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Piano-vocal score Edited and with a Piano Reduction by Bruce E. Borton and Timothy M. Rolls MUSICA RUSSICA
Transcript
MUSICA RUSSICA
Sergei Rachmaninoff, THE BELLS, Op. 35
Edited and with a Piano Reduction by Bruce E. Borton and Timothy M. Rolls Copyright © 2016 by Bruce E. Borton and Timothy M. Rolls. Sole selling agent: Musica Russica, Inc. English translation, Copyright © 2016 by Martin P. Bidney.
All rights reserved. International copyright secured. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as may be expressly permitted by the 1976 Copyright Act or in writing by the Publisher.
MUSICA RUSSICA • 1-800-326-3132 • www.musicarussica.com
The Bells
I 1
II 19
III 30
IV 62
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Sergei Rachmaninoff composed only a relative handful of choral works Among them are two sacred cycles for chorus a cappella—Liturgiya sv. Ioanna Zlatousta (Liturgy of St John Chrysostom), op 31, composed in 1910, and Vsenoshchnoye bdeniye (All-night Vigil, a k a Vespers), op 37, dating from 1915—both of which have enjoyed frequent performances on the concert stage and in recordings in recent years Less frequently performed, but no less a masterwork, is the present work, Kolokola (The Bells), op 35, a brilliant choral-orchestral work written in the period between the two unaccompanied cycles (1913) The editors believe the relative infrequency of performances is at least partially due to the unavailability of an edition with an easily understood transliteration of the Russian text for the non-Russian speaking singers wishing to sing the work in its original language The publication of this new vocal-piano score including not only the Russian Cyrillic, but also the excellent Russica™ Transliteration System, now solves that problem
Another challenge for choruses and conductors preparing this work for performance is the difficult piano reduc- tion in the existing vocal-piano score Authors Sergei Bertensson and Jay Leyda in their 1956 biography Sergei Rachmaninoff: A Lifetime in Music, relate an amusing incident recalled by Sir Henry Wood, conductor of the first performance of the work in England in 1921 When Rachmaninoff first played through the score for the conduc- tor, he complained that the piano arrangement in the published vocal score (prepared by the composer’s colleague and friend Alexander Goldenweiser) “was much too difficult for him to tackle, but he would do his best with it ” The editors have endeavored to compose a new piano reduction of the orchestral score that is more accessible, yet produces a faithful enough representation of the score for the chorus to be fully prepared for their first encounter with the real thing There is no intention to suggest that the piano reduction is in any way a “substitute” for the full orchestra in performance
The poems and prose of Edgar Allan Poe in Russian translations were widely known and admired in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century The text of Kolokola is a Russian language adaptation of Poe’s The Bells by Kon- stantin Balmont (1867–1942) Although it varies significantly from the original, it follows Poe’s general scheme in its use of four different types of bells as a metaphor depicting the progressive stages of life In Rachmaninoff’s setting, exuberant youth is depicted as sleigh bells in the opening movement for tenor solo and chorus Mellow “golden” bells accompany the soprano solo and chorus in the second movement describing marriage and young adulthood The raucous alarm bells of the third movement for chorus bring to mind the growing anxieties of middle age and fear as old age approaches Finally the iron funeral bells of the last movement form a backdrop for the baritone solo and chorus as the poetry describes the quiet peace of the tomb Most interestingly, Rachmaninoff creates the sound of the various bells in the orchestra with winds and strings rather than the more obvious and literal use of actual bells
A particularly curious mark, “P Tsch ,” is found in the fourth movement at rehearsal 105 In his biography Rach- maninoff: Composer, Pianist, Conductor, author Barrie Martyn informs us that this mark is found in the autograph manuscript making explicit a “conscious borrowing from Tchaikovsky” – specifically, five measures adapted from the earlier composer’s opera Queen of Spades, Act 2, scene 2, an opera that Rachmaninoff had conducted the previous year (Martyn, p 246)
The new English translation supplied is not intended as a word-for-word version as much as an attempt to capture in English the rhythm and rhyme of the Russian original Martin Bidney is not only a Russian scholar, but also a prolific poet His significant research on Balmont and on this particular poem puts him in a unique position to execute such a translation
