and N.E.Takach (TulsaUniv). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio,TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101220; Availableon CD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; 7 refs)

Drilling fluid sweeps are specific fluids specially formulated totransport cuttings that cannot be removed by ordinary drilling fluidcirculation. Although they are in common use in vertical anddeviated drilling operations, not much information is knownregarding the use of sweeps, especially in terms of efficiency of thesweeps and the specific hydraulics involved. The effect of rheologyof the sweep fluid on sweep efficiency has been investigated underlow pressure ambient temperature (LPAT) and elevatedtemperature elevated pressure (EPET) conditions. The LPAT testswere conducted on a 90-ft-long transparent test section thatconsists of an 8-in.-ID casing and 4.5-in.-OD drill pipe. Toinvestigate the effect of temperature on the sweep efficiency, EPETexperiments were conducted under simulated downhole conditions.The University of Tulsa Advance Cutting Transport Facility(ACTF) flow loop (73-ft-long test section with annular geometry of5.76 in. x 3.5 in.) was used to simulate downhole conditions. Threetypes of sweep tests were conducted with six drilling fluids thathave different rheological parameters. LPA T test results arepresented in terms of weight of cuttings removed from the annulus,measured cutting bed height and differential pressure. Results ofEPET experiments are presented in terms of cuttings concentrationin annulus and differential pressure. Through the rigorousexperimental work conducted, it has been identified that within thetest conditions, high viscosity sweeps in the absence of drill piperotation proved to be ineffective in bed erosion and cuttingsremoval. In addition to a higher flow rate, low concentrations ofpolymer, i.e., less viscous sweep, and drill pipe rotation greatlyimprove sweep efficiency. Finally, recommendations are made forpractical field operations.

................................................................

DEEP DRILLING 914,264

TECHNOLOGIES CRITICAL TO DEEP DRILLINGS.W.Lambert, J.R.Williamson, C.M.Boyer II and J.H.Frantz, Jr.

(Schlumberger Data Consult) and J.D.Rogers (Noble TechnologyServices). THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER v.49, no.6,pp.78,81-84, June 2006. (ISSN 0145-9198; Color)

This is the second in a two-part series on benchmarkingtechnology for cost-effective deep drilling. The limits ofconventional well construction technology are tested in wells deeperthan 15,000 feet. Given this situation, the U.S.Department ofEnergy’s Deep Trek initiative is designed to develop technologiesthat make it more economical to drill and produce deep gas. TheDeep Trek initiative has completed a baseline study designed toprovide drilling technology and cost benchmarks as base referencepoints in evaluating future cost improvements to be derived fromtechnology advancements. Information was gathered fromoperators and drilling and service companies on a total of 3,015onshore and offshore wells drilled to 15,000 feet total depth ordeeper between January 1997 and December 2001. Each companythat participated in the project provided authorization forexpenditure (AFE) and line item cost information. The operatorcost data were standardized, allowing individual AFE costcomponents to be grouped with each principle technologybenchmark area and suggest a relative ranking of the broad areaswhere future technology development could have the greatestimpact on deep well costs. For the wells in the study, the averagepercentage cost distribution for all benchmarked technology itemsshows that drilling and tripping accounts for 47% of the totalaverage cost to drill a deep well, followed by tubulars (17%),drilling/completion fluids and services (10%),wireline/completion/stimulation (7%),environmental/regulatory/insurance (6%), data generation andmonitoring (5%), personnel management/supervision (5%), andcementing (3%). The key benchmark technology areas assessed inthe study include drill bits, drilling fluids, drill pipe, coiled tubingand tubulars, in addition to cementing, coring, well logging, rig

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 51

Page 52: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

design, data collection during drilling, well surveying andmonitoring, and well control and safety.

................................................................

DRAG BIT 914,265

ABRASIVE-IMPREGNATED CUTTING STRUCTUREHAVING ANISOTROPIC WEAR RESISTANCE AND DRAGBIT INCLUDING SAME

V.J.Brackin, J.B.Lund, D.E.Scott, M.R.Skeem and M.R.Isbell.U.S. 2006/0,162,967A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/27/2005 (Appl. 44,782)(E21B-0010/36). (24 pp; 50 claims)

An abrasive-impregnated cutting structure for use in drilling asubterranean formation is described. The abrasive-impregnatedcutting structure may comprise a number of abrasive particlesdispersed within a substantially continuous matrix wherein theabrasive-impregnated cutting structure exhibits an anisotropicwear resistance. One or more of the amount, average size,composition, properties, shape, quality, strength, and concentrationof the abrasive particles may vary within the abrasive-impregnatedcutting structure. Anisotropic wear resistance may relate to aselected direction, such as, for example, one or more of an expecteddirection of engagement of the abrasive-impregnated cuttingstructure with the subterranean formation and an anticipated weardirection. Anisotropic wear resistance of an abrasive-impregnatedcutting structure may be configured for forming or retaining aformation-engaging leading edge thereof. A rotary drag bitincluding at least one abrasive-impregnated cutting structure isdisclosed.

................................................................

DRILL PIPE 914,266

DUAL WALL DRILL STRING ASSEMBLYW.G.Riel and K.L.Church. Can. 2,521,287A1, p. 4/25/2006, f.

9/27/2005, pr. U.S. 10/25/2004 (Appl. 972,885). (49 pp; 45 claims)A coil tubing or jointed dual wall drill string assembly is

described for subsurface drilling. The drill string assembly includesa metallic outer tube having an outer tube first end and an outertube second end opposite the outer tube first end. The assemblyalso includes a flexible, substantially non-metallic inner tube thatis substantially enclosed within and generally coaxially alignedwith the outer tube. The flexible substantially non-metallic innertube has an inner tube first end, an inner tube second end oppositethe inner tube first end, and an inner tube inner diameter. Theinner tube and the outer tube define an annular channeltherebetween. The drill string assembly also includes a means forconveying fluid through the annular channel toward the inner tubefirst end. The annular channel is adapted to convey drilling fluidunder pressure toward the inner tube first end and the inner tubeis adapted to convey cuttings toward the inner tube second end.

................................................................

DRILL PIPE 914,267

DRILL PIPE WITH A DATA PIPEM.Hernandez (Grant Prideco). E&P v.79, no.6, pp.61-62, June

2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)A high-speed, bi-directional intelligent drillstring telemetry

system would provide many benefits. The challenge has been toengineer and build a robust, cost-effective system. The recentlycommercialized IntelliServ Network is such a system. The tubularsare modified to include a high-speed, high-strength data cable alongthe internal diameter and induction coils in the connectionsecondary shoulders, allowing data to be transmitted across eachtool joint interface. The design is based on Grant Prideco’s premiumtubulars, with double-shoulder connections that provide highertorque. This design permits data and command transmission totake place at high speeds (57,000 bps currently) going from surfaceto the downhole tools and back. It opens the door for efficiency bytotally eliminating lengthy surface, pressure pulse-based downlinkcommands used to control downhole equipment such as rotarysteerable or formation pressure tools. This way, logging-while-drilling (LWD) data transmission can take place at any time andunder any drilling conditions. Geologists can get all downhole tooldata, logs and uncompressed images even when total losses arepresent. Since the drill string network does not have a length limit,

extended-reach drilling projects can benefit from the above threeadvantages at any well depth. The network also has been designedto work in parallel with current measurement-while-drilling(MWD) mud-pulse technology. This is especially valuable as rigspread rates and well depths constantly increase.

................................................................

DRILLING RATE 914,268

COMPREHENSIVE DRILL-RATE MANAGEMENT PROCESSTO MAXIMIZE RATE OF PENETRATION

F.E.Dupriest (ExxonMobil Development Co). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102210; Available on CD-ROM; Color;9 pp; 3 refs)

The operator’s drill rate management process is designed tomaximize rate of penetration (ROP) in every foot of hole drilled.Due to its quantitative nature and the degree to which it isincorporated into all phases of the drill well process, the operatorbelieves it to be the industry’s first comprehensive ROP designprocess. The workflow is being implemented uniformly across anorganization drilling approximately 4.5 million feet of hole per yearin a wide range of rock types, directional profiles, and internationallocations. The results to date have been similar in mostapplications with significant gains in ROP, bit life, and reduction intool failures related to vibrations. The workflow evolved fromsurveillance techniques the operator developed to utilizeMechanical Specific Energy (MSE) surveillance to evaluate drillingperformance in real-time. MSE surveillance proved to be aneffective aid in identifying bit and system inefficiency. However,having this knowledge does not ensure the team knows why theinefficiency is occurring, or how to correct it. There areorganizational processes that must also be considered whenmitigation of the problem involves increased mechanical risk,significant changes in established practices, or a high level oftechnical training. MSE is a technology, while the ROPmanagement process is a broad workflow designed to ensure MSEand numerous other sources of data are used effectively tomaximize ROP. Consistent implementation of the workflow hasbeen shown to achieve consistent increases in ROP. The keyelements of the workflow required to achieve this performance arediscussed.

................................................................

DYNAMIC POSITIONING 914,269

SPECIAL REPORT: DEEPWATER CHALLENGES ANDOPPORTUNITIES - WELL-SPECIFIC GUIDELINESADOPTED FOR DYNAMIC POSITIONING

A.Adamson (MENAS). OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.44,pp.48-50,52-53, 11/27/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color; 2 refs)

In the last decade, offshore operators have developed andrefined an emergency response system with standardized formatand nomenclature for dynamically positioned (DP) drillingoperations. For each well or location, a dynamically positioned rig isgiven well-specific operational guidelines (WSOG), which determinewhen alerts should be given and what action is appropriate. Thisarticle discusses the issue of operational limit setting used in DPoperations. It traces the history of WSOG since 1998 and alsoexamines the reasons behind its widespread use in DP drilling andother operations. Modern WSOG has its origins with the OceanAlliance campaign in the late 1990s on the Nyk High, Vema Dome,and Helland Hansen prospects in the Norwegian Sea. The WSOGprinciple was further developed during the 1998-2000commissioning of the drillship West Navion. WSOG became acornerstone of the Statoil DP work requirements document thatbecame the company’s principal corporate DP work requirementdocument TR1029, in 2000. Since then, other major operators haveintroduced corporate dynamic positioning requirements, all ofwhich contain WSOG as the chosen regime for limit settingoffshore. The examples cite the European approach to deepwaterdrilling risk management in terms of limit settings. It alsodiscusses two incidents: one in which WSOG worked as intendedand one in which WSOG failed in its objectives. The articleconcludes with a summary of the reasons WSOG has had suchwidespread use and challenges the industry to ensure its continuedeffective use.

................................................................

52 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 53: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

EASTERN CANADA 914,270

NEW PROJECTS DEVELOP IN CANADIAN MARITIMESN.M.Rach. OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.43, pp.47-50,52,

11/20/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color; 6 refs)New record investments in a deepwater wildcat, shallow water

development projects, shipyards, LNG facilities, and evendiscussion of a new refinery signal continuing belief in Canada’smaritime basins. Chevron Canada Resources is now drilling themost expensive well to-date in Atlantic Canada, a deepwaterwildcat off Newfoundland in the untested East Orphan basin.Presentations at the recent Canadian Offshore Resourcesconference in Halifax, NS, and the Atlantic Canada Energy Summitin St. John, NB, suggest that local firms will need to ramp-upoperations to handle upcoming oil, gas and power projectrequirements. More than 300 firms attended a procurement sessionon EnCana Corp.’ s Deep Panuke project. Canada is wrestling withthe challenge of attracting financial capital to untested basins.Although there is large potential, there is also more inherent risk.Operators continue to pour capital into projects designed tomaximize the value of old, depleted fields, or explore for newreservoirs in well-drilled basins. In 2002, Thomas S. Ahlbrandtclassified the conventional natural gas reserves of Atlantic Canadain the same range as the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin andoffshore Brazil, thought to contain 6-120 tcf. Ahlbrandt expected1-20 billion bbl of conventional oil off eastern Canada, akin toreserves in the WCSB and northwest Australia. The market seesmixed signals from operators because of price fluctuations innatural gas. The two largest operators in Canada, EnCana andCanadian Natural Resources Inc., have both announced they areconsidering capital cutbacks for 2007. If this materializes, it is morelikely to affect drilling plans in western Canada than off the eastcoast.

................................................................

ELECTRIC POWER 914,271

REMO TE POWER MANAGEMENT METHOD AND SYSTEMIN A DOWNHOLE NETWORK

D.R.Hall, D.B.Bartholomew and R.O.K oehler, asrs. (IntelliServInc). Can. 2,537,463A1, p. 9/1/2006, f. 2/22/2006, pr. U.S. 3/1/2005(Appl. 906,668) (E21B-0047/12; H02J-0013/00). (33 pp; 35 claims)

A method for remotely managing downhole power consumptionin a downhole network system is described. The method comprisesthe steps of monitoring an activation state for each of a number ofindividually activatable electrically-powered modules in a downholedevice and determining an optimal activation state for each moduleaccording to system demands. The activation state of each modulemay be selected from the group consisting of activated ordeactivated. The method further comprises the step of transmittinga power state switching instruction from a top-hole processingelement to a downhole power-consumption state controller over thedownhole network. The method also includes the step of switchingthe selected electrically-powered modules according to thedetermined optimal activation states. The downhole network maybe incorporated into a downhole tool string on a drilling rig.

................................................................

FATIGUE 914,272

IMPROVED FATIGUE LIFE THROUGH THE USE OF SAF2507 SUPER DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

K.Larsen and M.Nystrom (Sandvik Materials Technol) andB.Mohr, N.Ames and T.McGaughy (Edison Welding Inst). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;6 refs)

Sandvik Materials Technology (SMT) is actively evaluatingadvanced corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) for fatigue criticalapplications. To date the effort has been focused on deep waterapplications such as drilling, workover and production risers. Thispaper summarizes the results of several fatigue tests performed on254-mm (10-in.) diameter x 14-mm (0.55-in.) wall SAF 2507 pipe.Both full scale fatigue and strip specimen fatigue tests wereperformed. When compared to historical data, these tests exceeded

the expected fatigue life for girth welds in the as-welded conditionin high cycle fatigue tests. Typically it is expected that specimenswith an un-ground root and cap to result in a DNV Class D or Efatigue life. The SAF 2507 specimens performed at or above a DNVClass C. Class C is typically limited to welds that have been givenspecial attention to relieve stress, remove stress concentrators, etc.This program provides a comparison of the fatigue performancebetween welds in SAF 2507 and carbon steel and offers discussionon the importance of various parameters that typically influencefatigue behavior in welds. The objectives of this effort have centeredon gaining a greater understanding of why the fatigue performanceof welds in SAF 2507 appear to be superior to those in conventionalcarbon steel.

................................................................

FINGER BOARD 914,273

FINGERBOARD WITH PNEUMATICALLY ACTUATEDFINGER LATCHES

N.Herst, asr. (Varco I/P Inc). U.S. 7,083,007B2, c. 8/1/2006, f.10/29/2003 (Appl. 696,689) (E21B-0019/14). (15 pp; 26 claims)

A fingerboard having at least one fingerboard row for storing anumber of threaded tubulars is provided. A number of latches areconnected to the at least one fingerboard row for lockingly retainingat least one threaded tubular, wherein each of the number oflatches is movable between a locked position and an unlockedposition. A row controller is connected to each of the latches forindividually and sequentially moving the latches between thelocked and unlocked positions, wherein the row controller ismanually operable from a location remote from the latches suchthat the latches are manually and remotely controlled.

................................................................

FIXED CUTTER BIT 914,274

[R] PDC DRILL BIT USING OPTIMIZED SIDE RAKEDISTRIBUTION THAT MINIMIZED VIBRATION ANDDEVIATION

B.Durairajan, P.T.Cariveau and S.J.Huang, asrs. (SmithInternational Inc). U.S. 2006/0,162,968A1, p. 7/27/2006, f.1/24/2005 (Appl. 41,895) (E21B-0010/43). (49 pp; 31 claims) SRPA#910,932

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,932]................................................................

HEAVE COMPENSATOR 914,275

[R] RAM-TYPE TENSIONER ASSEMBLY HAVINGINTEGRAL HYDRAULIC FLUID ACCUMULATOR

R.D.Williams and L.C.Coffey. U.S. 2006/0,154,764A1, p.7/13/2006, f. 3/3/2006, pr. U.S. 12/9/2002 (Appl. 314,710)(F16H-0007/08; F16H-0007/22). (11 pp; 23 claims) SRPA# 850,202

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #850,202]................................................................

HOLE STABILIZATION 914,276

INVESTIGATION INTO STRENGTHENING METHODS FORSTABILIZING WELLBORES IN FRACTURED FORMATIONS

H.Soroush and J.H.B.Sampaio (Curtin Univ Technology).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101802; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; Over 10 refs)

Over the last decades, drilling through fractured and unstableformations has proven to be challenging, especially in terms ofwellbore instability. Stability of boreholes in these scenariosrequires careful consideration of in-situ stresses, rock strength,pore pressure, wellbore fluid pressure and drilling fluidcharacteristics. This issue is more critical and complex in fracturedrocks because of the need to consider more parameters than inother kinds of rocks. In fractured formations, fractures play animportant role and rock wedges movement controls the instability.Also, fractures fillings are of paramount importance. In spite of thisfact, there are only a few studies on stability of fractured rocks andtheir strengthening methods. The present paper aims to provideinsights into wellbore stabilization in fractured rocks. A broadliterature review was conducted on existing formationstrengthening methods and their effectiveness for fractured

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 53

Page 54: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

formations. The work concludes with some recommendations forthese kinds of formations and proposed topics for additionalresearch and development.

................................................................

JARS 914,277

JAR WITH ADJUSTABLE PRELOADR.W.Evans. U.S. 2006/0,169,456A1, p. 8/3/2006, f. 11/4/2003

(Appl. 700,685) (E21B-0031/107). (19 pp; 16 claims)A jar provided with an adjustable preload has a housing

defining an anvil surface and a mandrel, movable relative to thehousing under an applied load, defining a hammer surface toimpact the anvil surface. A trigger mechanism for releasing themandrel to cause the hammer surface to impact the anvil surfaceincludes a trigger sleeve axially positioned within the housing anda collet that engages the mandrel during application of a load to themandrel to cause the hammer surface to impact the anvil surfaceupon being moved into registration with the trigger sleeve againstthe resistance of a biasing spring disposed within the housing. Thepreload is adjusted by an adjustment mechanism carried by thehousing and coupled to the biasing spring. The adjustmentmechanism includes an adjustment mandrel disposed between anend of the upper housing section and an end of the lower housingsection. The adjustment mandrel is axially movable relative to theupper and lower housing sections. An adjustment sleeve disposedbetween the housing sections and around the adjustment mandrelis coupled to the adjustment mandrel such that rotation of theadjustment sleeve relative to the housing sections produces axialmovement of the adjustment mandrel relative to the housingsections and adjusts compression of the spring such that a requiredapplied load for the mandrel to be moved against the resistance ofthe spring preload is adjusted.

................................................................

LOST CIRCULATION 914,278

SHEAR-TYPE BOREHOLE WALL SHIFTS INDUCEDDURING LOST CIRCULATIONS

D.Iwashita, N.Morita and M.Tominaga (Waseda Univ).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102275; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 10 pp; Over 10 refs)

Three typical borehole wall shifts during lost circulation arestudied and parameter studies are conducted for evaluating themagnitude of the shifts. (1) Slant-crack induced around verticalwells during lost circulation. Parameters varied are the fracsize/wellbore size, frac-angle, borehole pressure and σH1, σH2, σVratio. (2) Borehole wall shifts induced during the drilling of normal,thrust, and strike-slip fault areas. (3) Borehole wall shifts inducedfor an inclined well due to a fracture induced in perpendicular tothe minimum in-situ stress. Previously, stuck pipe problems wereassumed to be caused by borehole breakouts, differential sticking,and cuttings pack offs. However, thorough examinations ofborehole walls using borehole televiewers show that some of themare caused by shear type borehole wall shifts. Most borehole wallshifts are less than 0.5 inches and do not create serious drillingproblems. However, it has been speculated that borehole sizebecomes narrow due to borehole wall shifts. The magnitude ofborehole wall shifts is evaluated using a 3D non-planar fracturemodel with a new 3D dual boundary element method. The modelincludes a slant borehole and a slant circular or elliptical fracturefrom a borehole. Since a 3-D fracture induces three intensity factors(first, second and third type stress intensity factors), the fracturenormally extends in an elliptical rather than circular shape. Themodel is used to analyze borehole wall shifts. The results show thatthe borehole wall shifts are normally minor as observed by boreholeimagers if the induced fractures during lost circulation are small;however, nontrivial borehole wall shifts occur if the lost circulationis serious and the fracture angle is offset from the principal in-situstress directions. In addition, the analysis shows that if theborehole wall shifts are measured while the fracture is open, thedirectional in-situ stress may be inversely evaluated.

................................................................

MUD TREATING 914,279

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING ANDMEASURING SOLIDS FROM MULTI-PHASE WELL FLUIDS

K.Schmigel, D.Speed and P.Stefureak, asrs. (Precision EnergySvcs Ltd). Can. 2,396,682C, c. 9/19/2006, f. 8/2/2002 (Appl.2,396,682) (E21B-0043/34; B01D-0021/00). (31 pp; 20 claims)

A method and apparatus are described for separating andmeasuring solids from multiphase well fluids. The apparatuscomprises (1) a separator; (2) an upper solids level and a lowersolids level sensor, both connected to the separator; (3) a dumpvalve operatively connected to the separator; and (4) a controlmodule operatively connected to the dump valve to move the dumpvalve between an open and a closed position. The upper solids levelsensor generates a first signal when the upper level of accumulatedsolids within the separator reaches a predetermined upper level.The lower solids level sensor generates a second signal when theupper level of accumulated solids within the separator reaches apredetermined lower level. The control module receives the firstand second generated signals such that upon receipt of the firstsignal, the control module causes the dump valve to open. Uponreceipt of the second signal, the control module causes the dumpvalve to close.

................................................................

OIL BASE MUD 914,280

[R] COMPOUNDED HYDROCARBON OIL AND OIL BASEDRILLING FLUIDS PREPARED THEREFROM

J.W.Dobson, Jr., J.M.Fernandez, K.O.Tresco and A.M.Perez,asrs. (Texas United Chem Co LLC). Europe. 1,676,897A1, p.7/5/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. U.S. 1/4/2005 (Appl. 60/641,239)(C09K-0008/34). (9 pp; 22 claims) SRPA# 912,324

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,324]................................................................

PIPE HANDLING 914,281

A PIPE HANDLING DEVICEE.Zachariasen and F.Engenes, asrs. (Sense EDM AS). World

2006/073,312A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/5/2006, pr. Norw. 1/10/2005 (Appl.20,050,110) (E21B-0019/06; E21B-0019/15; E21B-0019/14). (14 pp;10 claims; Also assigned to E.Zachariasen and F.Engenes)

A pipe gripping device for gripping and transport of pipelengths is described. The device comprises at least one gripperhaving two opposite gripping jaws. The gripping jaws have at leasttwo expansions, each of which is adapted to grip a pipe length, thusallowing the gripper to grip at least two pipe lengths at the sametime. In addition, a description is given of an intermediate storagefacility for intermediate storage of pipe lengths, which is arrangedas a mezzanine storage between the drilling position on a drillingdeck and a main pipe rack.

................................................................

POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMND BIT 914,282

PDC DRILL BIT WITH CUTTER DESIGN OPTIMIZED WITHDYNAMIC CENTERLINE ANALYSIS AND HAVINGDYNAMIC CENTERLINE TRAJECTORY

P.T.Cariveau, B.Durairajan and S.J.Huang, asrs. (SmithInternational Inc). U.S. 2006/0,167,668A1, p. 7/27/2006, f.1/24/2005, pr. U.S. 1/24/2005 (Appl. 41,911) (G06G-0007/48). (52 pp;23 claims)

A method for designing a fixed cutter drill bit includessimulating the fixed cutter drill bit drilling in an earth formation,determining a dynamic centerline trajectory of the drill bit, andadjusting at least one design parameter based upon the graphicaldisplay of at least the dynamic centerline trajectory. To improveperformance, the method can include graphically displaying thedynamic centerline trajectory and/or repeating the simulating,determining, displaying and adjusting to change a simulatedperformance of the fixed cutter drill bit. A drill bit design may beselected and a drill bit may be made according to the designresulting from the method of designing.

................................................................

54 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 55: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMND BIT 914,283

[R] PDC DRILL BIT WITH CUTTER DESIGN OPTIMIZEDWITH DYNAMIC CENTERLINE ANALYSIS HAVING ANANGULAR SEPARATION IN IMBALANCE FORCES OF 180DEGREES FOR MAXIMUM TIME

P.T.Cariveau, B.Durairajan and S.J.Huang, asrs. (SmithInternational Inc). U.S. 2006/0,167,669A1, p. 7/27/2006, f.1/24/2005 (Appl. 41,911) (G06G-0007/48). (52 pp; 26 claims) SRPA#914,282

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,282]................................................................

PROPPING MATERIAL 914,284

THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES,PROCESSING FOR THEIR PRODUCTION, AND THEIR USEIN OIL AND NATURAL GAS DRILLING APPLICATIONS

J.Bicerano and R.L.Albright, asrs. (Sun Drilling Products Corp).World 2006/072,069A2, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/30/2005, pr. U.S.12/30/2004 (Appl. 60/640,965) (C09K-0008/06). (80 pp; 89 claims;Also assigned to J.Bicerano and R.L.Albright)

Thermoset polymer particles are used in many applicationsrequiring lightweight particles possessing high stiffness, strength,temperature resistance, and/or resistance to aggressiveenvironments. The use of two different methods, either each byitself or in combination, enhances the stiffness, strength, maximumpossible use temperature, and environmental resistance of suchparticles. One method is the application of post-polymerizationprocess steps (and especially heat treatment) to advance the curingreaction and to thus obtain a more densely crosslinked polymernetwork. In general, its main benefits are the enhancement of themaximum possible use temperature and the environmentalresistance. The other method is the incorporation of nanofillers,resulting in a heterogeneous nanocomposite morphology. Ingeneral, its main benefits are increased stiffness and strength.Nanofiller incorporation and post-polymerization heat treatmentcan also be combined to obtain the benefits of both methodssimultaneously. The innovation relates to the development ofthermoset nanocomposite particles. It also relates to the optionalfurther improvement of the heat resistance and environmentalresistance of the particles via post-polymerization heat treatment.Furthermore, it also relates to processes for the manufacture of theparticles. Finally, it also relates to the use of the particles in theconstruction, drilling, completion and/or fracture stimulation of oiland natural gas wells; for example, as a proppant partialmonolayer, a proppant pack, an integral component of a gravel packcompletion, a ball bearing, a solid lubricant, a drilling mudconstituent, and/or a cement additive.

................................................................

PRO TECT OR (PIPE) 914,285

PRO TECT ORS SOLVE LOOP CURRENT ISSUESS.Mitchell (Eastern Well Tool) and M.Reel, R.Littleton, R.Cody

and H.Stallings (Pioneer Natural Resources). THE AMERICANOIL & GAS REPORTER v.49, no.6, pp.86,89,91, June 2006. (ISSN0145-9198; Color)

Deflection caused by loop currents can lead to millions ofdollars worth of downtime each year on floating drilling rigsoperating in 3,000 feet or more of water. This is especially true inthe Gulf of Mexico, where loop currents can exceed 3 knots. Thesecurrents stress the riser, wellhead, and subsea blowout preventer(BOP) wellhead systems, and challenge the vessel’s ability tomaintain position over the well. On these rigs, the riser is held attwo points: at the vessel and at the seafloor. The riser is attached atthe surface by a ball joint assembly, which is connected to themotion compensators to maintain the correct tension in the riserassembly. The riser column is secured to the seafloor assembly by aflex joint (typically, a subsea BOP and flex joint package). Both theflex joint and ball joint allow the riser to flex and absorb themovement and loads placed on it while drilling the well. Currentscause the riser to deflect through three mechanisms. First, the riserdeflects in the direction of the current as a result of fluid dragcreated by the current. Because this drag increased rapidly, evensmall increases in current speed can significantly increase riserdeflection. Second, the riser is subject to deflection caused by

vortices that it sheds as the current flows around its outsidesurface. This deflection is often difficult to predict. Last, the riserdeflects as the vessel moves and drifts. This occurs whether thevessel is moored or dynamically positioned with thrusters. Becauseof component wear and the potential for damage, drillingcontractors generally specify an angle beyond which the rig shouldstop drilling. Pioneer Natural Resources USA Inc. found a solutionwhile operating a semi-submersible rig in 3,500 feet of water in theGulf. Previous protocols called for suspending operations whenflex/ball joint angles exceeded 0.5 degree. At the start of the well,strong currents resulted in significant downtime as the rig waitedfor currents to subside, wasting millions of dollars on every welldrilled. To solve the problem, Pioneer installed nonrotating drillpipe protectors on each joint of drill pipe. The protectors are sleevesmade from a tough, but flexible polymer that are free to rotate onthe pipe.

................................................................

REAMER (WELL) 914,286

[R] DOWNHOLE TOOLA.Ollerenshaw and M.Russell, asrs. (Cutting Wear Resis Dev

Ltd). World 2006/072,761A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/20/2005, pr. Gr.Brit. 1/4/2005 (Appl. 0,500,019) (E21B-0010/32; E21B-0017/10;E21B-0007/06). (24 pp; 23 claims; Also assigned to A.Ollerenshawand M.Russell) SRPA# 910,329

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,329]................................................................

SETTLING TANK 914,287

SETTLING TANK AND METHOD FOR SEPARATING ASOLIDS CONTAINING FLUID

D.R.Smith, asr. (BOS Rentals Ltd). Can. 2,485,875A1, p.4/22/2006, f. 10/22/2004 (Appl. 2,485,875). (75 pp; 48 claims)

A method and a settling tank are described for use inseparating a solids containing fluid, such as a drilling fluid. Thesettling tank includes a settling compartment comprised of an inletand an upper outlet so that the fluid passes through the settlingcompartment generally in a first direction from the inlet toward theupper outlet. Further, a backwash fluid source directs a backwashfluid within the settling compartment generally in a seconddirection which is substantially opposite to the first direction. Themethod includes the steps of passing the fluid through the settlingcompartment generally in the first direction and directing thebackwash fluid within the settling compartment generally in thesecond direction. Finally, a method is also provided for clarifying asolids containing fluid using a settling tank, wherein the settlingtank is comprised of at least three isolatable settling compartmentsconnected in series.

................................................................

SHALE CONTROL 914,288

INHIBITION OF CLAY OR SHALEM.Singh, B.Dymond, A.F.Hooley and K.C.Symes, asrs. (CIBA

Chem Water Treat Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,420,572A, p. 5/31/2006, f.11/10/2004 (Appl. 0,424,768) (C09K-0008/60; C09K-0008/24;E21B-0043/25). (29 pp; 21 claims)

Methods of reducing or preventing the disintegration of clayand/or shale in a subterranean formation or well bore are providedby the use of an aqueous drilling fluid containing a polymeric shaleand/or clay stabilizer. The method of reducing or preventing thedisintegration of clay and/or shale in a subterranean formation or awell bore is accomplished by bringing an aqueous fluid comprising apolymer into contact with the clay and/or shale, and in which thepolymer is a copolymer by the reaction of an oligomeric orpolymeric substrate with at least one ethylenically unsaturatedmonomer, wherein the reaction is conducted in the presence of atype II photo initiator and by the action of actinic radiation.

................................................................

SIDETRACKING 914,289

A SIDETRACKING SYSTEMM.C.Neff. Gr. Brit. 2,420,359A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/23/2004

(Appl. 0,425,768) (E21B-0007/08; E21B-0029/06). (15 pp; 20 claims)A sidetracking system has a pair of serially connected mills,

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 55

Page 56: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

each having a number of circumferentially arranged blades havinga tapered cutting portion thereon for cutting a window in a casingand then sidetracking in a formation. A whipstock has at leastthree axially spaced ramps, each ramp being interspaced by asubstantially axially extending portion. Each of the ramps has thesame angle of inclination to a longitudinal axis and the distancebetween the ramps is the same as the distance between the taperedportions on the mills so that when, in operation, load is sharedbetween both mills. The mills have a button of hardened materiallocated on the tapered cutting portions so that the button abradesthe whipstock ramps.

................................................................

SIDETRACKING 914,290

[R] ONE TRIP MILLING SYSTEMM.C.Neff. World 2006/056,735A1, p. 6/1/2006, f. 11/4/2005, pr.

Gr. Brit. 11/23/2004 (Appl. 0,425,768) (E21B-0007/06;E21B-0010/26). (15 pp; 10 claims) SRPA# 914,289

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,289]................................................................

SILICATE BASE FLUID 914,291

NOVEL KCl/SILICATE DRILLING FLUIDS FORALLEVIATING PROBLEMS IN TROUBLESOME SHALEFORMATIONS IN SUDAN

J.Guo and J.Yan (Petroleum Univ, Beijing), W.Fan and H.Zhang(Great Wall Drilling Co), Q.Wang (Xinjiang Petrol Admin Bur) andZ.Yu (Changqing Oilfield). PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4,pp.34-40, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107; 4 refs)

For several decades, wells drilled in Block 6, Sudan, haveexperienced serious hole-instability problems related to drillingfluids due to the highly reactive and dispersive shales that exist inthe Aradeiba and Abu Gabra formations. These problems includedwashout hole sections combined with tight holes, as well as serioussloughing. Frequent wiper trips were required and logging of thewells was not usually successful. Previously, several conventionalinhibitive water-based drilling fluids such as KCl/polymer,KCl/lime/polymer and KCl/PHPA (partially hydrolyzedpolyacrylamide) have been used in this area, but with onlymarginal improvements in hole stability and drilling performance.Recently, a newly formulated KCl/sodium silicate system, which ischaracterized by the good rheological properties and filtrationcontrol, was developed and used for providing the necessaryinhibitive character. The first trial well was drilled with this kind ofdrilling fluid in Block 6, Sudan, and the following benefits wereobserved: (1) Excellent integrity exhibited by drilled cuttings forshale formations; (2) Stable borehole kept with lower mud weight;(3) Reduced wiper trips; and (4) In-gauge borehole shown fromcaliper logs. Later on, five more wells were drilled with theKCl/sodium silicate system in this area. It was found that theKCl/sodium silicate system can fully meet the demands of drillingoperations in this area. Case studies are presented in this paper interms of wiper trips, inhibitive character of cuttings, hole conditionsand mud weight.

................................................................

STEEL 914,292

[R] STEEL PRODUCT FOR OIL COUNTRY TUBULARGOOD

T.Itou, asr. (Sumitomo Metal Inds Ltd). U.S. 7,083,686B2, c.8/1/2006, f. 7/22/2005, pr. Japan 7/26/2004 (Appl. 2004-216,694)(C21D-0011/00; C22C-0038/22). (7 pp; 4 claims) SRPA# 898,442

[For abstract, see Abstract #898,442]................................................................

THERMAL DRILLING 914,293

[R] A PERCUSSIVE DRILLING SYSTEMB.P.Jeffryes, asr. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.

2,420,358A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/17/2004 (Appl. 0,425,312)(E21B-0001/00; E21B-0004/06; E21B-0004/12; E21B-0004/14;E21B-0007/08; E21B-0007/14; E21B-0007/24; E21B-0010/36). (26pp; 37 claims) SRPA# 912,336

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,336]................................................................

TOP DRIVE DRILLING 914,294

TOP DRIVE TORQUE BOOSTERD.Shahin and K.Heidecke, asrs. (Weatherford/Lamb Inc). Gr.

Brit. 2,422,163A, p. 7/19/2006, f. 1/18/2006, pr. U.S. 1/18/2005 (Appl.60/644,661) (E21B-0019/16). (19 pp; 27 claims)

A method and an apparatus are described for providingadditional torque in a top drive system for rotating a tubularduring drilling, running and/or handling operations. The apparatusincludes a gear arrangement operatively connected to a top drive toincrease the amount of available torque for rotating the tubular. Inan alternative version, a gear box is operatively connected to thetop drive to boost the amount of torque available for rotating thetubular.

................................................................

UNDERBALANCED PRESSURE 914,295

USE OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS FOR HORIZONTALWELL DRILLING IN UNDERBALANCED PRESSURECONDITIONS

S.A.Ryabokon, V.I.Badovskaya, B.A.Martynov and A.A.Boyarkin(Bureniye). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1,pp.28-31, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 4 refs; In Russian)

A technique which allows determination of the rheologicalcharacteristics of drilling mud is offered. Hydrocarbon compositionsfor horizontal drilling are in underbalanced pressure conditionschosen. Aerated thickened hydrocarbon systems are tested underfield conditions.

................................................................

WEIGHTING MATERIAL 914,296

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR HARVESTING WEIGHTINGAGENT FINES

N.Browne and M.Kapila, asrs. (M-I LLC). U.S.2006/0,169,809A1, p. 8/3/2006, f. 1/31/2005 (Appl. 46,983)(B02C-0023/08; C09K-0008/00). (15 pp; 14 claims)

A method for harvesting weighting agent fines includes millingthe weighting agent into a number of pieces, classifying the piecesbased on size to extract those particles having a particle size lessthan an acceptable maximum diameter, reclassifying the piecesbased on size to extract those particles having a particle size lessthan an acceptable minimum diameter, collecting the particleshaving a particle size between the standard acceptable minimumand maximum diameters, and collecting the particles having aparticle size less than the acceptable minimum diameter. A systemfor harvesting weighting agent fines includes a mill to reduce theweighting agent particle size, a first classifier to extract particleshaving a particle size less than the acceptable maximum diameter,a second classifier to extract particles having a particle size lessthan the acceptable minimum diameter, a fine particle collectionarea, and a coarse particle collection area.

................................................................

WEIGHTING MATERIAL 914,297

[R] METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR HARVESTINGWEIGHTING AGENT FINES

N.Browne and M.Kapila, asrs. (M-I LLC). World2006/083,757A2, p. 8/10/2006, f. 1/30/2006, pr. U.S. 1/31/2005 (Appl.46,983) (B02C-0023/08; C09K-0008/00). (22 pp; 14 claims) SRPA#914,296

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,296]................................................................

WELL SAMPLING 914,298

[R] A MARKING SYSTEM FOR A WELL SITE SAMPLEUSING EITHER RFID TAGS, BARCODES OR THE LIKE

S.Bargach, L.Reid, S.Betancourt, O.C.Mullins, C.S.Del Campoand A.C.Kishino, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,421,337A, p. 6/21/2006, f. 11/18/2005, pr. U.S. 12/16/2004 (Appl.14,327) (E21B-0047/00; B01L-0003/00; G06K-0019/00). (17 pp; 28claims) SRPA# 910,966

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,966]................................................................

56 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 57: Petroleum Abstracts

DRILLING (WELL)

WHIPST OCKING 914,299

FLUID DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR MILLING HEADI.A.Gillies, asr. Gr. Brit. 2,421,749A, p. 7/5/2006, f. 12/30/2005,

pr. Gr. Brit. 12/30/2004 (Appl. 0,428,452) and Gr. Brit. 6/6/2005(Appl. 0,511,358) (E21B-0007/06). (37 pp; 37 claims; Assigned toI.Gillies)

A fluid delivery system suitable for a milling whipstock systemcomprises a fluid inlet vessel, an anchor fluid delivery vesselconnected to the inlet vessel and defining an anchor flow path tosupply fluid to an anchor and a milling head delivery vessel alsoconnected to the inlet vessel. A barrier is located between the inletvessel and the milling head fluid delivery vessel, the barrieradapted to open when exposed to fluid under a predeterminedpressure to allow fluid to flow from the inlet vessel along themilling head flow path. The barrier may be a rupture disc. Alsodescribed is a whipstock having a deflection face inclined at lessthan 10 degrees. Also described is a whipstock adapted to beconnected to a milling head by a pair of tines.

................................................................

WHIPST OCKING 914,300

[R] IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO A WHIPST OCKSYSTEM

I.A.Gillies, asr. World 2006/070,204A2, p. 7/6/2006, f.12/30/2005, pr. Gr. Brit. 12/30/2004 (Appl. 0,428,452) and Gr. Brit.6/6/2005 (Appl. 0,511,358) (E21B-0029/06; E21B-0007/06). (30 pp;33 claims; Assigned to I.Gillies) SRPA# 914,299

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,299]................................................................

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

ACOUSTICS 914,301

DATA ACQUISITION WITH ADVANCED ACOUSTICTELEMETRY IMPROVES OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY INDEEPWATER AND LAND-WELL TESTING - CASEHIST ORIES

M.Azari, A.Salguero, E.Almanza and H.Kool (HalliburtonEnergy Service). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-101182; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 16 pp; 6 refs)

A new Acoustic Telemetry System (ATS) that obtains real-timebottomhole pressure and temperature data without the use ofwireline has been introduced in the oilfield. Traditionally, wirelinehas been used to acquire bottomhole surface read-out (SRO) data inreal time during well-test operations. The operational hazardspossible when using wireline in deep water subsea safety systemshave increased safety risks in certain applications. This paperdiscusses a new system that uses acoustic telemetry and operateswith either down-hole latching or with a download probe located inclose proximity to the transmitting device. The system wasdesigned for land rigs, offshore jack-up rigs, and deepwater floatingrigs. In addition to wireless data transmission to surface, thesystem has downhole memory gauges that record data independentof the real-time SRO interval rates. The system is also capable ofbidirectional acoustical communication, which allows commands tobe sent from surface to operate downhole instruments. The qualityof data compares excellently with downhole memory gauge data.Other operational advantages of the system include the fact that (1)testing equipment can be in the well prior to firing the perforatingguns, (2) reduced rig time can reduce operational costs, and (3)personnel and environmental safety are increased. In case oftransmitting the data via the wall of the testing pipe, there is noneed for a probe or latching device. The two case histories, whichare presented in this paper, will describe system use and verify itsadvantages.

................................................................

ANCHOR (WELL) 914,302

[R] SONDE SECURING BY CLAMP ACTIVATED BYSOLID/LIQUID PHASE CHANGE

P.S.Jaques and R.H.Jones, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd;Schlumberger Oilfld UK plc). Gr. Brit. 2,421,039A, p. 6/14/2006, f.12/9/2004 (Appl. 0,426,980) (G01V-0011/00; E21B-0023/01;E21B-0047/00). (16 pp; 19 claims) SRPA# 912,339

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,339]................................................................

BOREHOLE IMAGING 914,303

INTEGRATION OF BOREHOLE IMAGING, OPENHOLELOGS, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE/MODULARDYNAMIC TESTER, AND ADVANCED PRODUCTIONLOGGING AS A GUIDE FOR PERFORATION INTERVALSSELECTION IN THIN-BEDDED SANDS AND SHALES

A.M.Daoud, M.Eisa, R.El-Mahdy and M.Emam (Schlumberger)and A.H.Hashem and A.S.Elhawary (El-Mansoura Oil Co).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102256; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; Over 10 refs)

Specifying the perforating intervals and evaluating theproductivity of thin-bedded sands and shales is critical for wellcompletion cost optimization. This requires the accurateidentification of hydrocarbon-bearing sands and their contributionto production. In this paper we present a technique to integrate thedetection of hydrocarbon-bearing sands with water saturationinformation and an estimation of permeability. Hydrocarbonbearing sands are detected by high-resolution resistivity fromborehole-imaging tools combined with water saturation fromopenhole logs (OHL), and permeability from nuclear magneticresonance (NMR) or a modular dynamic tester tool. We use thegeostatistical concept of indicators to convert the inputs from thesetools into binary data (0 and 1) based on the best selected cutoffsfor those inputs, where a value of 1 means that location is good toperforate. The results of this integration are compared to theresults from the production logging tool that is sensitive to thelaminated sand units for evaluating its actual productivity. Thebest cutoffs to select for those parameters are to good agreementwith the production logging tool results. The result is a set ofoptimized perforation intervals consistent with all the data, inaddition to the certainty percent associated with the selection ofperforation intervals. Three gas wells producing from the sameformation were used to apply this technique. One of the three wellswas used to select the best cutoffs. For the other two wells, we usedthe same cutoffs to select the best perforation intervals anddetermine the certainty associated with them. The correct selectionof the perforation intervals from the two wells was confirmed withthe production testing and production logging results.

................................................................

CALIPER LOGGING 914,304

[R] MEASURING BOREHOLE PROFILE AND STEERING ADRILL STRING

R.Martinez, J.W.Smits, R.Taherian and B.Clark, asrs.(Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,420,802A, p. 6/7/2006, f.11/24/2005, pr. U.S. 12/1/2004 (Appl. 60/632,564) and U.S.12/20/2004 (Appl. 18,340) (E21B-0047/08; E21B-0007/06;E21B-0047/09; G01B-0007/13; E21B-0017/10). (23 pp; 50 claims)SRPA# 907,576

[For abstract, see Abstract #907,576]................................................................

CEMENT BOND LOGGING 914,305

DETERMINATION OF THE IMPEDANCE OF A MATERIALBEHIND A CASING COMBINING TWO SETS OFULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS

R.Van Kuijk, J.L.Le Calvez and B.Froelich, asrs. (SchlumbergerServ Petrol; Schlumberger Technol BV; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd;Prad Research & Develop NV; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). Europe.1,672,168A1, p. 6/21/2006, f. 12/20/2004 (Appl. 04,293,062)(E21B-0047/00; G01V-0001/44; G01V-0001/50). (15 pp; 7 claims)

A method is provided for estimating an impedance of a material

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 57

Page 58: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

behind a casing wall, wherein the casing is disposed in a boreholedrilled in a geological formation, and wherein a borehole fluid isfilling the casing, the material being disposed in an annulusbetween the casing and the geological formation, the method usinga logging tool positionable inside the casing and the methodcomprising exciting a first acoustic wave in the casing byinsonifying the casing with a first pulse, the first acoustic wavehaving a first mode that is either of a flexural mode or anextensional mode; receiving one or more echoes from the firstacoustic wave, and producing a first signal; extracting from the firstsignal a first equation with two acoustic properties unknowns for,respectively, the material and the borehole fluid; exciting a secondacoustic wave in the casing by insonifying the casing with a secondpulse, the second acoustic wave having a thickness mode; receivingone or more echoes from the second acoustic wave, and producing asecond signal; extracting from the second signal a second equationwith the two acoustic properties unknowns; extracting the acousticproperties of the material behind the casing wall from the first andthe second equations.

................................................................

CEMENT BOND LOGGING 914,306

METHOD TO MEASURE AND LOCATE A FLUIDCOMMUNICATION PATHWAY IN A MATERIAL BEHIND ACASING

B.Frolich, asr. (Schlumberger Serv Petrol; SchlumbergerTechnol BV; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd; Prad Research & DevelopNV; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). Europe. 1,672,169A1, p.6/21/2006, f. 12/20/2004 (Appl. 04,293,063) (E21B-0047/00;E21B-0047/10; G01V-0011/00). (16 pp; 14 claims)

A method is provided for measuring and locating a fluidcommunication pathway in a material behind a casing wall,wherein the material is disposed in an annulus between the casingand a geological formation. The method comprises (1) measuring aset of parameters of the material behind the casing within a rangeof radius, depths and azimuthal angles; (2) defining sectionscomprising a sub-set of parameters wherein the sub-set ofparameters is taken in the set of parameters for a given range ofradius, depths and azimuthal angles included in the range ofradius, depths and azimuthal angles; (3) defining for each section afirst limit zone and a second limit zone in frontier of the givenrange; determining among the sections the ones that comprise acontinuous fluid communication pathway from the first limit zoneto the second limit zone, the sections being renamed in retainedsections; (4) determining from the continuous fluid communicationpathway an area or a width of pathway versus depth for each of theretained sections; (5) extracting a fluid communication index versusdepth for the material behind the casing, wherein the fluidcommunication index versus depth depends on the area or width forretained sections and, is equal to zero for non-retained sections; (6)reducing from the fluid communication index the existence andlocation of fluid communication pathway in the material behind thecasing wall.

................................................................

CEMENT BOND LOGGING 914,307

THE USE OF LAMB WAVES IN CEMENT BOND LOGGINGA.Bolshakov, V.Dubinsky, D.Patterson, X.M.Tang, J.Barolak,

R.B.Alers and G.A.Alers, asrs. (Baker Hughes Inc). Can.2,536,446A1, p. 9/2/2006, f. 2/14/2006, pr. U.S. 3/2/2005 (Appl.70,037) (E21B-0049/00; E21B-0033/14; G01N-0029/04;G01N-0029/11). (18 pp; 19 claims)

A method and apparatus are useful to determine the integrityof a cement bond log disposed in the annular space between acasing and a wellbore. The method and apparatus induce a Lambwa ve in the casing and into the wellbore. The Lamb waveattenuates upon passage through the cement bond log. Theintegrity of the cement bond log can be determined through ananalysis and evaluation of the attenuation results.

................................................................

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 914,308

[R] WELLBORE COMMUNICATION UTILISING BOTHHARDWIRE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

H.Ohmer, asr. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,421,040A, p. 6/14/2006, f. 11/18/2005, pr. U.S. 12/9/2004 (Appl.905,012) (E21B-0047/12; E21B-0017/00; E21B-0047/14). (18 pp; 40claims) SRPA# 909,636

[For abstract, see Abstract #909,636]................................................................

COOLING EQUIPMENT 914,309

COOLING APPARATUS AND METHODJ.C.Mayes, asr. (Schlumberger Technol Corp). U.S.

2006/0,162,931A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/27/2005 (Appl. 905,954)(E21B-0036/00; E21B-0043/24). (12 pp; 23 claims)

An apparatus and method provide for cooling of a systemhaving an energy source, one or more devices that actively consumeenergy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The apparatuscomprises one or more thermoelectric coolers (TECs) disposed inconductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generatingdevices, and an energy diverter disposed for diverting at least aportion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumedby the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs. In thismanner, cooling is provided for the cooler-engaged heat-generatingdevices. The system comprises a tool string conveyed within aborehole. In such versions, the one or more TECs are carried by thetool string in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices. The tool string may, e.g., be part of a drill stringconveyed within the borehole, or the tool string may be conveyedwithin the borehole on a wireline.

................................................................

CORROSION TESTING 914,310

[R] DOWNHOLE CORROSION MONITORE.Atherton, asr. (CAPCIS Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,420,856A, p.

6/7/2006, f. 12/3/2004 (Appl. 0,426,551) (G01N-0017/02). (17 pp; 10claims) SRPA# 908,291

[For abstract, see Abstract #908,291]................................................................

ELECTRIC CABLE 914,311

[R] ELECTRICAL CABLESJ.P.Varkey, W.A.Wijnberg, F.Arif, A.Singh, J.Arnaud, J.C.Nguyen

et al., asrs. (Schlumberger Canada Ltd; Schlumberger Serv Petrol;Schlumberger Holdings Ltd; Schlumberger Technol BV). World2006/070,314A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/20/2005, pr. U.S. 12/28/2004(Appl. 24,305) (H01B-0007/04). (29 pp; 15 claims; Also assigned toJ.P.Varkey, W.A.Wijnberg, F.Arif, A.Singh, J.Arnaud, J.C.Nguyenand B.J.Kim) SRPA# 911,596

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,596]................................................................

FIBER OPTICS 914,312

RANDOM REFRACTIVE INDEX MODULATED OPTICALFIBERS

B.A.Childers, asr. (Baker Hughes Inc; Luna Energy LLC). Gr.Brit. 2,421,586A, p. 6/28/2006, f. 12/23/2005, pr. U.S. 12/23/2004(Appl. 20,955) (G02B-0006/02). (20 pp; 24 claims)

An optical fiber contains one or more random modulationscapable of reflecting one or more random wavelengths of lightpassing through the optical fiber. Each modulation is a section ofthe optical fiber in which the refractive index has been modified ora section of random refractive index optical fiber that has beenspliced into the optical fiber. The optical fiber is produced bymodifying the refractive index of at least one portion of the opticalfiber through photo-etching, photo-bleaching, ultraviolet radiationexposure or splicing. The optical fiber containing the randommodulation is used to measure one or more engineering parametersby locating the section or portion of the optical fiber containing therandom modulation in an area where the engineering parameter isto be measured and measuring the engineering parameter, e.g.optical frequency domain reflectometry. In the petroleum industry,for example, it is important to accurately measure environmentalparameters, such as the pressure or temperature being experiencedat a certain depth, using an optical fiber, or the strain on thatoptical fiber at a certain depth. For instance, while drilling, the drillbit may drill into a high pressure layer, and from at least a safety

58 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 59: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

and environmental standpoint it is important to obtain accuratepressure information. Optical fibers can be used to communicatecertain environmental and physical parameters from wells beingdrilled, as well as from already completed wells.

................................................................

GAMMA RAY LOGGING 914,313

CORRECTIONS OF GAMMA-RAY RESPONSESC.Stoller, M.Evans and C.Flaum, asrs. (Schlumberger Canada

Ltd). Can. 2,537,790A1, p. 8/28/2006, f. 2/27/2006, pr. U.S.2/28/2005 (Appl. 60/657,180) and U.S. 2/15/2006 (Appl. 307,629).(23 pp; 12 claims)

A system and method are described for formation logging, usinga gamma-ray detector. The techniques include (1) acquiringgamma-ray signals using the gamma-ray detector, the acquiredgamma-ray signals having energies that span at least a first-energyregion and a second-energy region, wherein the first-energy regionincludes energies higher than a selected threshold and the second-energy region includes energies lower than the selected threshold;(2) determining interference signals based on the acquired gamma-ray signals in the first-energy region; and (3) correcting theacquired gamma-ray signals in the second-energy region based onthe interference signals to provide corrected gamma-ray signals.

................................................................

LIQUID VISCOSITY 914,314

RESERVOIR CRUDE-OIL VISCOSITY ESTIMATION FROMWIRELINE NMR MEASUREMENTS RAJASTHAN, INDIA

R.J.Zittel, D.Beliveau, T.O’Sullivan and R.Mohanty (CairnEnergy India Ltd) and J.Miles (Oil Optimizers Ltd). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101689; Available on CD-ROM; Color;11 pp; 9 refs)

In 2004, the Mangala, Aishwariya, and Bhagyam fields werediscovered in Rajasthan, India. Oil viscosity is a main factorcontrolling performance from these high-permeability paraffinicreservoirs. PVT data show areal and vertical variations in crudeproperties. Meter-by-meter geochemical core data corroboratesvertical variations in oil composition. Continuous wirelinemeasurements of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) propertiesand station NMR properties from wells drilled with both water-based (WBM) and synthetic oil-based muds (OBM) were also usedto calculate a viscosity profile. This paper correlates results from alltechniques and shows how NMR measurements can provide oilviscosity profiles in compositionally-complex pools. Black oil PVTsamples typically test several meters of reservoir, while Rajasthangeochemical data is available at meter-scale. NMR logs providecontinuous data and, calibrated to PVT and geochemistry, canprovide the most detailed picture of in situ viscosity variations.Results were used to construct a detailed spatial description of thereservoir’s in situ oil viscosity. The NMR data helped define a zoneof biodegraded oil up to ca 25 meters thick above the oil watercontact (OWC) and showed thin accumulations of higher viscosityoil on top of minor shale layers within oil columns. The majorconclusion is that detailed in situ oil viscosity profiles can bedeveloped from conventional wireline T2 measurements.Techniques presented allow quick and accurate calculation of oilviscosity profiles from wireline logs and can reduce the need fortime-consuming detailed geochemical measurements. Resultsdirectly impacted the static and dynamic modeling of the Rajasthanfields and proposed waterflood designs (different for each field).Procedures described are generally applicable to reservoirs withsimilar datasets.

