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Phi1 Baines Andrew Haslam Second edition

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Phi1 Baines & Andrew Haslam Second edition Waston-Guptill Publications / New York
Transcript
1 I- Manufacture & design Type is not lettering go
Definition
metal type 92 Mechanical punchcutting and
Function composition of metal type 94 Phototypesetting 103
Typography and language 12 Beyond the physical: digital Language: the spoken system 12 typesetting log Other voices 24-5,56-7,88-9,
1201,152-3,184-5,216-7 Language: the written system 17 Grammar 27 The lexicon 29 V Structure Communication theories 34
Approaches to design 124 111 Form
Designing with type in two dimensions 125
Structuring a design: grids 145 Typography in time: film and new
media 176 Towards a 26-letter alphabet 38 Towards upper- and lower-case
letters 42 The development of typeforms 45 Classifying and describing typefaces 50 Sources and patterns 59
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The styling of details within text 190 NI U British and US Macintosh keyboard
map for IS0 Latin set 1 202
British and US Windows 95/98 key- board map for IS0 Latin set 1 204
Glossary 206 Timechart of type designers part 1
1400-1900 208 Timechart of type designers part 2
1900 to the present 210
Further reading 212
Who's who of designers in this book 214
Paper sizes 218 Index 219 Picture sources & credits 223 Aclnowledgements 224 Dedication 224
Conventions
Index Page numbers in bold refer to illustration captions
9 abacus 44 abbreviations 191 accents 20, 202, 204 acronyms 191 Acropolis typeface 72 Adobe Systems Inc 109,133
Futura 128 Multiple Master fonts 114 Postscript 91,94,109,111,112,113,114,119
Akzidenz Grotesk typeface 78 al Khwarizmi, Muhammad ibn Musa 44 Albertina typeface 106 Alcuin of York 42 Aldine types 62,64,93 alignment, text 136-9 alphabets 17,19-21
alphanumerics 44 development 38-41 Etruscan 39,41 Greek 20,39,41 Phoenician 39 phonetic 13,20,21 Roman 20,39,40,41,42 Shaw alphabet 21 Western i3;.17, 20, 38
Alternate Gothic typeface 78 Altsys see Macromedia American Type Founders (ATF) 97 ampersand 191 annotation 191 Apollo typeface 106 apostrophes 191,202,204 Apple Macintosh 91,94,109,112,113,114 Aspect typeface 114 Austin, Richard 67,214 Avant Garde Gothic typeface 108
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Bacon, Francis 32 Baily, Nathaniel 31 Baines, Phil 85,116,170-1 Banks & Miles 80 Barbou typeface 97 Barnbrook, Jonathan 86,214 Barnes, lames Barthes, Roland 36 Baskerville, John 45,61,67,92, 214 Baskerville typeface 67 Bastarda hand and typeface 42,53 Baudrillard, Jean 36 Bauer Bodoni typeface 66 Bauer Typefoundry 82 Beck, Harry 172 Belizio typeface 71 Bell, John 67, 214
Bell Centennial Bold Listing typeface 8 4 Bell typeface 67,171 Bembo, Pietro 64,93 Bembo typeface 64 Benton, Linn Boyd 94, 214 Benton, Morris Fuller 78,214 Benton Automatic Punchcutter 94, 214 Berlow, David 35,74, 214 Besley, Robert 71, 214 Bezier curves 113,119 bibliographies 191 Bicltman, George 61 Bilak, Peter 68,214 Bill, Max 150,154, 214 bindings of books 145 Birdsall, Derek 149,161, 214 bitmaps 119 Bitstream 112 Bitstream Charter typeface 8 4 blackletter hand 42, 59 Blake & Stevens 71 Bliss typeface 8 1 Blokland, Erik van 75, 214,215 Bodoni, Giambattista 66,92, 214 Bodoni typeface 50,66 Bond, Bob 155,156-7 Book of Common Prayer 160 Bower & Bacon 69 Bowman, David 23 brackets 192 Brand, Chris 106,214 Bringhurst, Robert 148 British Standard (BS) typeface classification