—Bruce Borton and Timothy Rolls February, 2016
Preface
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I
Hear the sleighbells’ rushing row – Rushing row! They’re the jingle-bells we know – Lightly swinging in their ringing sweet to hear with fevered glow With a strumming and a humming strange oblivion seems to grow Oh, the ringing, gladly, proudly, As of children laughing loudly! In the crisp and chilly air They can happily declare: After straying, disconnection, Comes the day of resurrection, And enchanting is the gladness of the sleeper free of care Sleighs are speeding in a row With their little bells aglow: Stars are hearkening to what the sleighs are saying, never slow, And the starry sparkles grow While they’re gleaming in their dreaming and a steam-aroma show As they’re twinkling in the blessing Of a gentle, still caressing With a ringing and a singing that oblivion only know
II
Hear them? Wedding greetings bold, Sounds of gold! Oh, the blessed and the tender youthful tones through heaven rolled! Through the peaceful air of night Someone’s eyes are gleaming bright: How they shine! From their wave of singing music they the lunar light divine, From the wonder-summon cells Rich in legendary spells, Rising-riding, then subsiding, flying foam with lights condign Quenched again and hyaline, Glancing, chancing on a sign Of the future where serenity of soothing dreaming dwells That the harmony’s announcing of the charm of golden bells
Konstantin Balmont
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viii
III
Listen! Fire alarum strong, Bronzen moaning loud and long! Tones tormenting, unrelenting, tell of hell in dreadful song They appear to pray for aid: Cries through darkened sky have strayed: Growing louder now and stronger Every sound – Now the shorter, now the longer – Higher shouts a fright profound, And a terror so extreme – Worse than any soul would dream – Evern tone in fragment torn so there is nothing coming nigh: They can only clang and clang and clang, and cry and cry and cry! Only weep, and hope entreat, Groan of grief and of defeat By the gloomy hugeness high! While the raging fire insane Horrid roaring will attain – Death portray Out of roof and window, fire Climbing higher, higher, higher Shouting, raving, seems to say: I desire Speed and height till I’m consumed, but first to meet the lunar ray – Let me swell to reach the moon or else I’m dying right away! O alarm, alarm, alarm, If you’d only stop the harm And the terror and the blazing and the sparkling, with a charm! Let the blaze at last be cowed That you proud proclaim with lamentation savage clanging loud! Hopeless – nought will grant salvation From the avid conflagration, Weeping, fear, and consternation At your call, Shrieking everywhere discordant, Speaking forth a peril mordant, First in muffled trouble growing, then in soul-appalling fall! Ears made fearful trace the changing waves of sound without a halt As there falls from all a sobbing at the copper-called assault!
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ix
IV
Groaning gong, the mourning bell, Listen well! Tones are bitter that the end of living’s bitter dream can tell – Iron-tongued, the dull annunciation final rites impel Now we quake against our will Who of fun have had our fill, For we sob as we recall our eyes will shut, our heart be still O unutterable gong Of a note avoided long, Heavy death at length to hail, With a wail – Grieving, saddened Ev’n while maddened – Growing bolder and more deep, To intone departed sufferers have never-ending sleep It from rusty rounded cell Will to good and wicked tell Mournful tale in dullest moan – Dying eye will shut in dust and martyred heart become a stone Torch funereal in dark! From the tower someone cries and speaks to make the hearer hark Someone stands at upper doors And he’s laughing, and he roars, Drone of moaning forth he pours In the tow’r he’ll strike a sound – Tones from swinging bell redound With a dull and rumbling boom Unrelentingly retelling of the quiet of the tomb
September, 2015; Binghamton, New York
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Sa m pl e
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I
Text by Edgar Allan Poe, as translated into Russian by Konstantin Balmont
Music by Sergei Rachmaninoff, Op. 35 Piano reduction by Bruce E. Borton and Timothy M. Rolls
To my friend Willem Mengelberg and his Concertgebouw Orchestra
CP-TB Copyright © 2016, by Bruce E. Borton and Timothy M. Rolls. All rights reserved. Sole selling agent: Musica Russica, Inc.
1- 80 0- 32 6- 31 32
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poco a poco cresc.