................................................................

LITHOLOGIC LOGGING 914,315

[R] METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PREDICTIVESTRATIGRAPHY IMAGES

F.Kelfoun, asr. (Baker Hughes Inc). U.S. 2006/0,161,406A1, p.7/20/2006, f. 11/14/2005, pr. U.S. 11/12/2004 (Appl. 60/627,569)(G06G-0007/48). (16 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 908,883

[For abstract, see Abstract #908,883]................................................................

MUD PULSE TELEMETRY 914,316

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANTI-JAM TELEMETRY TOOLH.Ganesan and N.Mayzenberg, asrs. (Schlumberger Technol

Corp). U.S. 2006/0,164,917A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/27/2005 (Appl.905,953) (H04H-0009/00). (11 pp; 20 claims)

A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motordisposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to themotor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool mayalso include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictordisposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magneticcoupling, so that the restrictor and the stator are adapted togenerate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor isselectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jammagnet coupled to the tool housing, and a second anti-jam magnetdisposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to theinner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the firstanti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is anelectromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and thesecond anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.

................................................................

MUD PULSE TELEMETRY 914,317

METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR TRANSMITTING ANDRECEIVING A DISCRETE MULTI-T ONE MODULATEDSIGNAL IN A FLUID

W.R.Gardner and V.V.Shah, asrs. (Halliburton Energy Service).U.S. 2006/0,164,918A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/13/2005 (Appl. 35,107)(H04H-0009/00). (21 pp; 28 claims)

Methods and systems are provided for transmitting andreceiving a discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulated signal in a fluid.Some examples may be a method comprising transforming an inputdata series into an information-carrying signal (the information-carrying signal carrying input data from the input data series asmodulations of at least one of a number of evenly spaced frequencybins), and applying the information-carrying signal to a transducerthat converts the information-carrying signal into pressurevariations within a fluid. The telemetry system comprising adownhole tool comprising a sensor that generates downhole data, asubsurface telemetry transmitter coupled to the downhole tool (thesubsurface telemetry transmitter generates a first pressure-modulated signal in a fluid that comprises a number of evenlyspaced frequency bins), and a surface telemetry receiver thatdetects the first pressure-modulated signal and regenerates thedownhole data collected by the downhole tool.

................................................................

NEUTRON LOGGING 914,318

[R] SIGMA/POROSITY TOOLS WITH NEUTRON MONITORSC.Stoller, P.Wraight and R.A.Adolph, asrs. (Schlumberger

Canada Ltd). Can. 2,537,671A1, p. 8/28/2006, f. 2/27/2006, pr. U.S.2/28/2005 (Appl. 60/657,180) and U.S. 2/15/2006 (Appl. 307,630)(G01V-0005/10). (21 pp; 17 claims) SRPA# 914,313

[For abstract, see Abstract #914,313]................................................................

NEUTRON LOGGING 914,319

[R] APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR INTERLACEDDENSITY AND NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS

R.J.Radtke, M.Evans and C.Flaum, asrs. (Schlumberger CanadaLtd). Can. 2,537,714A1, p. 8/28/2006, f. 2/27/2006, pr. U.S.2/28/2005 (Appl. 60/657,180) and U.S. 2/15/2006 (Appl. 307,632)(G01V-0005/14; G01V-0005/08). (23 pp; 12 claims) SRPA# 914,313

[For abstract, see Abstract #914,313]................................................................

NMR FLOWMETER 914,320

[R] NMR [NUCLEAR MAGNETIC LOGGING]MEASUREMENT OF FLOWING FLUIDS

U.Scheven, asr. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,420,859A, p. 6/7/2006, f. 11/10/2005, pr. U.S. 11/10/2004 (Appl.985,476) (G01V-0003/32). (35 pp; 47 claims) SRPA# 906,975

[For abstract, see Abstract #906,975]................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 59

Page 60: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC LOGGING 914,321

[R] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DEMAGNETIZING ABOREHOLE

T.Kruspe, asr. (Baker Hughes Inc). U.S. 2006/0,170,425A1, p.8/3/2006, f. 12/9/2005, pr. U.S. 12/13/2004 (Appl. 60/635,844)(G01V-0003/18). (26 pp; 24 claims) SRPA# 911,601

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,601]................................................................

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC LOGGING 914,322

CHALLENGES FOR EVERYDAY NMR: AN OPERATOR’SPERSPECTIVE

R.Akkurt, D.G.K ersey and K.Zainalabedin (Saudi Aramco).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102247; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; Over 10 refs)

State-of-the-art Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)applications can be classified into two categories: (1) basicapplications designed for total porosity, bound water andpermeability, (2) advanced applications that address hydrocarbontype, viscosity and flushed zone hydrocarbon saturation, amongstsome others. An NMR log designed for basic applications--especiallya T1 log--can provide accurate porosity information in shaly sandsand complex carbonates; answer questions related to reservoirquality and producibility; and easily identify gas or tar zones. Giventhe obvious benefits of such information for routine petrophysicalanalysis and timely business decisions, one would assume thatNMR logging would already be an everyday phenomenon information evaluation. Unfortunately, NMR has yet to enter themain stream of everyday logging: it is still considered a specialty,requiring the involvement of experts from the planning to theinterpretation stages. Partially due to historical reasons, but moreso for cost justification and product differentiation, servicecompanies have traditionally focused on advanced applications.Hence, despite significant advances made in all phases of thetechnology, concentrating on sophisticated methodologies hasresulted in slow logging speeds and high costs, in addition tocomplex data acquisition, processing and interpretation procedures.Turning the everyday-NMR concept into a reality will requirestandardization of the service and proper hardware that is free ofthe limitations of the existing tools. The main objective of thispaper is to discuss specific strategies to achieve the everyday-NMRgoal for wireline and LWD logging. The proposed strategies includenot only the technical requirements, but also the initiativesrequired from both the operators and service companies.

................................................................

REMO TE SENSOR 914,323

MATCHING LAYER ASSEMBLY FOR A DOWNHOLEACOUSTIC SENSOR

E.Yogeswaren, asr. (PathFinder Energy Svcs Inc). U.S.7,075,215B2, c. 7/11/2006, f. 7/3/2003 (Appl. 613,268)(H01L-0041/08). (18 pp; 47 claims)

An acoustic sensor for use in a downhole measurement tool isprovided. The acoustic sensor includes a piezoelectric transducerand a matching layer assembly having at least one matching layerand a barrier layer. In various exemplary embodiments, the at leastone matching layer includes first and second matching layersformed from a glass ceramic work piece, and the barrier layerincludes corrugated titanium. Exemplary versions mayadvantageously withstand the extreme temperatures, pressures,and mechanical shocks frequent in downhole environments andthus may exhibit improved reliability. A method for fabricating anacoustic sensor is also provided.

................................................................

SONDE 914,324

SEISMOELECTRIC AND ACOUSTIC PERMEABILITYDETERMINATION

J.Singer, J.H.Saunders and C.Pain, asrs. (Sondex Wireline Ltd).Gr. Brit. 2,422,433A, p. 7/26/2006, f. 12/21/2004 (Appl. 0,427,958)(G01V-0011/00; G01V-0001/40; G01V-0003/08; G01V-0003/26). (31pp; 26 claims)

A method and apparatus for determining the fluid permeabilityof an earth formation are described. An instrument comprising anacoustic source and acoustic and electrokinetic sensors is located ina borehole at a site of interest. The acoustic source is fired and theresulting variations in pressure and electric field generated aremeasured and recorded. The Biot equations, and an equation forthe streaming potential coupled to fluid displacement terms, aresolved using finite element analysis to give an expected pressurewa veform and electrokinetic waveform based on estimated earthformation properties. By comparison of the measured waveformsand those calculated from the equations, the actual permeability ofthe earth formation can be deduced.

................................................................

SONIC LOGGING 914,325

[R] ACOUSTIC WAVEFORM PROCESSING USINGDISPERSION CURVES BASED ON A BOREHOLE-FORMATION MODEL HAVING A SET OF BOREHOLE-FORMATION PARAMETERS

P.T.Wu and J.Pabon, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr.Brit. 2,421,079A, p. 6/14/2006, f. 11/24/2005, pr. U.S. 12/8/2004(Appl. 7,402) (G01V-0001/48). (62 pp; 12 claims) SRPA# 908,888

[For abstract, see Abstract #908,888]................................................................

SONIC LOGGING 914,326

[R] DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING IN A SUBSURFACEENVIRONMENT

A.Sinha and A.Dumont, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr.Brit. 2,419,439A, p. 4/26/2006, f. 10/17/2005, pr. U.S. 10/25/2004(Appl. 60/621,787) and U.S. 10/10/2005 (Appl. 163,209)(E21B-0047/12; G06F-0015/80). (26 pp; 10 claims) SRPA# 904,191

[For abstract, see Abstract #904,191]................................................................

STRAIN GAGE 914,327

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED STRAIN MEASUREMENTM.Kamata, asr. (Schlumberger Technol BV; Schlumberger Serv

Petrol; Schlumberger Surenco SA; Petroleum Res & Develop NV;Schlumberger Canada Ltd; Schlumberger Overseas SA;Schlumberger Holdings Ltd; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). World2006/070,235A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/12/2005, pr. U.S. 12/28/2004(Appl. 23,848) (G01B-0013/24; E21B-0049/00; G01N-0025/16). (37pp; 48 claims; Also assigned to M.Kamata)

Methods and apparatus are provided for measuringsubterranean strain. The methods and apparatus use fluidexpansion principles to compensate for temperature variations andincrease the accuracy of the strain measurements. The methodsand apparatus contemplate the use of multiple fluid chambersaccording to some versions in order to remove temperaturedependence from stress or strain measurements.

................................................................

TELEMETERING 914,328

[R] METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRO-OPTICALHYBRID TELEMETRY

T.Yamate, S.Vannuffelen et al., asrs. (Schlumberger Technol BV;Schlumberger Serv Petrol; Schlumberger Surenco SA; PetroleumRes & Develop NV; Schlumberger Canada Ltd; SchlumbergerOverseas SA; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd; Schlumberger OilfldAssist). World 2006/070,239A2, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/14/2005, pr. U.S.12/28/2004 (Appl. 23,956) (E21B-0047/12). (43 pp; 49 claims; Alsoassigned to T.Yamate, S.Vannuffelen, B.Gayral, S.S.Chee andC.Wilson) SRPA# 912,354

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,354]................................................................

TEMPERATURE LOGGING 914,329

SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF DOWNHOLE THERMALPROPERTY MEASUREMENT

M.Fukuhara, K.Fujii and Y.Morikami, asrs. (SchlumbergerCanada Ltd). Can. 2,537,558A1, p. 8/28/2006, f. 2/21/2006, pr. U.S.2/28/2005 (Appl. 60/657,207) and U.S. 2/3/2006 (Appl. 346,926)

60 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 61: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

(G01V-0009/00; E21B-0047/06). (35 pp; 27 claims)Methods and systems are provided for deriving thermal

properties of subsurface structures by downhole dynamic thermalmeasurements. In particular, the method relates to utilizing an insitu active cooling and/or heating device to disturb local downholetemperature in formations, such as oil/gas bearing structures,water saturated formations, gas hydrate bearing rocks andsediments, and measuring thermal response data thereof forpurposes of characterizing the formation.

................................................................

TILTMETER 914,330

OPTICAL INCLINATION SENSORB.A.Childers, C.D.Boyd, N.W.Ritchie, S.E.Hester and

P.S.Zerwekh, asrs. (Baker Hughes Inc; Luna Energy LLC). Gr.Brit. 2,421,790A, p. 7/5/2006, f. 12/23/2005, pr. U.S. 12/23/2004(Appl. 20,956) (G01C-0009/20; G01C-0009/06; G01D-0005/26). (21pp; 28 claims)

An optical inclination sensor is provided having at least onereflective surface and at least two separate optical fibers havingends spaced from a reflective surface. As the reflective surface tiltswith respect to a pre-determined reference position, the gap lengthsbetween the fiber ends and the reflective surface change, and thedifferences in these gap lengths are used to calculate an angle ofinclination with respect to a reference position. Alternatively, anoptical inclination sensor can include at least one mass attached toa housing and moveable with respect to the housing as the massand housing are rotated about one or more axes. Optical strainsensors are disposed at various locations between the mass andhousing so that as the mass moves with respect to the housing,each one of the optical strain sensors are placed in compression ortension. The housing can be a generally u-shaped housing havingtwo arms and a base section with the mass disposed within thehousing. Alternatively, the housing includes a first beam, and themass is a second beam arranged generally orthogonal to the firstbeam and pivotally attached thereto. The optical strain sensors aredisposed between the first beam and the second beam. The opticalstrain sensors are placed in tension or compression as the secondbeam pivots with respect to the first beam.

................................................................

TRACER LOGGING 914,331

REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIRSTIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONICWIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION:FINAL REPORT (6/2/1999-6/30/2004)

G.L.Scott III. U.S. DOE REPORT NO.841131 Jan. 2005. (DE-FC26-99FT40129; Color; 46 pp; 10 refs)

Finalized Phase 2-3 project work has field-proven two separatereal-time reservoir processes that were co-developed via funding bythe National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Bothtechnologies are presently patented in the U.S. and select foreignmarkets; a downhole-commingled reservoir stimulation procedureand a real-time tracer-logged fracturing diagnostic system. Phase 2and early Phase 3 project work included the research, developmentand well testing of a U.S. patented gamma tracer fracturingdiagnostic system. This stimulation logging process wassuccessfully field-demonstrated; real-time tracer measurement offracture height while fracturing was accomplished and proventechnically possible. However, after the initial well tests, there wereseveral licensing issues that developed between service providersthat restricted and minimized Realtimezone’s (RTZ) ability to field-test the real-time gamma diagnostic system as was originallyoutlined for this project. Four successfully downhole-mixed welltests were conducted with commercially expected productionresults. The most recent, fourth field test was a downhole-mixedstimulated well completed in June 2004, which currently produces11 BOPD, with 90 barrels of water per day.

................................................................

TRANSMISSION (DATA) 914,332

[R] APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING ASIGNAL IN A WELLBORE

G.Boyadjieff, B.Pontius and B.Williams, asrs. (Varco I/P Inc).

U.S. 2006/0,151,179A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 10/10/2003, pr. U.S.10/10/2002 (Appl. 60/417,525), U.S. 10/21/2002 (Appl. 60/420,052),U.S. 10/22/2002 (Appl. 60/420,381), U.S. 1/28/2003 (Appl.60/442,992) and World 10/10/2003 (Appl. 0,304,417)(E21B-0029/02). (18 pp; 54 claims) SRPA# 843,496

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #843,496]................................................................

VUGGY POROSITY 914,333

DUAL POROSITY EQUATIONS FROM EFFECTIVEMEDIUM THEORY

C.R.Berg (ResDip Systems). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101698; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 10 pp; Over 10refs)

Aguilera’s dual porosity model for fractures and matrix porositywas developed because fractures tend to lower the porosity orcementation exponent (m) of rocks. An assumption in the derivationof the dual porosity model was that fracture systems are parallelwith the current direction, i.e., that fracture m (mf) is equal to 1.0.A new equation derived from effective medium theory allows mfhigher than 1.0. The new relationship agrees closely with twomodels by Aguilera which allow mf greater than 1.0. In addition tothe dual porosity equation, a new relationship is derived forcalculating mf based on fracture orientation relative to current flow.In the past, dual porosity models for vuggy porosity have mainlyused the physical model of resistors in series with the inherentassumption that the vugs were non-touching. A new equation tocalculate the effect of vugs on m is derived from effective mediumtheory. At low total porosity, calculations are very similar to thoseof the series model, but at higher porosities the results differ,eliminating the need to distinguish between connecting and non-connecting vugs. In addition, vug m (mv) can be varied on the basisof the shape and orientation of the vugs. When mv is raised to highvalues, the results are equivalent to the dual porosity series vugmodel. A triple-porosity method is developed that utilizesadjustable mf and mv from new dual porosity relationships. Themodel works by first calculating a new, composite m for the bulkporosity and vugs and then it uses that composite value along withmf to calculate a triple-porosity m. When mf is equal to 1.0, theresults resemble those of the triple porosity model of Aguilera andAguilera, but with increasing values of mf, the effects of fractureson triple-porosity m is dampened.

................................................................

WA TER ANALYSIS 914,334

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ANALYSING DOWNHOLEWA TER CHEMISTRY

B.Raghuraman, A.R.H.Goodwin, O.C.Mullins, P.A.Rabbito,L.Jiang, T.G.J.Jones, A.L.Kurkjian and G.H.Gustavson. U.S.2006/0,163,467A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 11/19/2003, pr. World 11/19/2003(Appl. 0,305,016) (G01V-0005/04). (7 pp; 8 claims)

An apparatus is described for analysing water chemistry. Theapparatus is adapted to operate downhole and comprises acolouring agent supply device for supplying a colouring agent to awater sample, the colour of the water sample thus supplied beingindicative of the water sample chemistry, and a colorimetricanalyser arranged to determine the colour of the water sample.

................................................................

WA TER SATURATION 914,335

[R] EVALUATING FLUID SATURATION USING A TRIPLEWA TER MODEL

J.Little and J.Lavigne, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr.Brit. 2,421,794A, p. 7/5/2006, f. 12/15/2005, pr. U.S. 12/20/2004(Appl. 60/637,680) and U.S. 10/6/2005 (Appl. 244,552)(G01V-0003/28; G01N-0027/04; G01V-0003/10; G01V-0003/38). (30pp; 24 claims) SRPA# 910,997

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,997]................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 61

Page 62: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL LOGGING & SURVEYING

WA TER SATURATION 914,336

METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE WATER SATURATIONOF AN UNDERGROUND FORMATION

B.Montaron, asr. (Schlumberger Serv Petrol; SchlumbergerTechnol BV; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd; Prad Research & DevelopNV; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). Europe. 1,672,392A1, p.6/21/2006, f. 12/17/2004 (Appl. 04,293,036) (G01V-0003/38). (16 pp;14 claims)

A method for determining the water saturation of anunderground formation traversed by a borehole. The methodcomprises (1) determining a first parameter (µ) that isrepresentative of the critical exponent of the electrical conductivityof the formation; (2) determining a second parameter (Wc or Sc orφc) that is representative of the formation percolation threshold; (3)measuring a first set of formation properties; and (4) combining thefirst set of formation properties, first and second parameters inorder to determine the water saturation (Sw) of the undergroundformation.

................................................................

WELL LOG INTERPRETATION 914,337

[R] METHOD FOR DETERMINING BOREHOLECORRECTIONS FOR WELL-LOGGING TOOLS

R.Freedman and T.E.Broussard, asrs. (Schlumberger TechnolCorp). U.S. 7,076,370B1, c. 7/11/2006, f. 12/16/2004 (Appl. 14,324)(G01V-0011/00). (18 pp; 27 claims) SRPA# 910,999

[For abstract, see Abstract #910,999]................................................................

WELL LOGGING 914,338

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKANPERMAFROST: LOGGING OPERATIONS: TOPICALREPORT (1/28/2003-3/19/2004)

S.Runyon, M.Globe and K.Newsham (Anadarko PetroleumCorp) and R.Kleinberg and D.Griffin (Schlumberger Doll Research).U.S. DOE REPORT NO.839328 Feb. 2005. (DE-FC26-01NT41331;Color; 22 pp)

Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the U.S. havedocumented numerous drilling problems, including kicks anduncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has beengenerated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume,chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studyinghydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the NorthSlope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 tcf. However,little information has been obtained on physical samples takenfrom actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project wasa cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, NobleCorporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department ofEnergy’s Methane Hydrate R&D Program. The purpose of theproject is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area ofonshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predictproduction potential for hydrates located on the North Slope ofAlaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot IceNo. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in2004. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well wasdrilled and cored to a final depth of 2,300 ft. An on-site coreanalysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining thephysical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Nogas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth ofinformation was generated and is contained in this and otherproject reports. This Topical Report contains details describinglogging operations.

................................................................

WELL LOGGING DATA 914,339

APPLICATION OF ATTRIBUTE REDUCTION TO WELLLOGGING

C.Li, J.Song and K.Xia (Xi’an Jiaotong Univ). PETROLEUMSCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.30-33, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107; 5 refs)

The quantity of well logging data is increasing exponentially,hence methods of extracting the useful information or attributionfrom the logging database are becoming very important in logginginterpretation. So, the method of logging attribute reduction is

presented based on a rough set, i.e., first determining the core ofthe information table, then calculating the significance of eachattribute, and finally obtaining the relative reduction table. Theapplication result shows that the method of attribute reduction isfeasible and can be used for optimizing logging attributes, anddecreasing redundant logging information to a great extent.

................................................................

WELL LOGGING EQUIPMENT 914,340

[R] THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPARATUS, SYSTEMS,AND METHODS

J.C.Jakaboski, Y.Joshi, B.H.Storm and J.J.Freeman, asrs.(Halliburton Energy Service). World 2006/074,393A1, p. 7/13/2006,f. 1/6/2006, pr. U.S. 1/6/2005 (Appl. 30,263) (E21B-0036/00;H05K-0007/20). (29 pp; 34 claims; Also assigned to B.H.Storm andJ.J.Freeman) SRPA# 911,609

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,609]................................................................

WELL LOGGING EQUIPMENT 914,341

AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBEM.Simon, H.Budan, L.Mosse and M.Hizem, asrs. (Schlumberger

Serv Petrol; Schlumberger Technol BV; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd;Prad Research & Develop NV; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). Europe.1,693,685A1, p. 8/23/2006, f. 2/22/2005 (Appl. 05,290,389)(G01V-0003/30). (23 pp; 19 claims)

An electromagnetic probe measures the electromagneticproperties of a subsurface formation in a limited zone surroundinga well-bore hole (WBH). The well-bore hole is filled with a well-borefluid. The probe comprises a pad having a first face defining a firstarea arranged to be positioned in contact with a well-bore wall(WBW). The probe further comprises (1) at least two transmittingantennas defining a central point between them, each antennabeing spaced from a distance from the central point, and (2) at leasta first and a second set of receiving antennas, each set comprising afirst receiving antenna and a second receiving antenna. Thetransmitting and receiving antennas are positioned along a line inthe first face.

................................................................

WELL TRACTOR 914,342

[R] TRACTION CONTROL FOR DOWNHOLE TRACTORF.W.Doering, T.K.Sheiretov, R.A.Ewan and B.A.Foubert. U.S.

2006/0,151,212A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/19/2006, pr. U.S. 1/5/2004 (Appl.751,599) (E21B-0044/00; E21B-0004/00). (22 pp; 33 claims) SRPA#880,982

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #880,982]................................................................

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

ASPHALTENE DEPOSITION 914,343

DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD USE OF A NOVEL SOLVENT-WA TER EMULSION FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASPHALTENEDEPOSITS IN FRACTURED CARBONATE FORMATIONS

S.Lightford and F.Armesi (Halliburton), E.Pitoni (Eni SpA) andL.Mauri (Eni E&P). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-101022; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 10 pp; Over 10 refs)

The formation of asphaltene scale inside the tubing or in thereservoir is a common problem associated with crude oils in manyparts of Italy and common to the industry as a whole. In Italy,regular treatments using coiled tubing or washing by bullheadingare performed to re-establish production. While asphalteneinhibitors can be injected into the tubing string, asphaltenes canstill create problems below the injection point and plug theperforations, formation pores, and/or natural fracture networksystems. This paper describes the laboratory development and fieldapplication of a water/aromatic solvent emulsion system that hasbeen successfully used to clean/dissolve asphaltene and leave thecarbonate fractured formation in a water-wet state to delay the

62 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 63: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

production decline. Other advantages when using this type ofemulsion are cost reduction and improved effectiveness in removingasphaltene deposits when compared to alternative solvents thathave been employed. This is of particular significance to these wellswhere large volumes of a washing phase have to be pumpeddownhole. Hazards have also been reduced by using relatively highflash-point aromatics. Continuous mixing of the emulsion whenpumping reduces waste and improves the logistics involved inpumping the large volumes needed to treat long, openhole sectionsand/or to treat the fractures deeper in the near-wellbore region.Two successful field applications in south Italy will be discussed indetail.

................................................................

BOSCAN OIL FIELD 914,344

WA TER SHUTOFF TREATMENTS USING AN INTERNALLYCATALYZED SYSTEM IN BOSCAN FIELD: CASEHIST ORIES

F.Mata (BJ Svcs Venezuela CCPA) and S.Ali and E.Cordova(Chevron Global Tech Svc Co). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102219; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; 3 refs)

This paper describes the results obtained using an Internally-Catalyzed System (ICS) to reduce water production in the Boscanoil field, near Maracaibo, West Venezuela. This field is divided intwo blocks: north and south. In the south block, wells caneventually produce oil with 90% water cut, due to the influence ofan aquifer. The accumulated production per well can be as high as 6(six) million barrels, and typical rates range from 600 to 2,400BFPD (barrels of fluid per day). In order to mitigate the high watercut and water production, the operator implemented in 1998 awater shut-off (WSO) program. In 2003, the ICS was introduced aspart of this program. The ICS is solids-free and internallyactivated. It is used for permanent zone plugging, and lostcirculation control, delivered into the matrix of the targeted zone.This paper summarizes the results of 19 WSO jobs performed. Insome specific wells, water cut decreased by 20%; on others, by 70%,with oil production increase in some cases of more than 400 BOPDper well. The WSO treatments have been designed for deeperformation penetration, and long-lasting water blockage. AppliedWSO treatments with ICS have been found to effectively blockwater production over a long period. Cost of treatments has beenpaid out within approximately 45 days.

................................................................

CASING SETTING 914,345

[R] APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ALIGNING ATUBULAR SEGMENT

S.J.Barker and N.Gordon, asrs. (BJ Services Co). Gr. Brit.2,420,573A, p. 5/31/2006, f. 11/24/2004 (Appl. 0,425,841)(E21B-0019/24; E21B-0019/00; E21B-0019/16). (32 pp; 24 claims)SRPA# 904,962

[For abstract, see Abstract #904,962]................................................................

CEMENT 914,346

[R] CEMENTING COMPOSITIONS AND APPLICATIONTHEREOF TO CEMENTING OIL WELLS OR THE LIKE

K.S.Chan and Y.Elmarsafawi. U.S. 2006/0,169,179A1, p.8/3/2006, f. 1/30/2006, pr. Europe. 1/31/2005 (Appl. 05,290,216)(C04B-0024/00; C04B-0007/19; C04B-0028/04; C04B-0024/36;C04B-0024/08). (7 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 911,007

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,007]................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,347

SELF-DEGRADING CEMENT COMPOSITIONS ANDMETHODS OF USING SELF-DEGRADING CEMENTCOMPOSITIONS IN SUBTERRANEAN FORMATIONS

M.R.Savery and B.L.Todd, asrs. (Halliburton Energy Service).U.S. 2006/0,169,451A1, p. 8/3/2006, f. 2/1/2005 (Appl. 48,272)(E21B-0043/267). (12 pp; 20 claims)

Methods of stimulating subterranean formations are provided.More particularly, methods of fracturing subterranean formations

using a fracturing fluid comprising a self-degrading cementcomposition are provided. An example of a method is a method oftreating a subterranean formation. Another example of a method isa method of fracturing a subterranean formation. Another exampleof a method is a method of producing hydrocarbons from asubterranean formation.

................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,348

[R] METHODS OF DIRECTIONAL DRILLING ANDFORMING KICKOFF PLUGS USING SELF-DEGRADINGCEMENT IN SUBTERRANEAN WELL BORES

M.R.Savery, A.K.Santra and B.L.Todd. U.S. 2006/0,169,452A1,p. 8/3/2006, f. 7/22/2005, pr. U.S. 2/1/2005 (Appl. 48,272)(E21B-0043/267; E21B-0033/13). (23 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 914,347

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,347]................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,349

[R] KICKOFF PLUGS COMPRISING A SELF-DEGRADINGCEMENT IN SUBTERRANEAN WELL BORES

M.R.Savery, A.K.Santra and B.L.Todd. U.S. 2006/0,169,453A1,p. 8/3/2006, f. 7/22/2005, pr. U.S. 2/1/2005 (Appl. 48,272)(E21B-0043/267). (23 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 914,347

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,347]................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,350

[R] METHODS OF ISOLATING ZONES IN SUBTERRANEANFORMATIONS USING SELF-DEGRADING CEMENTCOMPOSITIONS

M.R.Savery, A.K.Santra and B.L.Todd. U.S. 2006/0,169,454A1,p. 8/3/2006, f. 7/22/2005, pr. U.S. 2/1/2005 (Appl. 48,272) and U.S.2/1/2005 (Appl. 48,591) (E21B-0043/00). (19 pp; 20 claims) SRPA#914,347

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,347]................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,351

[R] SELF-DEGRADING CEMENT COMPOSITIONS ANDMETHODS OF USING SELF-DEGRADING CEMENTCOMPOSITIONS IN SUBTERRANEAN FORMATIONS

M.R.Savery and B.L.Todd, asr. (Halliburton Energy Service).World 2006/082,362A1, p. 8/10/2006, f. 1/19/2006, pr. U.S. 2/1/2005(Appl. 48,272) (C09K-0008/72; C04B-0028/34; C09K-0008/80;C04B-0028/30). (27 pp; 20 claims; Also assigned to P.A.Curtis,M.R.Savery and B.L.Todd) SRPA# 914,347

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,347]................................................................

CEMENT COMPOSITION 914,352

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR IMPROVING THETOUGHNESS OF HARDEN CEMENT USING CARBONFIBER

Y.Bu, R.Cheng and R.Wang (Petroleum Univ, Dongying) andX.Cao (Tuha Inst Drilling & Prod). PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2,no.4, pp.41-45, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107; 3 refs)

Many measures, such as water injection, acid fracturing, andthermal recovery, have been taken in oilfield development. Thesecan easily induce brittle fracture of set cement. Most of all, there isgreater potential for fractures in set cement in slim holes.Therefore, it is necessary to improve the toughness of the cementmantle. Results obtained from experiments show that carbon fiber,with a concentration of 0.12%-0.19% in cement and a length of 700to 1,400 µm, plays an important role in improving cement quality.Addition of carbon fiber can improve the bending strength of setcement by up to 30%. At the same time, the increase in fiberconcentration can lower the elastic modulus and increase thePoisson’s ratio of set cement. Thin-section analysis shows that fibercan effectively prevent the propagation of fractures and enhancethe plasticity of the matrix and the ability to prevent fracture.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 63

Page 64: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

CEMENTING 914,353

NEW GENERATION OF MULTIPURPOSE MOBILE OIL-AND-GAS FIELD HIGH PRESSURE PLANTS

T.M.Dautov (Izhneftemash) and R.E.Gazarov (VNIIneftemash).NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.92-97,Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 9 refs; In Russian)

The basic disadvantages of the equipment and plug-backsolutions preparation technology used during cementing are given.The mobile well cementation complex, intended for reception andstorage of plugging-back, drilling waste and loose materials,maintenance of quality of materials, and preparation andpneumatic feeding of dry mixes to the stirrer is developed.

................................................................

CHEMICAL INJECTION 914,354

[R] TREATMENT AGENT ADSORBED ON WATERINSOLUBLE PARTICLES

D.V.Satyanarayana and J.W.Kirk, asrs. (BJ Services Co). Gr.Brit. 2,421,260A, p. 6/21/2006, f. 12/15/2005, pr. U.S. 12/15/2004(Appl. 12,887) (C09K-0008/518; C09K-0008/524; C09K-0008/528;C09K-0008/536; C09K-0008/575; C09K-0008/584; C09K-0008/60;C09K-0008/70; C09K-0008/80; E21B-0037/06). (15 pp; 19 claims)SRPA# 909,658

[For abstract, see Abstract #909,658]................................................................

COILED TUBING EQUIPMENT 914,355

METHOD AND A DEVICE FOR AUT OMATED CONTROL OFCOIL PIPE OPERATIONS

R.H.Geddes and W.Kipp. U.S. 2006/0,163,415A1, p. 7/27/2006, f.1/27/2005 (Appl. 905,960) (B65H-0049/20). (8 pp; 13 claims)

An apparatus and automated control of the apparatus for use incoiled pipe operations are provided. The apparatus includes amobile rig or trailer that carries a tower having attached thereto areel of coiled tubing and a standard coiled tubing injector. Thetower is positionable to support the reel of coiled tubing and theinjector at a desired elevation above a wellhead. The reel of coiledtubing is supported upon a movable reel cart which is activelypositioned by an automated control system to position the reel ofcoiled tube and ultimately the coiled tubing as it is drawn from anddrawn upon the reel during operation. The control system monitorsthe position of the coiled tube as it is passed through the injectorand positions the reel cart to minimize the number of bends thecoiled tubing is subjected to during one complete iteration ofrunning in and withdrawal.

................................................................

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 914,356

[R] IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO SUB SEACONTROL AND MONITORING

S.T.Abbey and W.P.Gentles, asrs. (Remote Marine Systems Ltd).U.S. 2006/0,157,250A1, p. 7/20/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. Gr. Brit.12/23/2004 (Appl. 0,428,270) (E21B-0033/064). (17 pp; 19 claims)SRPA# 911,013

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,013]................................................................

EGRET FIELD 914,357

INNOVATIVE USE OF EXPANDABLE SAND SCREENSCOMBINED WITH PROPPED HYDRAULIC FRACTURINGTECHNOLOGY IN TWO WELLS WITH INTELLIGENTCOMPLETIONS IN THE EGRET FIELD, BRUNEI:CHALLENGES, SUCCESSES, AND BEST PRACTICESLEARNED

S.A.R.Ceng (Brunei Shell Petroleum Co) and D.Lim, J.J.Lim andK.C.Ong (Halliburton Energy Service). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101187; Available on CD-ROM; Color;8 pp; 7 refs)

Oil and gas producers have long been looking for effective sandcontrol methods that allow completion flexibility and improvedproductivity throughout a well’s life-cycle. This paper discusses themany challenges encountered during the planning and completion

of two wells in the Egret Field in Brunei, operated by Brunei ShellPetroleum (BSP), how the challenges were addressed, and the bestpractices identified for future operations. Sand-control techniquessuch as extension packing and hydraulic fracturing were evaluatedto help minimize the risk of fines plugging because of the high finescontent (10% to 15%). To minimize well interventions whilemaximizing data gathering, an intelligent-well completion usingsurface-controlled sub-surface variable chokes for internal gas-liftand surface controlled sub-surface fixed chokes was proposed.Another design challenge was that conventional wire-wrappedscreens would have insufficient clearance to accommodateintelligent-well completions. A feasibility study recommended acombination of expandable sand screens (ESS) and proppedhydraulic fracturing in a cased-hole environment. Two wells wereplanned in which three oil reservoirs would be completed andproduced commingled using one gas reservoir as a lift gas source.Expandable sand screens would be installed across the perforatedintervals inside a cemented 9-5/8-in. casing. With a skin of lessthan +1 on all completed intervals, the productivity of both wellshas been excellent. The success has been attributed to the uniquecombination of ESS and hydraulic fracturing.

................................................................

EXPANSIBLE CASING 914,358

[R] OIL WELL STEEL PIPE FOR EMBEDDING-EXPANDINGH.Amaya and Y.Arai, asrs. (Sumitomo Metal Inds Ltd). U.S.

7,082,992B2, c. 8/1/2006, f. 11/23/2005, pr. Japan 5/28/2003 (Appl.2003-151,269) (E21B-0007/28; C22C-0038/02). (11 pp; 8 claims)SRPA# 861,929

[For abstract, see Abstract #861,929]................................................................

EXPANSIBLE CASING 914,359

ADDING NEW PIECES TO THE EXPANDABLES PUZZLER.von Flatern. OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11, pp.47-48,

Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)In 1998, Shell Technology Ventures and Halliburton Energy

Services formed a joint venture to commercialize solid expandabletubulars or SET--a term trademarked by the pioneering company.At the time the goal was what the company, Enventure, came toterm and also trademark as a monodiameter wellbore. The conceptpromised to revolutionize the drilling industry while solving manyof the most vexing deepwater drilling challenges.

................................................................

EXPANSIBLE CASING 914,360

MAKING MOVES TOWARD THE MONOBORER.von Flatern. OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11,

pp.51-52,54,56-57, Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)At their inception, modern solid expandable tubulars were

touted as a means to deliver wells of a single internal diameterfrom surface to total depth. And while the monobore well remainsfor many the eventual goal of the technology, proponents today arealso leveraging work done to date to meet more immediate, if lessgrandiose, drilling and completion needs. Two other major servicecompanies, Weatherford International and Baker Oil Tools, havemade concerted efforts to enter this promising market. Their latestofferings in this area are discussed.

................................................................

EXPANSIBLE TUBING 914,361

METHOD OF EXPANDING A TUBULAR ELEMENT IN AWELLBORE

P.D.Schilte, asr. (Shell Internat Res Mij BV; Shell Canada Ltd).World 2006/072,616A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/5/2006, pr. Europe.1/7/2005 (Appl. 05,250,044) (E21B-0043/10). (18 pp; 12 claims; Alsoassigned to P.D.Schilte)

A method is described for radially expanding a tubular elementextending into a wellbore formed in an earth formation, comprisingthe steps of arranging an expander in the tubular element, theexpander being operable to exert a radial force to the inner surfaceof the tubular element, and radially expanding the tubular elementby pressurising the interior of the tubular element andsimultaneously operating the expander to exert radial force to the

64 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 65: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

inner surface of the tubular element. The expander is operated toexert radial force to the inner surface of the tubular elementindependently from pressurising the interior of the tubularelement.

................................................................

EXPANSIBLE TUBING 914,362

WHAT’S NEXT FOR EXPANDABLES?B.Emerson, G.Mackenzie and G.K elbie (Baker Oil Tools). E&P

v.79, no.6, pp.53-54, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)The future of expandable metal technology looks small in scale,

not scope. The past 10 years have seen expandable metals used in avariety of solid- and perforated-pipe-based wellbore constructionand remediation applications. The logical progression for thetechnology is into components placed in the pipe to address specificoperational challenges such as drill-in liner applications, high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) environments and gas welldevelopment. Initially, a niche of expanding sand screen and linerextensions, oilfield expandable solutions have grown into a varietyof tools and applications. In addition to sand control, expandabletubulars are now used to manage water production, isolate problemzones, repair corroded or damaged casing and optimize production.Concerns about the need for corrosion-resistant alloys, reliable gas-tight threads and enhanced solid pipe collapse resistance afterexpansion are valid. These concerns, coupled with widespreadreluctance to replace standard oil country tubular goods (OCTG)and conventional drilling and completion practices withalternatives that may bring unpleasant surprises, have resulted inmost expandable solutions to date being contingencies. Expandabletechnology will cross the final chasm into industry-wide commercialacceptance only when it is integrated routinely as part of the initialwell planning process.

................................................................

EXPANSIBLE TUBING 914,363

EXPANDABLES IN WELLBORE DESIGNG.D.Pehoda (Enventure Global Technol). E&P v.79, no.6,

pp.57-58, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)The industry first used expandable technology as a contingency

in unexpected drilling problems. As successful use of expandablepipe grew, its reputation as enabling technology also grew.Operators soon realized more value with solid expandables as anintegral part of wellbore design, especially in complex wells.Planning expandable systems into wellbore design ensures a degreeof flexibility that allows more options to be considered whenconfronted with drilling difficulties. When planned high in the wellbore, more annular clearance exists between the expandabletubular outside diameter (OD) and the hole inside diameter (ID)than in smaller sizes. Running larger expandables reduces the needto use less common casing sizes to run through the expandableliner and additional systems can be used deeper in the well bore ifneeded. Factoring these advantages into the planning stage has ledoperators to view expandable tubulars as a significant designelement. A proactive approach to well design has allowed operatorsto extend the show, case off trouble zones without compromisinghole size and run larger logging tools that are more reliable andless expensive. These systems have also been used to securewellbore stability, address narrow pore pressure/fracture gradientwindows and facilitate slot recovery. Several operators have usedthe technology to slim the well bore.

................................................................

FLUID LOSS ADDITIVE 914,364

FLUID LOSS CONTROL AGENTS AND COMPOSITIONSFOR CEMENTING OIL AND GAS WELLS COMPRISINGSAID FLUID LOSS CONTROL AGENT

M.Michaux, B.Drochon and S.K omocki, asrs. (SchlumbergerServ Petrol; Schlumberger Technol BV; Schlumberger Holdings Ltd;Prad Research & Develop NV; Schlumberger Oilfld Assist). Europe.1,674,434A1, p. 6/28/2006, f. 12/21/2004 (Appl. 04,293,073)(C04B-0024/26; C04B-0024/16). (18 pp; 18 claims)

A fluid loss control agent is useful for the cementation of oil orgas wells. This fluid loss control agent consists of a mixture of astyrene-butadiene latex and a high molecular weight water-soluble

polymer such as a copolymer AMPS-Am. The addition of the water-soluble polymer allows drastic reduction of the quantity of latexrequired to achieve fluid loss control performance and even gasmigration control.

................................................................

FONTENELLE GAS FIELD 914,365

AWAKENING AN OLD FIELD - A CASE STUDY OF AREFRACTURING PROGRAM IN THE GREATER GREENRIVER BASIN

M.Shaefer (BJ Services). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101026; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 14 pp; 8 refs)

Restimulation of wells completed in the Frontier Formation, alow-permeability (e.g., 0.01 - 0.05 md) gas sand, has proven to besuccessful in the Fontenelle Field. The field is located east of theFontenelle reservoir, on the LaBarge Platform in the western partof the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming. In thisarea, the majority of hydrocarbon reserves in the Second Frontierare produced from the massive shoreface sandstones locally knownas the Second Bench of the Second Frontier (Kf22b). To date, BercoResources, LLC has increased reserves in the Fontenelle Field byrestimulating four wells producing from the Frontier Formationwith massive hydraulic fracturing treatments. Due to the success ofthese treatments, another operator in an offset area to the northhas also successfully implemented a Frontier refracturing program.This paper summarizes the refracturing program and the successthat Berco Resources, LLC has realized. The candidate selectionprocess is examined, as well as operational considerations whenrestimulating old wells. The stimulation treatments and fluidsystems are also investigated. Daily/monthly production dataconsisting of gas, condensate and water rates, along with well headpressures, are evaluated for all cases using fractured well typecurves, the pseudoradial flow specialty plot (∆p/q vs. log t) and aproduction simulator comparing actual versus modeled productionrates. Finally, the impact of the refracturing treatments oneconomic return is presented.

................................................................

GRAVEL PACKING 914,366

UTILIZING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD)ANALYSIS AS A DESIGN TOOL IN FRAC-PACKINGAPPLICATIONS TO IMPROVE EROSION LIFE

N.J.Clem, M.P.Coronado and R.K.Mody (Baker Oil Tools).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102209; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 5 pp)

Frac packing tool erosion is becoming a growing concern asmore high-profile deepwater wells are completed using thistechnique. Today many deepwater wells require frac pack pumprates of at least 40 barrels per minute (bbl/min) with proppantloads reaching 300,000 lbs. As zone lengths are increased andmulti-zone operations are performed, jobs requiring 60 bbl/minpump rates with proppant loads reaching 900,000 lbs. may be moretypical. The current frac packing tool designs must be optimized toaccommodate the higher pump rates proppant volumes required tocomplete these deepwater wells. Computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis of these systems provides valuable insight to whatis physically happening to the tools at these high pump rates andproppant loads. Analyzing various patterns, such as velocity, fluidpath, erosion, and sand concentration at high rates helps identifycritical areas within the system that require design optimization.CFD analysis is a cost effective alternative to trial-and-errortesting, which can cost upwards of $150,000 per test and prolongthe development phase. Two sizes of systems have been analyzedusing CFD analysis and modified based on the results of thatanalysis. Full scale tests were also performed at 40 bbl/min onthese two systems to compare the actual results with that of theCFD analysis. The CFD analysis was able to generate accurateprofiles of the physical erosion patterns observed after the full scaletests were completed. Although CFD cannot accurately predictmagnitudes for erosion rates, it can predict erosion profiles andvelocity magnitudes. Research is currently ongoing to accuratelypredict erosion rate magnitudes. This paper will detail thedevelopment, analysis and qualification testing of a next-generationfrac packing system capable of use in ultra-high-rate operations.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 65

Page 66: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

HORIZONTAL WELL COMPLETION 914,367

TRANSVERSELY MULTIFRACTURED HORIZONTALWELLS: A RECIPE FOR SUCCESS

A.S.Demarchos (MJE Consultants) and M.M.Porcu andM.J.Economides (Houston Univ). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102262; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 9 pp; Over 10refs)

While the hydraulic fracturing of vertical wells is widely used,the fracturing of horizontal wells has been used sparsely, mostly inthe United States and the North Sea. Usually this involves eitherlongitudinal fractures or treatments with no regard to the wellorientation and fracture azimuth. The systematic transversefracturing of horizontal wells poses several challenges in designand optimization and in operations and execution. A multi-fracturedesign and a feasibility study are performed to identify candidatesfor both a technical and an economic success. We used a fracturedvertical well as the basis of our calculations and we havedetermined the dimensionless PI as the means to evaluate theattractiveness of multiple transverse fractures intersecting ahorizontal well. The drainage shape and flow regime intransversely fractured wells differs significantly from vertical wells.We are showing a series of designs using a range of sizes of fracturevolumes, different proppant types and drainage sizes. Fortreatment execution, traditional methods of perforating mayincrease the probability of failure. The types of reservoir which arecandidates for these treatments such as multi-layered reservoirswill almost surely affect the fracture initiation, and, as usual,composite materials show higher mechanical resistances comparedto homogeneous materials. A new abrasive jet cutting tool has nowbeen designed and built specifically for this type of job.

................................................................

HORIZONTAL WELL COMPLETION 914,368

[R] SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUE FOR ORIENTING ANDPOSITIONING A LATERAL STRING IN A MULTILATERALSYSTEM

C.Araque, J.R.Whitsitt, M.Prado, R.S.Neves and C.Cano, asrs.(Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,421,747A, p. 7/5/2006, f.12/23/2005, pr. U.S. 12/28/2004 (Appl. 905,329) (E21B-0007/08). (19pp; 35 claims) SRPA# 911,635

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,635]................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,369

MULTISTAGE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING WITHPRODUCTION INTERVALS - A PROMISING TECHNOLOGYFOR RESERVOIRS SUBJECT TO REVERSE FAULTINGSTRESS REGIMES

M.K.Rahman (Western Australia Univ). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.89-100,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The performance of hydraulic fracturing technology has notbeen so promising for some Australian tight-gas reservoirs. Theexistence of reverse faulting stress regimes (i.e. the vertical stressis the minimum one) in these reservoirs is found to be one reasonamong many others. Previous studies have established that thevertical hydraulic fracture initiated from a vertical well in a reversefaulting stress regime severely turns and twists to becomehorizontal while fracturing fluid is injected for further propagationof the fracture. This severely turned and twisted fracture impedesthe fluid and proppant (engineered sand grains) injection and thusthe fracturing job results in a short and constricted fracture. This isconsidered to be one of the major reasons for premature screen-outsthat occur at extremely high-pressure on many occasions in thefield, and the subsequent disappointingly low production rates. Theaim of this paper is to present the results of an investigation with amodel-scale gas reservoir to avoid this problem by carrying out thefracture treatments in a number of stages with productionintervals. The basic mechanism that would allow the growth of along, planar, productive fracture in such a manner is theproduction-induced stress change around the fracture tip. Asimplified propped fracture configuration is modelled in a

hypothetical small-scale reservoir with idealistic materialproperties. Production is simulated in time by varying differentparameters and the production-induced stress changes arecharacterised by coupled fluid flow and deformation analysis. It isfound from parametric results that the non-uniform reservoirpressure depletion induces a suitable stress state at the fracture tipfor further planar propagation.

................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,370

A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HYDRAULICFRACTURING IN THE SOUTH TEXAS WILCOXFORMATION

L.K.Britt and M.B.Smith (NSI Technologies Inc) and Z.Haddadand P.Lawrence (Devon Energy Corp). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102226; Available on CD-ROM; Color;8 pp; Over 10 refs)

The objective of hydraulic fracturing is to design and execute afracture stimulation that achieves the desired fracture dimensions(length & conductivity) to maximize well productivity and reserverecovery. In order to truly achieve this objective information fromthe geosciences and engineering disciplines are required. Geologic,geophysical, and petrophysical data are needed to understandreservoir quality, thickness, and extent. Reservoir engineering datais used to assess in-place hydrocarbons, flow capacity, permeability,and reservoir drainage area. Production decline analysis is used toassess reserve recovery and corroborate in-place hydrocarbons andflow capacity. Rock mechanics is used to assess the elasticproperties of the formation of interest, bounding sediments, as wellas the fracture mechanics. Finally, completion and stimulationengineering are used to design, execute, and evaluate the hydraulicfracture treatment. All of these data and disciplines are needed totruly optimize the fracture stimulations, production rate, andreserve recovery. This paper will document a multi-disciplineinvestigation of a multi-well South Texas Wilcox Field used toimprove and optimize hydraulic fracture treatments in the area.The integration of this dataset will be used to determine fracturedimensions and assess the critical parameters for the creation ofoptimum fracture dimensions.

................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,371

WA TER-FRACS: WE DO NEED PROPPANT AFTER ALLL.K.Britt and M.B.Smith (NSI Technologies), Z.Haddad and

P.Lawrence (Devon Energy Co) and S.Chipperfield and T.Hellman(Apache Corp). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102227;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 15 pp; Over 10 refs)

The key objective of hydraulic fracturing in tight formation gasreservoirs is the creation of effective fracture length. The creationof effective fracture length requires that sufficient fractureconductivity be developed to allow effective fracture fluid cleanup.It is also fairly well understood that occasionally conventionalcross-linked gel fracture stimulations do not create the desiredfracture dimensions. The potential reasons for the shorter thandesired effective fracture lengths are numerous with the most likelybeing excessive fracture height growth and poor fracture fluidcleanup. In the context of the Cotton Valley Formation boundingbeds necessary to contain a large hydraulic fracture are non-existent except for the Taylor sand. Studies have been conducted offracture fluid clean-up which indicate that fluid clean-up or moreimportantly the lack of fluid clean-up is a primary cause ofineffective or less than desired fracture length. Elimination ofpolymer by fracture stimulating with treated water is cheaper andmay provide more effective fractures. However, the use of treatedwater, results in poorer proppant transport due to the low fluidviscosity. Though more of the created fracture would be effective (nopolymer damage) less fracture will likely be created (poortransport). Performance comparisons of Cotton Valley wellsfracture stimulated with water and cross-linked gel indicate thatwater fracs in addition to being cheaper also perform similarly ornearly so to cross-linked gel fracs (and in some cases better). Thispaper details the application of treated water fracs to the EastTexas Cotton Valley Formation and documents an evaluation of

66 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 67: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

well performance and the cause and effects of hydraulic fracturingwith treated water on productivity. Guidelines and/or successcriteria are developed for the design and execution of successfulwater fracs in the Cotton Valley Formation or any tight formationgas reservoir. These guidelines, in conjunction with an in depthreview of the Cotton Valley Formation, were utilized to develop amodified hybrid water frac treatment that mitigates the associatedrisks with the use of treated water while maintaining the waterfrac treatment cost and clean-up advantages.

................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,372

THE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF HYDRAULICFRACTURING APPLICATION IN VARIOUS LITHOFACIESZONES AT FAINSKOYE DEPOSIT

V.S.Sokolov and A.V.Polukhin (Tandem) and A.G.Pasynkov(Yuganskneftegaz). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OILINDUSTRY) no.1, pp.79-81, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 3refs; In Russian)

The characteristics of filtration-capacity properties andpetroleum reserves within the limits of the paleofacies zones of theFainskoye deposit are given. Dynamics of the number of executedhydrofracturings is given. The order of increase of flow rates of oiland liquid after hydrofracturing execution is considered. Theirefficiency in the Fainskoye deposit conditions is reported.

................................................................

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 914,373

AVOID UNWANTED FRAC SIDE-EFFECTSJ.Weaver, M.Parker and P.Nguyen (Halliburton). E&P v.79,

no.6, pp.90,92, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)Diagenesis-type reactions that can occur between proppant and

freshly fractured rock surfaces can lead to rapid loss of proppant-pack porosity and consequent loss of hydrocarbon production.Diagenesis is defined as the alteration of sediments into rock atrelatively low temperatures and pressures that can result insignificant changes to the original mineralogy and texture. It isgenerally accepted that sediments become compacted as they aresubject to high overburden loads from successive sedimentation.However, in laboratory experimentation, clean proppant packsplaced in created fractures of high stress and high temperatureundergo rapid diagenic reactions, resulting in rapid formation ofmineral deposits and loss of pack porosity. Therefore, thecompaction reactions normally associated with diagenesis occurringover centuries (geological time frame) are accelerated to a fractionof a year at conditions present in many typical reservoirs that arefracture-stimulated. Remaining porosity was only 15% to 25% ofthe starting pack porosity.

................................................................

HYDRAULIC JET 914,374

[R] FLOATING HEAD REACTION TURBINE ROTOR WITHIMPROVED JET QUALITY

J.Kolle and M.Marvin, asrs. (Tempress Technologies Inc). World2006/074,017A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/29/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004(Appl. 60/640,742) (E21B-0007/18; E21B-0043/114). (29 pp; 29claims; Also assigned to J.K olle and M.Marvin) SRPA# 909,669

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #909,669]................................................................

INTELLIGENT WELL 914,375

APPLICATION OF INTELLIGENT-COMPLETIONTECHNOLOGY IN A TRIPLE-ZONE GRAVEL PACKEDCOMMINGLED PRODUCER

W.R.Brock, E.O.Oleh, J.P.Linscott and S.Agara (Mobil ProducingNigeria). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101021;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp; 3 refs)

By commingling multiple reservoirs in a single well, the totalnumber of wells required for full field development can besignificantly reduced. This can result in a significant cost savingsover conventional development especially in the offshore environs.Historically, one limitation of commingling has been the inability tofully optimize the recovery of the reserves from each interval. In

many areas, commingling is restricted or prohibited by regulationbecause of this inability to optimize the depletion of the reserves.Use of intelligent completion techniques can provide the capabilityto properly manage the recovery of reserves from each individualzone in a commingled completion. Mobil Producing NigeriaUnlimited (MPN) drilled a long-reach producing well in the Usarifield from an existing platform which was completed as acommingled producer in three of the seven discovered zones. Eachof the three zones was completed a gravel pack, hydraulicallyoperated multi-position flow control valves and downhole gaugeswhich provide full control of each zone. This approach allows for theassessment of the characteristics of each reservoir and properassessment of the uncertainties associated with a full developmentof the discovery prior to committing to new wellhead platforms. Inaddition, the average first-year rate for the well was approximately11,000 BOPD, whereas a single producer would have only providedabout 7,000 BOPD.