509 51 Brody, Neville 86,111, 214 broken script hand and typeface 42,45,53.59 browsers 132-3 brush scripts and typefaces 61.62 Bryson, Bill 20
Bulmer, William 214 Bulmer typeface 67 Bureau Grotesque typeface 74 Burns, Aaron 108,112, 214 Byatt, A S 22
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appearance of 192 capitalis quadrata (square capitals) 40,41,
42, 51,62 drop caps 193 intercaps 196 size 115,199 small capitals 38,114.199 use of 192
captions 127,192 Cardmaster tape recorder 12
Carolingian miniscule hand 42,43, 59 Carter, Matthew 61, 68,84,85,112, 214 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) 132-3 Caslon, William 65,70,92, 214 Caslon (H W) & CO 76 Caslon typeface 65,73 Catich, Edward 41 Caustic Biomorph typeface 76 Caxton, William 31 Centaur typeface 63 Century typeface 102
Charter typeface 6 8 Citizen typeface 110
Clarendons 71 close-ups (film) 180,181 Cobden-Sanderson, Thomas 63,214 Cokeram, Henry 31 Colonna, Francesco 93 colour, in type design 128,130,190 columns 140,193 Common Worship 161 communication theories 12,34-6 Compugraphic 103,106 computers:
type for the web 129,132-3 see also digital technology; websites
Continental vernacular 68 contractions see abbreviations contrast, and type 130 copperplate see roundhand Corona typeface 126 Cotterell, Thomas 61 Cresci, Gian Francesco 82 Crystal, David 20-1 cursive script 38,42,132
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Daily Telegraph 167 Dante typeface 64.93 dashes 193,202,204 dates 127,193 Davies, Dai 107 D'coder typeface 86 de Laon, Raoul44 decimal points 193.203, 204, 205 Deck, Barry 76,110,214 deconstructivism 12,35-6 decorated/pictorial typefaces 53,75-6 Derrida, Jacques 21,36 Design magazine 166,167,170 De Vinne, Theodore Low 50,218 dialect 22
dictionaries 29-32.30 f i Didone typeface 50 Didot, Firmin 60, 66,93, 214 Didot, Fran~ois-Ambroise 93, 214 Didot typeface 50,66 Digiset machine 103,109
C digital technology 26,9o, 91,96, log-19,176
Dijk, Christoffel van 65,214 dingbats 76 diphthongs 193, 202, 204 display faces 48 Dixon, Catherine 51-2,53,67,85, 214 dolly shot (film) 181 Doves Press Roman typeface 63 drop-lines 140 dry-transfer lettering 106,107 DsgnHaus 112
Diirer, Albrecht 82 Dutch roman 62,65 Dynamoe typeface 8 6 dyslexic readers 130
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Egyptians 70 ellipses 193,202,204 embellished typefaces 53,75 Emigr6 i i o , l l z Emperor typeface 110
em square 91,139 encompassed typefaces 53,76 endnotes see references English vernacular 69 en space 91,194 Etruscan alphabet 39,41 etymology 29 Eureka typeface 6 8 Excelsior typeface 126 Excoffon, Roger 62,214 eye-level shots (film) 182
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Falstaff typeface 69 fantasy fonts 132 fat faces 69 Fell typeface 160 Fella, Ed 36,164-5,167, 214 Figgins, Vincent 69,70,71,76,215 figures see numerals film 26
