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PHP MySQL Introduction. MySQL is the most popular open-source database system. What is MySQL? MySQL...

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  • PHP MySQL Introduction

  • PHP MySQL IntroductionMySQL is the most popular open-source database system.What is MySQL?MySQL is a database.The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables.

    A table is a collections of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

    Databases are useful when storing information categorically. A company may have a database with the following tables: "Employees", "Products", "Customers" and "Orders".

  • Database TablesA database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name (e.g. "Customers" or "Orders"). Tables contain records (rows) with data.Below is an example ofa table called "Persons":

  • QueriesA query is a question or a request.With MySQL, we can query a database for specific information and have a recordset returned.Look at the following query:SELECT LastName FROM Persons The query above selects all the data in the "LastName" column from the "Persons" table, and will return a recordset like this:

  • Download MySQL Database

    If you don't have a PHP server with a MySQL Database, you can download MySQL for free here: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/index.html

  • Facts About MySQL Database

    One great thing about MySQL is that it can be scaled down to support embedded database applications.

    Perhaps it is because of this reputation that many people believe that MySQL can only handle small to medium-sized systems.

    The truth is that MySQL is the de-facto standard database for web sites that support huge volumes of both data and end users (like Friendster, Yahoo, Google).

  • PHP MySQL Connect to a DatabaseThe free MySQL database is very often used with PHP.mysql_connect(servername,username,password);

  • ExampleIn the following example we store the connection in a variable ($con) for later use in the script. The "die" part will be executed if the connection fails:
  • Closing a ConnectionThe connection will be closed automatically when the script ends. To close the connection before, use the mysql_close() function:

  • PHP MySQL Create Database and TablesCreate a DatabaseThe CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database in MySQL.SyntaxCREATE DATABASE database_name To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.

  • ExampleThe following example creates a database called "my_db":

  • Create a TableThe CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a table in MySQL.SyntaxCREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name1 data_type, column_name2 data_type, column_name3 data_type, .... )We must add the CREATE TABLE statement to the mysql_query() function to execute the command.

  • ExampleThe following example creates a table named "Persons", with three columns. The column names will be "FirstName", "LastName" and "Age":
  • // Create table mysql_select_db("my_db", $con); $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( FirstName varchar(15), LastName varchar(15), Age int )"; // Execute query mysql_query($sql,$con); mysql_close($con); ?>

  • Important: A database must be selected before a table can be created. The database is selected with the mysql_select_db() function.

    Note: When you create a database field of type varchar, you must specify the maximum length of the field, e.g. varchar(15).

    The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold.

  • Primary Keys and Auto Increment FieldsEach table should have a primary key field.

    A primary key is used to uniquely identify the rows in a table. Each primary key value must be unique within the table. Furthermore, the primary key field cannot be null because the database engine requires a value to locate the record.

    The following example sets the personID field as the primary key field. The primary key field is often an ID number, and is often used with the AUTO_INCREMENT setting.

    AUTO_INCREMENT automatically increases the value of the field by 1 each time a new record is added. To ensure that the primary key field cannot be null, we must add the NOT NULL setting to the field.

  • $sql = "CREATE TABLE Persons ( personID int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, PRIMARY KEY(personID), FirstName varchar(15), LastName varchar(15), Age int )"; mysql_query($sql,$con);

  • The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert new records in a table.Insert Data Into a Database Table

    The INSERT INTO statement is used to add new records to a database table.

    Syntax

    It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms.

  • The first form doesn't specify the column names where the data will be inserted, only their values:The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted:INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3,...) VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...)

  • ExampleIn the previous we created a table named "Persons", with three columns; "Firstname", "Lastname" and "Age". We will use the same table in this example. The following example adds two new records to the "Persons" table:
  • Insert Data From a Form Into a DatabaseNow we will create an HTML form that can be used to add new records to the "Persons" table.Here is the HTML form: Firstname: Lastname: Age:

  • When a user clicks the submit button in the HTML form in the example above, the form data is sent to "insert.php".

    The "insert.php" file connects to a database, and retrieves the values from the form with the PHP $_POST variables.

    Then, the mysql_query() function executes the INSERT INTO statement, and a new record will be added to the "Persons" table.

  • Here is the "insert.php" page:
  • The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database.Select Data From a Database Table

    The SELECT statement is used to select data from a database.

    SyntaxTo get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.

  • ExampleThe following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table (The * character selects all the data in the table):

  • The output of the code above will be:

  • The example above stores the data returned by the mysql_query() function in the $result variable.

    Next, we use the mysql_fetch_array() function to return the first row from the recordset as an array.

    Each call to mysql_fetch_array() returns the next row in the recordset.

    The while loop loops through all the records in the recordset.

    To print the value of each row, we use the PHP $row variable ($row['FirstName'] and $row['LastName']).

  • Display the Result in an HTML TableThe following example selects the same data as the example above, but will display the data in an HTML table:
  • echo " Firstname Lastname "; while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) { echo ""; echo "" . $row['FirstName'] . ""; echo "" . $row['LastName'] . ""; echo ""; } echo ""; mysql_close($con); ?>

  • The output of the code above will be:

    FirstnameLastnameGlennQuagmirePeterGriffin

  • SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name operator value To get PHP to execute the statement above we must use the mysql_query() function. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.

  • ExampleThe following example selects all rows from the "Persons" table where "FirstName='Peter':
  • The output of the code above will be:Peter Griffin

  • The ORDER BY KeywordThe ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the data in a recordset.

    The ORDER BY keyword sort the records in ascending order by default.

    If you want to sort the records in a descending order, you can use the DESC keyword.SyntaxSELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name(s) ASC|DESC

  • ExampleThe following example selects all the data stored in the "Persons" table, and sorts the result by the "Age" column:

  • The output of the code above will be:Glenn Quagmire 33 Peter Griffin 35

  • Order by Two Columns

    It is also possible to order by more than one column. When ordering by more than one column, the second column is only used if the values in the first column are equal:SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column1, column2

  • PHP MySQL UpdateUpdate Data In a DatabaseThe UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table.

    SyntaxUPDATE table_name SET column1=value, column2=value2,... WHERE some_column=some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated. If you omit the WHERE clause, all records will be updated!

  • Examplewe created a table named "Persons". Here is how it looks:

  • The following example updates some data in the "Persons" table:
  • After the update, the "Persons" table will look like this:

  • Delete Data In a Database

    The DELETE FROM statement is used to delete records from a database table.SyntaxDELETE FROM table_name WHERE some_column = some_value Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the DELETE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be deleted. If you omit the WHERE clause, all records will be deleted!

  • ExampleLook at the following "Persons" table:The following example deletes all the records in the "Persons" table where LastName='Griffin':
  • After the deletion, the table will look like this:

    This template can be used as a starter file for a photo album.

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