................................................................

LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT 914,376

ULTRALIGHTWEIGHT AND GAS MIGRATION SLURRIES:AN EXCELLENT SOLUTION FOR GAS WELLS

F.Mata (BJ Svcs Venezuela CCPA) and C.Diaz and H.Villa(Petroleos Venezuela SA). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102220; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; 9 refs)

This paper shows the excellent results obtained using ultralightweight and gas migration slurries (ULWGMS) on wells of SanJoaquin and Santa Rosa fields, located in Anaco City, EasternVenezuela. There are several gas fields in the Anaco area, withcomplex wells, due to their low frac gradients, pressurized waterzones, depressurized gas zones, H2S and CO2 content, clay sands,and, in some cases, presence of micro fractures. These sands arealso bounded by interbedded shales with trapped gas and water,experiencing large amounts of losses of mineral oil mud, duringdrilling. Unsuccessful primary cement jobs in the past wereattributed to inappropriate slurry designs, with unsuitableproperties to deal with all the above factors. Statistics showed that2 out of 3 wells in this field failed due to lost circulation issues,requiring remedial cementing to address gas control, and watermigration. Ultra lightweight slurries were developed with adequatemechanical properties (flexible and tension strengths), in additionto providing H2S and CO2 resistance. The first 9.2 ppg ultralightweight slurry was first used in 2003 in San Joaquin field, andindicated good isolation, by log analysis. Subsequently, ultralightweight slurries with densities from 9 to 11 ppg have beenapplied to 18 different wells in Anaco area, showing excellent zoneisolation results, demonstrated by low water cut, and good bondlogs.

................................................................

LINER COMPLETION 914,377

[R] ADJUSTABLE WINDOW LINERC.Pratt and B.H.Walter, asrs. (CDX Gas LLC). World

2006/071,832A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. U.S. 12/22/2004(Appl. 20,374) and U.S. 12/22/2004 (Appl. 21,055) (E21B-0041/00).(48 pp; 41 claims; Also assigned to C.Pratt and B.H.Walter) SRPA#911,031

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #911,031]................................................................

LINER HANGER 914,378

DRILLING IN WITH EXPANDABLE LINER HANGERSJ.Mota, D.Campo and J.Menezes (Shell Explor & Prod Co) and

T.Jackson and P.Smith (Halliburton Energy Service). E&P v.79,no.6, pp.64-65, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)

Expandable liner hangers have been shown to provide multipleadvantages over conventional liner hangers, however, work atShell’s Brutus platform demonstrated a new benefit--the ability todrill in with the liner hanger in place. This approach providesparticular advantages in problem well situations, includingtortuous well paths or hole sections drilled through depleted wellformations such as the Green Canyon Block 158 in the Gulf ofMexico, where the Brutus tension-leg platform (TLP) is located.

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 67

K016337
Highlight
Page 68: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

Liner hangers provide two key functions: they sustain the weight ofthe liner below, and they isolate pressure differentials above andbelow the liner. Conventional liner running methods requiredrilling through the reservoir, often inducing losses in the depletedinterval, then pulling out of the hole at a controlled rate and finallyrunning the liner--again potentially experiencing losses. In someinstances, conventional liner hanger systems are used to rotate ordrill-in, but often at the expense of not running slips or the packerelement. An expandable liner hanger allows for hanging the linerand setting the element in one step, eliminating a potential cementsqueeze job or an additional trip for a liner top packer. Experienceat Brutus showed that it also can be drilled in, minimizing the timethe formation is exposed and reducing losses. Furthermore, itallows rotation through depleted sands.

................................................................

MONOBORE COMPLETION 914,379

LARGE-BORE GAS WELL DESIGN - APPLICATION TOOFFSHORE GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT

F.Thompson, I.Terziev and I.Taggart (Chevron Australia).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.79-87,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 4 refs)

Offshore gas development projects including the North WestShelf of Australia continue to develop new technologies in order toreduce development costs. Given that the number of developmentwells directly relates to capital expenditure, past attempts havefocused on obtaining higher gas rates out of conventional welldesigns by carefully managing erosional limits, which, in turn, tendto restrict the use of higher offtake rates. A strategy based on safelyflowing gas wells at higher rates results in fewer wells and delaysthe phasing-in of additional wells, both of which result in economicenhancement. In recent times the industry has increasingly movedto large-bore gas well technology as a means of realising thisstrategy. Large-bore gas wells are defined as wells equipped withproduction tubing and flow control devices larger than 7-in. or 177mm. Originally developed for land-based operations, thistechnology is increasingly moving offshore into totally subseasystems. This paper summarises the recent developments in large-bore offshore applications and presents consistent methodologyshowing how different gas well designs can be compared usinghydraulic and erosional considerations. Additional trade-offs posedby reliable solids monitoring and the adoption of untested wellheadand intervention designs are discussed. In many cases, hybriddesigns based on large diameter tubulars but with conventionalwellheads may offer a useful balance between higher well rates andadoption of proven technology. The results shown here are directlyapplicable to alternative well designs presently under considerationfor a number of offshore reservoir developments.

................................................................

MULTIPLE COMPLETION 914,380

[R] FLUID DELIVERY SYSTEMJ.Lopez De Cardenas, G.L.Rytlewski, M.R.Hackworth,

J.R.Whitsitt and J.F.Garcia, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr.Brit. 2,421,745A, p. 7/5/2006, f. 12/13/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004(Appl. 905,372) (E21B-0043/25; E21B-0023/01; E21B-0043/11;E21B-0043/14; E21B-0043/26). (25 pp; 29 claims) SRPA# 911,645

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,645]................................................................

PIPE INSPECTION 914,381

[R] ACOUSTIC EMISSION INSPECTION OF COILEDTUBING

T.H.McCoy, asr. (Halliburton Energy Service). Gr. Brit.2,420,409A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/15/2005, pr. U.S. 11/17/2004 (Appl.990,923) (G01N-0029/14). (18 pp; 14 claims) SRPA# 904,998

[For abstract, see Abstract #904,998]................................................................

PRO TECT OR 914,382

A CABLE-PRO TECTIVE PIPE SECTION, A METHOD OFPRO TECTIVELY ARRANGING AT LEAST ONE CABLE ONTHE OUTSIDE OF THE PIPE SECTION AND USE OF A

DEVICE FOR PROTECTING THE CABLEK.Roaldsnes, asr. (Reslink AS). World 2006/073,309A1, p.

7/13/2006, f. 12/27/2005, pr. Norw. 1/6/2005 (Appl. 20,050,059)(E21B-0017/02; E21B-0017/20). (38 pp; 41 claims; Also assigned toK.Roaldsnes)

A cable-protective pipe section of a pipe string for a well isdescribed. The method protectively arranges at least one cable onthe outside of and along at least one pipe section of the pipe string,and also uses a cable-retaining strip to secure at least one cablealong the at least one pipe section. At least one cable is arranged onthe outside of and along the pipe string, where the cable is securedto at least one cable protector coupled to the outside of at least onepipe section of the pipe string. The method is characterized in thatthe cable protector is constituted by a cable-retaining strip. Thecable-retaining strip is provided with at least one continuous cabletrack arranged along the cable-retaining strip, the cable trackopening outwards relative to the pipe section. The at least one cableis also secured to the at least one cable track whereby the cable isprotected from the external environment.

................................................................

SAMPLING 914,383

PROPPANT SAMPLINGD.A.Anschutz and J.G.Wick. U.S. 2006/0,169,064A1, p. 8/3/2006,

f. 1/31/2005 (Appl. 48,304) (G01N-0001/00). (16 pp; 19 claims)Methods and systems are described which are useful for

obtaining a representative sample of solid particles from apneumatically conveyed stream of solid particles. One preferredmethod and system includes establishing a pneumatic flow of solidparticles in a gas stream through a sampling conduit and divertingthe stream through a second conduit; isolating an inlet of thesampling conduit from the second conduit substantiallysimultaneously with the step of diverting the entire stream throughthe second conduit and emptying material from the isolatedsampling conduit, wherein the representative sample comprises thematerial emptied from the sampling conduit. The outlet end of thesampling conduit may be vented into the second conduit or theatmosphere. The system for accomplishing the method may includea controller for controlling, inter alia, a position of the means fordiverting the stream through a second conduit, the means forisolating an inlet sampling conduit, or combinations thereof.

................................................................

SAMPLING 914,384

[R] INLINE PROPPANT SAMPLINGD.A.Anschutz and J.J.Renkes. U.S. 2006/0,169,066A1, p.

8/3/2006, f. 8/30/2005, pr. U.S. 1/31/2005 (Appl. 48,304)(G01N-0001/14). (19 pp; 39 claims) SRPA# 914,383

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,383]................................................................

SAND CONTROL 914,385

NEW TECHNOLOGY OF FIBRE COMPOUND SANDCONTROL OF THE WATER INJECTION WELL IN GUDONGOILFIELD

X.Zhao (Petroleum Univ, East China), P.Li, G.Zhang et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VII-VIII,71-73,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SAND SCREEN 914,386

SAND SCREEN COMPRISING PERMEABLE MEMBRANEWHICH SWELLS, REDUCING ITS PERMEABILITY, ONCONTACT WITH WATER OR ACTIVATING AGENT

D.W.Ross, asr. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,421,527A, p. 6/28/2006, f. 12/21/2005, pr. U.S. 12/21/2004 (Appl.60/593,206) (E21B-0043/08; E21B-0034/06). (19 pp; 19 claims)

A sand screen comprises a swelling membrane over its basepipe and within its mesh screen. When the membrane comes intocontact with an activating chemical agent or water it swells,reducing its permeability and effectively blocking passage of fluidsthrough apertures of the sand screen. The membrane may be

68 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 69: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

constructed from BACEL hard foam or a hydrogel polymer. Themembrane may include a coating which protects it from theactivating agent until an appropriate condition or situation isreached.

................................................................

SEAL 914,387

[R] SEAL CUP FOR A WELLBORE TOOL AND METHODM.W.Slack. U.S. 2006/0,151,182A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/8/2003,

pr. U.S. 12/6/2002 (Appl. 60/431,227), Can. 10/9/2003 (Appl.2,444,648) and World 12/8/2003 (Appl. 0,301,890) (E21B-0033/126).(13 pp; 18 claims) SRPA# 845,172

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #845,172]................................................................

SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING 914,388

COILED-TUBING PERFORATION AND ZONAL ISOLATIONIN HARSH WELLBORE CONDITIONS

M.I.Omar, A.M.Ali and Z.Ali (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) andA.Parapat, W.Speck and E.Parta (Schlumberger). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102241; Available on CD-ROM; Color;8 pp; 4 refs)

This paper presents a case history of coiled tubing perforatingand zonal isolation evolution in an infill well at Resak field, one ofthe gas fields operated by Malaysia National E&P Company,Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd. Since the beginning of Resak Fieldproduction, coiled tubing has been used to perforate numbers ofinfill wells with low success. The reservoir characteristics with highformation pressure and BHT followed by high CO2, H2S production,and improper well clean up contributed to the operational risks andchallenges. Several failures were carefully analyzed to determinethe actual root cause prior to coming up with the proper job designand operational procedures. CTU with 1.5-in. CT reels was used toconvey 140 ft of 2-7/8-in. gun due to crane and platform deckloading limitations. The small CT size and large gun conveyancerequired extra precaution since the presence of gun shock duringperforation may affect the CT integrity. Therefore, supportingperforating software was run to optimize gun selection where bothoperational risks and production objectives were taken intoconsideration. Coiled tubing forces simulation was also used todetermine the ability of the gun assemblies to be safely conveyedinto the target sands. In addition, one of the unique features fromthe gun assemblies was the selection of electronic firing head over aconventional or standard drop ball mechanism. This tool utilized acoded sequence created from variation of surface pump rate togenerate its firing command, providing reliable gun activationwhere the drop ball mechanism in the past was found to haveoperational difficulties. Lastly, this paper also discusses the properselection of a zonal isolation method that can withstand thewellbore condition. Results of those engineering studies haveovercome the operational failures in the past and were able to meetthe production objective.

................................................................

SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING 914,389

[R] WELL PERFORATING FOR INCREASED PRODUCTIONR.L.Schultz, M.L.Fripp and J.D.Burleson, asrs. (Halliburton

Energy Service). Gr. Brit. 2,420,804A, p. 6/7/2006, f. 12/5/2005, pr.U.S. 12/6/2004 (Appl. 5,234) (E21B-0043/119; E21B-0043/08;E21B-0043/11; E21B-0043/116; E21B-0043/117; E21B-0043/118).(37 pp; 69 claims) SRPA# 909,688

[For abstract, see Abstract #909,688]................................................................

SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATOR 914,390

[R] APPARATUS FOR REDUCING WELLBORE DEBRIS BYMINIMISING SHAPE CHARGE FRAGMENTATION

J.L.Walker and J.Gilbert, asrs. (Halliburton Energy Service).Gr. Brit. 2,420,399A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/17/2005, pr. U.S. 11/18/2004(Appl. 992,045) and U.S. 11/14/2005 (Appl. 273,476)(E21B-0043/117). (23 pp; 22 claims) SRPA# 905,001

[For abstract, see Abstract #905,001]................................................................

SURAT BASIN 914,391

CHANGES IN COMPLETION STRATEGY UNLOCKMASSIVE JURASSIC COALBED METHANE RESOURCEBASE IN THE SURAT BASIN, AUSTRALIA

R.L.Johnson, Jr. (Gas Projects Group) and S.Scott andM.Herrington (Queensland Gas Co Ltd). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101109; Available on CD-ROM; Color;16 pp; Over 10 refs)

Since the late 1990’s, operators have drilled a number ofcoalbed methane (CBM) core and exploration wells to define the gasresource potential of the vast and relatively unexplored JurassicWalloon Subgroup (SG) in the Surat Basin. Unfortunately, earlypilots used completion techniques that failed to fully assess the truepotential of this reservoir. First, openhole completions were trialedbut had limited success because of fines influx and well collapse.Next, cased and cemented wellbores incorporating hydraulicfracturing stimulation treatments were attempted to improvewellbore stability, reduce fines influx and increase gas production.These wells were ineffective and many experienced problematiccasing failures. Finally, an isolated, openhole under-reamedcompletion technique was trialed and achieved commercial flowrates representative of the drill-stem testing data indicated fromearlier exploratory drilling. This paper describes the process,experiences and results leading to the present completion strategy.We note production, permeability and skin factors associated withearly completion, as well as results obtained from large-scaleimplementation of this more effective completion method. As aresult of this change, the resource potential of the Walloon SG hasgrown significantly and the operator has proven 3,712 Bcf ofreserves from a previously undeveloped resource area.

................................................................

SURFACTANT ACIDIZING 914,392

EVALUATION OF ACID TREATMENT RESULTS FORWA TER-INJECT OR WELLS IN SAUDI ARABIA

M.S.Al-Harbi, A.M.Al-Dhafeeri, Y.A.Al-Rufaie andS.K.Mohammed (Saudi Aramco). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101344; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 3 pp; 3 refs)

Several acid treatments were conducted in the Ghawar field toincrease the well injectivity and to support the reservoir pressurein this area. Vertical and horizontal wells with an open holecompletion in a carbonate reservoir were selected to be a candidatefor post acid treatments evaluation study. These wells werestimulated using hydrochloric and emulsified acid with foamedviscoelastic-based water. Viscoelastic-based water system was usedto enhance the diversion mechanism and the lifting process for thespent acid following the treatment. In this paper, new correlationsfor acid treatment design were obtained from an extensive study ofseveral case histories that can be used for optimizing future acidtreatment design in the Ghawar field. This study mainly utilizedthe results from the post acid treatment jobs in terms of HCl acid,emulsified acid and viscoelastic volume correlated with the well’sinjectivity. Based on the study results, there is a strongrelationship between the emulsified acid volumes with theinjectivity index for the selected wells.

................................................................

TAPERED THREAD 914,393

[R] FLOATING WEDGE THREAD FOR TUBULARCONNECTION

D.L.Mallis, R.S.Sivley IV and H.A.Reynolds, Jr., asrs. (Hydril CoLP). World 2006/073,903A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. U.S.12/30/2004 (Appl. 27,015) (F16L-0015/06). (51 pp; 39 claims; Alsoassigned to D.L.Mallis, R.S.Sivley IV and H.A.Reynolds, Jr.) SRPA#912,408

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,408]................................................................

TELEMETERING 914,394

COMMUNICATING DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENTS TO THESURFACE BY MODULATING A CARRIER STIMULUS

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 69

Page 70: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

COMMUNICATED THROUGH A DOWNHOLE FLUIDS.Huang, F.Monmont, R.Tennent, M.R.Hackworth and

C.D.Johnson, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,421,334A, p. 6/21/2006, f. 11/18/2005, pr. U.S. 12/20/2004 (Appl.17,631) (E21B-0047/18). (42 pp; 49 claims)

In a subterranean well, a downhole measurement iscommunicated uphole by modulating a carrier stimuluscommunicated through a downhole fluid, e.g. water. For example, apump system may include a piston and a drive unit to generateacoustic waves within a liquid-filled column formed by an annulus.A stop valve modulates the acoustic waves by opening or blockingaccess to a volume separated from the annulus by packers. In otherexamples, the downhole measurement may be a pressure associatedwith an isolated zone established by a zone isolation tool, or themeasurement may be a slurry flow near a slurry exit port of agravel packing tool, or the measurement may be a pressure offracturing fluid measured during a fracturing operation.

................................................................

THREAD (MECHANICAL) 914,395

[R] PSEUDO TWO-STEP CONNECTIONH.A.Reynolds, Jr., asr. (Hydril Co LP). World 2006/073,861A1,

p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004 (Appl. 26,512)(F16L-0015/06; E21B-0017/04). (33 pp; 17 claims; Also assigned toH.A.Reynolds, Jr.) SRPA# 911,655

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,655]................................................................

THREAD (MECHANICAL) 914,396

[R] THREADS WITH PERTURBATIONSH.A.Reynolds, Jr., asr. (Hydril Co LP). World 2006/073,902A2,

p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004 (Appl. 27,014)(E21B-0017/042; F16L-0015/06). (31 pp; 12 claims; Also assigned toH.A.Reynolds, Jr.) SRPA# 911,656

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,656]................................................................

VALVE ACTUAT OR 914,397

TUBING ANNULUS VALVE ACTUATIONS.P.Fenton, J.E.Hed and R.N.Rogers, asrs. (Vetco Gray Inc). Gr.

Brit. 2,422,161A, p. 7/19/2006, f. 1/10/2006, pr. U.S. 1/10/2005 (Appl.32,545) (E21B-0034/04). (29 pp; 21 claims)

A subsea wellhead assembly has a tubing hanger with a tubingannulus passage and a production passage. A metal-sealing shuttlevalve is mounted in the tubing hanger for blocking upward flowthrough the tubing annulus passage. The shuttle valve has aretention mechanism that prevents the shuttle from moving to theopen position when fluid pressure is applied from above. Therunning tool releases the retention mechanism after testing hasbeen completed, causing the shuttle to close. The tree has anengaging member that can be stroked downward into the tubinghanger annulus passage to move the shuttle valve to the openposition for communicating with the annulus. The running tool, orpart of the tree, has a hydraulically driven actuator secured bythreads to an engagement tool having a releasable lock comprisinga collet with fingers for engagement with a valve sleeve, to move itfrom an upper closed position to a lower open position and then topull it upwards back to its closed position--negating the need for areturn spring.

................................................................

WALL ANCHOR 914,398

WELLBORE ANCHOR TOOLD.J.Ruttley and H.P.Boudet, asrs. (Deltide Fishing Tools Inc).

U.S. 7,086,462B2, c. 8/8/2006, f. 6/4/2004 (Appl. 861,740)(E21B-0023/01). (11 pp; 21 claims)

An anchor assembly for a downhole tool has upper and lowerfrictional engagement members for engaging with an inner wall ofthe casing. The upper frictional members are spring-tensioned,while the lower frictional engagement members slide, to certaindegrees, in relation to a longitudinal axis of the anchor assembly. Atthe same time conical engagement between the lower frictionalmembers and the supporting surface causes the lower frictionalmembers to extend outwardly and engage the inner surface of the

casing. As a result, the working tool, for instance a sand cuttersecured to the anchor assembly is stabilized in the casing, and aneven cut may be performed. In well operations, sometimes a wellmust be abandoned and plugged. The government regulationsrequire that a casing be cut at a certain depth below the surface.Sand cutters have been conventionally used for performing thecutting operation. It was noted that when the cutting is performedat the depth of about 100 feet, the pressures downhole tend to pushand excite the nozzle of the sand cutter and move it out ofalignment by a small distance, such as a quarter of an inch.However, this small distance is critical in the tight confines of acasing. The string supporting the cutter is energized and causes itto move from the required alignment. As a result, the cut createdby the sand cutter is no longer circular but rather resembles aspiral, such that the end of the cut does not necessary meet thebeginning of the cut.

................................................................

WELL CLEANOUT 914,399

EFFECTIVE HEAVY POST-FRACTURING PROPPANTCLEANOUT WITH COILED TUBING: EXPERIMENTALSTUDY AND FIELD CASE HISTORY

J.Li and I.Bayfield (BJ Services Co) and G.Paton (TalismanEnergy (UK) Ltd). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-101235; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; Over 10 refs)

Bauxite ceramics are a high strength proppant, often used forfracturing stimulation in deep and hot wells. Due to its higherspecific gravity (3.5-3.6), it is very challenging to design andexecute the post-fracturing proppant cleanout with coiled tubing(CT) successfully in the highly deviated large wellbore. In a sandcleanout with CT, the solids are moved by two modes of transport:circulation and wiper trip, in which the localized fluidization iscaused by jet turbulence. The jetting turbulence is produced by thedown hole wash tool, and as the CT is pulled from the hole, itfluidizes and propels the solids in the direction of the wellhead.Some of these solids may stay in suspension and be circulated outof the well depending on the flow velocities, hole geometry and fluidchoice. The remainder will tend to fall out of the flow channeldownstream from the wash tool. These solids will be continuallyrefluidised by the movement of the wash tool. The speed with whichthe wash tool can be pulled out of the hole is a complex function ofthe choice of fluid, flow velocities, hole geometry, hole deviation andthe physical properties of the particles. When conditions result incomplete removal of the solids, the corresponding maximum valueof the CT speed is defined as the optimum wiper trip speed. In thisstudy, the solids transport test results with bauxite in a full scaleflow loop are summarized and four case histories performed on bothsubsea and land wells are presented. The paper also describes howto use a customized down hole switchable wash nozzle andsophisticated solids transport computer modeling software tooptimize the post-fracturing sand cleanout process with 100%removal efficiency.

................................................................

WELL CLEANOUT 914,400

[R] SILICATE-CONTAINING ADDITIVES FOR WELL BORETREATMENTS AND ASSOCIATED METHODS

G.P.Perez, asr. (Halliburton Energy Service). World2006/070,173A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/12/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004(Appl. 27,310) (C09K-0008/524; C09K-0008/03; C09K-0008/52). (15pp; 14 claims; Also assigned to C.P.Wain and G.P.Perez) SRPA#912,415

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,415]................................................................

WELL CLEANOUT 914,401

[R] SILICATE-CONTAINING ADDITIVES FOR WELL BORETREATMENTS AND ASSOCIATED METHODS

G.P.Perez, asr. (Halliburton Energy Service). World2006/070,174A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/12/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004(Appl. 27,313) (C09K-0008/03; C09K-0008/524; C09K-0008/52). (15pp; 20 claims; Also assigned to C.P.Wain and G.P.Perez) SRPA#911,660

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,660]................................................................

70 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

K016337
Highlight
K016337
Reviewed
Page 71: Petroleum Abstracts

WELL COMPL SERV & WORKOVER

WELL KILLING 914,402

BLACKBACK SUBSEA A1A REMOTE WELL KILLA.J.Williamson (Esso Australia Pty Ltd). APPEA

CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.385-394,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color)

Esso Australia Pty Ltd has recently completed a uniquewellwork operation to secure the A1A well on its Blackback facilityin Bass Strait. The Blackback facility consists of three subseawellheads, linked in daisy-chain formation, sitting in 400 m ofwater-depth. The field is approximately 19 km southeast of hostplatform Mackerel and 87 km from shore. The Blackback A1A wellrecently developed leak rates through the subsurface safety valveand production master valve which exceeded Esso’s internalacceptance criteria. Production rates on the A1A well did not justifyan immediate workover to restore the integrity of the passingvalves. Although there were no immediate environmental concerns,inadvertent damage to the wellhead had potential to create anenvironmental exposure, so the decision was made to kill the welltemporarily until a workover opportunity arose. An innovativeremote well kill procedure was developed, utilising the 23 kmgaslift pipeline to pump kill fluids down to the well from hostplatform Mackerel. The procedure involved a unique and intricateshut-down procedure and pumping strategy. The main operationalrisks pre-identified and mitigated in the procedure includedpotential hydrate formation in the pipelines, over-pressure orblockage of the gaslift pipeline, and use of significant volumes ofmethanol for hydrate management. The Blackback wellkilloperation was executed to plan, with no safety, environmental orfacility related issues. The A1A well remains in a killed state withpositive overbalance, while start-up of the A3 well following theprocedure was successfully executed.

................................................................

WELL SERVICING RIG 914,403

THE AMERICAN WELL SERVICING RIG DIRECTORYTHE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER v.49, no.6,

pp.157-183, June 2006. (ISSN 0145-9198; 21 pp)The American Well Servicing Rig Directory, 2006 summer

edition, is presented as a service of The American Oil & GasReporter to meet the needs of domestic oil and gas producers for anationwide directory of active well servicing rigs. Informationcontained in this directory has been arranged in alphabeticalsequence. Rigs names are listed first by state and country--eitherthe yards in which the respective rigs are headquartered, or bytheir current areas of operation--and then by company name. Rigsappear under each company name in rig-number sequence.Abbreviated rig descriptions are included in columns under theMast heading. Most descriptions in columns headed Make & Modelrefer to single drum and double drum units. Information in Powercolumns indicates each rig’s rated horsepower for handling tubularsduring workover, servicing and completion operations. Depthcolumns report operational depths to which each rig is rated.

................................................................

WELL STIMULATION 914,404

[R] WELL TREATMENT USING A FATTY ACID ESTERS.L.Berry and K.E.Cawiezel, asrs. (BJ Services Co). Gr. Brit.

2,420,575A, p. 5/31/2006, f. 11/10/2005, pr. U.S. 11/10/2004 (Appl.985,458) and U.S. 11/2/2005 (Appl. 263,848) (C09K-0008/60;C09K-0008/20; C09K-0008/514; C09K-0008/575; E21B-0043/02). (27pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 907,054

[For abstract, see Abstract #907,054]................................................................

WELL STIMULATION 914,405

ULTRASOUND DETERMINES OIL WITHDRAWAL WITHVIBROSEIS BED STIMULATION

V.N.Nikolaevskiy (Russian Academy Sciences) andG.S.Stepanova, T.L.Nenartovich and G.N.Yagodov (VNIIneft).NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.48-50,Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 3 refs; In Russian)

Research on the process of oil-gas liberation with acoustic

stimulation is reported. It is shown that ultrasonic vibrations,excited in the bed with acoustic stimulation, exert a large influenceon this process. The mechanism of oil displacement efficiencyincrease due to the ultrasonic effect is considered.

................................................................

PR ODUCING OIL & GAS

ARTIFICIAL LIFT 914,406

DESIGNING AND EVALUATING ARTIFICIAL LIFTSYSTEMS - A COMBINED APPROACH

M.Bhuiyan (IHS Energy). OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11,pp.59-61, Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)

A model is developed to determine the subsea productionsystem’s deliverability under various artificial lift scenariosutilizing several engineering tools. This model illustrates theadvantages of using proper engineering tools to identify the bestcombination of the lift methods. A procedure has been developed tocheck if the wells have the potential to produce under natural flow;use of gaslift or electrical submersible pump (ESP) alone is a goodchoice or even if subsea boosting can help to maximize production.Combinations of different lift methods are specifically studied here.Indicating that a combination of ESP and subsea boosting (SSB)permits 17% to 62% production rate increase compared to differentartificial lift techniques.

................................................................

BOKOR FIELD 914,407

BOKOR - A NEW LOOK AT SAND PRODUCTION IN AMATURE FIELD

A.Kasim (Petronas Carigali) and F.Wijnands and S.Subbiah(Schlumberger). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-102242; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; Over 10 refs)

Although the stacked reservoirs of the Bokor field, offshoreSarawak, Malaysia are prone to sand production, the fielddevelopment team did not a-priori opt for gravel packs in everywell. While such completions can indeed eliminate sanding risk, theteam also wanted to consider the impact of the completion on theproduction rate of a well. The optimum completion not onlyexcludes sand, after all. It also maximizes hydrocarbon production.We carried out a geomechanical and sand production study, usingreadily available data. The paper gives an insight in the physics ofsand production and how this process can be geomechanicallymodeled. It shows how the model is used to select feasiblecompletions and quantify sand-free production rates, over the life ofthe reservoir. One important outcome was that screenlesscompletions were possible in the deeper reservoirs by optimizingperforation orientations. Apart from other advantages of screenlesscompletions, this leads to significant potential increases in sandfree production rates. An integrated Sand Management processbrought together geomechanics, petrophysics, reservoir andcompletion engineering to truly optimize completions.

................................................................

BRAZIL 914,408

BRAZIL OPERATIONSD.Lyle. E&P v.79, no.6, pp.79-80,82-83,85-87, June 2006. (ISSN

1527-4063; Color)Brazil has a national goal and energy policy focused on

achieving self sufficiency in crude oil supply. Brazil will pass the1.85 million b/d mark for oil production in 2006 and will beginexporting oil by the end of the year, as the Petrobras Albacore Lestefield ramps up to its 180,000 b/d design target. Petrobras iscontinuing its pursuit of new oil and gas supplies. Planning for thefuture includes production of heavy oil from the Jubarte field in2009 and further exploration of petroliferous basins. Brazil’sbidding round system is designed to maintain its new status as anoil exporter. Operators are planning ambitious seismic explorationas they prepare bids for Brazil’s eighth licensing round. Brazil’sdomestic policy is characterized by openness, transparent bidding,competitive taxation and a realistic promise of finding big field

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 71

Page 72: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

reserves. Established basins and promising frontier territories haveput Brazil on the short list for exploration companies andoperators, with reasonable contract terms afforded by Brazil’s taxand royalty system. Independent producers feel welcome in thisfield of operations and the vast potential offered.

................................................................

CHECK VALVE 914,409

[R] EQUALIZING FLAPPER FOR HIGH SLAM RATEAPPLICATIONS

R.Williams, V.McVicker, S.Stratton and J.Ives, asrs. (BakerHughes Inc). World 2006/074,339A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/6/2006, pr.U.S. 1/7/2005 (Appl. 31,585) (E21B-0034/10; F16K-0039/02). (22 pp;18 claims; Also assigned to R.Williams, V.McVicker, S.Stratton andJ.Ives) SRPA# 912,428

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,428]................................................................

CHEMICAL REACTOR 914,410

REACT OR FOR SOLID/LIQUID/GAS REACTIONSF.J.M.Schrauwen, asr. (Shell Internat Res Mij BV). World

2006/070,005A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/28/2005, pr. Europe. 12/31/2004(Appl. 04,107,080) (B01J-0008/22; C10G-0002/00). (26 pp; 12claims; Also assigned to F.J.M.Schrauwen)

A reactor for carrying out a Fischer-Tropsch chemical reactionin a three phase slurry system is described. The reactor comprises(1) a reaction vessel having a freeboard zone and a slurry zone, theslurry zone having a diameter of at least 0.5 m, preferably greaterthan 1 m, more preferably greater than 2 m, and a height of at least15 m preferably at least 10 m; (2) a gas inlet means at or near thebottom of the reaction vessel; (3) a gas outlet at or near the top ofthe reaction vessel; (4) a number of vertical pipes within thereaction vessel slurry zone, therefore pipes having a diameter offrom about 1 cm to about 200 cm, and a total perimeter of fromabout 1400 to about 4000 cm/ra2; and optionally (5) a liquid outletmeans. The provision of sufficient vertical pipes in a reaction vesselof this size has been found not only to suppress the tendency ofpreferred gas flow streams through the liquid and the formation ofrolling motions at the slurry, but also to reduce and possiblyprevent large scale backmixing of the gas phase, and especially theliquid phase, in the reaction vessel.

................................................................

COLUMN (STRUCTURAL) 914,411

PREDICTION OF ULTIMATE BEHAVIOUR OF PLATEGIRDERS IN TRANSVERSE FRAMES

G.Dong and T.Moan (Norwegian Univ Sci Technol). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;Over 10 refs)

As a consequence of the introduction of limit state methods forthe design of plate girders, the accurate prediction of ultimatecapacity has become very important. In the first part of this paper,ultimate strength of plate girders in which buckling of webs play asignificant role is estimated using ABAQUS software. These girdershave been tested earlier by other researchers. The analysis resultshave been compared with the corresponding experimental resultsand predictions by existing simplified methods (JTP rules andEC3-1-5). The second part of the paper deals with assessing theapplicability of codified ultimate strength methods to shipstructures. Case studies are performed for a deep girder tested byRashed (1974), and a transverse frame of a FPSO tanker. Girdersin double-bottom type structures, however, may show differentcollapse behaviour due to the wide effective flanges, especiallywhen the girder is subjected to pure bending and combined shearand bending. To clarify this behaviour and to investigate theapplicability of the interaction diagram proposed by Hoglund(1973), and a new formula presented by Olaru et al (2001) topredict the ultimate bending moment, a side bottom girder of thistransverse frame is analyzed in detail, and some general commentsand new ideas are presented.

................................................................

COUPLING (PIPE) 914,412

INTEGRITY OF BOLTED JOINTS: HYDROCARBON LEAKREDUCTION BY JOINT-INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT

R.Noble (Hydratight). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.603-609, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 1 ref)

Bolted joints are very common in petroleum productionfacilities. Whereas extensive controls are applied to the productionof a welded joint--in terms of material control and specification,control and competence of the welder, and verification of theintegrity of the weld--this is not the case for bolted joints. Theconsequences of failure of a welded joint and a bolted joint,however, are similar and potentially catastrophic if the contents ofthe pipeline or vessel are hydrocarbons under pressure. This paperdiscusses the main issues in producing and maintaining a leak-freebolted joint and makes the case for establishing industry-widestandards for the management of bolted joints that are equally asstringent as those applied to welded joints. Implementing such asystem, while improving and assuring the safety andenvironmental performance of an asset, will also reduce costs dueto rework, product loss, schedule slippage and productiondowntime.

................................................................

CYCLONE SEPARATOR 914,413

CYCLONIC SEPARATOR AND METHOD FOR DEGASSINGA FLUID MIXTURE

M.Betting, G.W.Colenbrander, M.A.Curole, T.C.Klaver andE.J.Puik, asrs. (Shell Internat Res Mij BV; Shell Canada Ltd).World 2006/070,019A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/29/2005, pr. Europe.12/30/2004 (Appl. 04,107,068) (B04C-0003/00; B04C-0005/181;B04C-0003/06; B04C-0005/16; B04C-0005/13; B01D-0019/00;B04C-0005/103). (19 pp; 15 claims; Also assigned to M.Betting,G.W.Colenbrander, M.A.Curole, T.C.Klaver and E.J.Puik)

A method and cyclonic separator are described for degassing afluid mixture comprising a carrier liquid and one or more gaseousand/or vaporizable components, wherein the fluid mixture isaccelerated in a throat section of a vortex tube such that the staticpressure of the fluid mixture is decreased and vaporizablecomponents evaporate into a gaseous phase; the accelerated fluidmixture is induced to swirl within the vortex tube such that thefluid mixture is separated by centrifugal forces into a degassedliquid fraction and a gas enriched fraction; the degassed liquidfraction is induced to flow into a liquid outlet conduit which islocated at or near the outer circumference of the vortex tube; andthe gas enriched fraction is induced to flow into a gas outlet conduitwhich is located at or near a central axis of the vortex tube. Themethod may be configured to degas a fluid mixture which comprisescrude oil as a carrier liquid and vaporizable components comprisingnatural gas or condensates.

................................................................

DEEP WATER 914,414

[R] ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES BECOMING KEYS TOSUCCESS AS WATER DEPTHS INCREASE

J.M.Bell (Chevron Energy Technol Co), Y.D.Chin (ShellInternational E&P) and S.Hanrahan (Chevron). THE AMERICANOIL & GAS REPORTER v.49, no.6, pp.58-60,62,65-66,69, June2006. (ISSN 0145-9198; Color) SRLA# 870,839

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #870,839]................................................................

ELECTRIC CABLE 914,415

DEEP WATER SIGNAL CABLEE.Mjelstad, asr. (Nexans). Europe. 1,691,378A2, p. 8/16/2006, f.

2/3/2006, pr. Norw. 2/11/2005 (Appl. 20,050,753) (H01B-0007/04). (5pp; 7 claims)

An electrical signal cable is provided comprising at least twoinsulated conductors, wherein each of the insulated conductors isarranged in a groove of a longitudinal central element consisting ofan elastic material which allows the insulated conductors to movein radial direction when the electrical signal cable is exposed tolongitudinal tensile stress. These umbilicals are used for

72 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 73: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

transmitting power, signals and fluid to and from a subseahydrocarbon producing installation via the various elongatedumbilical elements. An increasingly important use of umbilicals isthe transmission of electrical power to electrical devices on theseabed, and depths of up to 2000 meters are common.

................................................................

ELECTRIC WELL PUMP 914,416

ESPs [ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP] PROVE VALUEIN LOW-VOLUME WELLS

M.Rainwater (Wood Group ESP) and R.B.Herring (ChesapeakeEnergy Corp). THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER v.49,no.6, pp.108,110-111, June 2006. (ISSN 0145-9198; Color)

Historically, ESPs were designed and manufactured for large-volume applications producing from moderate depths. Low-volumeproduction of less than 400 barrels a day has always beenconsidered the territory of rod pumps. However, because of depthlimitations inherent to sucker rods, rod pumping low-volumeproduction wells at deeper depths often becomes uneconomicbecause of high failure rates. Utilizing new control technology theadvent of wider vane designs, and high-pressure housings, ESPsare proving successful in replacing conventional andnonconventional pumping units in low-volume wells. ESPtechnology is now a viable operation for oil and gas producers whenselecting artificial lift systems for deep, hot bottom-holetemperature and low-volume wells. This is primarily the result oftechnological innovations and improvements in the ESP industry.These innovations are expanding the application envelope for ESPsand creating opportunities for longer run times in low-volume, deepand high-temperature bottom-hole environments. Historically, low-volume submersible pump designs consisted of production rangeshigher than 400 bbl/d. These submersible pumps had narrow vaneclearances that plugged easily, limited gas handling capabilities,small thrust washer areas that limited run times, and low pressurehousings that created unsafe and limited application ranges.Looking to address production challenges in its Self Unit,Chesapeake Energy Corporation began investigating the potentialfor installing ESPs. In the Self Unit, some of the productionchallenges were depth, paraffin, low fluid volumes and variations ingas production. These combined conditions were resulting insudden load variations (pumped off condition or gas interference),which eventually resulted in downhole failures.

................................................................

ELECTROSTATIC TREATER 914,417

IN-FIELD EMULSION TREATABILITY TEST WITH THEELECTROSTATIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTER

J.Lee and T.Frankiewicz (Natco Group Inc), M.Z.Ismail andM.L.Anwar (Petronas Res & Sci Service) and M.S.A.Samad(Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102221; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; 3 refs)

An Electrostatic Susceptibility Tester (EST) was used todetermine the treatability of oil emulsions from the Miri Crude OilTerminal (MCOT). In the EST, a sample of heated, chemicallytreated emulsion is exposed to an AC/DC electrostatic field and theenergy and time required to coalesce water droplets and separatewater from the oil emulsion are determined. Both fresh emulsionsfrom the trunk lines to the plant and aged emulsion from a holdingtank at the terminal were tested. It was concluded thatelectrostatic treatment is effective for treating the fresh emulsionsat 50°C with the injection of either acetic acid or emulsion breaker.The dry oil BS&W was reduced from 2.5 vol% to 0.3 vol% whenacetic acid injection rate was increased from 250 ppm to the rangeof 500-1000 ppm. The naturally occurring surfactant (calciumnapthenate) that stabilized the emulsion tends to dissolve into theoil phase at higher acetic acid concentrations, thus making theemulsion easier to be treated. Electrostatic treatment is not aseffective for treating the aged emulsion from the holding tankbecause the emulsion contained greater than 40% water and wasapparently stabilized by a combination of calcium napthenate andfine, oil-wet solids.

................................................................

FATIGUE FAILURE 914,418

IMPACT-FATIGUE CORRELATION: OPTIMIZATION ONTHE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SUCKER-RODMATERIALS

A.Martinez and J.A.Serna (Ecopetrol SA), A.Jaimes (TIP Ltda)and I.Uribe (UIS Colombia). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102211; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp; Over 10refs)

In oil wells with beam pumping systems, sucker rods mainlyfailed by fatigue due to the fact that they operate under cyclingtension stresses. Additionally, superficial defects could be generatedduring handling and operation of the rods, which favor theformation of fatigue cracks and consequently decreasing theoriginal expected life of the rod. Because of a high rate of rodfailures by fatigue, and the consequent increase in operationalcosts, a study was done to obtain experimental data that will beused for the selection and design of the sucker rods strings. Fatiguetests were done for new high strength sucker rods, selected atrandom in the field, to determine the endurance fatigue limit. Fourkinds of fatigue tests were done: (1) the material was tested in theas received condition (normalize and tempering), (2) tests wereconducted with specimens having a superficial defect simulating acorrosion pit, (3) same as (2) but samples were quenched andtempered. Material characterization was done for all tested rods,including tension, hardness and impact tests, metallographicanalysis and chemical composition. The experimental resultsshowed important fatigue differences among the materialevaluated, the negative effect of the surface pitting, and theimprovement of the fatigue resistance by quenching and temperingthe rods. A correlation between the results of impact test, tensiontest and fatigue test was developed. The findings and conclusions ofthis study will help the design engineer in the selection processbetween different sucker rods in the market. Finally, a simpler testmethod is presented to predict the fatigue behavior between rods ofannular specification but from different manufacturers.

................................................................

FISCHER TROPSCH PROCESS 914,419

IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO COAL TO LIQUIDPROCESSES

J.Ansorge, S.Bilton, H.J.Van Der Ploeg, A.M.Routier andC.J.Smit, asrs. (Shell Internat Res Mij BV; Shell Canada Ltd).World 2006/070,018A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/29/2005, pr. Europe.12/30/2004 (Appl. 04,107,067) (C10K-0003/04; C10K-0001/20;C10K-0003/06; C10G-0002/00; C01B-0003/56; C10G-0047/00;C10K-0001/16). (29 pp; 13 claims; Also assigned to J.Ansorge,S.Bilton, H.J.Van Der Ploeg, A.M.Routier and C.J.Smit)

A method is described for increasing the hydrogen/carbonmonoxide (H2/CO) ratio in a syngas stream derived from acarbonaceous fuel including coal, brown coal, peat, and heavyresidual oil fractions, preferably coal, wherein the fuel-derivedsyngas stream is divided into at least two sub-streams, one of whichundergoes a catalytic water shift conversion reaction, and the so-obtained converted sub-stream is combined with the non-convertedsub-stream(s) to form a second syngas stream with an increasedH2/CO ratio. The method can provide a syngas with an H2/CO ratiomore suitable for efficient hydrocarbon synthesis carried out on agiven catalyst, such as in one or more Fischer-Tropsch reactors, aswell as being able to accommodate variation in the H2/CO ratio ofsyngas formed from different qualities of feedstock fuels.

................................................................

FISCHER TROPSCH PROCESS 914,420

FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS: DEVELOPMENT OF AMICROKINETIC MODEL FOR METAL CATALYSIS

G.Lozano-Blanco, J.W.Thybaut and G.B.Marin (Gent Univ) andK.Surla and P.Galtier (Inst Francais du Petrole). IFP RESEARCHADVANCES IN RATIONAL DESIGN OF CATALYSTS &SORBENTS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Lyon, France,12/14-16/2005) PAPER; OIL & GAS SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY - REVUE DE L’INSTITUT FRANCAIS DUPETROLE v.61, no.4, pp.489-496, July-Aug. 2006. (ISSN 1294-4475;Over 10 refs)

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 73

Page 74: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

The construction of a single-event microkinetic (SEMK) modelfor metal catalysis using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as examplereaction is addressed. SEMKs describe the full product distributionwith a limited number of kinetic parameters. A computer algorithmis required to generate all the elementary steps and species of thereaction network. Reacting and intermediate species arerepresented with Boolean matrices and standardized labels. Theadjustable model parameters are the atomic chemisorptionenthalpies of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen on the metal surfaceand the single-event kinetic coefficients of the kinetically relevantreaction families.

................................................................

FLOATING PRODUCTN PLATFORM 914,421

SPECIAL REPORT: DEEPWATER CHALLENGES ANDOPPORTUNITIES - INDEPENDENCE HUB NEARSPRODUCTION FROM EASTERN GULF OF MEXICOLEASES

G.Moritis. OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.44, pp.43-47,11/27/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

Gas production from the eastern Gulf of Mexico will start in2007 from 10 deepwater fields tied into a floating central processingfacility, Independence Hub, moored in ca 8,000 ft of water. Five ofthese fields are on leases acquired during Lease Sale 181 inDecember 2001. The sale was controversial and was reduced in sizeby nearly 75% because of environmental concerns in Florida.Currently, various federal legislative proposals seek to lease theacreage removed in 2001. Independence Hub ties together multipledeepwater gas fields lying in 8,000-9,000 ft of water that otherwisewould be uneconomical to develop on a standalone basis. Initially,10 fields will anchor the project and produce about 1 bcfd to the hubplatform, in ca 8,000 ft of water on Mississippi Canyon Block 920. Ahigh-pressure, 132-mile pipeline will transport the gas ashore. Thedevelopment has different owners for the processing platform,pipeline to shore, and producing gas fields. Owning the hub isIndependence Hub LLC, a venture of Enterprise Field Services LLC(80%) and Helix Energy Solutions (20%). Anadarko PetroleumCorp. will operate the processing on the hub on behalf of the gasfield owners. Independence Hub semi will be moored 165 miles eastof New Orleans in 8,000 ft waters. The fields are in the deepestwater depths to date for producing fields. Also they have the longesttie-back flowlines, longer than 45 miles.

................................................................

GAS CONDENSATE WELL 914,422

FORMULAE FOR MINIMUM ALLOWED PRODUCTIONRATE OF CONDENSATE GAS WELL AND APPLICATION

X.F.Ma, Z.X.Lang and X.M.Li (Petroleum Univ, Beijing).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.549-551, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 6refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

GAS CONING 914,423

MEANS FOR PASSIVE INFLOW CONTROL UPON GASBREAKTHROUGH

S.L.Crow, M.P.Coronado and R.K.Mody (Baker Oil Tools).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102208; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 6 pp; 4 refs)

Generally, horizontally completed oil producers are susceptibleto localized gas coning during their life due to the gas/oil contactencroaching the well bore. Even a small difference in permeabilityand/or relative permeability along the well bore can result in gasconing, which impacts oil production and gas handling issues.Production optimization can be achieved by selectively shutting inareas where gas coning has broken into the wellbore, thusimproving drainage efficiency. A new system has been developed topassively sense gas inflow into the well. Once gas is detected insufficient levels a valve is activated which shuts off the flow pathinto the well. The valve is designed to detect fluid density changes,and will activate once a predetermined decrease in production fluiddensity is reached, indicating gas coning. Incorporated in a sand

face screen completion, each screen joint includes a phase-sensitivevalve that enables it to work independently of the others. Thisapproach has the benefit of shutting off unwanted gas inflowwithout the need for costly well intervention. Used in conjunctionwith zone isolation packers to eliminate annular flow, flownormalization can be achieved across the production interval. Thedesign can also be adapted to shut off water flow, as well as gas, inthe event of water coning into the wellbore. This paper will detailthe development process of this new passive gas shut-off valve,including laboratory testing performed to qualify the technology.Plans for full-scale, two-phase flow testing, conducted incooperation with a major North Sea operator, will also be discussed.

................................................................

GAS LIFT (WELL) 914,424

GAS LIFT PROVING EFFECTIVE IN GAS WELLSR.P.Rouen (Schlumberger). THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS

REPORTER v.49, no.6, pp.102-105,107, June 2006. (ISSN0145-9198; Color)

Gas lift has not historically been used in natural gas wells. Buta combination of experience and opportunity over the past decadehas led to advancements in gas lift technology that represent cost-effective and viable options for gas wells. As a result, a unique newartificial gas lift system has been developed that has field-provenresults in dewatering and dramatically increasing production forliquid-loaded gas wells. The system incorporates standard gas lifttechnology in an innovative, yet simple completions architecturethat enables gas lift across long perforated completion intervalsbelow a production packer. The system was developed in the fieldthrough an evolution of applying and modifying conventional gaslift methods and technology, so that gas could be injected below theproduction packer, deep in the perforated zone, where well-killingliquid loading problems occur. Every gas well has a critical gasvelocity required to effectively transport liquids from the well bore.When a well falls below this critical rate, liquids settle and build inthe bottom of the tubing, decreasing production and ofteneventually killing the well.

................................................................

GAS LIQUEFACTION PLANT 914,425

THE PMR PROCESS, AN INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FORLARGE LNG TRAINS

C.Buijs, J.J.B.Pek and W.J.Meiring (Shell Global Solut Int BV).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.127-134,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The forecasts in market growth of LNG and the development oflarge gas fields are a great stimulus for further enhancing thecapacity of LNG trains. The increasing cost of upstreamdevelopment, including the managing of CO2, deepwater, ice,complex reservoirs and so on, makes downstream economies ofscale an imperative. This paper addresses Shell’s approach to largeLNG trains in the range of 7-10 Mtpa covering both mechanical andelectrical drive options to develop innovative and cost effectivedesigns. With the standard Propane Mixed Refrigerant (C3/MR)technology, capacities up to 5 Mtpa can be achieved with two GEFrame 7 gas turbines as drivers. Due to maximum size constraintsof key equipment, an additional liquefaction cycle is required torealise higher LNG capacities. Both liquefaction configurations,although of different concepts, have a similar number of equipmentitems. Shell Global Solutions has developed the latter option as theParallel Mixed Refrigerant (PMR) process. For precooling, eitherpropane or a mixed refrigerant, as used in the Double MixedRefrigerant (DMR) process, is used. With three well-proven GEFrame 7 gas turbines, 8 Mtpa of LNG production is achieved. Withlarger drivers such as GE Frame 9 or Siemens V84.2 gas turbines,the LNG capacity increases to above 10 Mtpa.

................................................................

GAS PROCESSING 914,426

PROCESS CALCULATION STUDY ON WEIZHOUTERMINATION GAS TREATMENT FACILITYRECONSTRUCTION

G.Sun (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). CHEMICAL

74 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 75: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQIHUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.1-2,451-453, Dec. 2005. (ISSN1007-3426; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

GAS PROCESSING PLANT 914,427

[R] METHOD AND INSTALLATION FOR PRODUCINGTREATED NATURAL GAS FROM A C3+ HYDROCARBON-RICH CUT AND ETHANE-RICH STREAM [PROCEDE ETINSTALLATION DE PRODUCTION DE GAZ NATURELTRAITE, D’UNE COUPE RICHE EN HYDROCARBURES ENC3+ ET COURANT RICHE EN ETHANE]

H.Paradowski, asr. (Technip France). World 2006/070,097A1, p.7/6/2006, f. 12/19/2005, pr. Fr. 12/22/2004 (Appl. 0,413,751)(F25J-0003/00). (27 pp; 15 claims; Also assigned to H.Paradowski;In French) SRPA# 911,704

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,704]................................................................

GAS PUMP 914,428

[R] GAS OPERATED PUMP FOR HYDROCARBON WELLSW.F.Howard and W.C.Lane. U.S. 2006/0,151,178A1, p.

7/13/2006, f. 12/13/2005, pr. U.S. 1/22/2002 (Appl. 60/350,673) andU.S. 1/22/2003 (Appl. 349,501) (E21B-0043/00). (13 pp; 20 claims)SRPA# 823,948

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #823,948]................................................................

GAS SEPARATOR 914,429

INTEGRATED SEPARATION AND PREPARATIONPROCESS

A.Buijs, L.A.Chewter, G.J.Harmsen, E.Van Der Heide,J.F.Menard, D.F.Mulder and W.Spiering, asrs. (Shell Internat ResMij BV). World 2006/069,991A2, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/27/2005, pr.Europe. 12/31/2004 (Appl. 04,107,074) (B01D-0053/22;C07C-0007/144; B01D-0053/92; C07C-0007/00). (52 pp; 23 claims;Also assigned to A.Buijs, L.A.Chewter, G.J.Harmsen, E.Van DerHeide, J.F.Menard, D.F.Mulder and W.Spiering)

Integrated separation and preparation process comprising a gasseparation process is described wherein a first component isseparated from a mixture of components by diffusion of the firstcomponent through a porous partition into a stream of sweepingcomponent; and a preparation process wherein the sweepingcomponent is used as feed. A separation unit and device for use insuch a process and industrial set-up for use in such a process arealso described.

................................................................

HEAT TRANSFER 914,430

HEAT TRANSFER IN TWO-PHASE GAS-LIQUID FLOW: PT.I:HORIZONTAL WELLS AND PIPES [TRANSFERENCIA DECALOR EN FLUJO BIFASICO GAS-LIQUIDO: PARTE I:POZOS Y TUBERIAS HORIZONTALES]

F.Garcia, J.Segura and R.Garcia (Venezuela Central Univ) andD.Moran (Simon Bolivar Univ). REV. FAC. ING. (VENEZUELACENT. UNIV.) v.19, no.3, pp.83-99, 2004. (ISSN 0798-4065; Over 10refs; In Spanish)

Not considering thermal phenomenon in hydrodynamic modelscould lead to significant differences in pressure gradient prediction.The study of heat transfer in two-phase gas-liquid flow is ofparticular interest in those systems in which the liquid phase is ofhigh viscosity as in the case of heavy oil. In heavy oil, smallvariations of temperature change its viscosity significantly, whichcould substantially modify the flow hydrodynamics affecting the oilproduction system, including the particular case of horizontal wellswhere thermal recovery processes are applied. However, thepetroleum industry has paid less attention to the study of heattransfer in multiphase flow than to the hydrodynamics of the flow.The first part of this work presents the results of an extensivebibliographical revision of the research carried out in heat transferin two-phase flow without phase change in horizontal wells andpipes. The article discusses current tendencies in the modeling ofphysical phenomenon, the correlations in order to evaluate the two-

phase convective coefficient, studies of specific phenomena and theexperimental techniques used. The bibliographical review showsthat, in general, just a few works exist related to the study of heattransfer in two-phase gas-high viscosity liquid flow. This situationis particularly critical in horizontal pipes where very few studieshave been published on heat transfer in two-phase flow even for thecase of low viscosity liquids.