animation techniques an, 183 camera angles 177,182 close-ups 180,181 cuts 186 film credits 183 focus 187 format 176 lighting 187,188 shots 177.180-2 sound 187 speed and movement 183 transitions 186, 187
Filosophia typeface 110
Flash 132-3 fleurons 76 folios 194 Fonderie Olive 62,97 Font Bureau 172
FontFonts 111 FontHaus see DsgnHaus FontLab 113 Fontographer program (Macromedia) 110
fonts 6,48,51,111,112-14,115,132-3 FontShop International (FSI) 51,111,112 Fontstudio program (Letraset) 112
footnotes see references format
film 141,176 page 141-4,145
Fotosetter machine (Intertype) 102,103 Fototronic 1200 104 Foucault, Michel 36 Fournier, Pierre Simon 60,66,75,92,93, fractions 44, 194, 203, 204 Fraktur hand 53.59 Franklin Gothic typeface 78,167,170 French antique 53,73 Frere-Jones, Tobias 215 Friese-Greene, William 103 Froshaug, Anthony 56-7,91,120-1, 215 Frutiger, Adrian 79,106,115,154-5, 215 Frutiger typeface 79 Fuse magazine 76,86,111 Futura typeface 82,128
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Garalde typeface 5 0 ~ 6 4 ~ 6 5 Garamond, Claude 64,92, 215 Garamond typeface 50,64,102 Garcia-Junceda, Joan Eric 75 Garland, John 31 Garland, Ken 167,170,215 geometric typefaces 51,82-3 Gerbner, George 35 Gerstner, Karl 151, 215 Gill, Eric 75,81,136-7,152-3,191, 215 Gill Sans typeface 80,81,115,126,128 golden section 143 Golden typeface 63 gothic hand and typeface 50,59 grammar 12,27-8 Grandjean, Philippe 60,66, 215 Granjon, Robert 64, 215 Granjon typeface 64 Grecian 1 and 2 72 Greek alphabet 20,39,41 greetings cards 170-1 grids 145,146-51,154-7
fields 151 modernist approach 152 modular scales 148 proportional scales 148 quad grid system 149 Villard's Diagram 147
Griffith, Chauncey H 94,126,215 Griffo, Francesco 64,92,93, 215 Grimm, William & Jakob 31 Groot, Lucas de 115, 215
Grotesques 73,74,78-9 Grover Foundry 75 Gudehus, Juli: Genesis in pictograms 19 Gutenberg, Johann 10,38.42,45,48,215 GX fonts (Apple) 114
Haas foundry 79 halation 134 half-uncial hand 42,43 The handbook ofsailing (Bond) 155,156-7 hands
development of 38-43 formal and informal 53,59,60 sources and patterns 59-62 see also named hands
Handy, John 92 Hard Times typeface 126 Harling, Robert 73, 215 hearing 16 height, type 91,92,108,128 Hell, Dr-lng Rudolf 109 Helvetica typeface 79,115,128 hierarchies 195 high-angle shots (film) 182 Higonnet, Rene 103 hinting 119 H&Js (hyphenation &justification) 134,138, 139,
195-6 Hochuli, Jost 137,154-5,215 Hoefler, Jonathan 72,215 Holle, Leonarde 44 housekeeping 195 Howes, Justin 215 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) 132 humanist hand and typeface 43,53,59,63 Hutchings, R S 184-5 hyphens 138,139,193,195,196 see also H&Js
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IBM Selectric Typewriter 96 ideographic systems 19-20,21 idiom 22, 29 lkarus program 112
illustrations 141,156-7 image, type as 133,166-71 Imprint typeface 65 indents 139-40,197 InDesign 114 initials 196 ink colour 130 International Typeface Corporation (ITC) 108,112 Interstate typeface 167,172 lntertype 97,99,102,103 lonics 71, 126,128 Italian antique 53.73 Italian Old Style typeface 63 italics 38,53,60,115,196 ltek 103