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55 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œœ œœ œœ
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The RUSSICA™ Transliteration System (for Modern Russian)
The RUSSICA™ transliteration system has been designed specifically with singing in mind, since none of the systems currently used to transliterate Russian succeed in accurately transmitting the sound of the language. Languages widely familiar to singers — Latin, Italian, German, and English — have been used as points of departure. Equivalents in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) have been supplied wherever possible.
VOWELS
Russian vowels are pure, without diphthongs, as in Latin or Italian:
Russian Transliteration English Key Word IPA Symbol
† a father [ a ] ™, ¯ e bet [ è ] ∂ i meet [ i ]
— o obey [ o ]
Ú ï dip [ I ]
The vowels and ¸ following consonants are transliterated as and ¸, respectively. In reality it is the conso- nant preceding the vowel that is softened by the fleeting i [ j ] sound (see PALATALIZED CONSONANTS below). The vowels ™, , and ¸ at the beginning of words or following another vowel are transliterated as ye, yu, and ya, respectively. The letter y in transliteration always represents a semi-vowel, blended with a vowel, as in yet or toy; it never sounds alone as in copy or cry.
CONSONANTS
Consonants are pronounced as in Latin or English, with the following restrictions and exceptions:
Russian Transliteration English Key Word IPA Symbol or Explanation
¶ g get [ ]
¨ zh treasure [ ] ∏ y always blended with a [ j ] vowel as in yet, toy ; never sounds alone as in copy, cry r always rolled [ r ] fi s set [ s ] Ê Ê aspirated, as in German Bach; [ x ] no exact English equivalent Ë ts lets [ ts ] Í ch chop [ tß ] Ï sh shop [ ß ] Ó shch fresh cheese [ ßtß]
76
77
PALATALIZED (SOFT) CONSONANTS
Consonants followed by the vowels ™, , or ¸ are always softened (palatalized) by blending them with a fleeting sound of y ([ j ]). Consonants are also softened when followed by the “soft sign” (Ù). The symbol used to designate soft consonants in transliteration is the tilde (~), which is similarly used in Spanish: e.g., cañon. The follow- ing examples illustrate the occurrence of soft consonant sounds in English:
Transliteration English Equivalent IPA Symbol B abuse [ bj ]
D bid you [ dj ] L mill ion; Italian gli [ lj ] M amuse [ mj ] N canyon [ nj ] P pure [ pj ] R merriest (British) [ rj ] T bit you (said rapidly) [ tj ] V review [ vj ]
The soft consonants S and Z do not have exact equivalents in English; the necessary sound can be obtained by blending the fleeting y sound with the consonant.
APOSTROPHE OF SEPARATION
An apostrophe (’) between a consonant and a vowel indicates that the vowel should be articulated with a glottal attack, instead of being linked to the consonant. An apostrophe between two consonants such as s and Ê, for example, indicates that the two sounds are to be pronounced individually, not as the consonant combination sh.
A NOTE ABOUT MODERN RUSSIAN PRONUNCIATION
Although modern Russian is fundamentally a phonetic language, in some instances words are modified in pro- nunciation relative to the way they are spelled, as the following points indicate:
(1) The adjectival ending -ogo in masculine and neuter genitive and accusative singular is pronounced -ovo.
(2) The pronouns yego, tvoyego, moyego, etc., are pronounced yevo, tvoyevo, moyevo.
(3) The unstressed vowel o is pronounced as a schwa (ë).
(4) The vowel ye with two dots above it is always pronounced yo; printed texts, however, do not always include the two dots.
(5) The letter i following the consonant sounds sh and zh is always pronounced as ï.
(6) The letter v before unvoiced consonants is pronounced f.
Texts rendered in the Russica™ transliteration system take all of these modifications into account.
A NOTE ABOUT ACCENTED VOWELS
To clarify the textual stresses accent marks have been placed over the appropriate vowels in the transliteration. Unlike accent marks in some other languages (e. g., French), the marks in the Russica™ transliteration system do not change the character of the vowel in any way: an accented “e,” for example, has exactly the same sound (shape, vocal placement, etc.) as an unaccented “e.”
CP-TB Bells front matter.pdf

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