................................................................

HEAT TRANSFER 914,431

HEAT TRANSFER IN TWO-PHASE GAS-LIQUID FLOW:PT.II: VERTICAL PIPES AND ANNULAR DUCTS[TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR EN FLUJO BIFASICO GAS-LIQUIDIO PARTE II: TUBERIAS Y CONDUCTOSANULARES VERTICALES]

J.Segura, F.Garcia and R.Garcia (Venezuela Central Univ) andD.Moran (Simon Bolivar Univ). REV. FAC. ING. (VENEZUELACENT. UNIV.) v.19, no.3, pp.101-124, 2004. (ISSN 0798-4065; Over10 refs; In Spanish)

This paper presents a broad bibliographic version of existingstudies on heat transfer in gas-liquid two-phase flow without phasechange with the purpose of establishing the basis for furtherresearch in the area. Part 1 of this work (Garcia et al., 2003)discussed research related to horizontal wells, whereas this articlepresents studies performed in vertical pipes and annular ducts.Aspects related to the modeling of physical phenomenon, empiricalcorrelations to evaluate the two-phase coefficient of convective heattransfer, aspects related to the study of specific phenomena and thedescription of plants used in experimental studies are included. Theanalysis of the literature indicates the existence of very few workson the study of heat transfer in gas-liquid two-phase flow for thecase of high viscosity liquids, and therefore, high Prandtl numberliquids. In the case of vertical annular ducts, the publications areeven scarcer, thus warranting more research efforts in this area.

................................................................

HORIZONTAL WELL 914,432

COST EFFICIENCY OF RESEARCH OF A HORIZONTALWELL ONLY ON ONE MODE

Z.S.Aliev and F.F.Butaev (Gubkin Oil & Gas Univ).NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.59-61,Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; In Russian)

The opportunity to use a process of stabilization of bottomholepressure and well flow rate of only one mode for determination offiltration resistance factors and layer parameters is established.The results of mathematical experiments on revealing a share of aninertial component in the equation of gas discharge to a horizontalwell are given.

................................................................

HULL (MARINE) 914,433

CYLINDRICAL HULL STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTR.M.Converse and Y.C.Park, asrs. (SparTEC Inc). Europe.

1,693,297A1, p. 8/23/2006, f. 2/16/2006, pr. U.S. 2/22/2005 (Appl.60/654,994) and U.S. 8/29/2005 (Appl. 214,069) (B63B-0035/44;B63B-0003/06). (20 pp; 10 claims)

In a floating circular hull construction arrangement, the hull isdivided into sections by watertight flats. The flats are stiffened withangles or bulb tees curved to form concentric circles that are in turnsupported by radial girders spaced around the flats and spanningbetween inner and outer shells. In each section, longitudinalgirders spaced radially around the inside of the outer shellterminate at the flats and attach to the flats and do not penetratethe flats. The longitudinal girders are attached to flats aligned withthe locations of the radial girders that extend across the flats to theinner and outer shells. A panel stiffening arrangement on the innercircumference of the outer shell is attached to the outer shell andthe longitudinal girders. Longitudinal girders spaced around theouter circumference of the inner shell extend along the length ofthe inner shell and are attached to the radial girders. With theinner and outer longitudinal girders connected to the radial girdersmoment resisting frames are created that are arranged radially ineach compartment. These frames stiffen the individual girders aswell as balance the differential axial loadings in the inner shell and

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 75

K016337
Highlight
Page 76: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

outer shell surfaces. The compartments are assembled with thesections in a vertical orientation to minimize self-weight distortionduring erection and to provide direct access with shop cranesduring assembly of the full sections. The completed sections arerotated to the horizontal to be joined to the other sections to form acomplete cylinder.

................................................................

HYDRATE INHIBITOR 914,434

A NEW METHOD TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OFHYDRATE INHIBITORS

X.Bai, J.Huang, Q.Hou and F.Xu (Southwest Petroleum Inst)and Z.Wang (Shengli Oilfield). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFOIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQI HUAGONG) v.34, no.6,pp.1,445-447, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 2 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

HYDRAULIC WELL PUMP 914,435

[R] OIL WELL PUMP APPARATUSR.C.Davis. U.S. 2006/0,153,695A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 2/21/2003

(Appl. 372,533) (F04B-0023/08). (16 pp; 15 claims) SRPA# 853,782[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #853,782]

................................................................

HYDRODYNAMICS (MECHANICS) 914,436

DYNAMIC MOTION SUPPRESSION OF RISER, UMBILICALAND JUMPER LINES

K.J.Wajnikonis, asr. (Seahorse Equipment Corp). World2006/073,887A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/28/2005, pr. U.S. 1/3/2005 (Appl.60/593,269). (69 pp; 13 claims; Also assigned to K.J.Wajnikonis)

Dynamic motion decoupling and damping is achieved with theuse of mass, added mass, buoyancy, submerged weight and drag inarbitrary locations on catenary and/or tensioned lines. The originalline configuration may or may not be modified. Drag and addedmass enhancing devices effective in all directions can be used toincrease the suppression effectiveness and/or in order to reduce thenumber of devices used. This method is suitable for use on newdesigns and it is also suitable for retrofitting on existing, alreadyinstalled lines.

................................................................

HYDRODYNAMICS (MECHANICS) 914,437

[R] CATENARY LINE DYNAMIC MOTION SUPPRESSIONK.J.Wajnikonis, asr. (Seahorse Equipment Corp). World

2006/073,931A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/28/2005, pr. U.S. 1/3/2005 (Appl.60/593,269) (E02D-0005/60). (79 pp; 14 claims; Also assigned toK.J.Wajnikonis) SRPA# 914,436

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #914,436]................................................................

HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL 914,438

DISCUSSION ON FEASIBILITY OF USING TYTS-2000 FORNATURAL GAS SWEETENING

Z.Li (Jinling Petrochem Corp) and X.Wu, Y.Jin, X.H.Kou andJ.Wu (Jiangsu Tianyin Chem Ind). CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGOF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQI HUAGONG) v.34, no.6,pp.4,504-507, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 7 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

INDIA 914,439

CAIRN WRITING EXPLORATION EPIC IN INDIAN INKD.Snieckus. OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11, pp.17-20,

Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)In 1996, Cairn Energy took over operation of ONGC’s Ravva

field, a small producing development in India’s Bay of Bengalthought to hold 70 million barrels of oil. Ten years on, theEdinburgh-based independent has built itself a regional portfolio ofshallow water, onshore, and deepwater assets with reserves totalingover 1 billion boe. The company’s experience growing up in India isdiscussed.

................................................................

INTELLIGENT WELL 914,440

TECHNOLOGY OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT OFTHERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF WELL OPERATION

A.D.Savich and A.V.Shumilov (Permneftegeofizika),I.A.Chernykh (LUKOIL) and D.V.Lagoyda (EGANOIL).NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.72-75,Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 7 refs; In Russian)

It is known that the technology of preliminary lowering ofcomplex devices under the subsurface pump allows geophysical andhydrodynamic research on mechanized wells irrespective of theirdegree of curvature. The opportunity of the equipment of wells gridinformation on a deposit for realization of development monitoringis established.

................................................................

INTERFACE DETECTOR 914,441

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DETECTINGACCUMULATIONS OF SOLID MATERIAL

E.Hauge, asr. (Vetco Aibel AS). U.S. 7,073,404B2, c. 7/11/2006, f.12/22/2003, pr. Norw. 12/23/2002 (Appl. 20,026,192)(G01F-0023/22). (7 pp; 12 claims)

A method and device are described for detecting anaccumulation of a solid material in a vessel that contains at leastone fluid phase. The device includes an electric conductor elementthat is positioned in a region inside the vessel where theaccumulation is likely to occur, the electric resistance of theconductor element being a function of the temperature thereof,elements for providing electrical power to the conductor elementand elements for repeatedly measuring the electrical resistance ofthe conductor element. The method and device have applications ofoil and gas production and processing, in which an amount of sandaccumulates on the bottom of, in such applications, existing gravityseparators for the separation of water from oil. Thus, the fluidphase is mainly a liquid phase.

................................................................

KUIT O FIELD 914,442

APPLICATION OF NUCLEONIC INSTRUMENTS INSEPARATOR PROFILING: KUITO FPSO CASE STUDY

B.Beinart (Tracerco). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.405-412, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color)

The Kuito field lies in the offshore Cabinda Province, Angola.Kuito was Angola’s first deep-water oil and came on stream inDecember 1999. Kuito oil is produced via an FPSO. Kuito oil ranges18-22 API. The FPSO has three-phase, horizontal, gravityseparation vessels that are used to separate oil and gas fromunwanted produced water and solids prior to transportation. Theproduction separators were designed with capacitance typeinstruments mounted inside the vessels in stilling wells. Followingproduction start-up, separation problems began to emerge; thesewere manifested in numerous process upsets and shutdowns. Kuitooil can form emulsions quickly, and calcium naphthenate isproduced at higher temperatures. If allowed to cool, it solidifies.The point instrumentation was unable to detect these emulsion andnapththenate layers resulting in the instrumentation becomingfouled and ceasing to function. The separators were operated blind,using tri-cocks located on the side of the vessel, and as theinstrumentation was installed in stilling wells inside the vessel, itwas impossible to maintain them without shutting down anddepressurising the vessels. This paper describes how nucleonicprofiling instruments were retrofitted to the vessels and shows howtheir operation was able to identify the different layers within theseparators. This enabled the time of oil production to be increasedand allowed the pro-active use of effective chemicals such asemulsion breakers and defoamers to be applied before the plantbecame unstable.

................................................................

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS 914,443

LNG SYSTEM EMPLOYING REFLUXED HEAVIESREMOVAL COLUMN WITH OVERHEAD CONDENSING

A.P.Eaton, B.D.Martinez and J.Yao, asrs. (ConocoPhillips Co).

76 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 77: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

World 2006/071,261A2, p. 7/6/2006, f. 6/17/2005, pr. U.S. 6/24/2004(Appl. 875,734) (F25J-0001/00). (38 pp; 65 claims; Also assigned toA.P.Eaton, B.D.Martinez and J.Yao)

A process and apparatus are described for the liquefaction ofnatural gas including an improved heavy hydrocarbon removalcolumn with overhead condensing and refluxing. Particularly, amethane-rich stream exiting a propane refrigerant cycle isdelivered to a heavies removal column, and the heavies depletedvapor from the column is at least partially condensed and the liquidportion provided as reflux to the heavies removal column.

................................................................

LIQUID LEVEL GAGING 914,444

APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC LIQUID LEVELMEASUREMENTS IN GAS WELLS

J.N.McCoy, O.L.Rowlan and D.Becker (Echometer Co) andA.L.Podio (Texas Univ, Austin). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101498; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 16 pp; 6 refs)

Optimum production of gas wells requires static and flowingpressure surveys to detect excessive liquid loading. Wirelinepressure surveys have been customary in spite of their cost andpotential safety risks. Developments in digital acoustic fluid leveltechnology have resulted in being able to undertake not only staticbottom hole pressure calculations from fluid level measurements,but also to extend this technology to flowing pressure surveys ingas wells. The new procedure involves monitoring fluid level andpressure in the tubing during a short-term test sequence. Theprocedure is inexpensive and non-intrusive. Tests clearly show theredistribution of flowing gas and liquid and allow the constructionof the corresponding tubing pressure traverse and thedetermination of the flowing gas/liquid ratio, liquid fallback volumeand flowing BHP. Examples of tests performed in operating gaswells that are flowing above or below critical flow rates arediscussed in detail.

................................................................

OFFSHORE STRUCTURE 914,445

RESPONSE EVALUATIONS OF AN OFFSHORESTRUCTURE FOUNDATION SYSTEM TO WAVE ANDSEISMIC FORCES WITH UNCERTAINTIES

K.Kawano and Y.Kimura (Kagoshima Univ) and T.Iida(Osakasangyou Univ). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONALOFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE[ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006)PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; 7 refs)

In order to enhance the reliability of the offshore platformfoundation subjected to wave and seismic forces, it is veryimportant to clarify the dynamic response properties due to theseforces with uncertainties. In the present study, the MCS (MonteCarlo Simulation) approach is applied to evaluate the uncertaintyeffects on the maximum response quantities of an idealized3-dimensional offshore platform with foundation. The MCS methodcan be efficiently applied to the response evaluations of the offshoreplatform with pile foundation system with uncertainties. It isshown that since the uncertain parameters play importantcontributions on the maximum response evaluations, it is essentialto estimate the effects on uncertainties to responses for the reliabledesign of the offshore platform with foundation.

................................................................

OIL DESANDER 914,446

INSTALLATION OF ONLINE VESSEL DESANDERMANIFOLDS

M.S.Jasmani and E.C.Geronimo (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd)and L.Chan (Oilvest Eng Sdn Bhd). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101575; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp; 3 refs)

Sand production in the Dulang field is a common phenomenon.If left uncontrolled, sand can erode the line pipes, valves,instruments and ultimately cause unplanned production shutdown.Even if the sand production rate is relatively low, sand canaccumulate inside the production separators after a period of

production. This sand build-up reduces vessel volume for effectiveseparation of oil, gas and water. Dulang-B Platform, which islocated at South China Sea and operated by Petronas Carigali SdnBhd (PCSB), has recorded severe sand accumulation on itsproduction separators as observed during vessel inspection. Thisresulted in unnecessary production downtime to allow for cleaningof the vessel and removal of sand. To mitigate the problem, twounits of Online Vessel Desander (OVD) manifolds were installedinside one of the HP Production Separators of the platform on atrial basis. Each manifold consists of a series of pipe workconnected to the desander devices. The device uses hydrocycloneprinciple to elevate and transport sand from the base of the vesselout to a filter tank without the need to isolate the process stream.This pilot installation of the manifolds was the first in PCSB andMalaysia. Over a month period, a total of 809 litres of sand havebeen removed from the separator vessel with no productiondowntime. Operations personnel reported improvements on levelinterface of the separator and less erosion on the downstreamequipment, particularly level control valves. The annual shutdownpreviously required for sand cleaning was also eliminated, resultingin monetary savings. Thus, the OVD manifolds are an effectivetechnology to replace conventional sand jetting for sand removalfrom production separators.

................................................................

OIL PROPERTY 914,447

RESEARCH OF PROPERTIES AND DETERMINATION OFTHE BASIC TYPES OF OILS, EXTRACTED AT TATNEFTOAO DEPOSITS

O.S.Tatyanina, I.Kh.Ismagilov, F.R.Gubaydulin andT.F.Kosmacheva (TatNIPIneft). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO(OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.62-65, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; InRussian)

Results of research on determination of the basic types of oils,extracted at Tatneft OAO deposits, are given, It is established thaton group structure, most of the oils are methane-aromatic type.Classification of oils on the basis of chemical properties and sulfurcontent is executed. The most effective demulsifiers for destructionof emulsions of the basic types of oils are investigated and selected.

................................................................

OIL TREATING (FIELD) 914,448

PROCESS FOR THE CONVERSION OF HEAVYFEEDST OCKS SUCH AS HEAVY CRUDE OILS ANDDISTILLATION RESIDUES

R.Montanari, M.Marchionna, N.Panariti, A.Delbianco andS.Rosi, asrs. (Eni SpA; Snamprogetti SpA; Enitecnologie SpA). U.S.2006/0,163,115A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 12/12/2003, pr. Italy 12/20/2002(Appl. 022,713), Italy 4/8/2003 (Appl. 030,693) and World12/12/2003 (Appl. 0,314,544) (C10G-0065/02). (11 pp; 36 claims)

A process is described for the conversion of heavy feedstocksselected from heavy crude oils, distillation residues, heavy oilscoming from catalytic treatment, thermal tars, oil sand bitumens,various kinds of coals and other high-boiling feedstocks of ahydrocarbon origin known as black oils. The method employs thecombined use of the following three process units: hydroconversionwith catalysts in slurry phase (HT), distillation or flash (D),deasphalting (SDA), comprising the following steps: (1) mixing atleast part of the heavy feedstock and/or at least most of the streamcontaining asphaltenes obtained in the deasphalting unit with asuitable hydrogenation catalyst and sending the mixture obtainedto a hydrotreatment reactor (HT) into which hydrogen or a mixtureof hydrogen and H2S is charged; (2) sending the stream containingthe hydrotreatment reaction product and the catalyst in dispersedphase to one or more distillation or flash steps (D) whereby thedifferent fractions coming from the hydrotreatment reaction areseparated; (3) recycling at least part of the distillation residue (tar)or liquid leaving the flash unit, containing the catalyst in dispersedphase, rich in metal sulfides produced by demetallation of thefeedstock and possibly coke, to the deasphalting zone (SDA) in thepresence of solvents, optionally also fed with at least a fraction ofthe heavy feedstock, obtaining two streams, one consisting ofdeasphalted oil (DAO) and the other containing asphaltenes,characterized in that a fraction of the stream containingasphaltenes, coming from the deasphalting section (SDA), called

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 77

Page 78: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

flushing stream, is sent to a treatment section with a suitablesolvent for the separation of the product into a solid fraction and aliquid fraction from which said solvent can be subsequentlyremoved.

................................................................

OIL TREATING (FIELD) 914,449

FRAGMENTATION OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS USINGAN OZONE-CONTAINING FRAGMENTATION FLUID

A.Hong. U.S. 2006/0,163,117A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 12/23/2005, pr.U.S. 12/23/2004 (Appl. 60/638,882) (C10G-0009/26; C10G-0009/42).(8 pp; 20 claims)

A method for recovering valuable chemical products from heavyhydrocarbons such as tar sand or petroleum waste products isdescribed. Heavy hydrocarbons can be contacted with afragmentation fluid which includes ozone and a solvent carrier. Thefragmentation fluid can be provided at supercritical conditions. Forexample, supercritical CO2 can be an effective liquid solvent carrierfor ozone. During contact with the fragmentation fluid, the heavyhydrocarbons are reduced in size to form a product mixture ofchemical compounds. This product mixture typically includeschemical species which are more suitable than the original heavyhydrocarbons to commercial uses and/or further separation toprovide useful starting materials for a wide variety of synthesis andindustrial applications.

................................................................

PENG LAI FIELD 914,450

BIGGER AND BETTER FOR BOHAIT.Knott. OFFSHORE ENGINEER v.31, no.11,

pp.22-24,27-28,30,32-34,36, Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)China’s largest offshore development project, Peng Lai, has

entered its latest field installation phase. Operator ConocoPhillipsdiscusses progress to-date on this challenging, world-class $3.5billion development. A comprehensive 10-page report focuses onChina’s ability to build and install large fixed platforms and one ofthe world’s largest FPSOs to tap a Bohai Bay field which reportedlyholds at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil.

................................................................

PERMANENT DOWNHOLE SENSOR 914,451

[R] SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DEPLOYING AN OPTICALFIBER IN A WELL

T.Bowker, E.L.Goldner and M.Shaw, asrs. (Sabeus PhotonicsInc). U.S. 2006/0,153,508A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/15/2004, pr. U.S.1/15/2003 (Appl. 60/440,255) and World 1/15/2004 (Appl. 0,400,947)(G02B-0006/44). (9 pp; 25 claims) SRPA# 852,055

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #852,055]................................................................

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 914,452

GLOBAL OIL, GAS OUTLOOK BRIGHT: U.S. GASPRODUCTION NEARS PLATEAU

H.R.Linden (Illinois Inst Technol). OIL & GAS JOURNALv.104, no.44, pp.20-21,24-26,28, 11/27/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388;Color; Over 10 refs)

Data for liquids presented in this article suggest that globalcrude oil, natural gas liquids (NGL), and Alberta oil sandsproduction will plateau at above 118 million b/d and productivecapacity at 123 million b/d in 2031--far later than current alarmistpredictions--even without the likely development of tar sands andother bitumens and extra-heavy crude. Unfortunately, there are noreliable data on total recoverable global natural gas resources andof cumulative production, which are required to estimate the timeand quantity of peak gas production. Nevertheless, the globalnatural gas outlook is also quite bright, with Jan. 1, 2006, provedreserves of 6,112 tcf and total 2003 global consumption of 95.5 tcfrising to 182 tcf in 2030, according to the Energy InformationAdministration (EIA) Reference Case in its International EnergyOutlook 2006. This is equivalent to a roughly 40-year gas reservelife. This outlook is especially positive, as global gas explorationand resources development have not been nearly as intensive as forcrude oil. In the U.S., however, current gas production of 19 tcf/yearis already near its projected plateau, and a decline in domestic

production seems inevitable unless there is a much more aggressiveleasing policy, both off and onshore, especially for unconventionalnatural gas resources such as coalbed methane (CBM), tight gassands, Devonian shale gas, and gas from ultradeep formations. Thisarticle addresses both these two critical issues. (1) The time andmagnitude of peak global production of conventional petroleumliquids, such as crude oil and lease condensates, and oil fromAlberta oil sands and NGL. (2) The magnitude and time of peakU.S. natural gas production.

................................................................

POUR POINT DEPRESSANT 914,453

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WAXY CRUDE AT A LOWTEMPERATURE IN THE PRESENCE OF POUR POINTDEPRESSANTS

Q.Jian, Z.Song and M.Ke (Petroleum Univ, Beijing) and M.Zhao(Dongxin Oil Prod Plant). PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4,pp.62-65, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107; 5 refs)

Pour point depressants (PPD) are used to improve the rheologyof waxy crude. The affect of various factors on the rheologicalproperties, and the thermal characteristics of waxy crude treatedby PPD have been investigated. The conclusions are as follows:PPD can reduce the pour point and abnormal point of waxy crude,broaden the temperature range of Newtonian fluid of waxy crude,and lower greatly the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid of waxycrude. The influence of reheating and high-rate shear on the effectof PPD mainly depends on their temperature. When the reheatingtemperature is more than the abnormal point of crude by 10°C, thereheating process has little effect on the modification effect of PPD.However, when the reheating temperature is below the abnormalpoint of crude, the reheating process will reduce the modificationeffect of PPD. When temperature is above the abnormal point ofcrude, the high-rate shear has little effect on the modification effectof PPD. At a temperature range where a lot of wax is precipitating,high-rate shear will greatly reduce the modification effect of PPD.

................................................................

PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION 914,454

[R] WELL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZING SYSTEMD.M.Casey. World 2006/074,042A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/28/2005,

pr. U.S. 12/31/2004 (Appl. 31,136) (E21B-0043/00). (22 pp; 20claims) SRPA# 911,735

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,735]................................................................

PRODUCTION RATE 914,455

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK-BASED COMBINATIONFORECAST METHOD FOR OIL-GAS PRODUCTION

L.Wang and H.S.Yao (Southwest Petroleum Inst) and H.W.Gu(Tarim Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY(XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.557-558,561, Oct. 2005.(ISSN 1001-3873; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

RISER PIPE 914,456

[R] RISER TENSIONER WITH LUBRICANT RESERVOIRF.B.Ellis and J.K.McCarty, asrs. (Vetco Gray Inc). Gr. Brit.

2,420,801A, p. 6/7/2006, f. 11/18/2005, pr. U.S. 11/19/2004 (Appl.60/629,543) (E21B-0019/00; B63B-0021/50; E02B-0017/02;E21B-0017/01). (13 pp; 18 claims) SRPA# 907,121

[For abstract, see Abstract #907,121]................................................................

RISER PIPE 914,457

[R] TWO-PART TELESCOPIC TENSIONER FOR RISERS ATA FLOATING INSTALLATION FOR OIL AND GASPRODUCTION

M.M.Moe. U.S. 2006/0,151,176A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 11/10/2003,pr. Norw. 11/12/2002 (Appl. 20,025,409) and World 11/10/2003(Appl. 0,300,377) (E21B-0029/12). (5 pp; 2 claims) SRPA# 844,170

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #844,170]................................................................

78 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 79: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

RISK ANALYSIS 914,458

CONCEPTUAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF OFFSHORESTRUCTURES

E.N.Bellendir, V.B.Glagovsky and O.M.Finagenov (VNIIG Inc).16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp;9 refs)

Generally, while considering the causes of occurrence andconsequences of an unfavorable event in an offshore marinehydraulic structure, the procedure of assessment of the risk fromthe point of view of its acceptability (allowance, tolerance) includesthe following. (1) Analysis of the risk identification of a hazardousevent in a structure (failure, damage, emergency) and possibleforms of its display (for example, loss of stability) as well as theanalysis of hazards leading to an unfavorable event (failure) andinitiated by this event. (2) Analysis of impacts on a structure andits foundation and their response to the impacts initiated by thehazards and assessment of probabilities of impact parameters andthe parameters of the response. (3) Assessment of the riskadmissibility by comparison of the received risk values with someallowable, acceptable and tolerant quantities. Thus, the account ofthe risk allows to estimate more adequately the safety of off-shoremarine hydraulic-engineering structures. In this case, in theanalysis and assessment of the risk, both the traditional(normative) and modified criteria of reliability and safetycharacterising special features of separate structures and theconditions of their operation are used.

................................................................

RISK ANALYSIS 914,459

RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR OFFSHORE JACKETPLATFORMS BASED ON FUZZY PROBABILISTICINFLUENCE DIAGRAM

H.Kang, J.Han and P.Zhou (Dalian Univ Technol). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; 5 pp; 8refs)

The paper proposes a risk assessment method for offshorejacket platform based on Fuzzy Probability Influence Diagram(FPID) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).Construction of the relation matrix and data structure makes itpossible to dynamically describe the model. An application ofpresented method to jacket platform is also implemented. Themethod can be widely applicable although only offshore platform isanalyzed here.

................................................................

RO TARY DRIVE 914,460

[R] DRIVE DEVICEK.Biester, asr. (Cooper Cameron Corp). U.S. 2006/0,163,507A1,

p. 7/27/2006, f. 7/16/2004, pr. Ger. 7/17/2003 (Appl. 20,311,032) andWorld 7/16/2004 (Appl. 0,407,949) (F16K-0031/44). (15 pp; 37claims) SRPA# 866,310

[For abstract, see Abstract #866,310]................................................................

SAFETY VALVE 914,461

DUAL FLAPPER SAFETY VALVEJ.D.Vick, Jr., M.B.Vinzant and J.M.Williams. U.S.

2006/0,162,939A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/24/2005 (Appl. 41,393)(E21B-0033/12; E21B-0034/00). (16 pp; 26 claims)

A valve system is provided for use in a subterranean well, thevalve having multiple closure devices, or a closure device and adevice for protecting the closure device. A valve system includes avalve with a closure assembly. The closure assembly has a closuredevice and a protective device which alters fluid flow through a flowpassage of the valve prior to closure of the closure device to therebyprotect the closure device. A safety valve system includes a safetyvalve with a closure assembly having at least two closure devices

arranged in series for controlling flow through a flow passage of thesafety valve. Another safety valve system includes a safety valveassembly including multiple safety valves arranged in parallel. Oneportion of fluid from a fluid source flows through one of the safetyvalves, while another portion of fluid from the fluid source flowsthrough another safety valve.

................................................................

SAFETY VALVE 914,462

SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE WITH ORIFICE ANDRELEASABLE LOCK

D.E.McCalvin, asr. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd). Gr. Brit.2,422,393A, p. 7/26/2006, f. 1/23/2006, pr. U.S. 1/24/2005 (Appl.905,859) (E21B-0034/10; E21B-0034/08; E21B-0034/00;E21B-0047/01). (12 pp; 22 claims)

A subsurface safety valve has a flow tube, an orifice or flowrestriction device, a spring and a closure member (a flapper)working such that as fluid flows through the orifice the flow tubemoves against the spring to open the closure member. A releasablelock sleeve can be provided to hold the closure member open duringrun-in. The lock sleeve has collets which engage detents to hold itin one of two positions--locking the valve open on run-in and lockedaway from the valve to allow the valve to operate fully. The locksleeve is pushed from its run-in position to the normal operatingposition by movement of the flow tube in response to fluid flowthrough the orifice. As flow pressure drops through the orifice theflow tube will be pushed back by the resilient spring allowing thevalve to close.

................................................................

SAFETY VALVE 914,463

BALANCE LINE SAFETY VALVE WITH TUBING PRESSUREASSIST

D.P.Lauderdale, R.R.Smith and R.Gledhill, asrs.(Weatherford/Lamb Inc). Can. 2,538,411A1, p. 9/1/2006, f. 3/1/2006,pr. U.S. 3/1/2005 (Appl. 69,781) (E21B-0034/10). (27 pp; 19 claims)

A subsurface safety valve configured to control fluid flowthrough a production tubing string is described. In one aspect, asafety valve for deployment beneath a surface of a wellbore isprovided. The valve includes a control piston and a balance piston.The valve is configured to be connected to a controller at the surfaceby a control line so that the control piston is actuatable between afirst position and a second position in response to receivingpressurized fluid from the controller through the control line. Thebalance piston is configured to compensate for hydrostatic pressurein the control line. The valve may have a bore therethrough, andthe control piston may be configured to utilize tubing pressurewithin the valve bore to urge the control piston towards the secondposition.

................................................................

SANT OS BASIN 914,464

PETROBRAS CHARTS DEVELOPMENT HUBS FORSANT OS BASIN FIELDS

OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.43, pp.43-44, 11/20/2006.(ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

Brazil’s state-owned company Petroleo Brasileiro SA(Petrobras) has big development plans for the Santos basin. TheSantos Basin Business Unit’s master plan calls for $18 billion ininvestment in the next 10 years. The production goals for2010-2011 are 1.05 bcfd of gas and 100,000 b/d of oil, comparedwith 42 MMcfd and 10,000 b/d at present. The projected 1.05 bcfd isslightly more than the 990 MMcfd of gas Brazil now imports fromBolivia. Of the Santos basin’s 352,000 sq km, 43% is in water asdeep as 1,300 ft and 57% is in 1,300-10,000 ft of water. Twenty-fivepercent of the concession areas Petrobras holds in Brazil are in theSantos basin. Petrobras and partners hold 11.5% of the basin’sacreage. Of the total area under concession, 52% lies off Sao Paulostate, 35% is off Rio de Janeiro, 7% is off Santa Catarina, and 6% isoff Parana. All indications are that the basin is only lightlyexplored, and the most recent discovery in its deepwater sector ledsome officials to speculate that the so far gas prone basin’s subsaltrealm might become another Campos basin in terms of ultimaterecovery. Petrobras describes five production poles, two of which are

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 79

Page 80: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

producing now and three more that will come into production in thenext several years.

................................................................

SCALE 914,465

A RESEARCH OF SCALE DEPOSIT MECHANISM ONPRODUCTION SYSTEM, JOB REGION OF LULIANGOILFIELD

W.Jiang, Y.Zheng and G.Liang (Southwest Petroleum Inst) andF.Tang, J.Zhang and Z.Wang (Luliang Oilfield). CHEMICALENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQIHUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.5,516-519, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 5refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SHO T PEENING 914,466

TRANSPORTABLE LASER PEENING SYSTEM FOR FIELDAPPLICATIONS TO IMPROVE FATIGUE AND SCCRESISTANCE OF OFFSHORE COMPONENTS ANDSTRUCTURES

L.A.Hackel, C.B.Dane, F.Harris, J.Rankin and C.Truong (MetalImprovement Co). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE& POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM;Color; 6 pp; 7 refs)

Laser peening technology has matured into a fully qualifiedproduction process that is now in routine and reliable use for arange of aerospace alloys. The technology is capable of extendingthe fatigue life and stress corrosion cracking life of components, andwill enable designers to consider higher stress levels in life limiteddesigns. Applications under development for steels include highand medium strength steels used in off shore oil exploration andproduction, titanium, aluminum and even ceramics and plastics aswell as life extension of steel and aluminum welds. Fixed systemsto treat components and transportable systems capable of fieldoperations are available with a moveable beam that allows peeningdirectly as needed on large structures.

................................................................

SINGLE POINT MOORING 914,467

FATIGUE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES FOR SPMANCHORAGES

A.Gupta, R.D.Caligiuri, P.D.Moncarz and R.A.Sire (ExponentFail Analysis Inc). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE& POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; 8pp; 4 refs)

Single point mooring (SPM) systems are commonly usedthroughout the world to unload crude and refined petrochemicalproducts from ships in locations without sufficient hard pierfacilities. By nature of their design, SPM systems permitcontinuous unloading of product while the ship is allowed to moveabout the unloading buoy in response to changing winds and tides.This ability means that the systems used to anchor the SPMsystems to the seabed are subjected to highly variable andunpredictable load cycles in terms of magnitude, direction, andduration through their operating lifetime. Unfortunately, the highlyvariable and unpredictable nature of the loading spectra makesreliable estimation of fatigue damage accumulation usingtraditional analysis techniques difficult. This paper describes a newtechnique, based on the simplified rainflow cycle method (ASTMStandard E1049-85), that permits estimation of fatigue damageaccumulation based only on readily available, and often limited,peak hawser load data, ship’s heading data, and the number andduration of ship berthing.

................................................................

SOLID ADSORBENT 914,468

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF MOLECULARSIMULATION METHODS FOR THE SCREENING OFINDUSTRIAL ZEOLITE ADSORBENTS

A.H.Fuchs, A.Boutin, J.M.Teuler and A.Di Lella (Paris SudUniv) and A.Wender, B.Tavitian and P.Ungerer (Inst Francais duPetrole). IFP RESEARCH ADVANCES IN RATIONAL DESIGNOF CATALYSTS & SORBENTS INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE (Lyon, France, 12/14-16/2005) PAPER; OIL &GAS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - REVUE DE L’INSTITUTFRANCAIS DU PETROLE v.61, no.4, pp.571-578, July-Aug. 2006.(ISSN 1294-4475; Over 10 refs)

Numerous industrial operations involve zeolite adsorbents:separation of aromatics, separation of high-octane branchedalkanes, and purification of fuels from sulphur-bearing compounds,among others. A limiting step in searching for appropriate zeolitesto improve these processes is the poor capacity of classicalthermodynamic models to predict adsorption behavior, thusrequiring the exploration of many unsuccessful possibilities byexperimental means before significant improvements are found. Inorder to provide a general answer to this problem, molecularsimulation methods have been developed to address a large array ofsystems. Various types of statistical bias (configurational bias andreservoir bias) have been associated with parallel tempering toprovide efficient sampling of all possible configurations, includingwhen cation mobility is considered together with molecularadsorption. Both non-polar and electrostatic contributions to energyhave been considered. These features are available in a singleMonte Carlo software, named GIBBS, which may consider eitherlinear, branched, cyclic or more complex flexible molecules. Aspecial effort has also been devoted to the development of amultipurpose force field to evaluate guest-host interactions. Thecontribution of these methods is illustrated by several examples inwhich their results are confronted with available experimentaldata.

................................................................

STEEL 914,469

SPECIAL STEELS FOR TUBULAR OFFSHORESTRUCTURES

J.Krampen (Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp;9 refs)

As the worldwide market leader in producing hot rolledseamless tubes with the largest range of dimensions and wallthickness V&M often receives enquiries for steel tubes for use inoffshore structures. These enquiries are mostly based onspecifications developed and published by oil companies. Due to thefact that these companies are involved with pipelines and OCTGpipes and tubes they know the analogical codes and standards, e.g.API 5L. Knowing that this standard is not for structural use a lot ofadditional requirements are necessary and added to thespecifications. Therefore special steel grades for tubular offshorestructures have been developed which cover all the requirements inthe specifications and also the main requirements given in theEuropean standard for offshore structures EN 10225. Four differentsteel grades are available with minimum yield strength from 355up to 690 MPa. The paper gives detailed technical informationabout the new developed steels. Comparisons with differentstandards and recommendations used for offshore and onshorestructures will help to classify these steels.

................................................................

STREAM ANALYZER 914,470

[R] MICROWAVE DETERMINATION OF THECOMPOSITION OF A MULTIPHASE FLUID

Y.Bentolila and M.Constant, asrs. (Inst Francais du Petrole).Gr. Brit. 2,421,797A, p. 7/5/2006, f. 12/20/2005, pr. Fr. 12/23/2004(Appl. 0,413,804) (G01N-0022/00; G01F-0023/284; G01N-0033/28).(29 pp; 10 claims) SRPA# 912,471

[For abstract, see Abstract #912,471]................................................................

80 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 81: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP 914,471

[R] PUMP FOR TAIL PRODUCTION OF OILT.A.Hauge. U.S. 2006/0,153,720A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 7/2/2004, pr.

Norw. 7/3/2003 (Appl. 20,033,044) and World 7/2/2004 (Appl.0,400,203) (F04B-0053/00). (4 pp; 1 claims) SRPA# 865,290

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #865,290]................................................................

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP 914,472

[R] MOTOR COOLER FOR SUBMERSIBLE PUMPD.L.Knox and A.D.Bullock, asrs. (Baker Hughes Inc). Can.

2,504,088A1, p. 4/14/2006, f. 4/13/2005, pr. U.S. 10/14/2004 (Appl.965,019). (24 pp; 18 claims) SRPA# 903,735

[For abstract, see Abstract #903,735]................................................................

SUBSEA PRODUCTION SYSTEM 914,473

A MODULAR SUBSEA HYDROCARBON TANKER ANDPRODUCTION SYSTEM

D.L.Edwards. Gr. Brit. 2,422,170A, p. 7/19/2006, f. 1/12/2005(Appl. 0,500,587) (B65D-0088/78). (15 pp; 8 claims)

A subsea and modular tanker-based hydrocarbon productionsystem is wholly submersible, is wholly detachable from, andwholly re-attachable to, its associated subsea wellheadinfrastructure. Modularity allows for the processing, measurement,and storage of produced hydrocarbons from a wide variety ofoffshore hazard and water-depth related conditions and situations.In addition to being both detachable and re-attachable, themodularity of the system provides for a number of unit systems tobe conjoined at surface and towed with contents to market. Thesystem comprises a number of individual tank units, which can beconnected hydraulically to each other by lengths of flexible high-pressure hose.

................................................................

SUBSEA PRODUCTION SYSTEM 914,474

SUBSEA PROCESSING EVOLVING RAPIDLYR.M.Bass (Shell Int Explor & Prod). THE AMERICAN OIL &

GAS REPORTER v.49, no.6, pp.70,72,75-77, June 2006. (ISSN0145-9198; Color)

Of the 220 deepwater projects in production in the Gulf ofMexico, 84% use subsea systems. The deepest water depth to datefor a producing subsea well is 7,591 feet at Shell’s Coulomb,although the ongoing Independence Hub project includes plannedsubsea wells in waters as deep as 9,000 feet. Deepwater subseacompletions are typically tied back to a nearby platform as part of ahub-and-spoke field development concept, with the produced oil andgas processed topside. However, advancements in technology areincreasingly making subsea boosting and processing a viable optionusing wet equipment located on the seafloor. Subsea processingtechnologies and applications have increased rapidly in recentyears. In particular, subsea oil pressure boosting is often profitablefor subsea deepwater oil developments. Although a number ofprocessing and boosting solutions are available, there arelimitations with existing technologies in meeting the globalportfolio needs for subsea processing and boosting. Subseaprocessing is generally considered to include several existing ordevelopmental functional capabilities encompassing pumps,separators, power distribution systems, compressors, etc., installedon the seafloor. For oil systems, those capabilities include pressureboosting, processing, bulk water separation, sales-quality oilpolishing, and raw seawater injection for reservoir pressuresupport. For gas systems, the capabilities include subsea gascompression and subsea gas dewpoint/dehydration for flowassurance and sales quality.

................................................................

SULFUR RECOVERY 914,475

CHOICE AND COMBINING OF SULPHUR RECOVERYCATALYST

X.Liao, J.Yu and L.Huang (PetroChina). CHEMICALENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQIHUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.3,484-488, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 6

refs; In Chinese)[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]

................................................................

SURFACE CHOKE 914,476

CHOKE VALVE FLOW TRIM FOR FRACTUREPREVENTION

L.J.Bohaychuk, L.Kowalchuk, P.Rabby and C.Dannish, asrs.(Master Flo Valve Inc). U.S. 2006/0,163,517A1, p. 7/27/2006, f.1/18/2006, pr. U.S. 1/18/2005 (Appl. 60/644,670) and U.S. 9/9/2005(Appl. 60/715,914) (F16K-0031/00). (11 pp; 13 claims)

A choke valve having flow trim components, namely a tubularcage and a flow collar or plug, and related components are designedand arranged for reduced fracturing. The apparatus includes aprotective tubular sleeve, or insert cartridge in which the side portsare located to overlap with the intersection of axes of the inlet andoutlet bores, but to avoid direct impingement of fluid along the axisof the inlet bore. In the cage, at least a pair of main flow ports arelocated to overlap with the intersection of the axes of the inlet andoutlet bores, and are aligned with the side ports of the tubularsleeve or cartridge to communicate directly with the side ports. Inthis manner fluid may enter the choke valve through the inlet boreand pass through the main flow ports at reduced pressure andcontinue out through the outlet bore, without direct impingementon the side wall of the flow trim components.

................................................................

TENSION LEG PLATFORM 914,477

A STUDY ON THE FATIGUE STRENGTH BEHAVIOR OFTENDON PORCH IN OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

S.W.Im and I.H.Chang (RIST), C.H.Jo (Inha Univ), J.S.Lee(Ulsan Univ) and K.Kim (POSCO). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp;7 refs)

This paper concerns the fatigue strength of tendon porch foundin TLP. Large-scale fatigue tests with models reduced to 30% ofreal structures have been carried out to investigate the fatiguebehavior of API 2W Grade 50 steel recently produced by POSCO.Fatigue life for the present test models was obtained based on theconcept of nominal stress. Comparison of the present test resultswith those obtained by numerical approach based on the structuralanalysis results have shown good agreement. The present resultswere also compared with the design curves in DnV RP-C203.

................................................................

TENSION LEG PLATFORM 914,478

INTERVAL ANALYSIS METHOD OF FATIGUE ANDFRACTURE RELIABILITY FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURESBASED ON PROBABILISTIC AND NON-PROBABILISTICHYBRID MODEL

H.X.Xue, W.Y.Tang, S.K.Zhang and M.Yuan (Shanghai JiaotongUniv). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp;Over 10 refs)

The concept of non-probabilistic reliability, which is to measurethe reliability in terms of the amount of uncertainty consistent withthe condition of no failure, is used to establish a new model forfatigue reliability analysis. Some of the uncertain parameters ofstructures are expressed as interval variables instead of randomvariables. In numerical example, fatigue lifetime of the tenders oftension leg platform is assessed using hybrid models of probabilisticand non-probabilistic based on S-N approach and fracturemechanics approach. The new model overcomes the shortcoming oftraditional probabilistic methods, which need large number ofstatistical data and huge computational efforts and it is effectiveand useful in formulating control laws in the absence of detailedprobabilistic information for fatigue and fracture reliabilityanalysis.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 81

Page 82: Petroleum Abstracts

PRODUCING OIL & GAS

UMBILICAL 914,479

POWER UMBILICAL FOR DEEP WATERE.Mjelstad, asr. (Nexans). Europe. 1,691,377A2, p. 8/16/2006, f.

2/3/2006, pr. Norw. 2/11/2005 (Appl. 20,050,772) (H01B-0007/04;H01B-0009/00). (5 pp; 6 claims)

A subsea umbilical is described comprising a number ofelements such as electrically insulated power conductors, fiber opticelements, electrical signal cables and fillers within a common outercover characterized in that at least one of the electrical signalcables is enclosed within a dedicated metal tube, and wherein theumbilical is hung off on an offshore platform, etc., and the metaltube containing the electrical signal cable is hung off separatelyfrom the umbilical.

................................................................

UNDERWATER COUPLING 914,480

[R] DUAL PATH HYDRAULIC COUPLING WITHINTERCONNECTED VALVES

R.R.Watson and R.E.Smith III, asrs. (National Coupling Co Inc).Gr. Brit. 2,420,388A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/16/2005, pr. U.S. 11/17/2004(Appl. 60/628,567) (F16L-0037/36; E21B-0033/038; F16L-0039/00).(15 pp; 19 claims) SRPA# 905,078

[For abstract, see Abstract #905,078]................................................................

VORTEX INDUCED VIBRATION 914,481

VORTEX INDUCED VIBRATION OPTIMIZING SYSTEMD.W.Allen, D.L.Henning and L.Lee, asrs. (Shell Oil Co). World

2006/074,309A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/6/2006, pr. U.S. 1/7/2005 (Appl.60/642,085) (E21B-0017/01; B63B-0039/00). (20 pp; 22 claims; Alsoassigned to D.W.Allen, D.L.Henning and L.Lee)

A system is described comprising a structure, a vortex inducedvibration monitoring system, adapted to monitor a vortex inducedvibration level of the structure, a tensioner connected to thestructure, and a controller adapted to calculate a tension on thestructure to optimize the vortex induced vibration value of thestructure.

................................................................

WELL FLOW CONTROL 914,482

SNORKEL DEVICE FOR FLOW CONTROLT.D.MacDougall, asr. (Schlumberger Technol Corp). U.S.

2006/0,162,935A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/25/2005 (Appl. 905,876)(E21B-0034/12). (6 pp; 23 claims)

The apparatus provides for the operation of a downhole flowcontrol device using a snorkel tube. Intelligent completions usevarious means to regulate flow control devices placed downhole tocontrol production from various zones. Such flow control devices,valves, for example, can typically be fully open, partially open(choked), or fully closed. Using a number of such valves allows anoperator to selectively receive or restrict production from differentzones. A simple version of such a flow control device wouldtypically have two control lines, one acting on either side of apiston. When multiple valves of that kind are run in the hole, thenumber of control lines required becomes a problem. For example,three valves would require six control lines.

................................................................

WELL FLOW CONTROL 914,483

[R] HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMC.D.Baggs, asr. (Vetco Gray Controls Ltd). U.S.

2006/0,157,254A1, p. 7/20/2006, f. 12/22/2005, pr. Gr. Brit.12/22/2004 (Appl. 0,428,001) (E21B-0029/12). (8 pp; 18 claims)SRPA# 911,132

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,132]................................................................

WELL FLOW CONTROL 914,484

[R] FLOW CONTROL APPARATUS FOR USE IN AWELLBORE

J.Bode, C.Fishbeck and J.J.Lembcke, asrs. (Weatherford/LambInc). Europe. 1,672,167A1, p. 6/21/2006, f. 12/13/2005, pr. U.S.

12/16/2004 (Appl. 13,863) (E21B-0034/08; E21B-0043/12;E21B-0043/08). (10 pp; 19 claims) SRPA# 911,131

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,131]................................................................

WELL MODEL 914,485

MODELING NONISOTHERMAL RAPID MULTIPHASEFLOW IN WELLS UNDER NONEQUILIBRIUMCONDITIONS

G.Michel and F.Civan (Oklahoma Univ). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102231; Available on CD-ROM; 10 pp;Over 10 refs)

An improved non-isothermal mathematical model consideringthe non-equilibrium effects involved during rapid multiphase flowin wells is presented. The extent of the non-equilibrium effect ondeviation from the equilibrium model predictions is delineated atvarious flow rates, fluid saturations, and temperatures.Applications for three-phase (oil/water/gas) systems are presented.The model presented here can be coupled with reservoir simulationfor accurate representation of the well-fluid hydraulics under non-equilibrium and non-isothermal flow conditions.

................................................................

WELL PERFORMANCE 914,486

DIAGNOSTICS AND FORECASTING OF VIOLATIONS OFEXPLOITATIONAL QUALITIES OF A WELL

M.A.Gadzhiev (AzTU). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OILINDUSTRY) no.1, pp.76-78, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 5refs; In Russian)

Described is a principle of construction of a detection model of aquasi-complete group of violations of operational qualities of a well-stratum system. The model’s use can be executed before monitoringof a physical condition fluid in a dynamic regime of the well mode.

................................................................

WELL PUMPING UNIT 914,487

THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN METHOD FOR A PUMPINGUNIT BASE ON QFD AND TRIZ

P.Zhang, F.Gai, H.Guan and P.Li (Southwest Petroleum Inst).PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.77-82, 2005. (ISSN1672-5107; 5 refs)

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a quality system, thatcan help to design novel products that meet customers’ needs.Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) is a very powerful toolin helping to solve difficult technical problems encountered in thedesign process. Introducing QFD and TRIZ into the conceptualdesign of the pumping unit combines advantages of these twotheories, therefore meeting different demands of different users. Itcan tell us "What should we do" with QFD and "How should we doit" with TRIZ. The conceptual design method, which is based onQFD and TRIZ, is introduced and used to analyze and evaluate theconceptual design project of a pumping unit.

................................................................

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

ADSORPTION CAPACITY 914,488

LABORATORY STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION PROPERTYOF A CATIONIC GEMINI SURFACTANT

X.Tang, W.Pu, Y.Yang and H.Zhao (Southwest Petroleum Inst).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YUTIANRANQI HUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.5,508-510, Dec. 2005.(ISSN 1007-3426; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

ARTIFICIAL CORE 914,489

THE CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECT ON DIGITALCORE TECHNOLOGY

J.Yao (Petroleum Univ, East China), X.Zhao, Y.Yi et al.

82 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 83: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VI,52-54,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

BACTERIAL OIL RECOVERY 914,490

DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES OF OPTIMIZED MEOR[MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY] IN SHALLOWHEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS: TECHNICAL PROGRESSREPORT (OCT. 2003-MARCH 2004)

S.Dunn-Norman (Missouri Univ, Rolla). U.S. DOE REPORTNO.841080 June 2005. (DE-FC26-02NT15443; Color; 17 pp)

The objective of this research project is to demonstrate aneconomically viable and sustainable method of producing shallowheavy oil reserves in western Missouri and southeastern Kansasusing an integrated approach including surface geochemicalsurveys, conventional MEOR treatments, horizontal fracturing invertical wells, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), andreservoir simulation to optimize the recovery process. The objectivealso includes transferring the knowledge gained from the project toother local landowners, to demonstrate how they may identify anddevelop their own heavy oil resources with minimal capitalinvestment. In the twelve- to eighteen-month project period, threewells were equipped with ERT arrays. ERT backgroundmeasurements were taken in the three ERT equipped wells.Pumping equipment was installed on the two fracture stimulatedwells and pumping tests were conducted following the hydraulicfracture treatments. All wells were treated monthly with microbesby adding a commercially available microbial mixture to wellborefluids. ERT surveys were taken on a monthly basis followingmicrobial treatments. Work performed to date demonstrates thatresistivity changes are occurring in the subsurface, with resistivityincreasing slightly. Pumping results for the hydraulically fracturedwells were disappointing, with only a show of oil recovered and anincrease in well shut-in pressure.

................................................................

BACTERIAL OIL RECOVERY 914,491

MICROBIAL EOR RESEARCH ADVANCESD.Francis. E&P v.79, no.6, pp.71-73, June 2006. (ISSN

1527-4063)The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery

(EOR) is large, with more than 300 billion bbl of oil remaining indomestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach theireconomic limit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ReservoirData Base contains listings for more than 600 reservoirs with over12 billion bbl of currently unrecoverable oil that are potentialtargets for MEOR. If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduceresidual oil saturation by 10% in a fourth of these reservoirs, morethan 300 million bbl of oil could be added to U.S. oil reserves,according to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).MEOR uses microbes to ferment hydrocarbons and produce abyproduct useful in the recovery of oil. The MEOR process works bychanneling oil through preferred pathways in the reservoir rock byplugging off small channels and forcing oil to migrate through thelarger pore spaces. Nutrients such as sugars, phosphates ornitrates must frequently be injected to stimulate growth ofmicrobes and aid their performance. The microbes generatesurfactants and carbon dioxide (CO2) that help to displace the oil.Microbial growth can be either within the oil reservoir (in situ) oron the surface, where the byproducts from microbes grown in vatsare selectively removed from the nutrient media and then injectedinto the reservoir. MEOR has two advantages: (1) microbes do notconsume large amounts of energy; and (2) the use of microbes is notdependent on the price of crude oil, as compared with other EORprocesses.

................................................................

BLACK OIL MODEL 914,492

NEW MODIFIED BLACK-OIL CORRELATIONS FOR GASCONDENSATE AND VOLATILE OIL FLUIDS

A.H.El-Banbi (Schlumberger) and K.A.Fattah and M.H.Sayyouh(Cairo Univ). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San

Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102240;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp; Over 10 refs)

Several authors have shown the applicability of modified blackoil (MBO) approach for modeling gas condensate and volatile oilreservoirs. It was shown before that MBO could adequately replacecompositional simulation in many applications. In this work, a newset of MBO PVT correlations was developed. The four PVTfunctions (oil-gas ratio, Rv, solution gas-oil ratio, Rs, oil formationvolume factor, Bo, and gas formation volume factor, Bg) wereinvestigated. Alternatively, oil-gas ratio (needed for materialbalance and reservoir simulation calculations of gas condensateand volatile oil reservoirs) had to be generated from a combinationof laboratory experiments and elaborate calculation proceduresusing EOS models. In previous work, we found that Whitson andTorp method for generating Modified Black Oil (MBO) PVTproperties yielded best results when compared with compositionalsimulation. This method requires the use of data from PVTlaboratory experiments and proper construction of EOS models. Weused Whitson and Torp’s method to generate our database of theMBO PVT curves used in developing our correlations aftermatching the PVT experimental results with an EOS model. Foreach one of the four PVT parameters, we used 1850 values obtainedfrom PVT analysis of eight gas condensate fluid samples and 1180values obtained from PVT analysis of five volatile oil fluid samples.The samples were selected to cover a wide range of fluidcomposition, condensate yield, reservoir temperature, and pressure.The data points were generated by extracting the PVT properties ofeach sample at six different separator conditions. We then usedmulti-variable regression techniques to calculate our correlationconstants. The new correlations were validated using thegeneralized material balance equation calculations with datagenerated from a compositional reservoir simulator. These newcorrelations depend only on readily available parameters in thefield and can have wide applications when representative fluidsamples are not available.

................................................................