Jannon typeface 64 Jenson, Nicholas 63, 215 Johnny B 88-9 Johnson, Samuel 30,31 Johnston, Edward 51,80, 215 ]ones, George W 94,215 Jonson, Ben 22
justification of text i34,136,137,i38,i3g justlefthand typeface 62
Karow, Peter 112,215 Keedy, jeR 82,110,126, 215 Keedy Sans typeface 82,110 Keere, Hendrik van den 65,215 kerns and kerning 91,97,122,134 Kersey, John 31 keyboards 96,113,202-5 Kinneir, lock 152-3,175 Kinross, Robin 56-7,137,192 Kis, Nicholas (Mikl6s) 65, 215 Koch, Rudolf 59,215 Krimpen, Jan van 215 Kunz, Willie 24-5
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Lanston, Tolbert 94,215 Lasercomp machine (Monotype) 109 Laserwriter printers 109,112 Latin types 53, 72 Lauhoff, Andreas 22 Lawson, Mark 24-5 leading 130,135-6,132,140 Legacy typeface 63 legibility i25,~0,131,134,190,199 Letraset 106,107,112 Letter Gothic typeface 171 letterforms 22, 23 letters
glyphs 114 ligatures 91,108,196,203,205 lower-case 38,42,92,115 parts of 38 size 115 upper-case 92 see also capital letters see also alphabet; script
Levin, Peter 31 lexicography 12, 29, 31, 32
Licko, Zuzana 72,82,110,112,215 Emigre 110 Variex 82
ligatures 91 line length 130.131 Linotron machines 103 Linotype 48,94,97,989,106,112,126 Lithos typeface 85 Littr6, Emile 31 logos and logotypes 19,115 London Underground maps and signs 80,172 longshots (film) 180 low-angle shots (film) 182 The Lord's prayer and the ten commandments
169,170 Lubalin, Herb 108,112, 215 Ludlow, Washington I 97 Ludlow typesetting machine 97 Lumitype machine 103
Macromedia 110,112,133 Majoor, Martin 68,111, 215 Malin, Charles 92,93, 215 Maltron keyboard 96 Mangat, Conor 86,215 Manutius, Aldus 60, 64,92,93, 215 Marder, Luse & CO 93 Mardersteig, Hans 92.93, 215 marginal notes see references Martin, William 67, 215 Mason, John Henry 215 matrices 92 Matrix typeface 72,110,136 Mclntosh, Ronald 103 McKellar, Smiths &Jordan 93 McKenzie, Fred 107 McLuhan, Marshall 216-17 Meier, Hans Eduard 81,215 Mendoza y Almeida, Jos6 106,215 Mergenthaler, Ottmar 94,215 metal type 38,42,90,91,92-3 Meta typeface 111,126,127,128,138 micro shot (film) 181 Microsoft 114,132 mid-points 196, 203, 205 Middleton, Robert Hunter 97 midshot (film) 180 Miedinger, Max 79,215 Mill, Henry 96 Missionary typeface 76,77,115 Mistral typeface 62 Modern typefaces 126 modernism 12,34-5,150-1 Monk, Jonathan 79 Monophoto machines 103,106 Monospace fonts 132 Monotype 48,93,94,95,97,ioo-i, 106,109 Morgan, John 161,215 Morison, Stanley 65,184-5, 215
Morris, William 63, 215 Moxon, Joseph 93 Moyoud, Louis 103 Mrs Eaves typeface 110
Miiller-Brockman, Josef 150,154, 215
Neue Haas Grotesk typeface see Helvetica New Clarendon typeface 71 News Gothic typeface 78 New York Subway map 172 Newlyn, Miles 76, n, 115,215 News Gothic typeface 78 newspapers 162-3.167 nineteenth-century vernacular typefaces 48,
53,68-74 Clarendon 48,53,71 Continental vernacular 68 Egyptian 48,53,70 English vernacular 68,69 Fat face 48,53,69 French antique 53,73 Grecian 1 and 2 53,72 Grotesque 73-4 Ionic see Clarendon above Italian antique 53,73 Latin and runic 53,72 Tuscan 48,53,69 see also sans serif typefaces
Novarese, Aldo 215 numerals
alphanumerics 44 development of 44 Hindu-Arabic 44 kerning 134 lining and non-lining38,115,1~7,194, 20