BOREHOLE BREAKOUT 914,493

UNCONVENTIONAL BOREHOLE BREAKOUT ROTATIONANALYSIS PROVIDES A QC TOOL FOR STRESS MODELS

B.A.Camac, S.P.Hunt and M.Dillon (Adelaide Univ) andP.J.Boult (Primary Industries & Rsces). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.307-327, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

In distinct element (DEM) numerical stress modelling, theprincipal stress magnitudes and orientations are applied to theboundary of the 3D model. Due to data restrictions and typicaldepths of investigation, it is possible to have much uncertainty inthe conventional methodologies used to constrain the regionalprincipal stress magnitudes and orientations. A case study from theKupe field in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand is presented wherethe uncertainty in the input data made it difficult to determinewhich stress regime--a transitional normal/strike-slip orreverse/thrust--is active at reservoir depth (approximately 3,000m). Borehole breakout analysis was used to acquire interpretedorientations of the maximum principal stress (Shmax). The workpresented herein describes a different or unconventional approachto the general petroleum geomechanics methodology. Typically, thebreakout data is averaged to get one data point per well location.Here, all breakout data is retained and displayed vertically. Thedata is actively used and the variations with depth can be seen toshow how faults can generate local perturbations of the regionalstress trajectory. These data are then used to compare the observedor field indications of the breakouts along the borehole with themodelled Shmax predicted by both end point DEM stress models.This comparison has provided additional confidence in the derivedstress regime and the derived stres models for the Kupe field. Thestress models are used to predict areas of enhanced hydrocarbonpooling and low seal integrity.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 83

Page 84: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

BURGAN OIL FIELD 914,494

FULL-FIELD PARALLEL SIMULATION MODEL: A UNIQUETOOL FOR RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF THE GREATERBURGAN OIL FIELD

A.K.Ambastha and B.Kasischke (Chevron) and D.Al-Matar andE.Ma (Kuwait Oil Co). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102281; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; 9 refs)

The Greater Burgan field in Kuwait is the largest clastic oilreservoir in the world. Reservoir simulation in this giganticreservoir presents formidable challenges in any modeling effort. Itssheer size, complex geology, intricate surface facility network, 2,200completions, and 58-years of production history with significantuncertainty represented a daunting task in history-match andprediction. The full-field simulation model of 1.6-million cellsconsists of six major oil reservoirs (Wara, Mauddud, 3SU, 3SM,3SL, and 4S) with 145 faults. These faults are major conduitsallowing fluid migration between reservoirs. This paper describesthe history-matching process used in detail along with the valuethat has been added through prediction cases run with this modelto date. A tiered history-matching approach was used based onfield, gathering center (GC), GC-sand and key well-levelobservations. Also, a full-field net oil column thickness map wasused for detailed saturation matching over the entire field. Faultparameters, kv/kh, and aquifer connections turned out to beimportant history-matching parameters in this exercise. Today, it isregarded as the key corporate planning tool for strategic fielddevelopment and secondary recovery assessment for the GreaterBurgan field. This model has been used for Base case forecasting aswell as artificial lift, additional 3SU infill drilling, and Warapressure maintenance project (PMP) evaluations to date.Procedures used to set up these value-added cases will bediscussed.

................................................................

CARBON DIOXIDE FLOODING 914,495

REACH FOR FUTURE PRODUCTION LIMITSD.Lyle. E&P v.79, no.6, pp.75-77, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063;

Color)Most of the world’s oil will remain in existing reservoirs under

current state-of-the-art recovery technology. A recent studyexamines typical U.S. field potential for enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using carbon dioxide (CO2) and the prospects look good. Thestudy (Evaluating the Potential of Game-Changer Improvements inOil Recovery Efficiency from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery) focuseson U.S. reservoirs. Primary and secondary recovery techniquestypically recover only a third of the oil in place in U.S. reservoirs.Even traditional CO2-EOR for tertiary recovery adds only a fewpercentage points to that number. The study contends high-volumeCO2 injections, combined with innovative process and well designsand effective mobility control of fluids, used in the rightcombination will vastly improve recoveries. If these techniques areimplemented, it could provide an additional 83.7 billion bbl of oilfrom six areas of the U.S. that supply half of the nation’s oil. Some43.3 billion bbl would come from current state-of-the-art practices.That would raise the recovery efficiency in those six areas to 48%.The other 40.4 billion bbl would come from next-generationtechnology and boost recovery efficiency to around 80%. Projectingthose recovery factors to the whole nation, the U.S. could recoveran additional 160 billion bbl of oil.

................................................................

COALBED METHANE 914,496

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COAL SEAM GAS IN EASTERNQUEENSLAND

G.L.Baker and W.R.Skerman (RLMS Pty Ltd). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.329-341,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The commercial production of coal seam gas [CSG] in Australiais only a decade old. Over the last 10 years it has become asignificant part of the Australian gas industry, particularly inQueensland where about 31 PJ or 30% of all natural gas used inthe State was recovered from coal seams in eastern Queensland. In

2005 CSG was expected to have supplied 55 PJ or 44% of theeastern Queensland gas demand. The CSG industry is reaching astage of maturity following the commissioning of a number of fieldswhile some significant new projects are either in the commissioningphase or under development. By the end of 2008 CSG production inQueensland is expected to reach 150 PJ per year, the quantityneeded to meet Gas Supply Agreements for CSG that are presentlyin place. Certified Proved and Probable (2P) gas reserves at 30 June2005 in eastern Queensland were calculated to be 4,579 PJ, ofwhich 4,283 PJ were CSG. Gas reserves (2P) for easternQueensland a decade earlier were less than 100 PJ with those forCSG being less than 5 PJ.

................................................................

COMBINATION FLOODING 914,497

STUDY ADVANCES OF GEMINI SURFACTANTSY.Yang (Southwest Petroleum Inst), Y.Liu and W.Pu.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VII,67-70,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

DAQING OIL FIELD 914,498

STUDY ON HIGH-CONCENTRATION POLYMER FLOODINGTO FURTHER ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY

F.Yang, D.Wang, G.Wang, X.Sui, W.Liu and C.Kan (DaqingOilfield Ltd Co). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-101202; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp; 5 refs)

Results of core flood experiments show that an incrementalrecovery over water flooding of more than 20% OOIP (original oil inplace) can be obtained by early time injection of high molecularweight, high concentration polymer solutions. The incrementalrecovery is comparable to surfactant flooding, but at a lower cost. Ahigh concentration (concentration 1,500 ppm-2,000 ppm, viscosity400 mPa.S-500 mPa.S) polymer flood pilot test was started in May2003. The pilot is located in the West Central area of Daqing OilField and consists of 9 injectors and 16 producers. Before highconcentration polymer flooding, 0.247 pore volumes of lowconcentration (1,000 ppm, viscosity 44 mPa.S-51 mPa.S) polymersolution had been injected and the water cut at the central areahad reached its lowest point (65.5%). By the end of April 2006, thewater cut at the central area was 78.9%. After injecting highconcentration polymer solution, the rate of the water cut increaseslowed from a maximum of 79.6% to a minimum of 73.1% (adecrease of 7.5%). The current recovery over that of water floodingat the central area is already 16.7% OOIP. According to numericalsimulation, when the water cut reaches 98%, 19.8%-22.9% OOIPincremental recovery over that of water flooding will be attained.Six dispersed wells located in the West Central area of Daqing OilField started to inject a higher concentration of polymer fluid alsoin March and August, respectively. The 6 wells were first injectedwith low concentration polymer and then increasing theconcentration from 1,000 ppm to 1,300 ppm. At present, goodresults have been obtained. Another pilot is located in thenorthwest of Daqing Oil Field and consists of 39 injectors and 44producers. The pilot increased the concentration of the injectedpolymer solution from 1,250 ppm to 1,800 and the molecular weightof polymer from 25 x 10 E+06 to 35 x 10 E+06. According tonumerical simulation, when the water cut reaches 98%, 19.4 OOIPincremental recovery over that of water flooding will be attained.The above results show that this technology can enhance oilrecovery economically.

................................................................

DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT 914,499

THE IMPORTANCE OF GRAPHICAL METHODS INESTIMATION OF THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OFGASES IN BITUMENS AND HEAVY OIL

H.Sheikha, M.Pooladi-Darvish and A.K.Mehrotra (CalgaryUniv). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio,TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101057; Availableon CD-ROM; 11 pp; Over 10 refs)

84 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 85: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

Graphical methods are important tools in estimation of thediffusion coefficient, as well as identifying various stages involvedin the ordinary diffusion. In this work, graphical methods wereused for the estimation of diffusion coefficient of gases in highly-viscous oil-sands bitumens from isothermal, pressure-decaymeasurements. The approach involves modeling the rate of changein pressure with the diffusion equation for the liquid phase coupledwith a mass balance equation for the gas phase. The inversesolution framework is utilized to arrive at graphical techniques forestimating the diffusion coefficient. An advantage of the proposedtechnique is that the diffusion coefficient is estimated directly, i.e.,without making it an adjustable parameter. The novelty of theproposed method is in its simplicity, as well as its ability to isolateportions of the pressure-decay data, affected by experimentalfluctuations. The diffusion coefficients of CO2, CH4, and N2 inAthabasca bitumen at 75°C-90°C and about 4 MPa were estimatedand compared with literature values.

................................................................

ENHANCED RECOVERY 914,500

EOR POTENTIAL IN AUSTRALIAM.Regan and H.Sarma (Adelaide Univ). APPEA

CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.672-673,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

Given the ever-increasing demand on petroleum resources, theneed to either find new reservoirs or enhance the recovery ofexisting resources is great. With Australia now not able to meet itscrude oil needs completely through domestic production,substantial amounts of crude oil still need to be imported.Australia’s ability to meet its crude oil consumption is going tobecome increasingly difficult. The Gippsland Basin, Australia’spremier oil province, contributing more than half of Australia’stotal reserves, has now matured and is in decline. Unless newmajor discoveries are made, the importing of crude oil will increaseconsistently. With the oil price rocketing above US$60/bbl, theability to increase Australia’s production through various meansneeds to be explored as an economic and strategic necessity.Therefore, EOR could potentially play a substantial role in meetingAustralia’s future demands. This project investigates the potentialof EOR in Australia through analysing basic reservoir andproduction data sourced from open file data in state governmentdepartments. The EOR potential of Australian oil fields wasanalysed using an EOR screening and performance predictingsoftware package PRIze(TM) from the Alberta Research Council. Theavailable data was used to firstly screen the reservoir to determinepossible successful methods, and secondly, to conduct performancepredictions for possible results. Three main areas in Australia werechosen for analysis. These areas were chosen based on availabledata that was sufficient enough for a reasonable analysis. Theareas chosen were the Gippsland Basin, the Cooper-EromangaBasins and the Barrow Island reservoir. (Original not availablefrom T.U.)

................................................................

ENHANCED RECOVERY 914,501

SHELL’S INTEREST IN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERYGROWS

OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.43, pp.54,56-57, 11/20/2006.(ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

As easy oil becomes more difficult to find and produce, RoyalDutch Shell PLC sees enhanced oil recovery (EOR) contributingmore to the world’s growing energy needs. Primary and secondaryproduction methods leave about two thirds of oil in the ground, saidJohn Barry, vice-president for unconventionals and EOR for Shell,in a recent webcast. EOR methods could produce some of this oil.Barry estimated that the world’s existing oil fields might producemore than 500 billion bbl of oil with EOR methods that recover anadditional 10% of the original oil in place. Barry said Shell hasmore than 30 years of experience in EOR processes that include thefollowing. (1) Reducing the viscosity contrast between oil and waterwith steam injection. Heat added to the reservoir reduces the oilviscosity, thereby allowing it to flow easier. (2) Reducing the surfacetension between oil and other fluids in the reservoir by injectingsurfactants or a solvent such as carbon dioxide, thereby allowing

the oil to be swept easier from the reservoir. Barry said by 2030,EOR methods may account for about 10-15% of Shell’s oilproduction.

................................................................

FINGERING 914,502

A 1D-AVERAGED MODEL FOR STABLE AND UNSTABLEMISCIBLE FLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA WITH VARYINGPECLET NUMBERS AND ASPECT RATIOS

P.M.J.Tardy and J.R.A.Pearson (Schlumberger Cambridge Res).TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA v.62, no.2, pp.205-232, Feb.2006. (ISSN 0169-3913; Over 10 refs)

This paper deals with reducing the number of spatialdimensions of the models used to solve stable and unstable miscibleflows in saturated and homogeneous porous media. Unstablemiscible displacements occur when a fluid displaces another fluid ofhigher viscosity, with which it can fully mix. Stable flows occur ifthe displaced fluid is less viscous than the displacing one. First, a1D-averaged model is identified, capable of accurately describingunstable flows at high Peclet numbers. Second, another 1D-averaged model is determined, capable of accurately predictingmiscible displacements at low Peclet numbers. Third, a new modelis proposed, for any Peclet number and for both stable and unstableflows, as a combination of the previous two models. Thiscombination involves three parameters whose values depend on thedimensionless numbers of the problem, namely, the viscosity ratioM, the Peclet number Pe, the aspect ratio A, and the dispersionlength ratio ε. These parameters are computed for several values ofM, Pe, a with ε = 1 by matching results from direct 2D simulations,obtained from a numerical model previously validated againstexperimental data. It is found that a 1D-averaged model combiningan extended version of the Todd-Longstaff model and the diffusiveterm of the 1D-miscible model forms an accurate general model formiscible displacements in homogeneous porous media. This paperalso provides a large set of data computed from high-resolution 2Dsimulations of unstable miscible displacements.

................................................................

FLOW MODEL 914,503

A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR PARTICULATE SUSPENSIONFLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

A.Santos and P.Bedrikovetsky (North Fluminense St Univ).TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA v.62, no.1, pp.23-53, Jan. 2006.(ISSN 0169-3913; Over 10 refs)

A population balance model for a particulate suspensiontransport with size exclusion capture of particles by porous rock isderived. The model accounts for particle flux reduction and porespace accessibility due to restriction for large particles to movethrough smaller pores--a particle is captured by a smaller pore andpasses through a larger pore. Analytical solutions are obtained for auniform pore size medium, and also for a medium with small poresize variation. For both cases, the equations for averagedconcentrations significantly differ from the classical deep bedfiltration model.

................................................................

FLOW MODEL 914,504

MODELING THE FORMATION OF FLUID BANKS DURINGCOUNTER-CURRENT FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

G.Li (Tulsa Univ) and Z.T.Karpyn, P.M.Halleck and A.S.Grader(Pennsylvania State Univ). TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIAv.62, no.2, pp.125-138, Feb. 2006. (ISSN 0169-3913; 9 refs)

Fluid banks sometimes form during gravity-driven counter-current flow in certain natural reservoir processes. Prediction offlow performance in such systems depends on our understanding ofthe bank-formation process. Traditional modeling methods using asingle capillary pressure curve based on a final saturationdistribution have successfully simulated counter-current flowwithout fluid banks. However, it has been difficult to simulatecounter-current flow with fluid banks. In this paper, we describe thesuccessful saturation-history-dependent modeling of counter-current flow experiments that result in fluid banks. The methodused to simulate the experiments takes into account hysteresis incapillary pressure and relative permeabilities. Each spatial element

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 85

Page 86: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

in the model follows a distinct trajectory on the capillary pressureversus saturation map, which consists of the capillary hysteresisloop and the associated capillary pressure scanning curves. Thenew modeling method successfully captured the formation of thefluid banks observed in the experiments, including theirdevelopment with time. Results show that bank formation isfavored where the pc-versus-saturation slope is low. Experimentsdocumented in the literature that exhibited formation of fluidbanks were also successfully simulated.

................................................................

FLOW UNIT 914,505

RELATIVE-PERMEABILITY COUPLED SATURATION-HEIGHT MODELS BASED ON HYDRAULIC (FLOW) UNITSIN A GAS FIELD

M.O.Amabeoku, D.G.K ersey, R.H.BinNasser and A.R.Belowi(Saudi Aramco). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-102249; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; 10 refs)

Saturation-height functions based on unique flow units havebeen developed as part of an integrated petrophysical analysis of agas field. Furthermore, coupling the saturation functions withappropriate relative permeability models has effectively quantifiedhydrocarbon saturation, classified producibility of intervals anddefined critical water saturation. The results show that linkingdepositional and diagenetic rock fabric to flow units, and thenlinking the flow units to zones with similar core capillary pressureand relative permeability relationships, have enhanced the utilityof the saturation models. The saturation-height functions providedaccurate water saturation, and they can potentially overcomeuncertainties associated with log interpretation, using Archie orshaly sand models. The saturation-height models were developedfrom core capillary pressure (Pc) data to calibrate water saturationversus depth, which is independent of logs. The relativepermeability models were obtained from special core analysis(SCAL). Consequently, the core-based saturation height functionscan be useful in the calibration of log-based petrophysical modelsand, via relative permeability, can also be used to estimate watergas ratios and critical water saturation. Capillary pressure andrelative permeability curves from special core analysis studies weredistributed into corresponding flow units, based on the calculatedflow zone indicators. Saturation-height functions were thendeveloped for each unit and used to calculate water saturation inthe study field. The most accurate flow unit-based saturation modelthat evolved is a function of only porosity and height above freewater level, does not require permeability in its application, andperformed better than the Leverett J-function in this field. Coupledwith hydraulic unit (HU)-based relative permeability curves, thesaturation models will provide more comprehensive petrophysicalinterpretation in gas bearing formations as well as highlightpotential differences in reservoir productivity.

................................................................

FOAM FLOODING 914,506

MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EORPROCESSES: FINAL REPORT (9/1/2001-12/31/2004)

W.R.Rossen. U.S. DOE REPORT NO.840814 March 2005. (DE-FC26-01BC15318; Color; 152 pp; Over 10 refs)

The objective of this research is to widen the application offoam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamentalmechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay thegroundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweepefficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles andpolymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gastrapping and interaction between gas trapping and foameffectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generationin porous media. Complex behavior, in contradiction to the expectedtwo steady-state strong-foam regimes, was sometimes observed. Atthe limit of, or in the place of the high-quality regime, there wassometimes an abrupt jump upwards in the pressure gradient asthough from hysteresis and a change of state. In the low-qualityregime, the pressure gradient was not independent of liquidsuperficial velocity, but decreased with increasing liquid superficialvelocity. This curious behavior in the low-quality regime was also

found in studies of CO2 foam; an explanation was discovered inresearch on Task 2. Pressure gradient can decrease upon increasingliquid superficial velocity in the low-quality regime because thedrag on bubbles decreases as the liquid film between the bubbleand the pore wall thickens. A new theory developed for the drag onbubbles moving through tubes suggests that polymer should makefoam more shear-thinning than foam without polymer, both in thehigh-quality and low-quality flow regimes.

................................................................

GAS HYDRATE 914,507

MATERIAL BALANCE AND BOUNDARY-DOMINATEDFLOW MODELS FOR HYDRATE-CAPPED GASRESERVOIRS

S.Gerami and M.Pooladi-Darvish (Calgary Univ). ANNUALSPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102234; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 16 pp; Over 10 refs)

Gas hydrates are being considered as an alternative energyresource of the future, considering the enormous quantities existingin permafrost and offshore environments. Some of the hydratereservoirs discovered (e.g., in Alaska and Siberia) are overlying afree-gas layer. These reservoirs are thought to be the easiest andprobably the first type of hydrate reservoirs to be produced. Thispaper presents the first-ever developed material balance model forsuch a reservoir (which we shall call a hydrate-capped gasreservoir). The technique presented herein differs from thetraditional approach of applying material balance methods toconventional gas reservoirs because it includes the effects of gasgenerated from hydrate decomposition and its associated coolingeffect. The material balance equation is developed by analyticallyand simultaneously solving the mass and energy balance equations.The solution yields the average reservoir pressure and the gasgenerated from hydrate decomposition as a function of cumulativegas produced, for a reservoir that is produced at a constant rate. Inthe second portion of the paper, we develop a flowing materialbalance equation by first writing the inflow performance equation,relating the wellbore pressure to the average reservoir pressureand then combining it with the material balance equation. Thisyields an estimate of initial gas-in-place from production data. Inits forward solution mode, the model developed here is used as anengineering tool for evaluating the role of hydrates in improvingthe productivity and extending life of hydrate-capped gasreservoirs. In addition, in its backward solution or inverse approachmode, the application of this new model is providing an estimate ofinitial free gas-in-place from production data.

................................................................

GAS INJECTION 914,508

SIMULATION OF GAS/OIL DISPLACEMENTS IN VUGGYAND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

C.A.K ossack (Schlumberger). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101674; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; Over 10refs)

The presence of vugs in a naturally fractured reservoir can be asignificant source of reserves. These vugs can be connected to thefracture system or be isolated in matrix material which constitutesa triple porosity system. The simulation of oil production fromtriple porosity reservoirs requires the development of compositeporosity, composite relative permeabilities and composite capillarypressure relationships. These composite curves can be generatedfrom properly designed laboratory experiments on representativecores or by history matching fine grid single porosity simulations.Since the displacement of oil from vugs by gas involves verydifferent mechanisms from water-oil systems and is very complex,the simulation of this process must be studied separately. Thispaper describes a numerical scale-up technique to provide thecomposite properties and curves to be used in gas-oil displacementsin triple porosity systems. Displacements in dual and tripleporosity gas-oil systems are dependent on the magnitude of gravityand viscous forces, capillary pressure in the matrix rock,composition of the injection gas, and rate of component diffusion inthe porous media. Fine grid single porosity simulations are madewith a compositional simulator to determine the rate of oil recovery

86 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 87: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

from the fractures, matrix rock, and vugs. These results are thenmatched with dual porosity compositional simulations, which createthe composite matrix properties. These composite properties canthen be used in full field dual porosity simulations of fractured andvuggy reservoirs to correctly predict the oil recovery. The processdescribed can be applied to any triple porosity reservoir where gasis invading the fracture-matrix system.

................................................................

GAS WELL TESTING 914,509

APPLICATION AND ABNORMAL DATA PROCESSINGFROM SYSTEMATIC WELL TEST OF GAS WELL

X.M.Li and Z.X.Lang (Petroleum Univ, Beijing) and C.G.Gao(China Univ Geosci, Beijing). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.552-553,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 4 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

GAS WELL TESTING 914,510

NEW METHOD FOR ABSOLUTE OPEN FLOW OF GASWELLS AFTER FRACTURING

T.Y.Luo, J.C.Guo, J.Z.Zhao and C.G.Chen (Southwest PetroleumInst) and X.Y.Yu (Tarim Oilfield Co). XINJIANG PETROLEUMGEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.554-556,Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; 3 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

GEL 914,511

DEHYDRATION MECHANISM OF SECONDARY CROSS-LINKED GELS

X.Luo and J.Zhou (China Nat Offshor Oil Corp), H.Wu (BohaiOil Research Inst), W.Pu (Southwest Petroleum Inst) and J.Zhao.PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.46-49, 2005. (ISSN1672-5107; 10 refs)

In this paper, microscopic characteristics of performed gels(PGs) and secondary cross-linked gels (SCG) with the sameconcentration were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).Experimental results indicate that the microstructure of secondarycross-linked gels is a thick 3-D network, in which micro-holes andirregular macro-holes are embedded. The maximum width of theirregular macro-holes is 200 nm. In the SCG, two different chemicalbonds were formed, which leads to the structural inhomogeneityand the asymmetry of the crosslinking density. The structuralinhomogeneity of SCG results in the formation of irregular macro-holes. The excessive cross-linking density is the primary reason fordehydration of SCG and the presence of irregular macro-holes inSCG can facilitate dehydration.

................................................................

GRAVITY DRAINAGE 914,512

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS FAVORING THEFORMATION OF FLUID BANKS DURING COUNTER-CURRENT FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

Z.T.Karpyn, A.S.Grader and P.M.Halleck (Pennsylvania StateUniv) and G.Li (Tulsa Univ). TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIAv.62, no.1, pp.109-124, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0169-3913; 6 refs)

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect theformation of fluid banks during gravity-driven counter-current flowin porous media. To our knowledge, development of a fluid bank hasbeen observed in only one previous counter-current flowexperiment, although there are some hints of fluid banks in otherexperiments. We have undertaken experimental and simulationstudies to confirm the presence of such banks and to delineatefactors which enhance or inhibit their formation. Experiments wereperformed using glass bead packs and X-ray Computer Tomographyto monitor saturation distribution as a function of time. Thesimulation approach considers saturation history at every point inthe sample, defining conditions at each time point from hysteresisin capillary pressure and relative permeability. The model proved toreproduce experimental observations accurately. The experimentsand associated model show that a minimum vertical sample heightis needed for the development of a fluid bank. In addition, round

sample boundaries and higher average nonwetting phasesaturation tend to prevent the formation of a bank. The validatedmodel can improve our ability to predict and optimize counter-current flow processes, both in the laboratory and in the field (e.g.,exploration and hydrocarbon extraction).

................................................................

HEAT CONVECTION 914,513

EFFECT OF THERMAL MODULATION ON THE ONSET OFCONVECTION IN A VISCOELASTIC FLUID SATURATEDPOROUS LAYER

M.S.Malashetty and M.Swamy (Gulbarga Univ) andP.G.Siddheshwar (Bangalore Univ). TRANSPORT IN POROUSMEDIA v.62, no.1, pp.55-79, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0169-3913; Over 10refs)

The effect of thermal modulation on the onset of convection in ahorizontal, anisotropic porous layer saturated by a viscoelastic fluidis investigated by a linear stability analysis. Darcy’s Law withviscoelastic correction is used to describe the fluid motion. Theperturbation method is used to find the critical Rayleigh numberand the corresponding wavenumber for small amplitude thermalmodulation. The stability of the system characterized by acorrection Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of thethermal and mechanical anisotropy parameters, the viscoelasticparameters and the frequency of modulation. It is found that theonset of convection can be delayed or advanced by the factorsrepresented by these parameters. The results of the problem havepossible implications in mantle convection.

................................................................

HEAT CONVECTION 914,514

UNSTEADY FREE CONVECTION ALONG AN INFINITEVERTICAL FLAT PLATE EMBEDDED IN A STABLYSTRATIFIED FLUID-SATURATED POROUS MEDIUM

E.Magyari and B.K eller (Swiss Federal Inst Technol) and I.Pop(Cluj Univ). TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA v.62, no.2,pp.233-249, Feb. 2006. (ISSN 0169-3913; Over 10 refs)

The problem of unsteady free convection heat transfer from aone-dimensional (parallel) flow along an infinite vertical flat plateembedded in a thermally stratified fluid-saturated porous mediumis considered. Flows are induced by a sudden change in thearbitrary temporal plate temperature. By a formal reduction of thecorresponding boundary value problems to well-known Fourier heatconduction problems, analytical solutions of the Darcy and energyequations are obtained. Several special cases are discussed indetail.

................................................................

HIST ORY MATCHING 914,515

HIST ORY MATCHING FOR DETERMINATION OFFRACTURE PERMEABILITY AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE

T.Gang and M.Kelkar (Tulsa Univ). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101052; Available on CD-ROM; Color;8 pp; Over 10 refs)

For naturally fractured reservoirs, it is very difficult to quantifyfuture prediction without proper fracture properties and capillarypressure. Capillary pressure and fracture permeability can interactin a way which can produce non-unique results. For example,strong imbibition capillary pressure with high fracture-matrixpermeability contrast can behave similarly as weak imbibitioncapillary pressure with low fracture-matrix permeability contrast.Evaluation of core data may provide us with some informationabout imbibition capillary pressure curves; however, quantificationof fracture permeability is largely determined by matching theproduction data. This paper presents an integrated approach tohistory matching of naturally fractured reservoirs by adjusting thefracture permeability of individual fractures and the water-oilcapillary pressure curves. By matching production data byminimization of a weighted least squares objective function, wegenerate estimates of fracture permeability and water-oil capillarypressure curves. All implementations are incorporated into acommercial simulator (ECLIPSE) and iterated in the automatichistory matching scheme. The adjoint method and an efficient

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 87

Page 88: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

direct solver were used to decrease CPU time for calculating thesensitivity coefficient matrix. A Middle East reservoir model wasused to validate our method.

................................................................

HIST ORY MATCHING 914,516

NEW PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE HISTORY-MATCHED REALIZATIONS

D.Zubarev (Scandpower Petrol Technol) and M.Kelkar (TulsaUniv). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio,TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101334; Availableon CD-ROM; Color; 12 pp; Over 10 refs)

Correct prediction of reservoir performance is an importantissue for future reservoir development and exploration planning.This leads to the problem of accurate estimation of the rock andfluid properties used in construction of reservoir model. Usually,prior reservoir models are built by means of geostatisticalalgorithms and static information obtained from different sourcesand then adjusted for better production history matching. However,in some cases, static data can be very sparse and insufficient ormisleading for meaningful prior model construction. Under thisscenario, adjusting of prior model would lead to a local minimum inautomatic history matching algorithms and, hence, we will obtainresults which may not be meaningful. This paper presents a newmethodology for parallel production data processing. It assumeslimited prior knowledge about static information and emphasizesthe importance of production data. This methodology begins withseveral initial models which represent a large amount ofuncertainty in prior models. The method goes though a process ofcyclic parallel adjustment of multiple reservoir models and reliableinformation gathering for further model improvements. Thealgorithm seeks common trends developed in the prior models as aresult of partial incorporation of production data. Every generationof multiple models is adjusted by means of gradient-basedautomatic history matching technique. By using common trendsgathered from prior models, a new set of solutions (alternaterealizations) is proposed. Procedures of models adjustment,parameters selection, and models construction are continued untildesired level of convergence in objective function is reached. Thefinal product of the process is the multiple realizations which arehistory matched. The method is validated using some syntheticcases, as well as PUNQ S3 model.

................................................................

HIST ORY MATCHING 914,517

3D FIELD-SCALE AUT OMATIC HISTORY MATCHINGUSING ADJOINT SENSITIVITIES AND GENERALIZEDTRAVEL-TIME INVERSION

A.M.Daoud and L.Vega (Texas A&M Univ). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101779; Available on CD-ROM; Color;18 pp; Over 10 refs)

Conditioning geologic models to production data is generallydone in a Bayesian framework. The commonly used Bayesianformulation and its implementation have difficulties in three majorareas, particularly for large scale field applications. First, the CPUtime increases quadratically with increasing model size, thusmaking it computationally expensive for field applications withlarge number of parameters. Second, the sensitivity coefficientsthat define the relationship between reservoir properties and theproduction response typically depend on either the number ofmodel parameters or the number of data points. Third, thecalculation of the prior covariance matrix (or its inverse) can betime consuming and memory intensive. We propose a fast androbust adaptation of the Bayesian formulation for inverse modelingthat overcomes much of the current limitations and is well-suitedfor large-scale field applications. Our approach is based on ageneralized travel time inversion and utilizes the adjoint methodfor computing the sensitivity of the travel time with respect toreservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability. Ourproposed approach is computationally efficient and moreimportantly, the CPU time scales linearly with respect to modelsize, making it particularly well-suited for large-scale fieldapplications. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approachusing synthetic and field examples. The synthetic examples show

the robustness and efficiency of this algorithm. The field example isfrom the Goldsmith San Andres Unit (GSAU) in West Texas andincludes multiple patterns consisting of 11 injectors and 31producers. Using well log data and water-cut history fromproducing wells, we characterize the permeability distribution, thusdemonstrating the feasibility of our approach for large-scale fieldapplications.

................................................................

HIST ORY MATCHING 914,518

SEMIAUT OMATIC MULTIPLE RESOLUTION DESIGN FORHIST ORY MATCHING

B.Li and F.Friedmann (California Inst Technol). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102277; Available on CD-ROM; Color;17 pp; Over 10 refs)

History matching is an inverse problem, in which an engineercalibrates key geological/fluid flow parameters via fittingsimulator’s output to the real reservoir production history. It has nounique solution, because of insufficient constraints. History matchsolutions are obtained by searching for minima of an objectivefunction below a pre-selected threshold value. Experimental designand response surface methodologies provide an efficient approachto build objective functions (OF) for history matching. The searchfor minima can then be easily performed on the reconstructed OFas long as its accuracy is acceptable. In this paper, we firstintroduce a novel experimental design methodology for semi-automatically selecting the sampling points, which are used toimprove the accuracy of reconstructed non-liner OF. This method isbased on directives of reconstructed response surfaces. We proposean iterative procedure for history matching, applying this newdesign methodology. To obtain the global optima, the objectivefunctions are initially constructed on the global parameter space.The objective function is iteratively improved until adequateaccuracy is achieved. We locate subspaces in the vicinity of theoptima regions using a clustering technique to improve theaccuracy of the reconstructed OF in these sub-spaces. We test thisnovel methodology and history matching procedure with twowaterflooded reservoir models. One model is the Imperial Collegefault model. It contains a large bank of simulation runs. The otheris a modified version of SPE9 benchmark problem. We demonstratethe efficiency of this newly developed history matching technique.

................................................................

JINGBIAN FIELD 914,519

CASE STUDIES OF TIGHT-GAS CARBONATE RESERVOIRSTIMULATION: ACID FRACTURING VS. PROPPEDFRACTURING

X.Li, Z.Zhao, X.Ma, X.Wang and H.Zhou (PetroChina).ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102276; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 8 pp; 9 refs; Abstract only)

This paper presents a detailed history of hydraulic fracturetreatments in tight gas wells in a remote onshore location of China.The target formation consists of heterogeneous dolomite depositsand occurs at various depth, ranging from 3,100 to 3,700 meters,with an average net pay of a few meters, porosity of about 4%, andeffective permeability of < 0.1 mD. All the wells in the region werefracture stimulated in an attempt to achieve commercial productionand to improve productivity. Because high Young’s modulus andhigh net pressure were observed, placing proppant inside fractureswas always a problem and acid fracturing was the choice ofstimulation the past. With acid fracturing treatments, mixedstimulation results were achieved with various acid types anddesign strategies. Over the last few years, propped fracturingtreatments in the region were re-introduced with improvedtechnologies, and 46 propped treatments were successfullyconducted. The propped treatment size increased from 9 tons ofproppant with an average proppant concentration of 120 kg/cu m inthe early trials to a record size consisting of 56 tons of proppantwith an average proppant concentration of 460 kg/cu m. This paperprovides a brief summary of reservoir background and pastdevelopment history, but focuses on acid and propped fractureevaluation. A comprehensive data set of logs and post-fractureprediction results were compiled and employed to understandfracture performance in this complex reservoir environment.

................................................................

88 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 89: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIR 914,520

INFLUENTIAL MECHANISM OF ADSORBED WATERLAYERS ON PERCOLATION IN LOW PERMEABILITY OILRESERVOIR

D.Liu (Petroleum Univ, East China), X.Yue, S.Yan et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.IV-V,40-42,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIR 914,521

PRESENT RESEARCH SITUATION AND DEVELOPMENTTREND OF ENHANCING OIL RECOVERY METHOD INLOW PERMEABILITY GAS RESERVOIR

Y.Wu (Petroleum Univ, Beijing), L.Cheng, B.Zhang et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.V,46-48,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIR 914,522

ANALYSIS ON THE ORTHOGONAL EXPERIMENTS OFRECOVERY EFFICIENCY OF WATER-INJECTEDRESERVOIRS WITH LOW PERMEABILITY

Y.Li (Southwest Petroleum Inst), X.Li, J.Guo et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.V-VI,49-51,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIR 914,523

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LOW PERMEABILITY OILRESERVOIR OF F124 BLOCK IN DALUHU OILFIELD

J.Pan (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd) and C.Lin. PETROLEUMGEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YUCAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VI,55-57, 12/25/2005. (ISSN1009-9603; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIR 914,524

A COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION METHOD FOR LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS

L.Zeng, Z.Wang and G.Zhang (Petroleum Univ, Beijing).PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.9-13, 2005. (ISSN 1672-5107;10 refs)

According to the geological characteristics and their influentialfactors of the low-permeability reservoirs, a comprehensive methodfor evaluation of low-permeability reservoirs is put forward. Themethod takes a matrix system as the basis, a fracture system as thefocus and a stress field system as the restricted factor. It canobjectively reflect not only the storage capability and seepagecapability of low-permeability reservoirs, but also the effect ondevelopment as well. At the same time, it can predict the seepagecharacteristics at different development stages and provide areasonable geological basis for the development of low-permeabilityreservoirs.

................................................................

MATHEMATICAL MODEL 914,525

ANALYTICAL MODELING OF CHEMICAL FLOODING:ONE-DIMENSIONAL TWO-PHASE FLOW ACCOUNTINGFOR ION EXCHANGE

A.P.Pires, P.M.Ribeiro and P.G.Bedrikovetsky (NorthFluminense St Univ). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101710; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 9 pp; Over 10refs)

Among different Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods, the

injection of chemical solutions plays an important role in maturefields additional recovery. Analytical models for 1-D displacementof oil by water with chemical compounds have been developed sincethe 1960s. The interfacial activity and mobility control of achemical flooding process are affected by the concentrations of theionic species that are present in the water. This problem involvescomplex physical-chemical processes of interphase mass transfer,phase transition and transport properties changes. The one-phasedisplacement solution has been already developed and it is a well-known problem. However, its application is limited to already waterflooded reservoirs. In this paper the solution of the two-phaseproblem is presented. A flow potential associated with theconservation of water phase is introduced and used as a newindependent variable instead of time. This technique permitssplitting the system of equations into a thermodynamic system andone transport equation. It is possible to show from analyticalmodeling of multi-component polymer/surfactant flood that theconcentration part of the solution is completely defined byadsorption isotherms (thermodynamic part, called auxiliarysystem) and does not depend on relative permeabilities and phaseviscosities. The number of auxiliary equations is less than thenumber of equations in the compositional model by one. Once themulti-component adsorption problem is solved, the 2-phase flowbehavior can be predicted. This work shows analytical solutions of1-D oil displacement by water containing two adsorbing cations andone anion for different salt concentrations in injected and formationwaters. Electroneutrality and Gapon equilibrium equation areconsidered. One of the most important applications of thesesolutions is design of chemical flooding regardless of the watersaturation.

................................................................

MATHEMATICAL MODEL 914,526

ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL SOLUTION OFNONISO THERMAL BUCKLEY-LEVERETT FLOWINCLUDING TRACERS

D.Sumnu-Dindoruk (Shell Explor & Prod Co) and B.Dindoruk(Shell Int Explor Prod Inc). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102266; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; Over 10refs)

Mass balances for two immiscible fluids and tracer andconvective heat balance form a system of three equations (non-isothermal Buckley-Leverett Problem with Tracers). Tracercomponent is considered to investigate the propagation of a tracerin order to track the flood (or to track a miscible inert contaminantintroduced during drilling). We have solved the resulting non-isothermal two-phase convective flow equation in porous mediaanalytically, including a tracer component (i.e., cold or hotwaterflooding with and without tracer). Our solution technique isvalid for both radial and linear flow models. In practice, thesesolutions can be used (1) to investigate the convective flow behavioraround the wells (i.e., sudden fluid losses, convective near-welltracer propagation, analyzing pressure transients); (2) interpretformation testing tool responses by detecting the location of thethermal front or to estimate the temperature buildup time that isneeded for Horner type of analysis (for the identification of theformation temperature); (3) calculate the location of the cold or hotwater front (thermal water) while injecting cold or hot water. Thiswill yield the limit of the maximum temperature disturbancearound the well; (4) test/scale relative thermal effects of varioussystems against each other; (5) test the accuracy of simulators andprovide benchmark solutions; and (6) interpret relevant laboratoryexperiments quickly. Furthermore, we have checked/verified ourresults against a commercial thermal simulator and investigatedthe impact of numerical diffusion on the thermal front as well asconductivity. This part of the work revealed that the temperaturefront is more prone to numerical diffusion.

................................................................

MINIMUM MISCIBILITY PRES 914,527

DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF MINIMUMMISCIBILITY PRESSURE IN CO

2FLOODING

Y.Hao (Petroleum Univ, East China), Y.Chen and H.Yu.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 89

Page 90: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VII,64-66,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 7 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

NIGER DELTA AREA 914,528

USARI BQI REDEVELOPMENT - PARADIGM SHIFTF.R.Alege, W.R.Brock, J.Linscott, B.Olopade, C.Etta and

L.K.Chen (Mobil Producing Nigeria). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101067; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp; 3 refs)

Development of low gravity oil is not very common in the NigerDelta due to the large conventional oil development opportunitiesavailable and the belief that secondary recovery methods would berequired to achieve comparable recovery levels. The Usari BQI isan example of a relatively heavier crude oil reservoir (API 18-20) ina field of about 35 more conventional reservoirs (API 32-44). Untilrecently, this water drive reservoir had been only partiallydeveloped because of the relatively heavier crude oil, adverse oil-water mobility and a strategy of low producing rates to avoidproducing high water cuts in the 70 ft oil column. Reservoirsimulation confirmed the analog data from two fields (Australiaand Nigeria) and suggested larger tubing to increase liquid off-take,longer horizontal laterals to contact more reservoir area and denserspacing required to achieve higher recoveries and maximize presentvalue of these relatively more viscous oil reservoirs. In addition, asignificant portion of the reserves will be captured only byproducing at high water cuts for a long period of time. Followingdrilling of three new producers and re-drilling four existingproducers with longer horizontal laterals and larger tubing, oilproduction increased from 5,000 BOPD to nearly 50,000 BOPD andultimate oil recovery is expected to increase by 20% of STOIIP.

................................................................

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE 914,529

NMR [NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE]CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OFHETEROGENEOUS MEDIA: FINAL REPORT (MAY1999-DEC. 2004)

C.T.P.Chang, C.Choi, J.T.Hollenshead and J.C.Slattery (TexasA&M Univ), R.Michalak, J.Phan, R.Saavedra, J.Uh, R.Valestrandet al. U.S. DOE REPORT NO.838814 Jan. 2005. (DE-AC26-99BC15202; Color; 151 pp; Over 10 refs)

We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time,spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability withinpermeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: thefinest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To ourknowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actuallyresolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, wehave developed a robust method to determine relaxationdistributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementationand analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluidcorresponding to imaging regions, which are, in turn, used todetermine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developeda novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions withinflowing experiments and developed methodology using that data todetermine spatially resolved permeability distributions. Weinvestigate the use of intrinsic properties for developing improvedcorrelations for predicting permeability from NMR well-loggingdata and for obtaining more accurate estimates of multiphase flowproperties--the relative permeability and capillary pressure--fromdisplacement experiments. We demonstrate the use of MRImeasurements of saturation and relaxation for prediction wetting-phase relative permeability for unstable experiments. Finally, wedeveloped an improved method for determining surface relaxivitywith NMR experiments, which can provide better descriptions ofpermeable media microstructures and improved correlations forpermeability predictions.

................................................................

OIL RECOVERY 914,530

REALIZATION OF THE ADDRESS APPROACH TOCOMPLEX PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL INFLUENCES ON ALAYER

E.Tropin (Rosneft-Purneftegaz), I.Alkhamov and A.Dzhabrailov(Tarasovskneft), M.Silin and K.Zaytsev (Khimeko-GANG),A.Kulikov and A.Telin. NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OILINDUSTRY) no.1, pp.52-55, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; 9refs; In Russian)

The example of realization of the address approach todevelopment of difficult recovery petroleum reserves of theTarasovskoye deposit with application of complex physical andchemical influences on a petroleum layer is given. Principles ofselection of a complex of flow deflecting and stimulating reagents,and the most satisfying geological conditions of a pool aredescribed. Advantages of complex influences on a layer, allowingeffectively to adjust flooding and essentially to improve parametersof development of pooLs with complex geological structures areshown.

................................................................

OVERPRESSURED RESERVOIR 914,531

INFLUENCE ON ABNORMAL HIGH PRESSURE ONPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIRS

Z.Wang (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.III-IV,31-33, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PANHANDLE HUGOTON GAS FL 914,532

PRACTICAL STEPS TO INCREASE PRODUCTION ANDRESERVES IN MATURE GAS FIELDS: HUGOTON ANDPANOMA, TEXAS COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, U.S.A.

O.Lisigurski and G.C.Rowe (Oxy USA Inc). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102259; Available on CD-ROM; Color;17 pp; Over 10 refs)

When working in mature fields, one needs a lot of imagination,because many times economic resources are limited. Workovers,that utilize proven and new technology may solve this problem.Using existing wells that already have casing, tubing, artificial liftsystems and surface facilities is an excellent way to increasereserves and production with a small investment. Identifying thecandidates for the workover is the key to success. In 2005, 43 wellswere worked over in the Texas County, Oklahoma area of theHugoton and Panoma Fields, resulting in a production increase of2,914 MSCFD for a total cost of only $1.6 MM. Payout of theprogram occurred in just 4.6 months, using a conservative gas priceof only $3.89 per MSCF. The techniques involved fracturestimulation, mechanical wellbore cleanouts, artificial lift typechanges and acidizing. A successful workover program should applythe fundamentals of science and engineering, coupled with fieldoperations and geology. The screening methods developed may leadto further workover activity with anticipated reserve andproduction increases in other areas of the Hugoton and PanomaFields.

................................................................

PERCOLATION 914,533

PERCOLATION-CONTINUUM MODEL OF EVAPORATIVEDRYING: HOMOGENEOUS OR PATCHY SATURATION?

H.F.Wang and T.E.Strand (Wisconsin Univ, Madison) andJ.G.Berryman (Calif Univ, Livermore). DYNAMICS OF FLUIDSIN FRACTURED ROCK SYMP. (Berkeley, CA, 2/12/2004) PAP.[U.S. DOE REPORT NO.UCRL-PROC-210005] Feb. 2005. (19 pp;Over 10 refs)

Porous rocks on the earth’s surface often contain more than onefluid phase, and an important case is partial saturation with airand water. We implemented a pore-scale, percolation model coupledwith a continuum model for water vapor diffusion in order to createa simulated tomographic image of water distribution within a rockcore during drying. As drying proceeds, the initial, continuouswater cluster breaks up into smaller and smaller clusters with anincreasing surface-area-to-volume ratio. Drying times are afunction of the number and location of boundary surfaces, but thesurface-area-to-volume ratio is approximately the same for a given

90 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 91: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

saturation. By applying a Voigt volume average of the elasticproperties of water-filled and air-filled cells, and by introducing thead hoc rule that water-filled pores on the air-water interface of acluster behave in a drained manner, we find clastic moduli as afunction of saturation that mimic laboratory experimental data.

................................................................

PERCOLATION 914,534

APPLICATION OF MASS CONSERVATION PRINCIPLE TOPOROUS MEDIA PERCOLATION

Y.Ren and A.Y.Sun (Changqing Oilfield Co). XINJIANGPETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5,pp.559-561, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; 5 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PERMEABILITY (ROCK) 914,535

INVESTIGATION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICALPARAMETERS UNDER FORMATION OVERBURDENPRESSURE

Q.Xue (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.V,43-45, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 7 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

POLYMER 914,536

APPLICATION OF WATER-SWELLING POLYMER AK-639UNDER FOCAL FLOODING AT NURLATSKAYA AREA

B.M.Kurochkin (Burovaya Tekhnika) and R.S.Khisamov,N.Z.Akhmetov, A.S.Sultanov, I.Z.Manapov and V.A.K oloteev(Tatneft). NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1,pp.68-70, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448; Color; In Russian)

Properties of water-swelling polymer AK-639, which is a newkind of cross-linked polymeric system used in field practice, areconsidered. The kinetics of polymer swelling in fresh and stratalwater is given. Development work on its application is executedunder focal flooding. Parameters of well operation at the polymerinjection site are given.

................................................................

POLYMER WATERFLOODING 914,537

POLYMERS PERFORM IN PATAGONIAC.Norman and B.Turner (Tiorco) and J.P.de Lucia (Repsol YPF).

E&P v.79, no.6, pp.67-69, June 2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)Under production since 1966, the Vizcacheras field is located in

Western Argentina. It is the southeastern-most field in the prolificCuyo Basin and has produced under a mature waterflood schemefor many years. By the end of 2003, production was 8,635 bo/d from162 wells with an average field water fraction approaching 96%.Extensive field studies and numerical simulations suggested thatconformance could be improved by diverting flood water from highconductivity channels into unswept regions of the reservoir. A pilotproject was commissioned to validate a proposal to inject a targetformation with a specially designed polymer gel treatment with theobjective of improving volumetric sweep efficiency in the block ofwells under study. Based on project success, the technique could beexpanded to cover the entire field.

................................................................

PORE GEOMETRY 914,538

FRACTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHARACTERISTICPARAMETERS OF PORE STRUCTURE

X.Ma (Petroleum Univ, Beijing), S.Zhang and Z.Lang.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.IV,34-36,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 7 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PRESSURE BUILDUP ANALYSIS 914,539

METHOD FOR MEASURING FORMATION PROPERTIESWITH A FORMATION TESTER

F.Liger and Y.Manin, asrs. (Schlumberger Canada Ltd). Can.2,535,054A1, p. 8/28/2006, f. 2/2/2006, pr. Europe. 2/28/2005 (Appl.05,290,452) (E21B-0049/08; E21B-0049/10). (27 pp; 12 claims)

A method is described for estimating a formation pressure,using a formation tester disposed in a wellbore penetrating aformation. The method comprises (1) establishing fluidcommunication between a pretest chamber in the downhole tooland the formation via a flowline, the flowline having an initialpressure therein; (2) moving a pretest piston in a controlled mannerin the pretest chamber to reduce the initial pressure to a drawdownpressure during a drawdown phase; (3) terminating movement ofthe piston to permit the drawdown pressure to adjust to a stabilizedpressure during a build-up phase and measuring simultaneously inrelation to time, pressure P(t) and temperature T(t) in the pretestchamber; (4) extracting an index i(t) dependent of the pressure P(t)and the temperature T(t) informing on the build-up phase; (5)analyzing index i(t) and repeating steps 2 - 4 or going to step 6; (6)determining the formation pressure based on a final stabilizedpressure in the flowline. More generally, the method could be usedfor estimating type of a build-up pressure phase, the build-uppressure phase being done after a drawdown pressure phase, bothdrawdown and build-up phases being done to determine formationpressure using a formation tester disposed in a wellborepenetrating a permeable formation, the permeable formation beingable to create a formation flow, the method being characterized byusing an index to determine the contribution of formation flow onthe pressure build-up phase.

................................................................

PRESSURE MAINTENANCE 914,540

RESERVOIR PRESSURE MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS INNEW CONDITIONS

V.A.Gorbatikov and M.V.Zubov (Giprotyumenneftegaz) andA.A.Kislitsyn (Tyumen State Univ). NEFTYANOEKHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.56-58, Jan. 2006. (ISSN0028-2448; Color; 4 refs; In Russian)

New technology of discrete pumping for reservoir pressuremaintenance systems is developed. The reservoir pressuremaintenance system simulation model, allowing to determinecharacter of distribution of streams and pressures in system at thegiven constructive and hydraulic characteristics of its components,is offered.

................................................................

PROFILE CONTROL 914,541

STUDY ON RETARDING DILATATION METHOD OFCAPSULATED RESIN GRAIN WITH HIGHHYDROSCOPICITY AS PROFILE CONTROL - WATERPLUGGING AGENT

F.Wei (Petroleum Univ, Beijing), Z.Ye, X.Yue et al.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VIII,74-76,80,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PROFILE CONTROL 914,542

THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENT ON CROSS-LINKEDPOLYMER FOR IN-DEPTH PROFILE CONTROL AFTERPOLYMER FLOODING

S.Xiong (Petroleum Univ, East China), Y.Wang and Y.He.PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY(YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VIII,77-80,12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 8 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 91

Page 92: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

PROFILE CONTROL 914,543

STUDY OF WATER TREATMENT RESIDUE USED AS APROFILE CONTROL AGENT

T.Hou, H.Zhao, Z.Li, P.Zhao and L.Xiao (Zhongyuan Petrol ExplBur). PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.50-55, 2005. (ISSN1672-5107; 7 refs)

A large amount of residue from the water treatment processhas gradually accumulated and thus caused serious environmentalpollution in waterflood oilfields. The water treatment residue is agrey suspension, with a density of 1.08 g/cu cm, and mainlycontains over 65% of light CaCO3, MgCO3, CaSO4, Fe2S3 andCa(OH)2. This paper ascertains the effect of water treatmentresidue on core permeability and its application in oilfields.Coreflooding tests in laboratory were conducted in two artificialcores and one natural core. Core changes were evaluated by castmodel image analysis, mercury injection method and scanningelectron microscopy (SEM). Fresh water was injected into anothernatural core, which was plugged with water treatment residue, todetermine the effective life. The results indicate that the watertreatment residue has a strongly plugging capability, a resistanceto erosion and a long effective life, and thus it can be used as acheap raw material for profile control. In the past 8 years, a total of60,164 cu m of water treatment residue has been used for profilecontrol of 151 well treatments, with a success ratio of 98% and aneffective ratio of 83.2%. In the field tests, the profile control agentincreased both starting pressure and injection pressure of injectors,and decreased the apparent water injectivity coefficient,significantly improving intake profiles and lengthening averageservice life of injectors. Additional 28,381 tons of oil were recoveredfrom these corresponding oil wells, with economic benefits of3,069.55 Yen x 10 E+04 (RMB) and a remarkable input-output ratioof 8.6:1.

................................................................

PRUDHOE BAY OIL FIELD 914,544

FROM CONCEPT TO PILO T TO FULL-FIELDIMPLEMENTATION: A NEW EOR PROCESS FOR THEPRUDHOE BAY FIELD

P.L.McGuire, F.H.Carini, J.G.Ambrose, A.N.Yancey andM.N.Panda (BP Alaska). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101681; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 23 pp; 7 refs)

The uppermost 200 ft of the main pay interval at Prudhoe Bayis a moderate permeability, high net-to-gross fluvial sandstonewhich contains a number of thin, discontinuous shales. Most of thisinterval is being produced by waterflood and miscible gas WAG, butthe updip third of Zone 4 has been produced by gravity drainagesince 1977 and is very mature. Fullfield models and materialbalance estimates indicated good recovery in the updip area. OneZone 4 core was taken in the gravity drainage area and one wastaken in the waterflood/WAG area. Both cores were historymatched with a reservoir simulator to determine the ultimaterecovery potential of the process currently being employed. Detailedsimulations indicated that the gravity drainage process was leavinghigh oil saturations behind the gas front which could not beproduced economically because of excessive gas-oil ratios (GORs).Both water injection and miscible gas injection mobilized largevolumes of oil and dramatically reduced the GOR. The Updip Zone4 Injection Project (UZI) is designed to mobilize and captureremaining oil trapped above the current gas-oil contact. In theupdip area, both water and miscible injectant (MI) have beeninjected in Zone 4, while maintaining gravity drainage in the lowerintervals (Zones 2 and 3). UZI patterns employ MI in a unique,highly efficient, single-slug oil swelling process rather than as atertiary WAG. UZI injection has mobilized large volumes of oil anddramatically reduced GORs. The 14-01A pilot has produced roughly2,000 BOPD of additional oil for the last 5 years from MI injectioninto a previously gased-out producer. Total incremental oil from theMI pilot is approximately 3.5 MMBO. This paper briefly reviewsthe core analysis data and the reservoir simulation history match ofthe two Zone 4 cores and the process comparison studies.Production data from the updip waterflood and miscible gas floodpilot tests are presented, as is the performance of the early UZIpatterns.

................................................................

PRUDHOE BAY OIL FIELD 914,545

RESULTS OF THE WORLD’S FIRST 4D MICROGRAVITYSURVEILLANCE OF A WATERFLOOD - PRUDHOE BAY,ALASKA

J.L.Brady (BP Exploration Alaska), J.L.Hare (ZongeEngineering), J.F.Ferguson (Texas Univ, Dallas), J.E.Seibert,F.J.Klopping, T.Chen and T.Niebauer. ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-101762; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 9 pp; 6 refs)

The world’s first 4-D surface gravity surveillance of a waterfloodhas been implemented at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. This monitoringtechnique is an essential component of the surveillance program forthe Gas Cap Water Injection Project (GCWI). A major factor in theapproval process for the waterflood was to show that we couldeconomically monitor water movement where a very limitednumber of wells penetrated the waterflood area. The drilling ofnumerous surveillance wells to adequately monitor watermovement would have been cost prohibitive. Field surveys nowconclusively show that density changes associated with waterreplacing gas are being readily detected using high-resolutionsurface gravity measurements. The gravity methods used tomonitor the waterflood include time-lapse (4-D) measurement ofthe reservoir followed by inversion of the 4-D signal for massbalance and flood front detection. This paper will focus on fieldresults of time-lapse surface gravity surveys. Differences in thegravity field over time reflect changes in the reservoir fluiddensities. The inversion procedure was formulated and coded toallow for various constraints on model parameters such as density,total mass, and moment of inertia. The gravity survey was designedto permit the inversion for reservoir mass distribution withresolution on the order of hundreds of meters in the presence ofuncorrelated noise of reasonable magnitude (12 µGal standarddeviation). Time differenced gravity survey results clearly show anincrease in surface gravity that is a result of the injected watermass. Density-change maps deduced from measured gravity-changeshow that water movement is reasonably similar to the reservoirsimulations and the water detected in observation wells. Theoverall ultimate gravity signal is predicted to increase toapproximately 250 µGal, ultimately resulting in accurate maps ofthe water movement.

................................................................

RESERVE ESTIMATE 914,546

METHOD FOR QUICKLY FORECASTING RECOVERABLERESERVES AND REMAINING RECOVERABLE RESERVESIN OIL AND GAS FIELDS

Y.Q.Chen (Res Inst Petrol Explor Dev). XINJIANGPETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOU DIZHI) v.26, no.5,pp.544-548, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; 2 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION 914,547

SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIRHETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THECHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS:FINAL REPORT (9/1/2000-8/31/2004)

M.G.Imhof (Va Polytech Inst St Univ) and J.W.Castle (ClemsonUniv). U.S. DOE REPORT NO.840469 Feb. 2005. (DE-FC26-00BC15301; Color; 80 pp; Over 10 refs)

The objective of the project was to examine how seismic andgeologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scaleheterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. Thestudy focused on the West Coalinga Field in California. The projectinitially attempted to build reservoir models based on differentgeologic and geophysical data independently using different tools,and then to compare the results and ultimately integrate them.Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy wasimpractical because the different data and models arecomplementary instead of competitive. For the complex CoalingaField, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoirevolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework,which ultimately allows integration of the different data andtechniques.

................................................................

92 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 93: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION 914,548

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKANPERMAFROST: HYDRATE RESERVOIRCHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING: TOPICALREPORT (10/1/2001-1/31/2005)

D.McGuire, S.Runyon, R.Sigal and B.Liddell (AnadarkoPetroleum Corp), T.Williams (Maurer Technology Inc) andG.Moridis (Lawrence Berkeley Lab). U.S. DOE REPORTNO.839339 Feb. 2005. (DE-FC26-01NT41331; Color; 139 pp; 10refs)

Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the U.S. havedocumented numerous drilling problems, including kicks anduncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has beengenerated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume,chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studyinghydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the NorthSlope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 tcf. However,little information has been obtained on physical samples takenfrom actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is inthe final stages of a cost-shared partnership between MaurerTechnology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S.Department of Energy’s Methane Hydrate R&D Program. Thepurpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D inthe area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify andpredict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slopeof Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and WestSak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gasaccumulation on Anadarko’s 100% working interest acreage insection 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bayquadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Hot Ice No. 1 wellwas designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sakinterval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platformin search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths ofapproximately 1,200 to 2,500 ft MD. A secondary objective was thegas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval atapproximately 3,000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis ofthe well are presented in this report.

................................................................

RESERVOIR MODEL 914,549

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-ORDER CONTROLLERS FORHIGH-ORDER RESERVOIR MODELS AND SMART WELLS

E.Gildin, A.Rodriguez, M.F.Wheeler and R.H.Bishop (TexasUniv, Austin). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102214;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp; Over 10 refs)

Recently, the oil industry has started instrumenting anddeploying various controls for the enhancement of hydrocarbonextraction. However, due to system complexity, data acquisitionand, in turn, decision making, are still issues to be resolved inlarge-scale reservoir management. A very challenging large-scalecontrol problem that has emerged recently is the real-time controlof smart wells. A fundamental reason for using feedback control inthis setting is to achieve desired performance in the presence ofexternal disturbances and model uncertainties. This workintroduces iterative Krylov subspace project (KSP) methods togenerate low-order feedback controllers for smart wells employinghigh-order reservoir models. The main motivation for using thesemethods is to enable the efficient computation of low-orderreservoir models derived from the highly sparse structure of fluxesand pressure coefficients after discretization. Compared to othermodel reduction methods, such as modal decomposition, balancedrealization, subspace identification and the proper orthogonaldecomposition (POD), the proposed approach is very efficient sinceit is fundamentally based on sparse matrix-vector products. For aproblem size of a simulation gridblocks, the KSP method presents acomplexity of Ο(n2k) (or even Ο(nk), by exploiting sparsity), where kis the number of iterations required to generate the low-ordermodel. This is highly desirable for the design of timely low-controller mechanisms in smart wells. We illustrate the potential ofthe method by linearizing an oil-water model and showing how toestablish stability and error bounds for production responses undercertain perturbations. We also discuss how the method can beextended to cases of non-stationary and nonlinear fluid coefficients.

................................................................

RESERVOIR MONITORING 914,550

[R] ACOUSTIC MONITORING OF ENHANCED OILRECOVERY IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR

J.Martin, B.E.Rommel, T.Hughes and G.Michaud, asrs.(WesternGeco Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,421,077A, p. 6/14/2006, f. 12/7/2004(Appl. 0,426,789) (G01V-0001/00; E21B-0043/16). (13 pp; 8 claims)SRPA# 907,172

[For abstract, see Abstract #907,172]................................................................

RESERVOIR STUDY 914,551

DYNAMIC MODEL OF RESERVOIR MACRO-PARAMETERSBUILT BY NEURAL NETWORK - TAKING THE SECONDBLOCK OF SHENGTUO OILFIELD AS AN EXAMPLE

S.Xu (Petroleum Univ, East China) and Y.Wang. PETROLEUMGEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YUCAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.I-II,10-12, 12/25/2005. (ISSN1009-9603; 6 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

RESERVOIR STUDY 914,552

PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF LOMOVOE FIELDV.P.Mangazeev (YUKOS), G.S.Stepanova, A.I.Fomin,

I.V.Goncharov, O.V.Glazkov, A.Yu.Zinchenko, Yu.K.Zinchenko,M.P.K ostomarov, V.N.Pankov et al. NEFTYANOE KHOZYAISTVO(OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.42-47, Jan. 2006. (ISSN 0028-2448;Color; Over 10 refs; In Russian)

Results of chromate-spectrometric analysis of field samples arepresented. These results show that the northeast part of the fieldcontains oil, which is generated by Togurskaya set of rocks (withhigh gas content), and the southwest part of the field contains oil,which is generated by the Bagen sunk (with low gas content). Adevelopment concept was created based on a complete geo-chemicalmodel. This strategy proposes to isolate layer development and touse artificial lift (also non-traditional), which will be based on anindividual approach to each well, taking into account the zonedistribution of gas and organizing foam polymer flooding inproductive layers. As an alternative to polymer flooding, sidetrackborehole drilling is suggested in zones with gas cap present withappropriate reservoir pressure drop.

................................................................

RESIDUAL OIL 914,553

GENESIS OF MICRO EVOLUTION AND THE REMAININGOIL IN THE RESERVOIR

S.Xu, X.Li and W.Sun (Petroleum Univ, Dongying).PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.14-19, 2005. (ISSN1672-5107; 4 refs)

Due to the continuous water percolation and soaking duringdevelopment of the oilfields, the dynamic balance of a reservoir isaltered by the fluid; and the rock framework, pores and throats willbe reformed and destroyed. The interaction between the fluid andthe rock leads to a series of micro geological processes, such asclastation, denudation, dissolution and deposition, in the smallspaces connected by pores or throats, which control theaccumulation and distribution of the remaining oil. These microgeological processes are the essential factors for the evolution of thereservoirs during development. This evolution makes the recoveryof the remaining oil more complex.

................................................................

SAFETY VALVE 914,554

SAFETY VALVE FOR USE IN AN INJECTION WELLD.E.McCalvin, asr. (Schlumberger Technol Corp). U.S.

2006/0,162,932A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 1/24/2005 (Appl. 905,859)(E21B-0043/16; E21B-0034/10). (6 pp; 22 claims)

A valve is provided to allow injection of fluids into a well orother subterranean facility, but will close to prevent production orupward flow of fluids through the valve upon halting injectionoperations.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 93

Page 94: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

SCALE UP 914,555

UP-SCALING ANALYSIS WITH RIGOROUS ERRORESTIMATES FOR POROMECHANICS IN RANDOMPOLYCRYSTALS OF POROUS LAMINATES

J.G.Berryman (Calif Univ, Livermore). 3RD BIOTPOROMECHANICS CONFERENCE (Norman, OK, 5/24-27/2005)PAPER [U.S. DOE REPORT NO.UCRL-PROC-208970] Jan. 2005.(8 pp; Over 10 refs)

A detailed analytical model of random polycrystals of porouslaminates has been developed. This approach permits detailedcalculations of poromechanics constants, as well as transportcoefficients. The resulting earth reservoir model allows studies ofboth geomechanics and fluid permeability to proceed semi-analytically. Rigorous bounds of the Hashin-Shtrikman typeprovide estimates of overall bulk and shear moduli, and therebyalso provide rigorous error estimates for geomechanical constantsobtained from upscaling based on a self-consistent effective mediummethod. The influence of hidden or unknown microstructure on thefinal results can then be evaluated quantitatively. Descriptions ofthe use of the model and some examples of typical results on theporomechanics of such a heterogeneous reservoir are presented.

................................................................

SCALE UP 914,556

ADAPTIVE LOCAL-GLOBAL UPSCALING FOR GENERALFLOW SCENARIOS IN HETEROGENEOUS FORMATIONS

Y.Chen and L.J.Durlofsky (Stanford Univ). TRANSPORT INPOROUS MEDIA v.62, no.2, pp.157-185, Feb. 2006. (ISSN0169-3913; Over 10 refs)

A new technique for upscaling highly variable permeabilitydescriptions is developed and demonstrated. The method providescoarse scale numerical properties (transmissibilities) that arespecifically adapted to a particular flow scenario. Global coarsescale simulations are used for the determination of the localboundary conditions required for the upscaling calculations. Near-well effects are incorporated directly into the coarse scaledescription. The technique avoids the need for any global fine scalesimulations and introduces only a modest overhead compared toexisting methods that do not account for global effects. Athresholding procedure, which provides computational efficiencyand acts to minimize the number of anomalous coarse scaletransmissibilities, is introduced. The method is demonstrated onhighly heterogeneous channelized systems in two dimensions.Results are presented for flows driven by boundary conditions andwells and for cases with changing well rates. The method is well-suited to highly heterogeneous systems, where existing methodsoften do not suffice. Significant improvement in the accuracy of thecoarse simulations is achieved for both single and two-phase flowscenarios.

................................................................

SKIN EFFECT (WELL) 914,557

FRACTURE FACE SKIN EVOLUTION DURING CLEANUPR.Gdanski and D.Fulton (Halliburton) and C.Shen (Texas Univ,

Austin). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101083;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 14 pp; Over 10 refs)

This paper uses a new two-phase flow simulator to demonstratethe impact of fracture face matrix damage on both fracturetreatment cleanup and fracture face skin evolution during cleanupand subsequent production. The simulator was validated bycomparison of calculated skins with pressure buildup simulationsevaluated using a high-end, third-party, pressure transient analysispackage. The study has demonstrated that fracture face skinrelative to gas flow can be calculated continually throughout asimulation of fracture treatment cleanup and production. It wasfound that at lower matrix permeabilities and subsequent highercapillary pressure curves, the impact of water saturation in thedamage zone becomes much more important. Specifically, theeffective fracture face skin relative to gas can be several timeshigher than expected based on single-phase flow. Furthermore, thefigures show that at lower matrix permeabilities, the time requiredto achieve a reasonable fracture face skin relative to gas flow canrequire considerable production time, on the order of several weeks,

even for moderate damage factors. The results demonstrate that intight gas reservoirs (ca 0.01 md and less), even a moderate amountof matrix damage in a fracture face can result in high fracture faceskins and exceedingly long times for treatment cleanup. As such, itbecomes important to minimize fracture face matrix damage duringtight gas fracturing treatments.

................................................................

STEAM SOAKING 914,558

ADJUSTMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR THE MIDDLE-LASTSTAGE OF CYCLIC STEAM STIMULATION ON NG5 THINSAND HEAVY OIL LOOP IN ZHONG2ZHONG BLOCK,GUDAO OILFIELD

W.Mao (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.VII,61-63, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; 5 refs; InChinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SULIGE FIELD 914,559

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY OF SU6WELL BLOCK OF SULIGE GASFIELD

J.Chen (Xi’an Jiaotong Univ), Z.Wu and X.Han. PETROLEUMGEOLOGY AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YUCAISHOULU) v.12, no.6, pp.VI,58-60, 12/25/2005. (ISSN1009-9603; 7 refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

TERTIARY RECOVERY 914,560

SCREENING METHODS HELP OPERATORS IDENTIFYVIABLE EOR [ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY]OPPORTUNITIES

E.Manrique (Northwest Questa) and J.D.Wright (NorthwestQuesta Eng Corp). THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTERv.49, no.6, pp.93-94,96-98,99, June 2006. (ISSN 0145-9198; Color)

Most of the world’s oil production comes from mature fields, andincreasing output from these aging resources is a major concern foroil companies, national resource holders and regulators alike. Fromthe mid-1980s to 2003, low oil prices not only reduced the numberof EOR field projects, but also the research and development of newEOR methods. Additionally, new discoveries have been decliningsteadily over the past few decades. Boosting oil recovery frommature fields in known basins now undergoing primary andsecondary production will be critical to meeting growing marketdemand. Therefore, it becomes clear that aging resources willrequire proven and innovative EOR technologies to increase theireconomic value, replace or upgrade reserves, and extend theirproductive lives. With oil prices increasing to the $40-$75 rangeover the past few years, EOR has once again become attractive.Operators are developing or requiring fast and reliable assessmentsthat identify the technical and economic feasibility of implementingEOR or that justify the acquisition of a particular property basedon its EOR potential. What approach is most suitable forevaluating technical and economic EOR potential under conditionsof limited information and time constraints is discussed.

................................................................

TIGHT FORMATION 914,561

DISCUSSION ON SOME ISSUES IN EARLY DEVELOPMENTEVALUATION FOR DEEP-SEATED TIGHT GASRESERVOIRS

R.Sheng (Shengli Oilfield Co Ltd). PETROLEUM GEOLOGYAND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY (YOUQI DIZHI YU CAISHOULU)v.12, no.6, pp.IV,37-39,70, 12/25/2005. (ISSN 1009-9603; Over 10refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

VALHALL HOD OIL FIELD 914,562

HIST ORY MATCHING OF THE VALHALL FIELD USING AGLOBAL OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND UNCERTAINTY

94 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 95: Petroleum Abstracts

RESERVOIR ENG & REC METHOD

ASSESSMENTB.R.Al-Shamma (Imperial Coll, London) and R.Teigland (Total

E&P Norge). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (SanAntonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-100946;Available on CD-ROM; Color; 11 pp; Over 10 refs)

This paper provides a study of a history match on a complexreservoir model using a global optimization method. This is done byapplying Evolutionary Algorithms to the problem of historymatching. The results of the history match are then used to carryout an uncertainty assessment on variables of interest. The mainparameters used in the history match included horizontalpermeabilities, porosities and vertical transmissibilities. This studyalso made use of methods for improving the convergence of theoptimization cycle, which included using correlations, adopting aBayesian approach and exploring the search space. The resultsobtained over the optimization cycle are used to identify sensitivityparameters, correlations and parameter trends in a global searchspace. In addition, the original manual history match was furtherimproved by adopting a pressure match using an EvolutionaryStrategy. Best matched cases were selected based on the global andpartial objective values of each match. Predictions runs wereperformed in order to investigate the effect on the cumulative oilproduced and the STOIIP. Finally, an uncertainty assessment of themost recent history mach was carried out using an experimentaldesign matrix. The results of the experimental design were used togenerate a proxy, which is used in a Monte Carlo simulation todevelop P10/P50/P90 oil forecasts.

................................................................

VISCOUS OIL RECOVERY 914,563

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF DRAINAGE HEIGHTEFFECT ON PRODUCTION RATE IN VAPEX

A.J.Yazdani and B.B.Maini (Calgary Univ). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-101684; Available on CD-ROM; Color;14 pp; Over 10 refs)

Efficient recovery of heavy oil and bitumen is still verychallenging and remains a subject of ongoing research all aroundthe world. Thermal recovery methods are generally accepted asviable and several successful field projects based on CSS or steamflooding or SAGD have been reported. However, these processes arenot universally applicable and there are many problematic heavyoil reservoirs that are not good candidates for thermal processes.Solvent based non-thermal heavy oil recovery methods arerelatively new and still under development. The central idea insuch techniques is to rely on solvent dissolution for viscosityreduction instead of heating. The viscosity reduction effect ofsolvents is comparable to that of steam. Among the solvent basedmethods, Vapex appears to be the most promising. A solvent vaporis injected instead of steam and the viscosity reduction occurs dueto the dissolution and diffusion of the solvent in the oil. In thinheavy and bitumen reservoirs, where the thermal processes arelikely to fail due to excessive heat losses, Vapex can be moresuccessful. Nonetheless, the economic viability of Vapex remainsuncertain due to much lower oil production rates predicted by scale-up of observed laboratory model results. In our previously reportedexperimental work, it was shown that the currently used scalingmethods under-predict the increase in oil production rate withincreasing drainage height. In this paper, the results of a new set ofVapex experiments are presented. This set of experiments has beencarried out in a newly designed very large physical model. Theresults are, interestingly, in very good agreement with the trend ofthe previous experiments with the smaller models. The previouslyproposed scale-up relationship adequately predicts the resultsobtained with the new physical model. The new results have beenused to improve the previously reported empirical scale upcorrelation for the Vapex process. Conducting the experiments withdifferent sand packs also reconfirms square root functionality of thedead oil production rate to the permeability.

................................................................

WA TERFLOODING 914,564

MODELING LOW-SALINITY WATERFLOODINGG.R.Jerauld, C.Y.Lin, K.J.Webb and J.C.Seccombe (BP).

ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX,

9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102239; Available onCD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; Over 10 refs)

Low salinity waterflooding is an emerging EOR technique inwhich the salinity of the injected water is controlled to improve oilrecovery over conventional higher salinity waterflooding. Corefloodsand single well chemical tracer tests have shown that low salinitywaterflooding can improve basic waterflood performance by 5 to38%. This paper describes a model of low salinity flooding that canbe used to evaluate projects, shows the implications of that model,demonstrates its use to represent corefloods and single well tests aswell as field scale simulations, and gives insight into the reservoirengineering of low salinity floods. The model represents low salinityflooding using salinity dependent oil/water relative permeabilityfunctions resulting from wettability change. This is similar to otherEOR modeling and conventional fractional flow theory can beadapted to describe the process in one dimension for secondary andtertiary low salinity waterflooding. This simple analysis shows thatwhile some degree of connate water banking occurs it need nothinder the process. Because mixing of injected water with in situwater delays the attainment of low salinity, potentially preventingattainment of low salinity all together if very small slugs of lowsalinity water are used, care must be taken in representing mixingappropriately in interpreting data and in constructing models. Theuse of numerical dispersion to represent physical dispersion in 1D,radial and pattern simulations of this process is demonstrated, i.e.coarse simulations are shown to give the same result as fine gridsimulations with appropriately large physical dispersion. In manyapplications, the fine grid simulation necessary to representappropriate levels of dispersion is not practical and psuedoization isnecessary. We demonstrate that this can be done by changing thesalinity dependence and shapes of relative permeability curves.

................................................................

WA TERFLOODING 914,565

DETERMINATION OF REASONABLE WELL SPACINGDENSITY AND INJECTION-TO-PRODUCTION-WELLRATIO IN WATERFLOODING FIELD

Z.L.Jia, W.J.Gao, X.P.Zhao and J.L.Xu (Tuha Oilfield Co).XINJIANG PETROLEUM GEOLOGY (XINJIANG SHIYOUDIZHI) v.26, no.5, pp.562-564, Oct. 2005. (ISSN 1001-3873; Color; 3refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

BURIED PIPELINE 914,566

A PIPELINE FROM IRAN THROUGH PAKISTAN TO INDIA -ECONOMICALLY THE MOST VIABLE

Z.Jan. PIPELINE & GAS JOURNAL v.233, no.5, pp.51-52, May2006. (ISSN 0032-0188; Color)

A pipeline geared to providing natural gas to Pakistan andIndia couldn’t come at a better time. After the discovery of the giantBombay High Oilfield in 1974, India has not made any significantdiscoveries of oil or gas resources. India’s energy needs areincreasing in a geometric progression as its economy continues togrow rapidly. Its indigenous natural gas accounts for only 8% of thetotal energy consumption at present, while the demand is expectedto rise from current levels of 1.8 Bcf/d to 11.5 Bcf/d by 2010.Concurrently, Pakistan’s mean natural gas source, the Sui gas fielddiscovered in 1952, is depleting. According to a report released byits government, Pakistan will face major shortages of oil and gas by2010. Its natural gas needs will exceed available resources by 0.2Bcf/d by 2010. The shortage will grow to 1.4 Bcf/d by 2015 and 2.7Bcf/d by 2020. Pakistan now produces 3.5 Bcf/d of natural gas,enough to meet about half of its total energy needs. With no newmajor indigenous discoveries on the horizon, Pakistan and Indiamust import natural gas to meet their respective energyrequirements. Importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) is one option,but it is not as competitive as building a pipeline to bring in gasfrom the Middle East or Central Asia. Three competing pipelineprojects are being discussed: a pipeline from Daulatabad field in

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 95

Page 96: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and Pakistan to India(TAPING); a pipeline from Qatar’s North Dome field through Omanand Pakistan to India (QOPING); and lastly a pipeline from Iran’sSouth Pars field through Pakistan to India (IPING).

................................................................

CENTRAL ASIA 914,567

CENTRAL ASIA IS A KEY EMERGING ENERGY PLAYERJ.P.Dorian. PIPELINE & GAS JOURNAL v.233, no.5,

pp.57-61,63,65, May 2006. (ISSN 0032-0188; 8 refs)The term Central Asia and northwest China includes

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistanand Xinjiang, China. While Xianjiang is politically part of thePeople’s Republic of China, geographically, it is part of the regionknown by social scientists as Central Asia. In just 15 years sinceindependence, Central Asia’s energy industry has attracted moreattention from the world community and at a quicker pace than didthe Middle East when it first developed a global power during the1960s, when OPEC was established. Central Asia’s location at thecrossroads of Asia, Europe, and the Middle East will keep theregion’s strategic importance to energy markets elevated fordecades to come. Central Asia represents one of the world’s lastgreat frontiers for geological survey and analysis, offeringopportunities for the discovery, production, transportation, andrefining of enormous quantities of oil and gas and other energyresources. Central Asia is rich in hydrocarbons, with gas being thepredominant energy fuel. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,especially, are noted for gas resources, while Kazakhstan is theprimary oil producer. Central Asia’s resources include 10.1 billionbarrels of undeveloped proven oil reserves and 6.65 trillion cubicmeters (tcm) of natural gas that await investment anddevelopment. Neighboring Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China, also has substantial hydrocarbon potential, althoughprevious projections of reserves were grossly overestimated.

................................................................

COLLAPSE STRENGTH 914,568

COLLAPSE TESTING SHORT LINEPIPE FOR DEEPWATERAPPLICATIONS

D.DeGeer, K.Piers, C.Timms and J.Xie (C-FER Technologies)and E.Tsuru (Nippon Steel Corp). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp;9 refs)

Collapse resistance of thick-walled UOE linepipe for deepwaterapplications has been studied quite extensively over the pasttwenty years or so, culminating in a good understanding of theinfluence of UOE manufacturing processes on pipe geometry andmaterial properties. To better understand the influence of theseparameters on pipe collapse resistance, a test program wasinitiated by Nippon Steel Corporation at C-FER Technologies.Collapse tests are normally performed on pipe samples having alength-to-diameter (L/OD) ratio of at least 8, but this programfocused on pipes having a L/OD ratio of 4.1 or less. Full-scale testswere performed on these short pipes and were compared to theresults of companion pipes with an L/OD of at least 7.6. Integral inthis program was the ability to design end closures that wouldminimize the influence of end conditions on pipe collapse. Thus, arigorous finite element analysis (FEA) program was alsoundertaken to assist in the design of appropriate end closures fortesting. This paper presents the results of all collapse tests andFEA, and shows that the analyses can generate correction factorsfor calculating the collapse strength of full-length pipes from shortpipe test results.

................................................................

DRAG REDUCTION 914,569

[R] REMOTE DELIVERY OF LATEX DRAG-REDUCINGAGENT

W.F.Harris, S.N.Milligan, K.W.Smith, T.L.Burden, R.L.Johnstonand V.S.Anderson, asrs. (ConocoPhillips Co). World2006/073,780A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 12/19/2005, pr. U.S. 12/30/2004

(Appl. 26,892) (C09K-0008/00; E21B-0043/16). (56 pp; 63 claims;Also assigned to W.F.Harris, S.N.Milligan, K.W.Smith, T.L.Burden,R.L.Johnston and V.S.Anderson) SRPA# 911,854

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,854]................................................................

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING 914,570

CONTROLLED SHORT-CIRCUITING MIG/MAG WELDINGPROCESS (CCC) APPLIED TO THE ROOT PASS IN THECONSTRUCTION OF OFFSHORE OIL PIPELINES -PROCESS ANALYSIS TOOLS

R.H.Goncalves de Silva, J.C.Dutra, R.Gohr, Jr. and M.A.deOliveira (Santa Catarina Fed Univ). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp;6 refs)

This work consists in the study and development of theControlled Current Short-circuiting MIG/MAG (or GMAW) Welding(CCC) with emphasis on the analysis tools designed specifically forthis process. Currently, root pass in pipe welding is performedpredominantly with SMAW, of inherent lower productivity. Thesemi-mechanized, slag free process herein developed (CCC) yieldssatisfactory properties welds with higher productivity, obtains theadvantages of short-circuiting metal transfer and avoids itsinconveniences by means of current waveform control, providingarc and weld pool stability with low welder training time. Thedeveloped software based CCC analysis tools are described.

................................................................

FATIGUE 914,571

COMBINATION OF LONG-TERM DYNAMIC LOADS FORFATIGUE ASSESSMENT

B.Kim, Y.S.Shin and X.Wang (American Bureau Shipping).16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp;Over 10 refs)

A methodology concerning how to determine the correlationfactors between individual long-term dynamic load components forthe prediction of the combined total stress is presented. Thecombined stress in short-term sea states can be expressed by thesquare root of sum of squares of the load components withcorresponding stress factors and relevant correlation factors. One ofadvantages for this formulation is that the correlation factors donot depend on the relative magnitudes of the individual stresscomponents. The long-term stress is expressed by an equationsimilar in format to one derived for the short-term sea states. Theweighted average values of the correlation factors over wave scatterdiagram entry and wave headings are defined as the long-term loadcombination factors. For illustration, the direct calculation of theload combination factors are performed for end longitudinalconnections in the midship tank of a modern crude oil tanker. Thecalculation results show that the load combination factors for short-term sea states strongly depend on wave heading and average zero-up crossing wave period. For long-term multiple sea states, it isshown that the load combination factors are not sensitive to theselected probability of exceedance level.

................................................................

FLEXIBLE PIPE 914,572

FLEXIBLE, COMPRESSION RESISTANT AND HIGHLYINSULATING SYSTEMS

D.L.Leeser, C.Blair and B.R.Betty, asrs. (Aspen Aerogels Inc).World 2006/074,463A2, p. 7/13/2006, f. 1/10/2006, pr. U.S. 1/10/2005(Appl. 60/642,638) and U.S. 1/25/2005 (Appl. 60/646,708)(B32B-0005/06). (40 pp; 27 claims; Also assigned to D.L.Leeser,C.Blair and B.R.Betty)

A system for insulating and providing structural support topipelines is described. The system is lightweight and can beconstructed to withstand large compressive forces and is applicableto transport of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, gas and LNGincluding sub-sea applications.

................................................................

96 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 97: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

FLOW MEASURING 914,573

[R] SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING FLOW IN APIPELINE

M.Berard and I.Babelli, asrs. (Schlumberger Holdings Ltd;Schlumberger Canada Ltd; Schlumberger Serv Petrol;Schlumberger Technol BV). World 2006/072,274A1, p. 7/13/2006, f.11/14/2005, pr. Gr. Brit. 1/6/2005 (Appl. 0,500,191) (G01F-0001/74;E21B-0047/10). (28 pp; 32 claims; Also assigned to M.Berard andI.Babelli) SRPA# 911,207

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,207]................................................................

FLOWMETER 914,574

FLOW MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AND METHODR.A.Sallee, asr. (Dresser Inc). Can. 2,486,208A1, p. 4/20/2006, f.

10/29/2004, pr. U.S. 10/20/2004 (Appl. 969,428). (31 pp; 25 claims)Flow measurement systems and techniques may allow flow

information to be wirelessly transmitted. The systems andtechniques may include a meter index cover and a wireless metertransmitter adapter. The meter index cover may be configured andarranged to house a meter index and include a mounting memberconfigured and arranged to couple to a variety of wireless metertransmitter adapters. The wireless meter transmitter adapter maybe configured and arranged to couple to the mounting member andto couple to a wireless meter transmitter.

................................................................

FRACTURE (METAL) 914,575

LONG CRACK ARRESTABILITY OF HEAVY-THICKSHIPBUILDING STEELS

T.Inoue, T.Ishikawa and S.Imai (Nippon Steel Corp), T.K oseki,K.Hirota, M.Tada, H.Kitada, Y.Yamaguchi and H.Yajima. 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp;5 refs)

Brittle crack arrestability of structural steels is essentiallyimportant for the integrity of large structures to prevent fatalaccidents. EH-grade shipbuilding steels have been expected to havethe long crack arrestability of a brittle crack in a base plate and awelded joint. Several large-scale crack arrest tests have beencarried out in order to investigate the long crack arrestability ofheavy-thick ship building steels, where test plate thicknesses werelarger than or equal to 65 mm. High heat input welding was usedfor the welded joint. All base plates and their welded joints satisfiedCVN toughness requirements for EH-grade plates and weldedjoints in ship classification society rules. A brittle crack ran along awelded joint and penetrated through the test plate under stresshigher than 200 MPa even though the longitudinal stiffeners acrossthe test weld existed. On the other hand, a brittle crack along thewelded joint arrested only when a test plate with longitudinalstiffeners was loaded under stress lower than 200 MPa. In addition,a brittle crack in a base plate model with longitudinal stiffenerswas not arrested under stress higher than 200 MPa. These resultssuggest that EH-grade steel plates and their welded joints do notalways have long crack arrestability. Further investigation will beneeded to clarify the long crack arrestability of heavy thick steel.

................................................................

GATE VALVE 914,576

[R] GATE VALVER.C.Hunter and D.D.Comeaux, asrs. (Vetco Gray Inc). Gr. Brit.

2,422,648A, p. 8/2/2006, f. 12/1/2005, pr. U.S. 12/3/2004 (Appl.60/633,138) (F16K-0041/14; F16K-0003/02). (17 pp; 19 claims)SRPA# 909,093

[For abstract, see Abstract #909,093]................................................................

GRIPPER (PIPE) 914,577

[R] LONGITUDINAL LOAD VARYING DEVICE FORELONGATE MEMBERS

T.W.Grinsted, asr. (The Engineering Bus Ltd). U.S.

2006/0,153,644A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 10/31/2003, pr. Gr. Brit. 11/1/2002(Appl. 0,225,496) and World 10/31/2003 (Appl. 0,304,697)(E21B-0015/02; E21B-0007/12). (10 pp; 19 claims) SRPA# 850,376

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #850,376]................................................................

HYDRATE CONTROL 914,578

HYDRATES - A CHALLENGE IN FLOW ASSURANCE FOROIL AND GAS PRODUCTION IN DEEP AND ULTRA-DEEPWA TER

R.Freij-Ayoub, M.Rivero and E.Nakagawa (CSIRO Petroleum).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.395-404,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Over 10 refs)

Hydrates present one of the major challenges in flow assurance.Deep and ultra deep water operations together with long tiebackspresent the ideal conditions for the formation of hydrates which canresult in pipeline blockage and serious operational and safetyconcerns. Methods to combat hydrates range between control andmanagement. One main technique has been to produce thehydrocarbons outside of the thermodynamic stability domain ofhydrates. This is achieved by keeping the temperature of thehydrocarbon above the stability temperature of hydrates byinsulating the pipe line, or by introducing heat in the hydrocarbon.Another efficient way of combating hydrates has been to shift thehydrate phase boundary to lower temperatures by using chemicalslike methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEO) which are known asthermodynamic inhibitors. Within the last decade a newgeneration of hydrate inhibitors called low dosage hydrateinhibitors (LDHI) has been introduced. One type of these LDHI arekinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI) that, when used in smallconcentrations, slow down hydrate growth by increasing theinduction time for their formation and preventing the start of therapid growth stage. Another approach to managing hydrates hasbeen to allow them to form in a controlled manner and transportthe hydrate-hydrocarbon slurry in the production pipe. In thispaper we describe the various approaches used to combat hydratesto ensure flow assurance and we discuss the cons and pros of everyapproach and the technology gaps.

................................................................

HYPERBARIC WELDING 914,579

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN HYPERBARIC GTAWELDING OF X70 PIPELINE

O.M.Akselsen, H.Fostervoll, A.Harsvaer and R.Aune (SINTEFMaterials & Chem). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE& POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM;Color; 8 pp; 4 refs)

In the present investigation, two different wires for hyperbaric(underwater) GTA (gas tungsten arc) welding of X70 pipelines havebeen tested with respect to their weld metal mechanical properties.Welding of full coupons at different pressures (sea water depths of16, 75 and 200 msw) was done with subsequent weld metalchemical analyses, hardness measurements, tensile testing, CharpyV notch testing, as well as microstructure characterization. It isshown that both wires satisfied strength requirements set to X70grade, representing a weld metal overmatch situation. Both wiresgave sufficient impact toughness, but the toughness of the Ni-Mocontaining weld was reduced with increasing sea water depth. Thisobservation was strongly linked to the positioning of the Charpy Vnotch, and crack growth in a brittle partially transformed region asa consequence of reheating by subsequent stringer beads. Theembrittling microstructure consisted of high carbon MA(martensite-austenite constituents) decorating prior austenite grainboundaries. This microstructure was less pronounced when weldingwith the high Ni wire, which may explain why no similar toughnessdrop was found.

................................................................

HYPERBARIC WELDING 914,580

ROO T BEAD PENETRATION PROFILES IN HYPERBARICGTA WELDING OF X70 PIPELINE

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 97

Page 98: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

O.M.Akselsen, A.Harsvaer, H.Fostervoll and R.Aune (SINTEFMaterials & Chem). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE& POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM;Color; 5 pp; 9 refs)

The present investigation was initiated with the objective tostudy the root bead penetration profiles in hyperbaric GTAWwelding of X70 pipelines. Such profiles may vary substantiallydepending on the wire and base metal chemical composition. Rootbeads were deposited with a pressure corresponding to 75 metersea water depth, and with a systematic increase of 10 A in thepulse current until burnthrough took place. The results obtainedshowed that the penetration profiles were different between the twowires included in the welding program. The largest penetrationwidth was found for wire B with the higher sulphur content(0.013% S), with a maximum width of about 8 mm width on thepipe inside for 160 A. At pulse current levels of 120 to 170 A, thedifference between the two wires was about 1 mm. With currentbeyond 180 A, the profiles approached similar values, followed byburnthroughs for both wires at 190 A. However, the weldingparameters were already too hot at 180 A. These results areprobably caused by Marangoni convection in the weld pool. Highcontent of surface active elements (e.g., sulphur) are known to shiftthe flow pattern, providing deeper penetration. In practice, smallvariations in bead penetration profile may have large consequencesduring offshore tie-in welding. Cost enhancing repair operationsmay be required if later non destructive inspection reveals poor rootbead quality. Such actions require mobilisation of huge resources.

................................................................

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE 914,581

CULTURAL HERITAGE AND THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRYG.Scott (Blake Dawson Waldron). APPEA CONFERENCE

(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.611-623, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

Since the introduction of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) and itssubsequent amendment in 1998, the main focus for developingpipeline projects was on native title issues. Cultural heritage wasseen as a more operational matter and not one that would affect theability to operate or construct pipelines. With higher standardsbeing set by the High Court for native title claimants to maintain aclaim, the management of cultural heritage issues (as opposed tothe protection of native title rights) are now forming a significantpart of negotiations between project proponents and indigenousgroups for the development of petroleum projects. State, Territoryand Commonwealth legislation dealing with Aboriginal culturalheritage also provides a more immediate source of obligations onproject proponents. Even when all regulatory authorities andapprovals are held, this legislation can provide affected parties theability to stop projects if proponents ignore the requirements toprotect and manage Aboriginal cultural heritage. This paper brieflyexamines how cultural heritage issues and native title issuesinteract from a practical viewpoint and then goes on to provide anoverview of cultural heritage legislation throughout Australiaincluding a focus on the unique model adopted in Queenslandthrough the introduction of the cultural heritage duty of care. Thispaper then provides examples of what companies will need to do tocomply with statutory obligations in minimising harm to culturalheritage through examples of common inclusions in culturalheritage management plans, together with identifying issues thatare often forgotten to the detriment of a project in such plans. Italso points out why cultural heritage issues may need moreimmediate actions in comparison with native title issues for thedevelopment and construction of new petroleum projects.

................................................................

LINE PIPE 914,582

MATERIALS AND WELDING ENGINEERING FOREXXONMOBIL HIGH STRAIN PIPELINES

D.B.Lillig and D.S.Hoyt (ExxonMobil Development Co),M.W.Hukle (Trendsetter Eng Inc), J.P.Dwyer (Worrall LeesAssociates), A.M.Horn (Det Norske Veritas) and K.Manton. 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,

CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 10pp; 10 refs)

A brief review of Materials and Welding Engineering issuespertaining to current and proposed ExxonMobil strain based designpipelines is presented. Strain based design criteria have been usedand are being considered for several ExxonMobil pipeline projects.Strain based design requirements may be the result ofenvironmental or other external loading conditions which can causesignificant displacement of pipelines both onshore and offshore. Forhigh strain demand applications, the use of linepipe specificallyengineered for high strain applications coupled with weldingprocedures developed specifically for use in high strain conditionshave been successfully used in previous projects. Weldingprocedures and linepipe mechanical property requirements arejointly developed to maximize strain capacity of the weld and heataffected zone (HAZ) within the practical limitations of linepipemetallurgy and field welding applications. Results from typicalstrain based pipeline design applications and specificationrequirements for existing and proposed high strain pipelineapplications are presented.

................................................................

LINE PIPE 914,583

IMPROVED COLLAPSE RESISTANCE OF UOE LINE PIPEWITH THERMAL AGING FOR DEEPWATERAPPLICATIONS

E.Tsuru, H.Asahi and N.Ayukawa (Nippon Steel Corp). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;Over 10 refs)

UOE pipe has a strength anisotropy and distribution developedby cold forming. Since a decrease in the compressive yield stress inthe circumferential direction causes lower collapse resistance, thedrawn ratio should be allowable for pipeline design. The collapseresistance of UOE pipe with and without thermal aging wasevaluated using the full body collapse test and numericalsimulation by FEA. The results show that decreased yield stress isrecovered by thermal aging during anticorrosion coating and itexceeds the specified yield stress for the specially designedmaterial.

................................................................

LINE PIPE 914,584

MODELING OF ANISOTROPY OF TMCP [THERMO-MECHANICALLY CONTROLLED PROCESS] AND UOELINEPIPES

M.Liu and Y.Y.Wang (Columbus Eng Mechanic Corp). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp;10 refs)

Modern linepipes can have highly anisotropic strengthproperties as a consequence of their manufacturing processesaimed at improving strength, toughness, weldability, and otherrelevant mechanical properties. The anisotropy can have significanteffect on the pipe integrity, including its buckling and collapseresistance. To better understand this effect, more representativematerial models rather than the isotopic model are required tosimulate pipe behavior. In this paper, some well-establishedanisotropic and kinematic models are implemented to simulate thematerials anisotropy and investigate the buckling behavior underbending.

................................................................

LINE PIPE 914,585

THE INFLUENCE OF HEATING OF THE LINER PIPEDURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TIGHT FITPIPE

E.S.Focke (Heerema Marine Contractors), A.M.Gresnigt andJ.Meek (Delft Univ Technol) and H.Nakasugi (Kuroki Tube & Pipe

98 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 99: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

Co Ltd). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;9 refs)

Tight Fit Pipe (TFP) is a double walled pipe where a corrosionresistant alloy liner is fitted inside a carbon steel outer pipethrough a thermal-hydraulic manufacturing process. Analyticaland FEM models were made to simulate this manufacturingprocess of TFP and to predict the residual liner hoop stress at theend of the manufacturing process, since this is an indication for thecontact stress between the liner and the outer pipe. Comparison ofthe models’ residual liner hoop stress with factory results showedthat these models could not yet predict the residual liner hoopstress accurately. Only for one test, satisfactory correlation wasfound between the model and the measured data from the factory. Asensitivity analysis was carried out to improve the models in orderto obtain a better understanding of the influence of the variousparameters on the residual liner hoop stress. This sensitivityanalysis showed that the temperature of the cooled liner pipe whilein contact with the heated outer pipe during the manufacturingprocess proved to be an important parameter when aiming topredict the residual liner hoop stress in the models. The currentabsence of measurements of the liner pipe temperature during themanufacturing process contributed to the models presently notbeing able to predict the residual liner hoop stress precisely.

................................................................

LINE PIPE 914,586

METHOD OF DETERMINING STRAIN HARDENINGCHARACTERISTICS OF LINE PIPE

N.Suzuki and K.Masamura, asrs. (JFE Steel Corp). Europe.1,693,608A1, p. 8/23/2006, f. 12/10/2004, pr. Japan 12/10/2003(Appl. 2,003,411,285) and World 12/10/2004 (Appl. 0,418,858)(F16L-0009/02). (36 pp; 18 claims)

A method for determining a strain hardening property of a pipeenabling reduction of costs while ensuring pipeline integrity isprovided. Moreover, a method for manufacturing a pipe is based onthe method for determining the strain hardening property of thepipe. A pipe manufactured by means of the method formanufacturing the pipe, and a pipeline are proposed. The methodfor determining the strain hardening property of the pipe includesa step of defining pipe dimensions where a diameter, a thickness,and a required critical local buckling strain of the pipe are set asconditions to be satisfied; a step of acquiring a strain hardeningproperty in the vicinity of a buckling point of the pipe satisfying theconditions set in the step of defining the pipe dimensions; and astep of setting the strain hardening property as a condition to besatisfied by the stress-strain curve of the pipe.

................................................................

LOADING ARM 914,587

[R] APPARATUS FOR THE OFFSHORE TRANSFER OFFLUID

J.de Baan, asr. (Bluewater Energy Svcs BV). Gr. Brit.2,420,319A, p. 5/24/2006, f. 11/22/2004 (Appl. 0,425,654)(B63B-0027/24; B67D-0005/70). (20 pp; 23 claims) SRPA# 911,214

[For abstract, see Abstract #911,214]................................................................

OFFSHORE TERMINAL 914,588

[R] DUPLEX YOKE MOORING SYSTEML.T.Boatman, asr. (FMC Technologies Inc). U.S. 7,073,457B2, c.

7/11/2006, f. 8/6/2003, pr. U.S. 8/6/2002 (Appl. 60/401,478) and U.S.9/6/2002 (Appl. 60/408,274) (E02B-0003/24). (20 pp; 11 claims)SRPA# 838,451

[For abstract, see Abstract #838,451]................................................................

PIPE INSPECTION 914,589

RO TATING MAGNET-INDUCED CURRENT PIPELINEINSPECTION TOOL AND METHOD

J.B.Nestleroth and R.J.Davis, asrs. (Battelle Memorial Inst).U.S. 2006/0,164,091A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 5/13/2005, pr. U.S. 1/26/2005

(Appl. 60/647,123) (G01N-0027/72). (15 pp; 32 claims)An apparatus and method are provided for integrity monitoring

of tubular components and, in particular, pipe walls. The apparatuscomprises a configuration of permanent magnets arranged to rotatecircumferentially within the pipe, whereby uniform low-frequencycurrents are generated within the pipe wall which, in turn,generate fields detectable with, for example, conventional Halleffect sensors. The method comprises steps to rotate the apparatuswithin the pipeline and sense disruptions caused by anomalies inthe pipe wall.

................................................................

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION 914,590

SPECIAL REPORT: WORLDWIDE CONSTRUCTIONUPDATE - OGJ UPDATE: ADVANCES IN DOWNSTREAMPROJECTS CREATE SURVEY CATEGORY CHANGES

L.K oottungal. OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.43, pp.20-22,24,11/20/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

Oil & Gas Journal’s semiannual Worldwide ConstructionUpdate reports on refining, petrochemical, LNG, gas processing,gas-to-liquids, sulfur recovery, and pipeline projects. For the firsttime, this edition of the update separates LNG from gas processinginto a category of its own. The gas-to-liquids category includesother related projects such as coal gasification. Specific projectdetails such as cost, status, completion date, and contractorinformation included in the report come from an intensive industrysurvey. OGJ subscribers can download free of charge the 2006semiannual Worldwide Construction Update at www.ogjonline.comby clicking on OGJ Subscriber Surveys under Online ResearchCenter. This link also includes previous editions of the update.

................................................................

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION 914,591

HIST ORICAL DATA PROVIDE LOW-COST ESTIMATINGTOOL

M.Gurfinkel, G.Gulen, D.Volkov and M.M.Foss (Texas BureauEcon Geol). OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.43, pp.64-66,68,11/20/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

Historical data can help develop surrogate cost estimates forpipeline construction, potentially replacing a more costly fullengineering study. A complete engineering package likely providesthe best cost estimate, however, such packages are expensive andsometimes this investment is unwarranted. And even with such aneffort, construction surprises, delays, and shortages of materials orlabor can still add unexpected costs. Uncertainty surrounds anyadvance estimate of pipeline construction costs. However, theability to calculate reasonably accurate cost estimates for largepipeline projects without the cost of an engineering effort can helpin decision making both in terms of policy and regulatory processes.Such calculations may also serve as a screening criterion forprospective projects. The article provides publicly available costestimates for a variety of currently discussed pipeline projects. Thedatabase of natural gas pipeline construction-permit applicationfilings of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)provides a useful source of both historical and forecast data.Rigorous engineering efforts typically provide the basis for thesefilings, making them usable for deriving average estimates ofconstruction costs and providing a basis for cost projection of futurepipeline projects. These data provided the basis for a surrogate toestimate construction costs for large-diameter natural gaspipelines. Recent filings have the added benefit of capturing recenttrends in construction costs. The structure of construction costs,however, can evolve rapidly. Pre-construction filing data can alsodiffer from actual costs. Nevertheless, the technique though fairlysimple, yields accurate cost estimates when compared with actualcosts of proposed international pipelines.

................................................................

PIPELINE DESIGN 914,592

ALIGNMENT SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PIPELINESESSENTIAL

A.H.Orhan (Yuzuncu Yil Univ) and I.Yilmazer (YilmazerEducation & Eng). PIPELINE & GAS JOURNAL v.233, no.5,pp.43-44, May 2006. (ISSN 0032-0188; Color; 3 refs)

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 99

Page 100: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

Engineering assessment, based on alignment selection criteria,is the essential part of a pipeline project because assessment atevery phase of the planning process provides significantcontributions in timing, environment, safety and cost. A linearengineering structure project such as pipeline, railway and highwayconsists of four main phases: corridor, route, alignment andconstruction line. Fault crossing, fault passage, karsts, andlandslides are the main geo-hazardous areas that are commonlyfaced in a long pipeline project. The best engineering approach is tooptimize each phase in terms of length, excavation, low-high points,slope (both longitudinal and transversal), property crossing, faultcrossing, fault zone passage, liquefaction, landslide, karst andenvironmental impact assessment. Assessment at every phaseprovides significant contribution basically in terms of timing,environment, safety, and cost (TESC). Engineering assessmentbased upon--but not limited to--the alignment selection criteriagiven is a crucial part of a linear project. Technical assessment ofthe alternatives at each stage is crucial on the basis of the criteriagiven. Three international projects are being conducted in Turkey.These are Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) crude oil pipeline, BlueStream (BS) natural gas pipeline, and Turkish Motorway. TheBaku-Ceyhan pipeline and a considerable portion of the motorwayhave been located through the heart of the first-class farm fieldscreated by major active faults.

................................................................

PIPELINE FLOW 914,593

MECHANISTIC/PROBABILISTIC MODELING OF SLUGINITIATION IN A LOWER ELBOW OF A HILLY-TERRAINPIPELINE

E.M.Al-Safran (Kuwait Univ) and C.Sarica, H.Q.Zhang andJ.P.Brill (Tulsa Univ). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICALCONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS2006. (SPE-102254; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 13 pp; Over 10refs)

Probabilistic/mechanistic modeling was carried out to develop apredictive model for initiated slug length distribution at the lowerelbow of a hilly-terrain pipeline. Statistical analysis suggested theappropriateness of a Log-Normal model over an Inverse Gaussianmodel. The Log-Normal model is correlated by two empiricalrelationships developed for mean slug length and slug lengthstandard deviation. Based on experimental observations, theapproach of critical liquid level (instead of critical liquid volume)was adopted as the slug initiation criterion at the lower elbow.Consequently, the critical liquid level was mechanistically modeledand empirically correlated to the initiated mean slug length andstandard deviation. A model validation study demonstrated thecapability of the probabilistic/mechanistic models to reproduceexperimental data with a satisfactory match. The match isimproved when the developed correlations were tuned using thestatistical confidence intervals of their coefficients.

................................................................

PIPELINE HEATING 914,594

[R] HYDRAULIC FRICTION FLUID HEATER AND METHODOF USING SAME

B.J.Reid, asr. (Saipem America Inc). Gr. Brit. 2,422,425A, p.7/26/2006, f. 9/23/2004, pr. U.S. 9/23/2003 (Appl. 60/505,284), U.S.9/22/2004 (Appl. 946,916) and World 9/23/2004 (Appl. 0,431,164)(F24J-0003/00; E21B-0036/00; E21B-0033/037). (2 pp) SRPA#865,380

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #865,380]................................................................

PIPELINE PIG 914,595

A SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AN IN-LINE PIPE INSPECTIONTOOL

P.Couchman, asr. (PII Ltd). Gr. Brit. 2,421,777A, p. 7/5/2006, f.12/5/2005, pr. Gr. Brit. 12/22/2004 (Appl. 0,428,127) (F16L-0055/28;F16L-0055/44; G01N-0027/82; F16L-0101/30). (35 pp; 11 claims)

In an in-line pipe inspection tool, sensors for inspecting the pipeare mounted on sensor blocks moveable relative to the body of thetool. However, when the sensor blocks move radially to conform todifferent pipe diameters, the circumferential distances between the

sensors change. To ameliorate the effect of this, the sensor blockshave a shape such that one axial edge of each sensor blockcircumferentially overlaps the opposite edge of an adjacent sensorblock. With such an arrangement, when the sensor blocks areoperating at minimum diameter, part of one sensor block willoverlap an adjacent block in the circumferential direction. As thediameter of the pipeline in which the pig is used increases, thedegree of overlap will reduce and may even reduce to zero, butthere will still be no overall axial gaps between the sensor blocks.Thus, by suitable shaping of the sensor blocks, the tool can be usedwith a wide range of pipe diameters. In a further aspect, the sensorblocks are mounted on a carrier, which preferably comprises anumber of support parts connected by a deformable link. Thecarrier has a variable circumferential length, therebyaccommodating variation of the circumferential spacing betweenthe spacer blocks with different pipe diameters.

................................................................

REGASIFICATION 914,596

[R] LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FLOATING STORAGEREGASIFICATION UNIT

J.M.Cusiter, D.G.M.Carpenter, R.Spaarman, A.N.Stephens,S.J.Bowring, E.I.Otten and H.J.Meek. U.S. 2006/0,156,744A1, p.7/20/2006, f. 11/7/2005, pr. U.S. 11/8/2004 (Appl. 60/626,041)(F17C-0009/02; F17C-0013/08). (19 pp; 20 claims) SRPA# 909,124

[For abstract, see Abstract #909,124]................................................................

RISK ANALYSIS 914,597

RISK LIMITS OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN THE AEGEANSEA

D.V.Lyridis, N.P.Ventikos, P.G.Zacharioudakis and H.N.Psaraftis(Athens National Tech Univ) and S.Volakis (Environ Protection EngSA). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;Over 10 refs)

This paper presents an explorative analysis of tanker casualtiesin the Aegean Sea; thus, it is based on data derived from therecords of a database specifically developed for this reason. Thiseffort is a part of the Greek sponsored research project AEGEANwhich aims to design and propose novel safe tanker routes throughthe specific area, and its main motivation is the continuousincrease of oil quantities transferred through the Aegean Sea (e.g.due to the exploitation of the Caspian oil, or due to the forthcomingopening of new pipelines). Moreover, under the umbrella of safe oilmovement across the Aegean Sea, a risk-driven approach isimplemented in the outline of determining acceptable limits forlocal tanker safety; affordable (minimum) safety limits, since theproposed approach should not aggravate, in any case, the currentsituations/records and practices, from a marine safety point-of-view.This is achieved by using descriptive statistical techniques andselected risk models and by introducing corresponding risk indicesthat are able to support the adopted methodology and consequentlyprovide sensible results and realistic conclusions.

................................................................