for monetary units 194 ordinal 196 primes 197 for quantities 194 Roman 44 size 115 types 38.194 see also fractions
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Oakland typeface 110
Officina Bodoni 93 Olivetti 96,170 OpenType 114 Opticon typeface 126 Optima typeface 81 overhead shots (film) 182
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Palatino typeface 128 pan shots (film) 180 paper:
sizes 144, 218 type 127,129
Paragon typeface 126 paragraphs 139-40,193,197 parentheses 192,198 Park, Nick 13 Parker, Mike 112
patterns 52.59-73 Perpetua typeface 128,136 phonemes 12-13,14,15,16, 20 phonetics 12-i6,20 Photina typeface 106 Photon 2000 machine 103 phototypesetting 97,102,103-8 pictograms 19-20,19,39 Pinlter, Steven 13 Pintori, Giovanni 96,170,215 pixels 109 Plantin typeface 65,128,138 Platelet typeface 8 6 Plato 22
Playbill typeface 73 point size 91, 92,93-4,115,128,129 Poliphilus typeface 93 Porzsolt, E 103 Postscript (Adobe) 91,94,109,111,112,113,
114,119 Pouchbe, Louis John 215 Poynor, Rick 88-9,167 Praxis typeface 84 primes 197 proof correction marks 197 proportions, page 142,143-4,145,160 Prototype typeface 8 6 punchcutting:
by hand 92-3 mechanical 94-101
punches 92 punctuation i15,194,i98,203,205 Purdy, Peter 103 Pysoon, Richard 31
quad grid system 149 Quadraat typeface 68,111 quotation marks and quotations 198, 203, 205
readability see legibility Read, Kingsley: Shaw alphabet 21
Reade, William 97 reading aloud 160-1 rebus system 19 Record Gothic typeface 78 references 127,198,203,205 Remington (E) & Sons 96
Renner, Paul 82,215 Futura 82,83
resolution 109,119,129 road signs 172,174-5 Rogers, Bruce 63,137,215 Roget, Peter Mark: Roget's thesaurus 32 Romains du Roi typeface 60,66 roman typefaces 45,48,53,59,60, 61, 62-8
Aldine roman 53,63,64 British taste modern 53,63,67 Continental taste modern 53,63,66 Dutch taste roman 53, 63, 64,65 humanist roman 53,63 modern face 48,63,66-7 old face 48, 63-5 transitional 66
Roman uncial hand 42,43 Rondthaler, Ed 108,112,218 Rossum, Just van 62,215 Rotofoto machine 103 Rotunda hand 53,59 roundhand 53.61~67 Ruder, Emil 150,152-3,154,218 runic types 53,72 running headslfeet 199 rustic hand 42 Rustics typeface 76 -
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167,196 Geometric 82-3 Gothics 78,167 Grotesques and Neo-grotesque5 73-4,78-9 Roman 80-1
Saracen typeface 72 Saussure, Ferdinand de 19,21,35 Scala typeface 68,111 Schmoller, Hans 137 Schwabacher hand 53.59 Scotch Roman typeface 67 script 17,59 see also hands Selectric Typewriter (IBM) 96 semiotics 35 sentences 27,28,199 serifs 60,127,130,132 Shannon, Claude Elwood 34 Shaw, George Bernard: alphabet 21
Shires typefaces 115 Sholes, Christopher Latham 96 Siemens & Halske 103 signage:
London Underground 80,172 road 172,174-5
'signifier'/'signified' 35 size, type 91,92,93-4,108,i15.1~8,129,
132,199 Skelter typeface 126 Slab serif typeface 53,70,71
slow disclosure (film) 181 small capitals 38,114, 199 Smeijers, Fred 68,111, 218 Smith, Percy 184-5 Snell, Charles 61 Snell Roundhand 61 soft returns 199,203, 205 Sonnoli, Leonardo 170, 218 Sophia typeface 85 Southward, John 50 sources 38,52,59-86
additional 53.77-86 decorated/pictorial75,76 handwritten 42,43,45,53,59-62 nineteenth-century vernacular 48,53, 68-74 roman 48,53,62-8