SHOCK ABSORBER 914,598

FENDER SELECTION FOR SHIP-TO-SHIP OPERATIONSM.Wan, F.Yazaki and S.Sakakibara. OFFSHORE ENGINEER

v.31, no.11, pp.65-69, Nov. 2006. (ISSN 9395-876X; Color)Fender size selection for ship-to-ship (STS) operation has been

traditionally left to the mooring masters who rely on theirexperience and available industry guidelines to decide on whatfenders to use for a particular operation. Ship-to-ship transferguides for petroleum and liquefied gas from OCIMF and PIANC aregood references for choosing fenders for STS operations. They bothprovide a quick reference guide to fender selection based ontraditional STS and calm sea condition. This article proposes amore detailed fender selection concept that covers not onlytraditional STS operation but also reverse lightering and full-covered lightering under three different sea conditions: calm,moderate, and rough.

................................................................

100 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 101: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

STREAM ANALYZER 914,599

FLOW METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTION INCONDUITS

M.J.Hofmann, asr. (Pall Corp). World 2006/069,796A1, p.7/6/2006, f. 12/30/2005, pr. Gr. Brit. 12/31/2004 (Appl. 0,428,545)(G01N-0029/032). (32 pp; 21 claims; Also assigned to M.J.Hofmann)

A method for measuring one or more parameters in a fluid in aflow conduit using ultrasound is described, the method comprisingtransmitting ultrasound signals at a frequency in the range of fromabout 100 kHz to about 30,000 kHz through the fluid, measuringthe amplitude attenuation of the ultrasound signals having passedthrough the fluid, and using the measured attenuation to measurea parameter in the fluid. Examples include monitoring the qualityof oil in a pipeline.

................................................................

STRESS 914,600

RESIDUAL STRESS EVALUATION FOR WELDMENT OFSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS USING INSTRUMENTEDINDENTATION TECHNIQUE

D.Kwon, J.S.Lee, J.H.Han and K.H.Kim (Seoul National Univ)and R.Ayer, H.W.Jin and J.K oo (ExxonMobil Res & Eng Co). 16THISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 4 pp;Over 10 refs)

We suggest a new instrumented indentation technique forestimating residual stress of weldment. This technique is based onthe key concepts that the deviatoric stress part of residual stressaffects the change in indentation load-depth curve, and then byanalyzing difference between residual stress-induced indentationcurve and residual stress-free curve, quantitative residual stress oftarget region can be evaluated. To verify the applicability of thesuggested technique, indentation tests and conventional tests wereperformed on weldment of natural gas pipeline. The estimatedresidual stress values obtained from the indentation techniqueshowed good agreement with those from conventional tests.

................................................................

TRUNK PIPELINE 914,601

PIPELINE FAILURE RATES - CONCLUSION: PIPELINEGROUPING METHOD IMPROVES AGGREGATE DATA

F.Caleyo, L.Alfonso, J.Alcantara and J.M.Hallen (InstPolitecnico Nacional) and F.Fernandez-Lagos and H.Chow (PEMEXExplor & Prod). OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.44,pp.60-62,64-66, 11/27/2006. (ISSN 0030-1388; Color; 3 refs)

This concluding part of an article exploring a model forreducing statistical uncertainty when pooling pipeline data appliesPart 1’s methodology to actual pipeline-failure data compiled by theU.S. Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) 1994-2005. It also applies themethodology to estimate the failure rates in multiple onshorepipeline systems in Southern Mexico, for which failure data weregathered 1995-2004. Pipeline reliability analyses struggle betweenthe need to increase the number of km-years from which failuredata are gathered in an effort to reduce statistical uncertainty andthe need to avoid statistical uncertainties caused by poolingdisparate data. Part 1 of this article described a usable method forconsidering both the statistical and tolerance uncertainties ofmerged data to produce more accurate reliability predictions. Themethodology Part 1 outlined should be able to address failureprocesses with constant and time-dependent rates, test whetherpooling of failure data across systems can occur, and reduce thestatistical uncertainties in the estimation. The primary pipelineattribute considered by this article is location of facilities. Futurestudies will analyze annual failure rates in terms of diameter, wallthickness, stress level, and age. This article applies Part 1’smethodology to pipeline failure data reported by the OPS. Ahomogeneous Poisson process (HPP) model calculates the averagefailure rates and confidence intervals, leading to the functionalform (Power Law Process) of the failure intensity and identifyingdata that can be merged under both assumptions. The articleapplies the same procedure to Mexican data.

................................................................

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER 914,602

ULTRASONIC MULTI-PATH FLOWMETERS FOR CRUDEOIL CUSTODY TRANSFER

PIPELINE & GAS JOURNAL v.233, no.5, pp.49-50, May 2006.(ISSN 0032-0188)

Due to significant improvements in accuracy during the pastdecade, multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters are the fastest growingflowmeter technology, gaining wider usage in the petroleumindustry for liquid hydrocarbon custody transfer measurement.With the introduction of enhanced signal processing and multiplechannel design, multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters consistently andreliably meet or exceed the demanding accuracy standards requiredfor oil custody transfer metering and fiscal accounting (less than0.2% of measured value). Unlike traditional technologies such asturbine meters, Coriolis meters and positive displacement (PD), theultrasonic flowmeters contain no moving parts and do not requirefrequent recalibration and maintenance. They also do not need tobe protected by expensive and maintenance-intensive strainers thatcause pressure drops and necessitate more pumping power.Ultrasonic flowmeters also perform better in large line sizes withhigh low rates and, therefore, they require less piping, fewer valvesand other components, and reduced maintenance and floor space,compared to alternative technologies, which require that largepipelines be split into multiple parallel measuring sections. A factorinhibiting the growth of multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters has beenthe relatively high purchase cost of the meter. However, when allrelated costs and savings are considered, the ultrasonic technologyproves to be not only the most reliable and accurate option, but alsothe most economical alternative for many oil custody transferapplications.

................................................................

UNDERWATER PIPELINE 914,603

[R] SUBSEA PIPELINE SYSTEMJ.Pollack, H.Wille and L.Poldervaart. U.S. 2006/0,153,639A1, p.

7/13/2006, f. 1/29/2004, pr. Europe. 1/30/2003 (Appl. 03,075,295)and World 1/29/2004 (Appl. 0,400,068) (F16L-0001/12). (6 pp; 23claims) SRPA# 853,905

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #853,905]................................................................

UNDERWATER PIPELINE 914,604

AIR-DRYING MODELS FOR NEW-BUILT OFFSHORE GASPIPELINES

X.Cao and Z.Lin (Xi’an Jiaotong Univ) and L.Wang (PetroleumUniv, Dongying). PETROLEUM SCIENCE v.2, no.4, pp.56-61,2005. (ISSN 1672-5107; 7 refs)

Drying (conditioning) is an important procedure to preventhydrate formation during gas pipeline gas-up and to protectpipelines against corrosion. The air-drying method is preferred inoffshore gas-pipelines pre-commissioning. The air-drying process ofgas pipelines commonly includes two steps, air purging and soaktest. The mass conservation and the phase equilibrium theory areapplied to setting up the mathematical models of air purging, whichcan be used to simulate dry airflow rate and drying time. Fickdiffusion law is applied to setting up the mathematical model ofsoak test, which can predict the water vapor concentrationdistribution. The results calculated from the purging model and thesoak test model are in good agreement with the experimental datain the DF1-1 offshore production pipeline conditioning. The modelsare verified to be available for the air-drying project design ofoffshore gas pipelines. Some proposals for air-drying engineeringand operational procedures are put forward by analyzing the air-drying process of DF1-1 gas-exporting pipelines.

................................................................

VALVE ACTUAT OR 914,605

ANTI-SURGE ACTUAT ORJ.Wessel, V.Sten-Halvorsen, T.Kasin and J.A.Johansen, asrs.

(FMC Kongsberg Subsea AS). World 2006/071,124A1, p. 7/6/2006, f.12/27/2005, pr. Norw. 12/30/2004 (Appl. 20,045,720)(F16K-0031/04). (18 pp; 7 claims; Also assigned to J.Wessel, V.Sten-Halvorsen, T.Kasin and J.A.Johansen)

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 101

Page 102: Petroleum Abstracts

PIPELINING, SHIP & STORAGE

In many gas compression applications, a surge occurs when thecompressor outlet pressure is too high relative to the flowrate.Because surge can cause severe damage to the compressor andother equipment, and can endanger human life, it may be necessaryto provide an anti-surge valve to prevent surge by bleeding offpressure from the compressor outlet. When excessive outletpressure exists or is about to occur, the anti-surge valve will openand bleed pressure off the outlet. Depending on the working fluidand the environment, the anti-surge valve may be connectedbetween the compressor inlet and outlet, or it may vent thecompressor outlet to the atmosphere, or to a storage vessel. A valveactuator has a first motor for moving a valve element and a secondmotor for energizing a failsafe spring. The second motor is operatedindependently from the first, thus allowing the valve element to bemoved between its open and closed positions while the spring isenergized. In an emergency, the spring will be de-energized andmove the valve element to its failsafe position no matter theposition of the valve element.

................................................................

VIBRATION 914,606

ON THE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF LARGE COMMERCIALVESSELS

J.F.Wu, S.Wang, M.Liao and R.Basu (American BureauShipping). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE &POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM;Color; 8 pp; 5 refs)

The rapid growth in world trade and the economics of marinetransport has driven industry to consider much larger vesseldesigns. The resulting greater powering requirements have led tothe need for larger propulsion systems and bigger engines.Subsequently, the unavoidable greater excitation forces, such aspropeller induced unsteady forces/moments and main engineunbalanced forces & moments require consideration in design. Inaddition, as the vessel dimension increases, the structure’s naturalfrequencies tend to be lower than those associated with smallerships. The lower natural frequencies associated with low to mediumspeed propulsion system design has increased the potential ofstructural resonance that causes further concerns on shipboardvibratory performance. Therefore, it is critical that an appropriatevibration analysis be performed during early design stages. ABShas developed an internal document of Vibration AnalysisProcedure Guide (ABS, 2005). The objective of the Guide is toprovide the guidance for an analysis engineer and to ensure thequality of the analysis results. This paper provides the technicalbackground of the analysis procedure and its applications to anumber of large commercial vessels.

................................................................

VIBRATION DAMPER 914,607

[R] SUPPRESSION ELEMENT FOR VORTEX-INDUCEDVIBRATIONS, CONSTRUCTION KIT, APPARATUS FOREXTRACTING MINERALS, AND MOLD

M.Esselbrugge, A.Van Belkom and W.Zuidhof. U.S.2006/0,153,642A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 8/26/2003, pr. Neth. 8/28/2002(Appl. 1,021,347) and World 8/26/2003 (Appl. 0,300,599)(E02D-0031/10; E21B-0017/01). (11 pp; 55 claims) SRPA# 838,473

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #838,473]................................................................

VORTEX INDUCED VIBRATION 914,608

THE IMPACT OF HIGH FREQUENCY WIND-INDUCEDVIBRATION ON ARCTIC PIPELINE SYSTEMS

M.G.Collins (ConocoPhillips Alaska Inc) and J.D.Hart (SSDInc). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;9 refs)

Narrow-banded, well-organized vortex shedding associatedwith relatively low frequency vibration and relatively highamplitudes at lower wind speeds (8-18 mph) has resulted in several

pipeline weld failures due to high cycle fatigue attributed toprimary mode wind-induced vibration (WIV) in the Alaskan Arctic.Based on these failures, numerous studies of the phenomena haveoccurred with modeling techniques developed to predict thecharacteristic primary mode WIV events noted at these lower windspeeds. It has been postulated that the reason the secondary modes(2 lobes per span) are not excited by vortex shedding is that theyrequire a span-wise correlation of lift forces that is much moredifficult to achieve than for the lower frequency primary modes(with 1 lobe per span). The higher frequency modes are alsoassociated with higher wind speeds which occur less frequently andhigher Reynolds numbers. However, for pipeline configurationswith very low vibration frequencies and/or small (aerodynamic)diameters, it is possible that the secondary modes can be excitedbecause they are associated with wind speeds in the sub-criticalReynolds number regime. Alaskan Arctic North Slope oil and gasoperators have employed successful mitigating measures (pipelinevibration dampers and tuned vibration absorbers) to preventpotential severe fatigue damage to pipeline welds caused by theselower wind speed events and the associated primary mode(s) ofWIV. However, no protective measures have been routinelyemployed to prevent pipeline girth weld fatigue failures fromsecondary mode WIV based on the low likelihood of occurrence.

................................................................

VORTEX PRECESSION FLOWMETR 914,609

FLANGED VORTEX FLOWMETER WITH UNITARYTAPERED EXPANDERS

D.D.Bengtson, asr. (Rosemount Inc). U.S. 7,082,840B2, c.8/1/2006, f. 11/3/2003 (Appl. 700,263) (G01F-0001/32). (14 pp; 10claims)

Vortex flowmeters are used in the industrial process controlfield for measuring a flow rate of a fluid. Vortex flowmeters aretypically inserted in a flow pipe or conduit that carries the fluid tobe measured. Industry applications include petroleum, chemical,mining and oil and gas. The operating principal of a vortexflowmeter is based on a phenomenon of vortex shedding known asthe von Karman effect. A manufacturing procedure of a vortexflowmeter is described that allows for assembly of a vortex sensorassembly with one of two or more unitary flowtubes that have boresthat are smaller than the flowtube flanges in two or more sizenumber steps. The unitary flowtubes include flanges, flowtubebores and expanders (also called reducers) that provide a smoothflow transition from the larger flanges to the smaller bores.

................................................................

ALT FUELS & ENERGY SOURCES

OIL TREATING (FIELD) 914,610

MECHANICAL DEAERATION OF BITUMINOUS FROTHS.Sanders, M.P.Wagner, K.McDowell and J.R.Spence. Can.

2,263,858A1, p. 9/2/2000, f. 3/2/1999 (Appl. 2,263,858)(C10G-001/00; C10C-003/00). (24 pp; 11 claims)

Aerated bitumen froth obtained from oil sands must bedeaerated so that it can be pumped through a pipeline. Mechanicalshearing is effective to deaerate bitumen froth to an air content ofbelow 10 volume percent. Mechanical deaeration of bitumen frothcan be achieved either by passing the froth through a confiningpassageway and shearing the froth with an impeller while it is inthe passageway or temporarily retaining the aerated froth in a tankand circulating it repeatedly through a pump.

................................................................

TAR SAND OIL RECOVERY 914,611

ZONE SETTLING AID AND METHOD FOR PRODUCINGDRY DILUTED BITUMEN WITH REDUCED LOSSES OFASPHALTENES

J.H.Beetge, P.J.Venter, S.Wang, X.Yang, Y.Long, Y.Xu, T.Dabrosand H.Hamza, asrs. (Champion Technologies Inc). Can.2,538,464A1, p. 9/2/2006, f. 3/2/2006, pr. U.S. 3/2/2005 (Appl.60/657,758) (C10C-0003/02). (27 pp; 34 claims)

A method includes diluting a bitumen source, such as a

102 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 103: Petroleum Abstracts

ALT FUELS & ENERGY SOURCES

bitumen froth from a hot water extraction process, with ahydrocarbon diluent such as naphtha, contacting the bitumen witha zone settling aid such as a polyoxyalkylate block polymer,flocculating water and fine solids in the diluted bitumen, separatingthe flocculated water and fine solids from the solvent-dilutedbitumen, and producing dry, clean diluted bitumen. Preferably, thediluted bitumen will have less than 1.0 wt% water, but mostpreferably less than 0.7 wt% water. The method may furthercomprise maintaining the diluted bitumen under conditions thatavoid the precipitation of asphaltenes from the bitumen, preferablysuch that the dry, clean diluted bitumen comprises essentially all,such as greater than 96%, of the asphaltene content from thebitumen source. Counter-current flow may be performed in a seriesof zone settling stages, such as with gravity settling.

................................................................

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

AUSTRALIA 914,612

PETROLEUM (SUBMERGED LANDS) ACT 1967 - REWRITEAND BEYOND

S.Barrymore (Freehills). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.533-541, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

In 2005 the Australian Government introduced into Parliamentthe long awaited Offshore Petroleum Bill (Bill). Often referred to asthe rewrite of the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Act), theBill essentially is a redraft of the Act in a bid to improve readabilityand clarity. A number of policy changes have been made, albeitmost are minor. The public consultation process undertaken as partof the rewrite of the Act saw a number of other issues raised. Asthese were beyond the ambit of the rewrite--that is, to improvereadability and clarity of the Act--these issues were temporarilyparked until the completion of the rewrite process. Government willnow proceed with a process of review and consultation withindustry on these parked issues. In a number of areas divergentviews of Government and industry can be expected. It is not clearthe extent to which industry in general and APPEA in particularand its members will actively support the review process orwhether inertia wil prevail, without substantive progress. Reformhas the potential to significantly change and enhance the offshoreregime from what it is today. Questions remain as to whether theprocess will produce significant changes in an acceptabletimeframe.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,613

AUSTRALIA’S NEW INTERNATIONAL TAXATION REGIME -THE FISCAL IMPACT FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

R.Henderson and D.Watkins (KPMG). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.553-559, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

Changes to Australia’s international tax regime as part of theGovernment’s Review of International Taxation Arrangementsshould be good news for the oil and gas industry. The nature of theindustry is that Australian-based companies often look offshore tospread their risk and find new oil and gas opportunities. Likewise,many foreign oil and gas companies have come to Australia. Thetax reforms should simplify and encourage greater investment byproviding additional exemptions and other concessions to achievegreater tax efficiency. This paper will seek to explain the newreforms and illustrate how they will benefit investors andparticipants in the oil and gas industry.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,614

LONG-TERM CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS - SOMEISSUES IN RELATION TO THE TAXATION OF FINANCIALARRANGEMENTS RULES

J.H.Murray and A.K.Miller (PricewaterhouseCoopers). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.561-567,

2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)The Gorgon gas development project has an estimated cost of

A$11 billion, the Bayu-Undan gas project has an estimated cost ofA$4.2 billion and the Otway Basin gas project has an estimatedcost of A$1.1 billion. The specialised equipment, technology andlabour required for these costly oil and gas infrastructure projectsmust usually be sourced internationally and as such their costs aretypically denominated in United States (U.S.) dollars. Due to thevalue and long term nature of these projects, associated foreignexchange gains and losses are often significant. From an Australianincome tax perspective, the treatment of foreign exchange gainsand losses has been particularly uncertain and inconsistent formany years. As a result, taxation legislation in this area hasrecently undergone significant change. The new Taxation ofFinancial Arrangements legislation introduced in December 2003,has raised some complex and practically challenging concepts inrelation to foreign exchange gains and losses on long termconstruction contracts. This paper will address two such concepts,namely forex realisation event 4 and the short-term foreignexchange rules. In particular, it will consider some of the potentialcompliance risk areas and how they can be managed when applyingthese concepts to long term construction contracts.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,615

THE NEW LOSS RECOUPMENT RULES - GOOD NEWS,BAD NEWS

J.H.Murray (PricewaterhouseCoopers). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.569-576, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; 2refs)

The Federal Government has proposed to change the tests toenable companies to recoup losses for tax purposes. There is somegood news and some bad news. This paper will discuss the changesand comment on how the changes may impact oil and gascompanies. The good news is that the continuity of ownership ruleswill be changed for widely-held companies from 1 July 2002, tosimplify compliance. In essence, stakeholders of less than 10% willbe attributable to a single notional entity, making it easier to testwhether there has been a sufficient continuity of ownership to passthis test. The bad news is that the government also proposes toremove the same business test for companies whose total income ismore than A$100 million. This is proposed to apply to lossesincurred in income years commencing on or after 1 July 2005. Withoil at US$60 per barrel it is likely there will be a number of oilproducers whose income will exceed the A$100 million test,particularly where these has been an accelerated development ofthe fields. It is also possible given the high costs of exploration andmove into production that companies may have undeducted lossesfor income tax purposes. The problem is that for junior/mediumlevel producers particularly, equity transactions are not uncommonand the opportunities for breaching the continuity of ownership testare increased. Without access to the same business test these lossesmay be at risk of being lost permanently. It may be possible tostructure an instrument that enables the oil producer to issuepaper resembling equity in certain ways, without causing a breachof the continuity of ownership.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,616

PETROLEUM RESOURCE RENT TAX ISSUES AFFECTINGTHE USE OF DEDUCTIONS

W.G.Cathro (Allens Arthur Robinson). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.577-586, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

Careful planning is necessary when buying or selling aninterest in an offshore petroleum area, farming into a project orsetting up operating arrangements for a project within thepetroleum resource rent tax (PRRT) net, to ensure maximum use ofdeductions for exploration expenditure and other costs of theproject. The rules dealing with transfers of interests in petroleumprojects and with the transfer of undeducted explorationexpenditure from an unprofitable project to a profitable one,encourage participants to ensure that they hold an interest in therelevant area before they commence exploration activity. There are

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 103

Page 104: Petroleum Abstracts

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

special rules applying in the PRRT context to the transfer ofinterests in a project from one person to another. It is important tounderstand how these rules apply as they can impact both uponwho is liable to pay PRRT on the project and the ability to use andtransfer exploration expenditure. Certain head-office costs areexcluded from deductibility when calculating the taxable profit of aproject. The manner in which a project is structured may impact onthe practical implications of this exclusion. This paper provides anoverview of the PRRT regime, the implications of the transfer of aninterest in a project and the requirements which must be satisfiedin order to transfer exploration expenditure between projects. Thepaper then contains a discussion of a number of issues in relation todeductibility and use of exploration expenditure, the transfer ofinterests in permits and the use of contractors to undertakeactivities on behalf of joint venture participants maximising thescope of available deductions.

................................................................

AUSTRALIA 914,617

MINDING THE GAPS - IDENTIFYING AND FILLINGHOLES IN OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRYPRO TECTIVE SECURITY

J.T.Oldfield, L.F.Horsington and D.I.Steel (Ball SolutionsGroup). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia,5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1,pp.651-661, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; 9 refs)

The Federal Government, mindful of the pivotal importance ofreliable supplies of oil and gas for the economic stability of thenation, has recently passed the Maritime Transport SecurityAmendment Act 2005. This introduces a security plan forAustralia’s offshore oil and gas facilities aimed at combating thelikelihood of physical attack by terrorists or other organisations.Here we discuss that security plan, and identify potential gaps ofespecial significance for the petroleum industry. Our focus is on theintelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilitiesrepresented by presently available technologies such as unmannedaerial vehicles (UAVs) plus commercial and allied-governmentsatellites. Next we consider the near-term future (next five-to-tenyears) and analyse the improved ISR capabilities that will resultfrom the burgeoning technologies being introduced during thatperiod. These include the next generation of UAVs (including high-altitude long-endurance platforms) and also continuous (but limitedresolution) imagery of the whole globe obtained from geostationaryorbit. Again we identify potential security gaps that are pertinentfrom the perspective of the petroleum industry. Finally, we outlinethe modelling and simulation capabilities that are availablespecifically to aid such organisations as the Department of Defenseand Coastwatch in efforts to anticipate and thus efficiently andeffectively ameliorate the potential for such attacks. These maywell be of interest to the industry in that they underpin theanalysis mentioned above, and inform what could and perhapsshould be done to lessen the risk posed to the nation’s petroleumindustry.

................................................................

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE 914,618

SEQUENTIAL AND SYSTEMS APPROACHES FOREVALUATING INVESTMENT DECISIONS - INFLUENCE OFFUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES AND INTERACTIONS

M.H.Al-Harthy (Sultan Qaboos Univ), A.K.Khurana and S.Begg(Adelaide Univ) and R.B.Bratvold (Stavanger Univ). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.511-523,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

This paper hypothesizes that modelling dependencies andinteractions should not be limited to estimating reserves, butshould be extended to model the total petroleum system. We believethat there is potential for adding value to petroleum projects bymodelling dependencies and interactions in a holistic systems-based stochastic environment. The objective of this paper is todemonstrate the impact of functional dependencies and interactionson the development decision of a hypothetical offshore oil field.Specifically, we show the difference between the treatment offunctional dependencies and interactions together with theirimplications for the sequential and systems approaches using

Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) based stochastic modelling tocapture uncertainties. The systems approach captures interactionsand dependencies while the sequential approach ignores them.Ignoring interactions leads to under-estimating the mean NetPresent Value (NPV) as well as the standard deviation (by 54% and44% respectively in our example). Furthermore, in our example, theP10, P50 and P90 (NPVs) are all under-estimated by 20%, 50% and50% respectively. These results clearly show that proper systematictreatment of dependencies and interactions can have significantimpact on petroleum project evaluation.

................................................................

CLASSIFICATION 914,619

THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CLASSIFICATIONFOR FOSSIL ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES(UNFC)

E.Kvadsheim and P.Blystad (Norwegian Petrol Direct),S.Heilberg (Statoil ASA), T.S.Ahlbrandt and T.R.Klett (USGeological Survey) and J.E.Ritter (Chevron). AAPGINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (Perth, Australia,11/5-8/2006) TECHNICAL PROGRAM 2006. (Available athttp://www.aapg.org/perth as of 11/1/2006; 1 p; Abstract only)

The UN Framework Classification for Fossil Energy andMineral Resources (UNFC) is aiming to be a new, globally acceptedtool for the classification of resources that will also harmonizevarious existing classification schemes and systems. The UNEconomic and Social Council recommended in July 2004 the UNFCfor worldwide use by UN Member States, internationalorganizations and regional commissions. UNFC will be helpful inimproving energy studies, resource management, business processmanagement and financial reporting through one common code.UNFC is designed around three basic criteria: economic viability,field project maturity and geological knowledge, which are furtherdivided into categories and subcategories. A simple codificationmakes UNFC applicable world wide and enables it to meet thedemand for a global code for fossil energy and mineral resources.Non-conventional energy resources are emerging as supply sources,some blurring the boundary between mineral and energy. UNFC issufficiently robust to categorize such non-conventional resources.Aggregated classes of remaining recoverable quantities are alsodistinguishable in UNFC, including all SPE/AAPG/WPC discoveredclasses (Reserves and Contingent Resources). Collaboration withthe financial community supports the development of aninternational financial reporting standard for extractive activities.Specifications, guidelines and case studies for the classification arebeing developed by the Combined Reserves International ReportingStandards Committee (CRIRSCO) and UN for minerals, and by theSociety of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) for petroleum. (Original notavailable from T.U.)

................................................................

DEEP WATER 914,620

SPECIAL REPORT: DEEPWATER CHALLENGES ANDOPPORTUNITIES - DEEPWATER RISKS: PT.1:CHALLENGES, RISKS CAN BE MANAGED IN DEEPWATEROIL AND GAS PROJECTS

D.Wood (David Wood & Associates) and S.Mokhatab (WyomingUniv). OIL & GAS JOURNAL v.104, no.44, pp.37-42, 11/27/2006.(ISSN 0030-1388; Color)

Deepwater projects typically face technical and financialchallenges to their viability. Such challenges are now increasinglysignificant for operators, consultants, and contractors asexploration moves into ever deeper water. It is essential that thesechallenges are assessed, mitigated, and managed throughoutproject execution by selecting appropriate field development plans,risk management, and modifying project implementation methods.A clear understanding of risks throughout project execution is a keycomponent of deepwater development. The aims of this two-partarticle are to provide an insight into the various risks involved indeepwater field development, as well as to help engineers andmanagers develop strategic risk management models. Offshore fielddevelopment is a complex activity that involves uncertainties froma wide range of sources. These uncertainties comprise potentiallyboth hazards (unwanted consequences) and opportunities (desiredconsequences) for success. Managing these uncertainties in a

104 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 105: Petroleum Abstracts

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

systematic and efficient manner with higher focus on the mostcritical uncertainties is the objective of project risk management.The uncertainties come from a wide range of areas and disciplinesand may be of a completely different nature: (1) technical, (2)financial, (3) organizational, (4) contract/procurement, (5)subcontractors, and (6) political/cultural, etc. Nevertheless, they allcontribute to the overall uncertainty in the planning and executionof the project, as well as the success of the final product. Deepwaterfield development projects face special challenges, specifically highinvestment costs (capex) and introduction of new technologyelements or usage of known technology in new conditions.

................................................................

ECONOMIC EVALUATION 914,621

VALUE-OF-INFORMATION LOOKBACKS - WAS THEINFORMATION YOU GATHERED REALLY WORTHGETTING?

E.M.Coopersmith, M.K.Burkholder and J.H.Schulze (DecisionFrameworks Inc). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-101540; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp; 4 refs)

Due to the nature of our industry, we understand theimportance of being able to value information and continue todevelop skill in that domain. Daily, we face decisions regardingbuying 3D seismic, taking cores and designing well tests and pilots,all with the aim to determine if it is valuable to do so prior totaking large investment decisions on our assets. This is an analysisperformed at time zero before information is acquired. How wedetermine its worth post acquisition is important, less common,and often performed incorrectly. It is also the focus of this work.This paper reviews how information is valued pre-acquisition andaddresses how to take the post acquisition interpretation andoperational results and translate them to correct lookbackvaluations. Many information lookbacks erroneously consider thevalue associated with acquiring information pre-acquisition as anintegral part of the value of the information post acquisition andthen find that it does not marry well with the actual results. Themissing step in most post information acquisition lookbacks is theproper consideration of what was interpreted from the newinformation applied to the proper comparison to the actual outcomeof the variable measured. For illustrative purposes, this workconsiders a 3D seismic reprocessing program example. It notes thedevelopment drilling success rate immediately prior toreprocessing, the interpreted location results post reprocessing andthe associated drilling results. The paper describes proper pre-information asset characterization (i.e., drilling success rate),reliability of information assessment, post informationinterpretation statistics, and post information drilling results. Mostimportantly, the paper ties the pre-acquisition value-of-information(VOI) analysis and the reliability estimate of that information tothe post information interpretation and outcome of the measuredvariable.

................................................................

FINANCING 914,622

NEW EQUITY RAISING METHODS FOR LISTEDCOMPANIES: JUMBOS AND RAPIDS - OPTIMISED RIGHTSOFFERS AND PLACEMENTS

J.D.Philips and V.E.Mathewson (Minter Ellison). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.475-480,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

Traditional methods of equity capital raising by listedcompanies may not always be the best way to meet the needs ofboth the companies and shareholders. The timetable for a rightsissue (being a pro rata offer to all shareholders to subscribe forshares) may be too long to fund an acquisition or project. Aplacement (being an offer to institutional investors for a certainnumber of shares), while giving a company certainty and a shortertimeframe, excludes the company’s shareholders from participationin the capital raising. Innovative new capital raising structureshave been developed. Two of these are known as the jumbo and theRAPIDs(TM) structures. Broadly, they both combine aspects of arights offer and a placement. The rights offer is split into twostages; the first stage involves offering institutional investors on

the company’s share register their component of the rights offer,which can be done in a short timeframe. This institutionalcomponent of the rights offer is combined with a placement to otherinstitutional investors through a bookbuild. The retail componentof the rights offer is then conducted on the Australian StockExchange Limited’s (ASX) normal (longer) timetable. The offerstructures enable funds raised from the institutional rights offerand placement to be received quickly, while still enabling retailshareholders to participate in the offer and avoid dilution.

................................................................

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE 914,623

MAXIMISING INDIGENOUS EMPLOYMENT IN THE OILAND GAS INDUSTRY IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

M.Hammond (Woodside Energy Ltd) and D.C.Sanders (APPEA).APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.595-602,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 3 refs)

The skilled labour shortage facing the upstream oil and gasindustry is encouraging companies who have already begun toexamine ways of increasing the number of indigenous people intheir workforce. It is common practice for companies to use fly-infly-out solutions to build a stable workforce in remote areas. Whilethis suits many workers and operations, a simpler solutionarguably would be to have a skilled workforce who works in theirhome region. Many resource companies are now placing a renewedemphasis on training indigenous people to take on roles in the oiland gas industry. A highly skilled local workforce will have benefitsfor industry with a reduction in logistical costs and an increase inretention rates. This paper describes the challenges facingcompanies which elect to develop those skills in a largelytechnically unskilled indigenous community. The paper uses arange of case studies drawn from company experience. It furthershowcases some success stories and describes where the industrymight need to focus its efforts in order to achieve a more equitabletraining and employment outcome for Australia’s indigenouscommunities.

................................................................

LEGAL CONSIDERATION 914,624

WHISTLEBLOWING, OIL, MONEY AND RISKD.Young (Young Law). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,

Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.497-510, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

Statutory whistleblower laws in the U.S. have resulted in therecovery of billions of dollars of unpaid royalties from petroleumcompanies over the past decade. Eighteen months ago, Australiaintroduced whistleblower laws that could have achieved the sameresult if the royalty avoidance had occurred here. This paperexamines the emergence and application of those laws, and policiesof regulators which achieve a similar result. It also argues that theadoption of a whistleblower policy, which includes protection for thewhistleblower, is not only desirable, but an essential tool formanaging risk. At a secondary level, it looks at the types ofreported actions, typically taken against whistleblowers that arenow outlawed by the new whistleblower protection provisions.

................................................................

MEDITERRANEAN AREA 914,625

OIL AND GAS FIELDS OFFSHORE EGYPT: HISTORY ANDCASE STUDIES

W.F.Ellaithy (Agiba Petroleum Co) and M.G.A.Raheem(Burullus Gas Co). ANNUAL SPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE(San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006) PROCEEDINGS 2006.(SPE-102261; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp)

Development of oil and gas fields offshore in Egypt attractsattention due to the great success of exploration activities in theMediterranean and the Gulf of Suez. Operators and contractors canutilize the case history and experience to benefit from the lessonslearned to improve the economics of offshore development. Egypt islocated at the north east of Africa where the Gulf of Suez and theSouth East part of the Mediterranean within the cost effectiveenvelop is achieved by the appropriate development facilities andperforming selecting the appropriate development facilities and

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 105

Page 106: Petroleum Abstracts

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

performing the construction with minimum interruption of weatherdown time. This paper reviews several cases of pipelinesinstallation, offshore structures fabrication and installation andsub sea developments in offshore Egypt. The paper presents theweather conditions year round profile and demonstrates the goodweather conditions in both the Gulf of Suez and in theMediterranean. Seabed conditions and change in water depthcontribute to the final selection of the oil and gas fieldsdevelopment. Onshore support by fabrication facilities is anothercontribution to achieve cost effective development. The paper willdiscuss different approaches for pipeline protection andstabilization. In addition, it presents a comparison for conventionalheavy decks offshore installation and sub sea equipment.

................................................................

NATURAL GAS 914,626

BELL TOLLS ON LONG-TERM GAS SUPPLYE.Smith (Tulane Univ). E&P v.79, no.6, pp.11-12,15,18, June

2006. (ISSN 1527-4063; Color)Recent gas supply history is disquieting in North America,

however, the intermediate term may be more disturbing. Excess gasis a temporary anomaly and the underlying trend continues to beone of gas rationing, price volatility, growth in power plant usageand further industrial demand destruction. The 2005 events thataffected the North American gas market are described. In the first8 months, we had good demand and reasonable supply. Industrialconsumption increased, and the fleet of new combined-cycle powergenerators hit their stride. In the last 4 months, hurricanes Katrinaand Rita impacted production and deliverability. Not only wassignificant offshore production shut in and in some cases destroyed,but offshore pipelines were damaged, onshore gas processing plantswere flooded, and widespread power outages shut down critical gascompression and storage infrastructure, causing significantincreases in prices for the remaining accessible supplies. HenryHub was flooded and lost its compression capability. Seven monthslater, as of mid-March, we still have 23.2% or 348,000 bbl of oil perday shut in and 1.4 Bcf/day or 14% of our federal offshore gassupply shut in. Cumulative federal losses are at 134.5 million bbl ofoil and 672.7 Bcf of gas, 24.6% and 18.4%, respectively, of annualproduction. To put this surplus in perspective, 640 Bcf representsonly 11 days of average U.S. consumption at the 2005 usage rate.

................................................................

NORWAY 914,627

REGULATION OF LICENSING AND JOA’S IN THENORWEGIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, AND THEINFLUENCE OF SUPRANATIONAL LAW

T.Hunter (Bond Univ). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, p.673, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

This poster seeks to present an example and analysis of theNorwegian Petroleum industry, and in particular the regulation oflicensing and JOA’s in Norway. In particular, it will analyse theimpact of supranational law and the domestic response tointernational law requirements for petroleum exploration andproduction. North Sea and continental shelf petroleum legislationconsists of the Petroleum Act 1985, and subsidiary regulations,which regulates scientific research and exploration for andexploitation of petroleum on the Norwegian continental shelf. ThisAct applies to all exploration and production, which is closelysupervised by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (MPD), as wellas offshore installations. In addition, petroleum operations are to alimited extent also regulated by individually negotiated agreements(associated agreements). The Norwegian Government regulates theexploration and production of petroleum by using a licensingsystem (granted in licensing rounds), under which the Ministrygrants a body corporate an exploration or production license for astipulated period. Licensing agreements from the first to the tenthround of licensing agreements were granted under this 1985 Act.Primarily, Norwegian petroleum production and exploration isregulated by the following International Laws: The 1958Convention on the Continental Shelf; The 1982 Convention on theLaw of the Sea (UN-CLOS); EU Directives; European EnergyCharter, 1994; and International Environmental Conventions.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 914,628

BUSINESS REPORTING AND COMMUNICATIONS - A KEYCAPITAL MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE AUSTRALIANPETROLEUM INDUSTRY

M.Bray (KPMG). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.481-496, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

In their most recent world investment outlook, theInternational Energy Agency (IEA) forecast a global petroleuminvestment of US$6 trillion through to 2030. The annual averagerequirement is very high relative to capital raising levels in thesector. The IEA, however, predicts that the investment gap shouldbe able to be financed. It goes on to suggest in particular that thefuture success of the Australian petroleum sector will not benecessarily constrained by access to sufficient capital, rather, thekey impediment will be the availability of attractive and viableinvestment propositions. Organisations that are able to mount sucha proposition will be doing so in the face of present reportinglimitations, technological change, cross-sector capital competition,global energy market changes, constraints of capital markets andshort-term perspectives, impacts of regulation, threats on securityof licences to operate and the importance of corporate reputationsin areas like sustainability and social performance. A new model ofbusiness performance reporting and communication is required forthe petroleum sector and businesses to meet these challenges.Definitions of business reporting and communications are set out.This paper explains why fit-for-purpose business reporting andcommunications are critical success factors--not only in attractingthe financing to meet the 25-year investment requirement, but,more importantly, in helping Australian petroleum businesses todifferentiate their performance from others.

................................................................

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 914,629

AN ORGANIZED APPROACH: CHALLENGES FACED BYTODAY’S NEW ENGINEERS IN THE PETROLEUMINDUSTRY

J.T.Edwards and G.T.Woo (BJ Services Co). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102202; Available on CD-ROM; 3 pp)

Today the knowledge gap between the seasoned professionaland new hire to the petroleum industry has reached a new level ofdisparity. Due to market trends and job availabilities in prior years,many engineers have been turned awa y from futures in oil and gas.But with the current global demand for energy at an all time high,companies are now looking for fresh faces to fill their empty seats.It is not out of the norm for a new engineer to step into a role andsee a dramatic split among his peer group of engineers. Many ofthose in the industry today have on average 10 to 15 yearsexperience working in the oil and gas industry, which reflects thetime of the last major market upswing. The challenge arises inbridging generational as well as technological gaps to allow forquality job performance and precise communication among variedexperience levels of engineers. There is not always a choice of tasksor even the luxury of transition periods in today’s oil and gasindustry. More positions are becoming available each day with asmaller pool of applicants who poses the desired years ofexperience. This forces companies to fill openings with manycandidates fresh from college and in some instances with minimalhands-on experience. This paper will be a guide for today’s newengineer with suggestions for how to succeed in this essentialglobal industry.

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,630

QUEENSLAND’S NEW PETROLEUM LEGISLATION - ITSIMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES

P.M.Green, S.G.Matheson, K.D.Ralph, M.E.Thompson andT.J.Brain (Queensland Dept Natur Rscs). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.525-532, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; 1ref)

Queensland’s new petroleum legislation provides for an up-to-date legislative environment for the petroleum industry in that

106 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 107: Petroleum Abstracts

BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

State. The legislation specifically addressed issues in relation toupstream competition for exploration acreage and provided forstorage of petroleum for a third party. It implemented the coal seamgas regime which provides a mechanism for the optimisation of theState’s coal seam gas and petroleum resources. The rights ofexisting holders of petroleum tenure were protected through thecontinuation of the Petroleum Act 1923 for selected authorities toprospect and petroleum leases. A new safety regime wasimplemented with the aim of addressing and managing risk ratherthan the emphasis being on the prescriptive compliance withRegulations. The safety regime covered all aspects of petroleum,from its production, transportation and use. The implementation ofthe new legislation required the development of work procedures toassist with uniform decision-making under the new legislation.This is particularly important owing to the continuation of thePetroleum Act 1923.

................................................................

QUEENSLAND 914,631

LEGAL ISSUES FOR COOPERATIVE AND CONCURRENTMINING AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTION

J.S.Minchinton (Clayton Utz). APPEA CONFERENCE (GoldCoast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEAJOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.543-552, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966)

Increasingly, miners and petroleum producers are seekingrights of access to the same territory to explore for and extract theirfavoured resource, particularly in areas where there arecommercial quantities of coal seam gas. Governments areencouraging miners and petroleum producers to maximise theextraction of their respective resources to supply the growingenergy needs of Australian and international markets. Thesepowerful drivers have led to legislation in several states includingQueensland to encourage cooperative resources extraction bydifferent parties operating in the same area. But while legislationprovides an overall framework, significant issues are left toresource companies to resolve through the development of technicaland commercial solutions for the joint extraction of resources withlimited government involvement. Once a technical and commercialsolution is agreed, a legal agreement is necessary to cement thearrangement. What legal issues need to be considered inagreements between miners and petroleum producers? Willexploration need to be addressed separately from production? Howcan flexibility be built into the agreement to allow for a change incircumstance? How can disputes be resolved and what role is therefor courts and tribunals in disputes? Will standard boilerplateprovisions be adequate for the agreement in hand? This paperseeks to answer some of these questions by highlighting thecommercial and legal issues relevant to negotiations withparticular reference to coordination arrangements for overlappingmining leases and petroleum leases under the Queensland coalseam gas regime.

................................................................

TRAINING PROGRAM 914,632

PA THWAY TO PETROLEUM - EASING SKILL SHORTAGESTHROUGH AN INDUSTRY INDUCTION PROGRAM

S.Starling (ANTCER), D.Sanders (APPEA), R.Kemp(WorleyParsons) and N.Haywood (ACEPT). APPEACONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.587-593,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 5 refs)

To provide a pathway to employment, petroleum industryemployers are sponsoring a standard induction program, deliveredthrough a national network of training centres, which will berecognised as a passport for workers to gain access to oil and gasfacilities. The Australian upstream petroleum industry faces manystaffing challenges including: difficulties recruiting staff for newdevelopments, competition from overseas projects for constructioncontractors, and the imminent retirement of an aging workforce.This growing employment demand and limited labour supply hascreated a strong competitive recruitment market that ischaracterised by skills shortages. Consequently, the industry ishaving to recruit workers from non-traditional labour pools andengage contractors whose workforce has limited oil and gasexperience. Many of these workers are not familiar with petroleum

industry processes, safety procedures, or environmental hazards.Establishment of a standard induction program will deliverconsiderable benefits for the industry, employers and individualworkers. Safety standards will be maintained, productivityincreased, and training costs reduced. Wider availability ofinduction training courses will ease recruitment pressures, promoteworkforce mobility and place individuals on a competency-basedcareer path. The Induction Program provides a pathway toemployment in the petroleum industry which will grow the pool ofqualified workers and ease skill shortages.

................................................................

HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRON

COOPERS CREEK BASIN 914,633

VALUING THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OFVEGETATION REMOVAL AND ECOSYSTEMDISTURBANCE ASSOCIATED WITH PETROLEUMOPERATIONS, COOPER BASIN, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

E.V.Mazourenko (Flinders Univ). APPEA CONFERENCE(Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THEAPPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.625-638, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966;Color; Over 10 refs)

This paper describes the results of a small-scale study thatlooked at an alternative way of managing the environmentalimpacts of petroleum developments. The study was based on acontention that an application of the contingent valuation method(CVM) in the context of petroleum developments might assist thepetroleum industry in achieving the goals of ecologicallysustainable development (ESD), while contributing to the change ofthe community’s attitude towards the industry. CVM, based ondirect community involvement in determining the environmentalcosts of the native vegetation removal associated with thepetroleum developments in the South Australian Cooper Basin,was applied to the selected groups of interest. The collected datawere analysed and discussed in light of the feasibility of a full-scaleCVM study, and its potential practical value both for the petroleumcompanies operating in the Cooper Basin and the regulatory stategovernment authorities. The results of this study showed that theapplication of CVM in the context of the petroleum industry mightyield significant benefits for the industry in terms of ESD. In thelong term, it may assist in changing the community’s perception ofthe petroleum industry. This approach does not intend tocontradict, but to complement, the current environmentalmanagement practices of the petroleum developers.

................................................................

EMISSION CONTROL 914,634

MEASURING STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVES TO LOWEMISSION TECHNOLOGIES

P.Ashworth and A.Littleboy (CSIRO), A.Pisarski (QueenslandUniv) and K.Thambimuthu. APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, p.674, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

The Centre for Low Emission Technology (cLET) commissionedthe Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial ResearchOrganisation (CSIRO) and The University of Queensland toundertake a program of social research to help them understandand incorporate stakeholder perspectives of low emissiontechnologies, in particular clean coal, in their decisions aboutresearch directions and policy options. This research program isbased on the understanding that society can have a major impacton the future of energy. Theory and practice clearly demonstrate amajor risk to technology adoption if there is no engagement withstakeholders during the development process. A successfulengagement programme can increase the awareness of newtechnology development, enhance technology outcomes through abetter knowledge of the end user environment, and increase theacceptability of the final product to society. An intensive study hasbeen undertaken looking at ways of developing, structuring andanalysing information of how the lay public responds to differentaspects of the energy debate and how their attitudes change over

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 107

Page 108: Petroleum Abstracts

HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRON

time or in response to specific outreach activities. This paperprovides an overview of the research findings which have measuredthe changes in stakeholder perceptions to low emission technologiesand the factors that have influenced those changes. It presents atried and tested methodology for successfully engaging thecommunity that can be applied across a variety of situations.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 914,635

THE TYUMEN EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPMENT OF ANAPPRAISAL OF INFLUENCE ON AN ENVIRONMENT

A.Yu.Solodovnikov (SurgutNIPIneft). NEFTYANOEKHOZYAISTVO (OIL INDUSTRY) no.1, pp.112-116, Jan. 2006.(ISSN 0028-2448; 3 refs; In Russian)

Three stages of procedure of development of an appraisal ofinfluence on an environment in the Tyumen area are considered.The expert appraisal of influence of technological objects of thepetroleum and gas industry on an environment is given. The expertappraisal of potential risk and probability of extreme situations isgiven.

................................................................

FLOCCULANT 914,636

SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF POLYPHOSPHATEALUMINUM FERRIC SULFATE (PPAFS)

M.Huang and G.Du (Southwest Petroleum Univ). CHEMICALENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQIHUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.6,528-530, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 3refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

OIL TREATING (FIELD) 914,637

DEVICES FOR CRUDE OIL TREATMENT ANDUPGRADING

F.D’Orazio Pessia, D.A.G.Mijares and J.Q.S.Pena, asrs. U.S.2006/0,163,114A1, p. 7/27/2006, f. 12/23/2005, pr. Venez. 12/23/2004(Appl. 2004-2244) (C10C-0003/00). (14 pp; 3 claims)

Liquid hydrocarbons are removed from waste pits where theyexist in a free state, via physical or mechanical methods (with heator otherwise). The pits are blinded and closed once the areasaltered by confinement of the selected material have been cleaned,using clean granular material from nearby quarries or gravel pits.The bituminous mixture or liquid oil-bearing material extractedfrom the pits is filtered and stabilized, using heat or chemicals, bymeans of a portable crude stabilizer tank. After filtering thickemulsion contaminated solid debris, the remaining oil-bearing massis preheated and immediately liquefied in a tank, using preheatingcoils and, optionally, injecting chemicals. Final filtration andbreaking the oil-bearing emulsion down into its components occursin a closed horizontal or tilted receptacle, lined with thermalinsulation, with diameters ranging from 43 to 86 inches, and a totallength of around 15, 30 or 45 feet (varying in accordance with therequired treatment speed). The receptacle operates at differentinternal pressures, starting with atmospheric pressure, and attemperatures ranging from ambient temperature to a few degreesbelow steam temperature, so as not to exceed the boiling point.

................................................................

PIPELINE LEAK 914,638

THE MOONIE-BRISBANE PIPELINE SPILL - ECOSYSTEMRECOVERY

M.B.Ames and J.E.Douglas (URS Australia Pty Ltd) andL.S.Swann (Santos Ltd). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.639-649, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

In March 2003, a rupture to the Moonie-Brisbane pipeline(MBP) at Lytton (Brisbane) resulted in a spill of 1.9 million litres(7,000 barrels) of crude oil to two hectares of land and 1.5 km ofmangrove-lined drainage channels and small creeks near the Portof Brisbane. Due to the swift, coordinated response, no oil reachedthe Brisbane River and the bulk of the oil spilled was recovered.The response effort included isolation and evacuation of the

affected area, containment and recovery of the crude oil and thedevelopment and implementation of a clean-up plan (whichidentified and prioritised responsive efforts in four primary areas).Following the emergency response a comprehensive program ofremediation and monitoring was implemented, with focus on therecovery of the affected waterways and remediation of affectedland. This paper describes the methods employed during theemergency response and their effect on the initial impact on theenvironments; development and implementation of rehabilitationand remediation options; and potential for ecosystem recovery.

................................................................

POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMNT 914,639

OIL SLICK-REMOVAL AND DESLUDGING PUMP [POMPEANTI MAREE NOIRE ET DE DESENVASEMENT]

I.Ou-Otmane. World 2006/069,585A1, p. 7/6/2006, f. 12/29/2004(Appl. 0,400,005) (F04B-0007/00; E02B-0015/04). (37 pp; 9 claims;In French)

The invention describes a unique pump/air chamber assemblywhich can be used to recover all forms of hydrocarbon products(liquid, pasty or lump form) from the surface or depths of a body ofwater or from the shoreline, as well as to recover sludge at thebottom of water dams and sea ports. The internal design enablessame to operate without a liner or check valve even with repetitiveor prolonged stoppages. The pump can be used to extract sludgefrom dams without a water supply, i.e. only the sludge is removedfrom the water dam. Several versions of the pump are available.The pump is particularly suitable for use in the hydraulicfracturing of oil reservoirs in order to stimulate same. The pump isa pressure/suction pump.

................................................................

SEQUESTRATION 914,640

COMMERCIAL AND TECHNICAL ISSUES FOR LARGE-SCALE CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE PROJECTS - AGIPPSLAND BASIN STUDY

B.Hooper and L.Murray (CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol) andB.Koppe (Monash Energy). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, pp.435-443, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; Over 10 refs)

The Latrobe Valley’s power stations provide Australia’s lowest-cost bulk electricity, they are also responsible for over 60 milliontonnes of CO2 emissions per year--over half of the Victorian total.In an increasingly carbon constrained world the ongoingdevelopment of the Latrobe Valley brown coal resource is likely torequire a drastic reduction in the CO2 emissions from new coal useprojects--and carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential tomeet such deep cuts. The offshore Gippsland Basin, the site ofmajor producing oil and gas fields, has the essential geologicalcharacteristics to provide a high-volume, low-cost site for CCS. Theimportance of this potential to assist the continuing use of thenation’s lowest-cost energy source prompted the AustralianGovernment to fund the Latrobe Valley CO2 Storage Assessment(LVCSA). The LVSCA findings indicate that the Gippsland Basinhas sufficient capacity to safely and securely store large volumes ofCO2 and may provide a viable means of substantially reducinggreenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants and otherprojects using brown coal in the Latrobe Valley. The assessmentalso indicates that CO2 injection could well be designed to avoidany adverse impact on adjacent oil and gas production, so that CO2injection can begin near fields that have not yet come to the end oftheir productive lives.

................................................................

SEQUESTRATION 914,641

GEOSEQUESTRATION - A SOLUTION FOR AUSTRALIA?A.M.Warburton, J.A.Grove and S.Then (Minter Ellison).

APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast, Australia, 5/7-10/2006)PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNAL v.46, pt.1, pp.445-453,2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Color; 9 refs)

Managing its growing greenhouse gas emissions has become akey issue in Australia’s energy and environmental policy. Geologicalstorage (or geosequestration) of carbon dioxide emissions producedby power stations and gas processing plants is being promoted as

108 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 109: Petroleum Abstracts

HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRON

an innovative way to combat the threat of climate change.Australian governments and industry are interested in the processbecause it would allow Australia to continue to rely on its extensivefossil fuel reserves as an energy source and export commodity intothe future. The process, however, is still in an experimental phase.If geosequestration does prove to be a viable technology, thenregulatory changes will be required to facilitate large-scalecommercial use. This paper discusses the status of geosequestrationdevelopment in Australia. It considers some of the key legal andregulatory issues that would need to be addressed to allowgeosequestration projects to proceed, including jurisdictional issuesbetween State and Commonwealth governments; access to land andrights to use storage sites; priorities between competing land uses;potential application of third party access regimes togeosequestration infrastructure; potential legal liabilities,especially over the longer term; and the extent to which aconsistent national approach to the regulation of geosequestrationmay be required.

................................................................

SEQUESTRATION 914,642

PLANNING A CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE PILOTPROJECT IN AUSTRALIA - CHALLENGES ANDAPPROACHES

S.Sharma, P.Cook, S.Robinson and C.Anderson (CRCGreenhouse Gas Technol). APPEA CONFERENCE (Gold Coast,Australia, 5/7-10/2006) PROCEEDINGS; THE APPEA JOURNALv.46, pt.1, p.666, 2006. (ISSN 1326-4966; Abstract only)

The Government of Australia, through the CooperativeResearch Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC)initiated a research and demonstration program to test the viabilityof carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Australian conditions.Geological sequestration is a promising technology for storingcarbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, with current preliminary estimatessuggesting that around 115-180 million tonnes of CO2 per yearcould be sustainably sequestered in Australia. The implementationof geological sequestration, especially for power generation fromcoal, requires further research and development (R&D) includingthe demonstration of carbon capture and storage technologies. Aneffective pilot program should allow controlled injection of CO2 anda rigorous monitoring and modelling program to allow validation ofa range of CCS technologies. This needs to be accomplished safely,cost effectively and also develop public support for CCS as asolution. Through a due diligence exercise conducted by theCO2CRC a land site for a potential pilot was selected in the OtwayBasin. The area has natural CO2 accumulations and depleted gasfields, in close proximity to allow a pilot to be conducted incontrolled fashion. The research project will involve extracting CO2and methane gas from an existing well, processing these togenerate a stream of supercritical CO2 which will be injected into anearby depleted natural gas field for long-term storage.Approximately 100,000 tonnes of CO2 are expected to besequestered over two years of injection and an extensive monitoringand verification (M&V) program will be conducted. The pilot projectaims are to simulate the capture of CO2 from power stations andshow that CO2 can be safely captured, transported and storedunderground under local conditions. The Otway Basin with itsnatural CO2 accumulations and many depleted gas fields offers anappropriate site for Australia’s first CCS pilot research project.(Original not available from T.U.)

................................................................

SEQUESTRATION 914,643

CO2

SEQUESTRATION IN DEPLETED GAS/CONDENSATERESERVOIRS

E.Shtepani (Hycal Energy Res Labs Ltd). ANNUAL SPETECHNICAL CONFERENCE (San Antonio, TX, 9/24-27/2006)PROCEEDINGS 2006. (SPE-102284; Available on CD-ROM; Color;7 pp; 8 refs)

Depleted gas condensate reservoirs are becoming importanttargets for CO2 sequestration. Once depleted below the dew point,retrograde condensate has been deposited in the pore system. CO2injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allowenhanced gas recovery by liquid re-vaporization and reservoirrepressurization or pressure maintenance. The higher density of

CO2 relative to gas condensate means that CO2 will tend to migratedownward. The larger viscosity of CO2 ensures that displacement ofhydrocarbon gas phase by CO2 will be a displacement with afavorable mobility ratio. Furthermore, pressure diffusivity istypically several orders of magnitude larger than moleculardiffusivity, making mixing by re-pressurization occur much fasterthan by molecular diffusion. This paper discusses an approach thatrelates primarily to the laboratory and modeling studies thatprecede compositional simulations and field pilot testing of CO2sequestration in depleted gas condensate reservoirs. The phasebehavior of a CO2/gas condensate system as a critical factor indetermining the effectiveness of a reservoir to store CO2 arereviewed along with its importance in building an accurate EOSmodel. In addition to PVT experiments, a special core flood testdesign to determine the micro-scale conformance of the CO2displacement, to identify CO2 breakthrough characteristics atdensity and compositional level during liquid re-vaporization andre-pressurization process and to evaluate the recovery performanceis discussed in detail. The results from experimental data can beused as a base for sensitivity case studies using a commercialcompositional simulator to evaluate the feasibility of CO2sequestration in depleted gas/condensate reservoirs with enhancedgas recovery component.

................................................................

WA TER TREATING 914,644

STUDY AND APPLICATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCYCLARIFIER OF SEWAGE IN WASTEWATER TREATMENTWITH HEAVY OIL

Y.Zeng, C.Yang and W.Pu (Huazhong Univ Sci Technol) andX.Zhang, H.Li and W.Ding (Xinjiang Oilfield Co). CHEMICALENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS (SHIYOU YU TIANRANQIHUAGONG) v.34, no.6, pp.6,525-527, Dec. 2005. (ISSN 1007-3426; 4refs; In Chinese)

[Full article and English abstract available from T.U.]................................................................

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

BREAKWATER 914,645

UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF BREAKWATER WAVEOVERT OPPING VOLUME, WAVE FORCES ANDSTRUCTURE STABILITY

D.F.Liu, Y.P.Jiang, H.D.Shi, W.W.Liu and B.T.Xie (China OceanUniv). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp;Over 10 refs)

This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis method of riskassessment for breakwater wave overtopping, wave forces andstability by experiments and calculation. Uncertainty analysis andmultivariate joint probability study of input wave and sea level forexperiments and calculation are carried out for risk analysis ofwa ve overtopping, wave forces and stability for breakwater bymodeling experiments and design codes calibration. The newmethod involves the uncertainties and joint probabilities of inputparameters and it can be used for structure reliability analysis.

................................................................

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 914,646

RESIDUAL STRENGTH EVALUATION OF CORRODEDSTEEL MEMBERS IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

M.Yamane and N.Iwao (Nippon Steel Corp) and K.Tanaka,B.Matsuda, M.Fujikubo and D.Yanagihara (Hiroshima Univ).16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 8 pp;Over 10 refs)

Ultimate strength of steel tubular members with generalcorrosion or spot corrosion under coating paint, subjected to pure

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 109

Page 110: Petroleum Abstracts

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

compression or bending is investigated. Surface roughness oftubular specimens with general corrosion taken from the splashzone is measured, and the ultimate strengths are examined bothexperimentally and numerically. Spot corrosions as a result ofdegradation of coating paint are modeled based on the existingrelated test results and ultimate strength is examined numerically.Based on the obtained results, the applicability of existing designformula for the evaluation of residual strength of corroded steeltubular members is examined.

................................................................

CORROSION 914,647

ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OFCOATINGS FOR SMART STRUCTURES

H.G.Wheat and G.J.Liu (Texas Univ, Austin). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 6 pp;8 refs)

Several types of coatings have been shown to exhibit propertiesthat allow corrosion to be identified before it can be seen with thenaked eye. The investigators have examined several families ofcoatings that incorporate corrosion indicators that change theirfluorescent state in the presence of corrosion. In particular, thecorrosion indicators are positive indicators for steel in that they areinitially non-fluorescent upon application, but glow over areas ofcorrosion. The corrosion indicators are negative indicators foraluminum in that they are normally fluorescent when appliedinitially and that fluorescence is later quenched in the presence ofcorrosion. The quenching is usually followed by the formation ofdark pits. Preliminary tests have indicated qualitative changes influorescence in the presence of corrosion when large steel andaluminium coupons were subjected to salt fog conditions over aperiod of weeks. In this paper, the earlier and current qualitativeresults will be compared with the electrochemical results that areobtained during exposure.

................................................................

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING 914,648

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN WELDING TECHNOLOGYG.S.Booth, R.L.Jones and P.L.Threadgill (TWI Ltd). 16TH

ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLARENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco,CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 7 pp;3 refs)

Welding is a fundamental technology in the fabrication andrepair of virtually all structures in the offshore industry, whetherthey be above or below sea level, or onshore. It is an enablingtechnology without which the offshore industry (and many otherindustries) could not operate at its present level of sophisticationand yet welding technology often sits in the background, taken forgranted as a mature and established technology. Like mosttechnologies, it is developing steadily over time, allowing newbenefits in terms of what can be achieved, and in terms of processeconomics. This paper seeks to review some of the recentdevelopments in a selection of welding processes which may havepotential for use in the offshore industry. Those chosen areAdvanced Arc welding, Friction Stir Welding, and Laser Welding.

................................................................

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING 914,649

WELDING OF 2205 DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL BYPLASMA ARC WELDING PROCESS (PAW) USING THE KEYHOLE TECHNIQUE [SOLDADURA DE UN ACEROINOXIDABLE DUPLEX 2205 POR ARCO DE PLASMA ATRAVES DE LA TECNICA DE OJO DE CERRADURA]

M.Quintero, S.Cerpa, G.Mejias, J.B.Leon and A.Quintero(Venezuela Central Univ). REV. FAC. ING. (VENEZUELA CENT.UNIV.) v.19, no.3, pp.125-131, 2004. (ISSN 0798-4065; 5 refs; InSpanish)

The current rise in using duplex stainless steel in themanufacture of components for oil, chemical, and food industries

has created the necessity to study the effect of welding on themechanical properties and corrosion resistance of these steels. Inthis study, welding in one single pass and butt joint was made on a5 mm-thickness sheet of 2205 duplex stainless steel, by the plasmaarc welding process (PAW) using the key hole technique. Suitablewelding parameters were determined such as: speed of welding,current intensity and plasma gas flow. The samples were weldedusing the conditions previously established. Postwelding coolingwas carried out at two different cooling rates (blowed air and water)in order to determine the influence of the welding process and thecooling rate on the properties of the welded joint compared to thebase metal. From this work, it is concluded that it is possible toweld 2205 duplex stainless steel with butt joints by PAW using thekey hole technique, resulting in good superficial finishing, good rootreinforcement, low caloric contribution, heat affected zone (HAZ)narrower than those produced by conventional welding processesapplied on the same steel and good mechanical properties for bothpostwelding cooling conditions.

................................................................

EROSION (GEOLOGY) 914,650

SIMULATIONS OF A SHIP’S PROPELLER WASHW.Lam, D.J.Robinson, G.A.Hamill, S.Raghunathan and C.K ee

(Queen’s Univ, Belfast). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONALOFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE[ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006)PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189;Available on CD-ROM; 6 pp; Over 10 refs)

The jet produced by a ship’s propeller can cause severe erosionof a harbour bed and also subsequent damage to quay structures ifuncontrolled. Methods are required which accurately predict thevelocity within these jets. The three-dimensional wash induced by arotating ship’s propeller under bollard pull conditions, is currentlybeing investigated in a joint experimental and Computational FluidDynamics (CFD) analysis project. The computational results are inclose agreement with the experimental measurements.

................................................................

FRACTURE (METAL) 914,651

EVALUATION OF FRACTURE TOUGHNESS USINGINDENTATION METHOD BASED ON CONTINUUMDAMAGE MECHANICS

J.S.Lee and D.Kwon (Seoul National Univ), K.H.Kim (FronticsInc) and D.S.Kim (Shell Oil Co). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONALOFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE[ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006)PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189;Available on CD-ROM; 5 pp; Over 10 refs)

Fracture toughness, which indicates the resistance to crackgrowth, is a very important property for assessing structuralintegrity. However, current standards such as ASTM (ASTMStandard E1290, 1993) and BS (BS 5762, 1979), which are exactmethods of evaluating fracture toughness, require specific specimenshapes and sizes for validity. In addition, complex test procedures,including fatigue precracking and crack length measurement, makeevaluating fracture toughness quite difficult. Above all, currentfracture-toughness-testing methods are limited in application tooperational industrial structures, since they are destructivemethods. A new model for determining fracture toughness ofductile materials is presented that uses indentation and is based oncontinuum damage mechanics (CDM) and the concept of criticalvoid volume fraction. The values of fracture toughness evaluated byusing the model showed good agreement with standard fracturetoughness test results.

................................................................

MATERIAL HANDLING 914,652

[R] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DEPLOYINGARTICLES IN DEEP WATERS

G.A.Bursaux, S.K.Willis, V.Alliot, I.Vennemann andO.Vennemann. U.S. 2006/0,151,768A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 3/6/2003, pr.Gr. Brit. 3/6/2002 (Appl. 0,205,252) and World 3/6/2003 (Appl.0,300,932) (B66D-0001/30). (11 pp; 27 claims) SRPA# 824,576

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #824,576]................................................................

110 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 111: Petroleum Abstracts

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

OPTICAL INSTRUMENT 914,653

[R] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REDUCINGCROSSTALK INTERFERENCE IN AN INLINE FABRY-PERO T SENSOR ARRAY

O.H.Waagaard, asr. (Weatherford/Lamb Inc). U.S.2006/0,152,733A1, p. 7/13/2006, f. 2/21/2006, pr. U.S. 8/27/2003(Appl. 649,588) (G01B-0009/02). (11 pp; 18 claims) SRPA# 866,456

[For abstract and indexing, see Abstract #866,456]................................................................

REINFORCED CONCRETE 914,654

FATIGUE FAILURE CRITERION OF CONCRETE UNDERMULTI-AXIAL AND VARIABLE-AMPLITUDE CYCLICLOADING AND ITS APPLICATION IN OFFSHOREENGINEERING

Y.Song and X.Meng (Dalian Univ Technol). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; Color; 5 pp;10 refs)

Large concrete structures include continuously reinforcedconcrete pavements, concrete bridges, concrete crane beams,concrete sleepers, concrete offshore platforms, safety hulls ofnuclear power plants, foundations of rotating machinery, etc. Allthe mentioned structures are subjected to not only static loading,but also fatigue loading caused by vehicle, crane, nuclear power,wind, wave and vibration. The fatigue tests of concrete have beenconducted with constant confined stress, including constant- andvariable-amplitude fatigue loading. The results of the fatigue testsindicate that the fatigue reduction coefficient changes withconstant confined stress. Through the analysis of the test results,the failure criterion of concrete under multi-axial variable-amplitude fatigue loading has been established.

................................................................

STRESS 914,655

MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTIONSBY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTIONSYNCHRO TRON RADIATION

T.Tsakalakos, M.C.Croft and N.M.Jisrawi (Rutgers Univ),R.L.Holtz (US Naval Research Lab) and Z.Zhong (BrookhavenNational Lab). 16TH ISOPE INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE &POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (SanFrancisco, CA, 5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006.(ISBN 1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM;Color; 8 pp; Over 10 refs)

The application of high-resolution strain mapping in largeengineering samples with both high-spatial and strain resolution isreviewed in this paper using high-energy photons between 100 and300 KeV on beam line X17B1 of Brookhaven National Laboratory.This was achieved by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction(EDXRD) methods and synchrotron radiation for thenondestructive measurement of residual stresses in engineeringcomponents. Examples of residual stress profiles will be presentedwhich include: laser and shot peening and fatigue crack stressfields. The presented results have been validated with othermethods such as FE and other model predictions. This techniquerepresents a significant development in the life prediction ofengineering structures including offshore structures.

................................................................

TITANIUM 914,656

FATIGUE TESTING OF STRUCTURAL WELDS FORTITANIUM ALLOY STRUCTURES

W.Mohr and J.Lawmon (Edison Welding Inst). 16TH ISOPEINTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE & POLAR ENGINEERINGCONFERENCE [ISOPE-2006] (San Francisco, CA,5/28/2006-6/2/2006) PROCEEDINGS v.4, 2006. (ISBN1-880653-66-4; ISSN 1098-6189; Available on CD-ROM; 8 pp; 10refs)

This program examined the fatigue resistance of titanium alloywelded structures, particularly those with minor welding

imperfections. Fatigue testing checked for differences based on heattreatment, bending versus tension, weld configuration, cut edgecondition, and various welding-related imperfections. Titanium6A1-4V and welds with as-welded cap and root profiles were usedthroughout the testing. Fatigue design recommendations werederived from a combination of the test results, from the literature,and existing design recommendations for steel and aluminumalloys. These design recommendations change the slope of thedesign lines to 1/-3.5 to better fit fatigue crack growth rate andfatigue S/N test results.

................................................................

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 111

Page 112: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Aachen Technical Univ 914,149Aamir, M 914,221Abbey, S T 914,356Abd Ghaffar, K A 914,194Abma, R 914,179Abma, R 914,212Abma, R L 914,178Academia Colombiana Cienc 914,013ACEPT 914,632Adamson, A 914,269Adelaide Univ 914,036Adelaide Univ 914,107Adelaide Univ 914,112Adelaide Univ 914,138Adelaide Univ 914,149Adelaide Univ 914,151Adelaide Univ 914,493Adelaide Univ 914,500Adelaide Univ 914,618Adler, F 914,167Adolph, R A 914,318Agara, S 914,375Agiba Petroleum Co 914,625Ahlbrandt, T S 914,619Ahmed, R 914,263Ajo-Franklin, J 914,197Akhmetov, N Z 914,536Akkurt, R 914,322Akselsen, O M 914,579Akselsen, O M 914,580Al-Aasm, I 914,117Al-Dhafeeri, A M 914,392Al-Harbi, M S 914,392Al-Harthy, M H 914,618Al-Matar, D 914,494Al-Quraishi, A A 914,071Al-Rufaie, Y A 914,392Al-Safran, E M 914,593Al-Shamma, B R 914,562Alabama Univ 914,041Alabama Univ 914,048Alabama Univ 914,094Alberta Univ 914,089Albright, R L 914,284Alcantara, J 914,601Aldridge, D F 914,196Alege, F R 914,528Alers, G A 914,307Alers, R B 914,307Alexander, R 914,150Alfonso, L 914,601Ali, A M 914,388Ali, S 914,344Ali, Z 914,388Aliev, Z S 914,432Alkhamov, I 914,530Allen, D W 914,481Allens Arthur Robinson 914,616Aller, J 914,033Alliot, V 914,652Allman-Ward, P 914,085Almanza, E 914,301Almetyevneft 914,083Altmann, M J 914,075Alumbaugh, D 914,172Amabeoku, M O 914,505Amaya, H 914,358Ambastha, A K 914,494Ambrose, J G 914,544American Bureau Shipping 914,571American Bureau Shipping 914,606Ames, M B 914,638Ames, N 914,272

Amsterdam Vrije Univ 914,043An, Z X 914,009Anadarko Canada Corp 914,027Anadarko Petroleum Corp 914,159Anadarko Petroleum Corp 914,252Anadarko Petroleum Corp 914,338Anadarko Petroleum Corp 914,548Andersen, E O 914,229Anderson, C 914,642Anderson, V S 914,569Anoshina, M M 914,083Anquelle, L 914,246Anschutz, D A 914,383Anschutz, D A 914,384Ansorge, J 914,419ANTCER 914,632Anwar, M L 914,417Apache Corp 914,371APPEA 914,623APPEA 914,632Arai, Y 914,358Araque, C 914,368Arif, F 914,311Armentrout, J M 914,018Armentrout, J M 914,088Armesi, F 914,343Arnaud, J 914,246Arnaud, J 914,311Arnegaard, T 914,236Arnold, A 914,216Arouri, K R 914,138Arouri, K R 914,149Arrow Energy NL 914,076Asahi, H 914,583Ashworth, P 914,634Aspen Aerogels Inc 914,572Athens National Tech Univ 914,597Atherton, E 914,310Aubry, M P 914,019Aubry, M P 914,104Audebert, F 914,208Aune, R 914,579Aune, R 914,580Australian Inst Marine Sci 914,124Australian National Univ 914,059Australian National Univ 914,124Ayer, R 914,600Ayukawa, N 914,583Azari, M 914,301Azem, K 914,220AzTU 914,486Babelli, I 914,573Bachrach, R 914,224Badovskaya, V I 914,295Baggs, C D 914,483Bai, X 914,434Bailes, A H 914,044Bailes, A H 914,045Bailey, W 913,967Baker Hughes 914,256Baker Hughes Drill Fluids 914,251Baker Hughes Inc 914,307Baker Hughes Inc 914,312Baker Hughes Inc 914,315Baker Hughes Inc 914,321Baker Hughes Inc 914,330Baker Hughes Inc 914,409Baker Hughes Inc 914,472Baker Oil Tools 914,362Baker Oil Tools 914,366Baker Oil Tools 914,423Baker, G L 914,496Ball Solutions Group 914,617

Bandung Inst Technology 914,039Bangalore Univ 914,513Banik, N 914,224Barber, C 914,154Barclay, S A 914,054Bargach, S 914,298Barker, C E 914,012Barker, C E 914,120Barker, S J 914,345Barolak, J 914,307Baron-Szabo, R C 914,015Barousse, C 914,198Barrymore, S 914,612Bartel, D C 914,241Bartholomew, D B 914,271Bass, R M 914,474Bastida, F 914,033Basu, R 914,606Battelle 914,157Battelle Memorial Inst 914,589Bayfield, I 914,399Beach Petroleum Ltd 914,075Beard, L P 914,157Becker, D 914,444Bedrikovetsky, P 914,503Bedrikovetsky, P G 914,525Beele, M 914,246Beetge, J H 914,611Begg, S 914,618Beinart, B 914,442Belgian Geological Survey 913,970Beliveau, D 914,314Bell, D T 914,157Bell, J M 914,414Bell, J S 913,957Bellendir, E N 914,458Belowi, A R 914,505Bengtson, D D 914,609Bennett, K J 914,215Bentolila, Y 914,470Berard, M 914,573Berg, A 914,155Berg, A 914,217Berg, A 914,237Berg, C R 914,333Berggren, W A 914,019Berlin Freie Univ 913,975Berlin Freie Univ 914,203Berry, S L 914,404Berryman, J G 914,533Berryman, J G 914,555Betancourt, S 914,298Betting, M 914,413Betty, B R 914,572Bhattacharya, J P 914,020BHP Billiton 914,069BHP Billiton Petroleum 914,058Bhuiyan, M 914,406Bicerano, J 914,284Bideaud, H 914,167Biester, K 914,460Billman, D A 914,070Bilton, S 914,419BinNasser, R H 914,505Biondi, B 914,206Bishop, R H 914,549BJ Services 914,365BJ Services Co 914,345BJ Services Co 914,354BJ Services Co 914,399BJ Services Co 914,404BJ Services Co 914,629BJ Svcs Venezuela CCPA 914,344

112 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 113: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

BJ Svcs Venezuela CCPA 914,376Blair, C 914,572Blake Dawson Waldron 914,581Blecha, M 914,017Blevin, J E 913,963Bliksas, T 914,217Bluewater Energy Svcs BV 914,587Blystad, P 914,619Boatman, L T 914,588Bobillo-Ares, N 914,033Bode, J 914,484Bohai Oil Research Inst 914,511Bohaychuk, L J 914,476Boise State Univ 914,189Bologna Univ 914,097Bolshakov, A 914,307Bond Univ 914,627Booth, G S 914,648Boreham, C 913,968Boreham, C 914,153Boreham, C J 914,114Boreham, C J 914,147Borgos, H G 914,162Borgos, H G 914,239Borissova, I 913,968Borissova, I 914,114BOS Rentals Ltd 914,287Boudet, H P 914,398Boult, P J 914,138Boult, P J 914,493Boutin, A 914,468Bowker, T 914,451Bowring, S J 914,596Boyadjieff, G 914,332Boyarkin, A A 914,295Boyd, C D 914,330Boyer, C M II 914,264BP 914,198BP 914,212BP 914,564BP Alaska 914,544BP America 914,199BP America Inc 914,198BP Canada Energy Co 914,095BP Corp 914,022BP Exploration 914,181BP Exploration Alaska 914,545BPMIGAS 914,039Brackin, V J 914,265Bradford, J H 914,189Bradshaw, B 913,968Brady, J L 914,545Brain, T J 914,630Bratvold, R B 914,618Bray, M 914,628Bremen Univ 914,124Brill, J P 914,593Brincat, M 913,967Britt, L K 914,370Britt, L K 914,371Brock, W R 914,375Brock, W R 914,528Brookhaven National Lab 914,655Brooks, D M 914,093Brosten, T R 914,189Broussard, T E 914,337Browne, N 914,296Browne, N 914,297Brunei Shell Petroleum Co 914,357Brynestad, O 914,236Bu, Y 914,352Bubendorfer, P A J 914,076Buckler, T 914,153

Budan, H 914,341Buijs, A 914,429Buijs, C 914,425Bullock, A D 914,472Bunge, G 914,224Burch, T 914,199Burden, T L 914,569Bureniye 914,295Burke, N 914,166Burkholder, M K 914,621Burleson, J D 914,389Burlington Resources 914,117Burovaya Tekhnika 914,536Bursaux, G A 914,652Burullus Gas Co 914,625Burytech Pty Ltd 914,059Burytech Pty Ltd 914,247Busby, M 914,241Bussell, M R 914,215Butaev, F F 914,432Byrne, K 914,138C-FER Technologies 914,568Cabinda Gulf Oil Co Ltd 914,109Cai, X Y 914,004Cairn Energy India Ltd 914,314Cairo Univ 914,492Calandra, H 914,209Caleyo, F 914,601Calgary Univ 914,499Calgary Univ 914,507Calgary Univ 914,563Calif Univ, Livermore 914,533Calif Univ, Livermore 914,555California Inst Technol 914,518Caligiuri, R D 914,467Calvert, A J 914,219Camac, B A 914,493Campbell, A G 914,213Campman, X 914,197Campo, D 914,378Canada Geological Survey 914,024Canada Geological Survey 914,045Canada Geological Survey 914,046Canada Geological Survey 914,060Canada Geological Survey 914,096Canada Geological Survey 914,098Canada Geological Survey 914,125Canich, M R 914,070Cano, C 914,368Cao, L 914,000Cao, X 914,352Cao, X 914,604CAPCIS Ltd 914,310Carini, F H 914,544Cariveau, P T 914,274Cariveau, P T 914,282Cariveau, P T 914,283Carpenter, D G M 914,596Carreno, A L 914,035Carson, R 914,227Carter, R M 914,019Cascade Stratigraphics 914,018Cascade Stratigraphics Inc 914,088Casey, D 913,958Casey, D M 914,454Castle, J W 914,547Cathro, W G 914,616Catuneanu, O 914,089Cawiezel, K E 914,404CDX Canada Co 914,047CDX Canada Co 914,121CDX Gas LLC 914,047CDX Gas LLC 914,377

Ceng, S A R 914,357Cerpa, S 914,649Cesari, S N 914,013CGG Americas 914,208CGG Americas Inc 914,238Champion Technologies Inc 914,611Chan, K S 914,346Chan, L 914,446Chang, C T P 914,529Chang, I 914,200Chang, I H 914,477Chang, M 914,200Chang, P 914,193Changqing Oilfield 914,291Changqing Oilfield Co 914,534Charles Univ 914,017Cheadle, S 914,193Checa, J 914,166Chen, B 913,977Chen, C G 914,510Chen, C Q 914,002Chen, D C K 914,257Chen, D Y 914,137Chen, H H 913,985Chen, J 914,559Chen, L K 914,528Chen, Q L 914,004Chen, S 914,011Chen, T 914,545Chen, Y 914,004Chen, Y 914,527Chen, Y 914,556Chen, Y Q 914,546Chen, Z 914,053Cheng, K M 913,992Cheng, L 914,521Cheng, R 914,352Chengdu Univ Technology 914,000Chernykh, I A 914,440Cherrett, A 914,167Chesapeake Energy Corp 914,416Chevron 914,109Chevron 914,414Chevron 914,494Chevron 914,619Chevron Australia 914,379Chevron Australia Pty Ltd 914,110Chevron Australia Pty Ltd 914,216Chevron Energy Technol Co 913,974Chevron Energy Technol Co 914,086Chevron Energy Technol Co 914,241Chevron Energy Technol Co 914,414Chevron Global Tech Svc Co 914,344Chewter, L A 914,429Childers, B A 914,312Childers, B A 914,330Chin, Y D 914,414China Nat Offshor Oil Corp 914,511China National Petrol Corp 913,983China Ocean Univ 914,645China Univ Geosci, Beijing 913,983China Univ Geosci, Beijing 914,002China Univ Geosci, Beijing 914,061China Univ Geosci, Beijing 914,129China Univ Geosci, Beijing 914,509China Univ Geosci, Wuhan 913,985China Univ Mining Technol 913,999China Univ Mining Technol 914,135Chinampa Explor Pty Ltd 914,068Chinese Academy Sciences 913,978Chinese Academy Sciences 914,066Chinese Academy Sciences 914,127Chinese Academy Sciences 914,145

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 113

Page 114: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Chipperfield, S 914,371Choi, C 914,529Choo, C K 914,194Chorley, P 914,227Chow, H 914,601Christie-Blick, N 914,019Christie-Blick, N 914,021Church, K L 914,266CIBA Chem Water Treat Ltd 914,288Cie Generale Geophysique 914,160Cie Generale Geophysique 914,186Cinar, Y 914,077Cinar, Y 914,108Civan, F 914,485Clapper, D 914,251Clark, B 914,304Clark, D A 914,187Clayton Utz 914,631Clearwater Internat LLC 914,261Clem, N J 914,366Clemson Univ 914,547Cluj Univ 914,514Coca, S 914,042Coca, S 914,091Cody, R 914,285Coffey, L C 914,275Coker, J 914,067Colenbrander, G W 914,413Collins, L 914,111Collins, M G 914,608Cologne Univ 914,138Colorado Sch Mines 913,971Colorado Sch Mines 914,168Columbia Univ 914,021Columbus Eng Mechanic Corp 914,584Columbus St Community Coll 914,049Comeaux, D D 914,576ConocoPhillips 914,213ConocoPhillips Alaska Inc 914,608ConocoPhillips Canada Ltd 914,160ConocoPhillips Co 914,443ConocoPhillips Co 914,569ConocoPhillips Norge 914,144Conroy, G 914,183Constant, M 914,470Contreras, A J 914,086Contrino, C 914,200Converse, R M 914,433Cook, P 914,642Cook, R A 914,102Cooper Cameron Corp 914,460Coopersmith, E M 914,621Cordova, E 914,344Corkery, M T 914,044Corkery, M T 914,063Cornee, J J 914,051Cornell Univ 913,971Coronado, M P 914,366Coronado, M P 914,423Correa C, H A 914,250Couchman, P 914,595CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 913,961CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,078CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,079CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,108CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,151CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,640CRC Greenhouse Gas Technol 914,642Croft, M C 914,655Crouch, E M 914,102Crow, S L 914,423Cruden, A R 914,064Cruz, F E 913,969

CSIRO 914,634CSIRO Energy Technology 914,054CSIRO Industrial Physics 914,187CSIRO Molecular & Health 914,122CSIRO Petroleum 913,967CSIRO Petroleum 914,036CSIRO Petroleum 914,054CSIRO Petroleum 914,062CSIRO Petroleum 914,122CSIRO Petroleum 914,154CSIRO Petroleum 914,242CSIRO Petroleum 914,578Curole, M A 914,413Curtin Univ 914,111Curtin Univ Technology 914,040Curtin Univ Technology 914,058Curtin Univ Technology 914,149Curtin Univ Technology 914,150Curtin Univ Technology 914,242Curtin Univ Technology 914,276Curtis, A 914,230Cusiter, J M 914,596Custer Resources 914,211Cutting Wear Resis Dev Ltd 914,286D’Orazio Pessia, F 914,637Dabros, T 914,611Dahl, G V 914,162Dahl, G V 914,239Dai, J 914,125Dai, J 914,224Dai, J X 914,126Dalian Univ Technol 914,459Dalian Univ Technol 914,654Dallegge, T 914,120Damascus Univ 914,101Dane, C B 914,466Danek, V 914,017Daniel, R 913,961Daniel, R F 914,108Dannish, C 914,476Daoud, A M 914,303Daoud, A M 914,517Daqing Oilfield Co Ltd 914,011Daqing Oilfield Ltd Co 914,498Daqing Petroleum Inst 913,998Datta-Gupta, A 914,240Dautov, T M 914,353David Wood & Associates 914,620Davies, J 914,249Davies, R B 913,958Davis, D 914,063Davis, D W 914,044Davis, D W 914,065Davis, R C 914,435Davis, R J 914,589Dawson, D 914,150Day, R W 914,076de Baan, J 914,587de Kemp, E A 914,034de Lucia, J P 914,537de Oliveira, M A 914,570de Vries, S T 913,966Decision Frameworks Inc 914,621DeGeer, D 914,568Deighton, I 914,059Deighton, I 914,247Del Campo, C S 914,298Delbianco, A 914,448Delft Univ Technol 914,244Delft Univ Technol 914,585Dell’Aversana, P 914,173Deltide Fishing Tools Inc 914,398Demarchos, A S 914,367

Denmark Tech Univ 914,225Det Norske Veritas 914,582Devon Energy Co 914,371Devon Energy Corp 914,370Dewing, S 914,216DF Dickins & Associates 914,189Dharmayanti, D 914,058Di Lella, A 914,468Di, H L 914,003Diaz, C 914,376Dickins, D 914,189Dillon, M 914,493Dindoruk, B 914,526Ding, W 914,644Ding, W W 914,126Ding, W W 914,130Dinske, C 914,203Dirks, V 914,208Dirks, V 914,238Dobson, J W Jr 914,280Dodds, K 914,242Doering, F W 914,342Doll, W E 914,157Dong, G 914,411Dongxin Oil Prod Plant 914,453Donovan, A D 914,022Dorian, J P 914,567Dorobek, S L 914,090Douglas, J E 914,638Draganov, D 914,244Draper, J J 914,147Dresser Inc 914,574Drochon, B 914,364Druesne, D 914,160Du, G 914,636Du, Y M 914,001Dubinsky, V 914,307Dudaev, S A 914,165Dudaev, S M 914,165Duenas, H 914,013Duey, R 914,233Dull, D W 914,086Dumont, A 914,192Dumont, A 914,326Dunn-Norman, S 914,490Dupriest, F E 914,268Durairajan, B 914,274Durairajan, B 914,282Durairajan, B 914,283Durham Univ 914,092Durlofsky, L J 914,556Dutra, J C 914,570Duyck, C 914,123Dwyer, J P 914,582Dyce, M 914,181Dymond, B 914,288Dzhabrailov, A 914,530Earl, K 913,959Earth Studies Group 914,201Eastern Well Tool 914,285Eaton, A P 914,443Eberli, G P 913,969Echavarria, L 913,971Echometer Co 914,444Ecole Superieure Electric 914,208Economides, M J 914,367Ecopetrol SA 914,418Edison Welding Inst 914,272Edison Welding Inst 914,656Edwards, D 914,153Edwards, D E 914,150Edwards, D L 914,473Edwards, J T 914,629

114 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 115: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Edwards, L E 914,023EGANOIL 914,440Egozi, U 914,166Ehlig-Economides, C A 914,256Eidesmo, T 914,180Eisa, M 914,303El-Banbi, A H 914,492El-Mahdy, R 914,303El-Mansoura Oil Co 914,303Elam, S 914,213Electromagnetic Geoserv AS 914,175Electromagnetic Geoserv AS 914,180Elhawary, A S 914,303Elias, A R D 914,162Ellaithy, W F 914,625Ellingsrud, S 914,180Ellis, F B 914,456Ellis, G K 914,143Elmarsafawi, Y 914,346Emam, M 914,303Embry, A 914,024Embry, A 914,060Embry, A 914,096Emerson, B 914,362EMGS 914,174Encom Technology 914,243Engel, M 914,119Engenes, F 914,281Eni Australia Ltd 914,143Eni E&P 914,343Eni Exploration & Prod 914,173Eni SpA 914,343Eni SpA 914,448Enitecnologie SpA 914,448Ennis-King, J 914,108Enventure Global Technol 914,363Environ Protection Eng SA 914,597Equitrans 914,070Erlangen Nuremberg Univ 914,099Esmersoy, C 914,192Esquier, P 914,246Esselbrugge, M 914,607Essential Petrol Rsces Ltd 913,964Esso Australia Pty Ltd 914,106Esso Australia Pty Ltd 914,216Esso Australia Pty Ltd 914,402Etgen, J 914,199Etta, C 914,528Evans, E 914,213Evans, M 914,313Evans, M 914,319Evans, R 914,058Evans, R W 914,277Everts, A J 914,043Ewan, R A 914,342Explor Geochem Consult Pty 914,153Exponent Fail Analysis Inc 914,467ExxonMobil Development Co 914,268ExxonMobil Development Co 914,582ExxonMobil Exploration Co 914,170ExxonMobil Exploration Co 914,171ExxonMobil Exploration Co 914,216ExxonMobil Res & Eng Co 914,600ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co 914,169ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co 914,170ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co 914,171ExxonMobil Upstream Res Co 914,182Faiz, M 914,122Faiz, M M 914,054Fan, R 913,986Fan, W 914,291Farjat, A D 913,971Fattah, K A 914,492

Faure, P 914,186Fei, T W 914,207Fenton, S P 914,397Ferber, R 914,231Ferguson, J F 914,545Fernandes, L 914,109Fernandez, J M 914,280Fernandez-Lagos, F 914,601Ferrandini, J 914,051Ferrandini, M 914,051Field, B D 914,056Fillon, R 914,201Finagenov, O M 914,458Fishbeck, C 914,484FitzGerald, D J 914,177Fjaer, E 914,072Flack, B 914,224Flaum, C 914,313Flaum, C 914,319Flinders Univ 914,633FMC Kongsberg Subsea AS 914,605FMC Technologies Inc 914,588Focke, E S 914,585Fomin, A I 914,552Fonseca, T C O 914,123Fontenelle, H 914,123Forel, D 914,202Forgues, E 914,160Foss, C 914,243Foss, M M 914,591Fostervoll, H 914,579Fostervoll, H 914,580Foubert, B A 914,342Fournier, F 914,176Fralick, P 914,065Francis, D 914,491Francu, J 914,017Frankiewicz, T 914,417Frantz, J H Jr 914,264Freedman, R 914,337Freehills 914,612Freeman, J J 914,340Freij-Ayoub, R 914,578Friedmann, F 914,518Fripp, M L 914,389Froelich, B 914,305FrOG Tech 913,963FrOG Tech 913,966FrOG Tech Pty Ltd 913,962Frolich, B 914,306Frontics Inc 914,651Fu, G 913,998Fu, J M 914,137Fu, X F 913,998Fu, Y 913,999Fuchs, A H 914,468Fujii, K 914,329Fujikubo, M 914,646Fukuhara, M 914,329Fulton, D 914,557Funnell, R 914,056Furuhaug, R 914,217Gadzhiev, M A 914,486Gagan, M K 914,124Gagan, M K 914,152Gai, F 914,487Gallagher, S J 914,113Gallegos, I 914,170Galloway, G G 914,260Galloway, W E 914,025Galtier, P 914,420Gamey, T J 914,157Gancarski, S 914,167

Ganesan, H 914,316Gang, T 914,515Gao, C G 914,509Gao, F 914,238Gao, G 914,032Gao, W J 914,565Garber, R A 914,086Garcia, F 914,430Garcia, F 914,431Garcia, J F 914,380Garcia, R 914,430Garcia, R 914,431Gardner, P 913,962Gardner, P 913,966Gardner, W R 914,317Gartrell, A 913,967Gas Projects Group 914,391Gatlin, L W 914,261Gazarov, R E 914,353Gdanski, R 914,557Geddes, R H 914,355Geng, A S 914,134Geng, A S 914,137Gent Univ 914,420Gentles, W P 914,356Gentzis, T 914,047Gentzis, T 914,121Geo Microbial Technol Inc 914,141GeoMark Research 914,146Geoscience Australia 913,959Geoscience Australia 913,965Geoscience Australia 913,968Geoscience Australia 914,059Geoscience Australia 914,077Geoscience Australia 914,114Geoscience Australia 914,147Geoscience Australia 914,150Geoscience Australia 914,153Geoscience Australia 914,247Geoscience Australia 914,248Geotechnical Svcs Pty Ltd 914,154Gerami, S 914,507Geronimo, E C 914,446Gibson, R L Jr 914,240Gibson-Poole, C M 914,108Gilbert, J 914,390Gildin, E 914,549Gillies, I A 914,299Gillies, I A 914,300Giprotyumenneftegaz 914,540Giroux, R L 914,260Glagovsky, V B 914,458Glazkov, O V 914,552Gledhill, R 914,463Glikson, M 914,069Globe, M 914,338GNS Science 914,102Goertz, A 914,159Goethe Univ 914,099Gohr, R Jr 914,570Golding, S 914,069Goldner, E L 914,451Goncalves de Silva, R H 914,570Goncharov, A 914,059Goncharov, A 914,247Goncharov, I V 914,552Goodwin, A R H 914,334Gorbatikov, V A 914,540Gordon, N 914,345Goteborg Univ 914,100Grader, A S 914,504Grader, A S 914,512Gramstad, O 914,239

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 115

Page 116: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Grant Geophysical 914,191Grant Prideco 914,267Gray, S 914,204Great Wall Drilling Co 914,291Green, K E 914,171Green, P M 914,630Gregory, B A 914,171Gresillon, F X 914,160Gresnigt, A M 914,585Grice, K 914,150Griest, S 914,086Griffin, D 914,338Grinsted, T W 914,577Grion, S 914,210Grove, J A 914,641GSC Inc 914,057Gu, H W 914,455Gu, Z D 913,991Guan, H 914,487Guangzhou Inst Geochem 914,134Guangzhou Inst Geochem 914,135Guangzhou Inst Geochem 914,137Gubaydulin, F R 914,447Gubkin Oil & Gas Univ 914,432Guemene, J M 914,167Gulbarga Univ 914,513Gulen, G 914,591Gunness, R A 914,076Guo, J 914,291Guo, J 914,522Guo, J C 914,510Guo, X S 913,986Guo, Y 913,999Gupta, A 914,467Gurfinkel, M 914,591Gustavson, G H 914,334GX Technology 914,201GX Technology 914,213Habashy, T 914,192Hackel, L A 914,466Hackworth, M R 914,380Hackworth, M R 914,394Haddad, Z 914,370Haddad, Z 914,371Hadfield, N 914,091Haggas, S 913,960Hale, D 914,168Hall, A D 914,093Hall, D R 914,271Hall, G 914,227Hallam, A 914,019Halleck, P M 914,504Halleck, P M 914,512Hallen, J M 914,601Halliburton 914,256Halliburton 914,343Halliburton 914,373Halliburton 914,557Halliburton Digital Consul 914,245Halliburton Energy Service 914,301Halliburton Energy Service 914,317Halliburton Energy Service 914,340Halliburton Energy Service 914,347Halliburton Energy Service 914,351Halliburton Energy Service 914,357Halliburton Energy Service 914,378Halliburton Energy Service 914,381Halliburton Energy Service 914,389Halliburton Energy Service 914,390Halliburton Energy Service 914,400Halliburton Energy Service 914,401Halliburton Sperry Drill 914,257Hallmann, C O E 914,149

Hamill, G A 914,650Hammond, M 914,623Hamza, H 914,611Han, J 914,136Han, J 914,459Han, J H 914,600Han, X 914,559Haney, M M 914,196Hangzhou Inst Petrol Geol 914,136Hanrahan, S 914,414Hao, Y 914,527Hardenbol, J 914,057Hardman Resources 914,116Hare, J L 914,545Harmsen, G J 914,429Harris, F 914,466Harris, P 914,183Harris, P M 913,974Harris, W F 914,569Harrison, S M 914,121Harsvaer, A 914,579Harsvaer, A 914,580Hart, J D 914,608Hart, T 914,106Hartman, K 914,198Hartung-Kagi, B 914,154Hashem, A H 914,303Hauge, E 914,441Hauge, T A 914,471Hawkins, K 914,183Haywood, N 914,632He, J X 914,127He, Y 914,542Hed, J E 914,397Heerema Marine Contractors 914,585Hefti, J 914,216Heglum, T 914,155Heidecke, K 914,294Heidelberg Academy Science 914,081Heilberg, S 914,619Helgum, T 914,217Helix-RDS 914,080Hellman, T 914,371Henan Petrol Explor Bur 913,999Henderson, R 914,613Hendry, P 914,122Henley, P 913,962Henley, P 913,966Henning, D L 914,481Henson, R 914,258Herman, J 913,970Hernandez, M 914,267Hernandez, R M 913,971Herring, R B 914,416Herrington, M 914,391Herst, N 914,273Hester, S E 914,330Hill, R 914,146Hillis, R 914,036Hillis, R 914,107Hillis, R 914,112Hillis, R R 914,151Hiroshima Univ 914,646Hirota, K 914,575Hizem, M 914,341Hladikova, J 914,017Hodgson, L 914,181Hofmann, M J 914,599Hokstad, K 914,172Holbrook, J M 914,026Holden, D J 914,076Hollenshead, J T 914,529Hollis, C 914,056

Holstein, H 914,177Holtz, R L 914,655Hong, A 914,449Hong, Z 914,153Hooley, A F 914,288Hooper, B 914,640Hope, J 914,153Horn, A M 914,582Horne, S 914,172Horsington, L F 914,617Hou, Q 914,434Hou, Q J 913,991Hou, T 914,543Houck, R T 914,169Houck, R T 914,182Houston Univ 914,256Houston Univ 914,367Hoversten, G M 914,172Howard, W F 914,428Hoyt, D S 914,582Hrabi, R B 914,064Hrvoic, D 914,195Hu, A P 914,130Hu, C Y 913,983Hu, G M 914,007Hu, G Y 913,985Hu, G Y 913,989Hu, G Y 914,061Hu, G Y 914,126Hu, G Y 914,135Hu, J F 914,062Hu, Z 914,256Hua, B 914,209Huang, H P 914,129Huang, J 914,434Huang, L 914,475Huang, M 914,636Huang, S 914,394Huang, S J 914,274Huang, S J 914,282Huang, S J 914,283Huang, W 914,087Huang, Y P 914,164Huang, Z 914,032Huang, Z L 914,008Huazhong Univ Sci Technol 914,644Hubans, C 914,160Hughes, T 914,550Hukle, M W 914,582Humanyon, M 914,220Humble Geochemical Svcs 914,146Hunt, S P 914,493Hunter, R C 914,576Hunter, T 914,627Hycal Energy Res Labs Ltd 914,643Hydratight 914,412Hydril Co LP 914,393Hydril Co LP 914,395Hydril Co LP 914,396Hydrotech SG 914,017Hynes, A 914,046Ibrahim, A M 914,039Idleman, B D 913,971IHS Energy 913,960IHS Energy 914,406Iida, T 914,445Illinois Inst Technol 914,452Illinois State Geol Survey 914,016Im, S W 914,477Image Interpret Technol 914,249Imai, S 914,575Imhof, M G 914,163Imhof, M G 914,547

116 Petroleum Abstracts January 6, 2007

Page 117: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Imperial Coll, London 914,562Imperial Oil Resources 914,193India Oil & Nat Gas Corp 914,038Indrupskiy, I M 914,037Ingeman-Nielsen, T 914,225Inha Univ 914,477Inoue, T 914,575Inst Francais du Petrole 914,420Inst Francais du Petrole 914,468Inst Francais du Petrole 914,470Inst Geol Nuclear Sciences 914,056Inst Politecnico Nacional 914,601IntelliServ Inc 914,271Intrepid Geophysics 914,177Isbell, M R 914,265Ishikawa, T 914,575Ismagilov, I Kh 914,447Ismail, M Z 914,417Itou, T 914,292Ives, J 914,409Iwao, N 914,646Iwashita, D 914,278Izhneftemash 914,353Jablonski, D 914,068Jackson, T 914,378Jaimes, A 914,418Jakaboski, J C 914,340Jakubowicz, H 914,210Jan, Z 914,566Jaques, P S 914,302Jarvie, D 914,146Jasmani, M S 914,446Jeffrey, R 914,036Jeffryes, B P 914,293Jenkins, C 914,216Jerauld, G R 914,564JFE Steel Corp 914,586Ji, Y L 914,007Jia, A L 914,007Jia, C Z 913,982Jia, C Z 913,988Jia, C Z 913,991Jia, Z L 914,565Jian, Q 914,453Jiang, C M 914,002Jiang, L 914,334Jiang, W 914,465Jiang, Y P 914,645Jiang, Z Q 913,999Jianghan Oilfield Co 914,004Jiangsu Tianyin Chem Ind 914,438Jimenez, H R 914,211Jin, H H 914,010Jin, H W 914,600Jin, Y 914,438Jinling Petrochem Corp 914,438Jisrawi, N M 914,655Jiu, Y R 914,005Jo , C H 914,477Job Pertamina 914,039Johansen, J A 914,605Johnova, R 914,017Johnson, C D 914,394Johnson, R L Jr 914,391Johnston, R L 914,569Jones, I F 914,213Jones, R H 914,302Jones, R L 914,648Jones, T G J 914,334Jordan, T E 913,971Joshi, Y 914,340JRS Petroleum Research 914,107Juarez-Arriaga, E 914,035

Judd, D 914,213Kabir, N 914,199KACST 914,071Kadaster, A 914,252Kagoshima Univ 914,445Kaldy, W J 914,198Kalinowski, A 914,079Kamata, M 914,327Kan, C 914,498Kang, H 914,459Kang, S F 914,136Kang, Y Z 913,994Kansas Geological Survey 914,190Kapila, M 914,296Kapila, M 914,297Karlsen, D A 914,144Karpyn, Z T 914,504Karpyn, Z T 914,512Kasim, A 914,407Kasin, T 914,605Kasischke, B 914,494Kawano, K 914,445Ke, M 914,453Kee, C 914,650Keep, M 914,073Kelbie, G 914,362Kelfoun, F 914,315Kelkar, M 914,515Kelkar, M 914,516Keller, B 914,514Kemp, R 914,632Kenny, P 914,251Kerr-McGee 914,200Kersey, D G 914,322Kersey, D G 914,505Khaksar, A 914,080Khimeko-GANG 914,530Khisamov, R S 914,536Khurana, A K 914,618Khvoronova, T N 914,083Kim, B 914,571Kim, D S 914,651Kim, K 914,477Kim, K H 914,600Kim, K H 914,651Kim, N S 914,140Kimura, Y 914,445King Saud Univ 914,071Kinna, B M 914,113Kipp, W 914,355Kirk, J W 914,354Kishino, A C 914,298Kislitsyn, A A 914,540Kitada, H 914,575Klaver, T C 914,413Kleinberg, R 914,338Klett, T R 914,619Klinger, R 914,047Klopping, F J 914,545Knott, T 914,450Knowledge Systems Inc 914,067Knox, D L 914,472Koehler, R O 914,271Kolle, J 914,374Koloteev, V A 914,536Komocki, S 914,364Koo, J 914,600Kool, H 914,301Koottungal, L 914,590Koppe, B 914,640Korn, B E 914,216Koseki, T 914,575Kosmacheva, T F 914,447

Kossack, C A 914,508Kostomarov, M P 914,552Kou, X H 914,438Kowalchuk, L 914,476KPMG 914,613KPMG 914,628Krampen, J 914,469Krassay, A A 913,968Krassay, A A 914,114Kroh, F 914,248Kruspe, T 914,321Kuang, J 913,997Kulikov, A 914,530Kumar, A 914,240Kurkjian, A L 914,334Kurochkin, B M 914,536Kuroki Tube & Pipe Co Ltd 914,585Kurtz, T 914,069Kuwait Oil Co 914,494Kuwait Univ 914,593Kvadsheim, E 914,619Kwon, D 914,600Kwon, D 914,651Kyoto Univ 914,156Laake, A 914,235Lagoyda, D V 914,440Lakehead Univ 914,065Lam, W 914,650Lamar Univ 914,055Lamar Univ 914,084Lambert, S W 914,264Landa, E 914,185Lane, W C 914,428Lang, Z 914,538Lang, Z X 914,422Lang, Z X 914,509Langeland, J A 914,180Lanzhou Inst Geology 913,992Larsen, K 914,272Larsen, O A 914,068Lauderdale, D P 914,463Laughrey, C D 914,070Lavigne, J 914,335Lawmon, J 914,656Lawrence Berkeley Lab 914,172Lawrence Berkeley Lab 914,548Lawrence, P 914,370Lawrence, P 914,371Lays, P 914,167Le Calvez, J L 914,305Le Guern, P 914,162Le Guern, P 914,239Le Stunff, Y 914,246Lee, J 914,417Lee, J S 914,477Lee, J S 914,600Lee, J S 914,651Lee, L 914,254Lee, L 914,255Lee, L 914,481Leeser, D L 914,572Lehigh Univ 913,971Lei, D W 914,164Lembcke, J J 914,484Leon, J B 914,649LePoidevin, S 914,153Leu, L 914,224Leuven Katholieke Univ 913,970Leuven Univ 914,057Levin, S A 914,245Li, B 913,977Li, B 914,518Li, B L 913,989

January 6, 2007 Petroleum Abstracts 117

Page 118: Petroleum Abstracts

Author and Affiliation Index

Li, C 913,988Li, C 914,339Li, C L 914,010Li, F 914,011Li, F P 914,131Li, G 914,504Li, G 914,512Li, H 913,988Li, H 914,644Li, J 913,983Li, J 913,985Li, J 913,989Li, J 914,008Li, J 914,126Li, J 914,399Li, M 914,125Li, M 914,128Li, M C 914,061Li, P 914,385Li, P 914,487Li, Q 914,087Li, Q 914,192Li, Q M 914,003Li, R 914,242Li, S 913,978Li, X 914,519Li, X 914,522Li, X 914,553Li, X J 913,992Li, X M 914,422Li, X M 914,509Li, X Q 914,128Li, X Q 914,129Li, X Q 914,135Li, Y 914,522Li, Z 914,200Li, Z 914,438Li, Z 914,543Li, Z M 914,133Li, Z X 914,145Liang, G 914,465Liang, H 914,125Liang, Y 914,125Liang, Y B 913,987Liao, J D 914,136Liao, M 914,606Liao, X 914,475Liao, Y S 914,148Liberty, L M 914,189Liddell, B 914,252Liddell, B 914,548Liger, F 914,539Lightford, S 914,343Lille Univ Sci Technol 914,099Lillig, D B 914,582Lim, D 914,357Lim, J J 914,357Lin, C 914,523Lin, C Y 914,564Lin, H 913,976Lin, L D 913,996Lin, S 914,044Lin, S 914,063Lin, Z 914,604Linden, H R 914,452Lindhom, B P 914,174Liner, C L 914,207Linscott, J 914,528Linscott, J P 914,375Lisigurski, O 914,532Lisk, M 913,967Lisle, R J 914,033Little, J 914,335

Littleboy, A 914,634Littleton, R 914,285Liu, B M 914,127Liu, C H 914,228Liu, D 914,520Liu, D F 914,645Liu, D H 914,134Liu, D H 914,137Liu, D L 913,989Liu, G J 914,647Liu, J Z 914,134Liu, K Y 914,062Liu, M 914,584Liu, R E 913,985Liu, S W 913,988Liu, W 914,498Liu, W H 914,066Liu, W W 914,645Liu, Y 914,011Liu, Y 914,497Llanos, E M 914,036Long, A S 914,214Long, R 913,960Long, Y 914,611Lopez De Cardenas, J 914,380Lothe, A E 914,072Lough, J M 914,124Lough, J M 914,152Loutit, T 913,962Loutit, T 913,966Loutit, T S 913,963Lozano-Blanco, G 914,420Lu, J L 914,134Lu, R 914,197Lu, X 914,170LUKOIL 914,440Luliang Oilfield 914,465Luna Energy LLC 914,312Luna Energy LLC 914,330Lund, J B 914,265Luo, J C 914,006Luo, Q 914,011Luo, T Y 914,510Luo, X 913,985Luo, X 914,126Luo, X 914,511Luterbacher, H 914,118Lv, H T 914,164Lyle, D 914,408Lyle, D 914,495Lyon I Univ 914,051Lyridis, D V 914,597M-I LLC 914,296M-I LLC 914,297Ma, C H 913,985Ma, C H 914,061Ma, E 914,494Ma, J 914,009Ma, K Y 914,069Ma, L 913,999Ma, L Y 913,992Ma, N 914,256Ma, X 914,519Ma, X 914,538Ma, X F 914,422Ma, X H 913,984Ma, Y S 913,986Mabe, K E 914,109MacDougall, T D 914,482Mackay, J 914,227MacKay, S 914,211Mackenzie, G 914,362MacPhail, M 914,114

Magyari, E 914,514Mah, M 914,193Mahapatra, S N 914,163Maini, B B 914,563Malashetty, M S 914,513Mallis, D L 914,393Mamuko, B 914,106Manapov, I Z 914,536Mancini, E A 914,041Mancini, E A 914,048Mancini, E A 914,094Mangazeev, V P 914,552Manin, Y 914,539Manitoba Geological Survey 914,044Manitoba Geological Survey 914,045Manitoba Geological Survey 914,063Manrique, E 914,560Manton, K 914,582Mao, S H 914,004Mao, S H 914,004Mao, W 914,558Marchionna, M 914,448Marin, G B 914,420Marine Magnetics 914,195Marsh, C 914,077Marshall, E 913,960Martin, J 914,550Martinek, K 914,017Martinez, A 914,418Martinez, B D 914,443Martinez, J L F 914,033Martinez, M 914,166Martinez, R 914,304Martynov, B A 914,295Marvin, M 914,374Masamura, K 914,586Maslen, G 914,056Massachusetts Inst Technol