spacing 'em' and 'en' spaces 91,139,194,202 inter-character spaces 131,138,192 in photosetting 108 principles 122,195-6 word spaces 134,138,139,195,200
spatial information 172-3 special characters 115 spectrographic analysis 15,22,23 speech 12-16,18,22,23,26,34-5,36 spelling 20-1
Spiekermann, Erik 111,127, 218 spines of books 199 Spira, Johannes & Wendelin de 63, 218 Stempel foundry 79 Stephenson Blake 65,73,97 Stiff, Paul 120-1 strikes 92 structuralism and post-structuralism 12,35-6 Swann, Cal 34 Swift typeface 68,126,127,128 syllables symbols 202,203,204,205 symmetry 141,145,147 syntax 27-8 Syntax typeface 81
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tables 199 Tankard, Jeremy 81,113,114,115,119. 218 technology, impacts of 84,109,112-13 Telegraph Newface typeface 167 television 26,176,183 temperature 200, 203 Template Gothic typeface 110
Tempo Bold typeface 97 terminals 54 text block, positioning 140-1,147 Textura hand and typeface 42,43,45,53,59 texture, type as 128,136,190 Themerson, Stephan 171 thesauri 32-3 Thesis typeface 115 Thorne, Robert 69,218
Thorowgood, William 73, 218 ti l t shot (film) 181 Times New Roman typeface 65,101,128 Tomato 56-7 tracking 134,138,192 tracking shot (film) 180 Tracy, Walter 24-5,94,122,167,218 Trixie typeface 75 Troostwyk, David 73 Truchet, Jean 93, 218 trucking shot (film) 181 TrueType (Apple) 91,113,114 Tschichold, Jan 35,64,137,140-I, 147,150,
184-5 Tuscans 48,53,69 Twombly, Carol 85, 218
type development of 38,42,92-106 digitization 90, 91,112-14,115,119 manufacture 92-101 for the web 129,132-3 see also punchcutting; typesetting
typefaces choosing 125,127-9 classic faces 48 classifying and describing 50-3 customizing 126 defined 6 development of 38,42,45-8 display faces. 48 formal attributes 52, 54-5, 58 modifying 126 modular 138 for the web 129,132-3 see also fonts; named typefaces; patterns;
sources typesetting 94,96,97,112,113
typewriters 96
typography conventions 22-3,190-200 defined 6-10 for film 176-88 limitations 18, 22-3
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uncial hand 42,43 Unger, Gerard 68,84,86,126,127, 218 Unicode 113,114 Union Pearl typeface 75 Univers typeface 79,115 Universal typeface 110 Updike, Daniel Berkeley 50,218
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Valicenti, Rick 76, 218 VanderLans, Rudy 110,112,218 Variex typeface 82 Varityper 103 VendGme typeface 126 Vere Dignum typeface 85 Videocomp machine 103,109 Villard's Diagram 147 Villedieu, Alexander de 44 Vosltens, Bartholomaeus 65,218 Vox, Maximilien 50-1
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Wainwright, A W: walking guides 158-9 Walbaum, Justus Eric 66,218 Walbaum typeface 66 Waldo, R V 94,218 Ward, Beatrice 56-7.120-1 Watson, John 76 Weaver, Warren 34 websites 112,132-3,176,191,192 Webster, Noah 31 Welsh, lrvine 22 Winter, Shelley 167 Wood & Sharwood 75 Wozencroft, Jon 111 Wright, Edward 82 writing 17-23, 26, 34,35,36 Wynkyn de Worde 31
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XHTML (extensible HTML) 132
W Zapf, Herman 81 Zeier, Franz 120-1 zoom shots (film) 181
upper-case letters 92 see also capital letters

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