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Pip Social Media And Young Adults Report

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Social Media & Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults
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  • 1. SocialMedia&MobileInternetUse AmongTeensandYoungAdults ByAmandaLenhart,KristenPurcell,AaronSmithandKathrynZickuhr PewInternet&AmericanLifeProject AninitiativeofthePewResearchCenter 1615LSt.,NWSuite700 Washington,D.C.20036 2024194500|pewinternet.org ThispublicationispartofaPewResearchCenterreportseriesthatlooksatthevalues,attitudes andexperiencesofAmericasnextgeneration:theMillennials.Findouthowtodaysteensand twentysomethingsarereshapingthenationat:www.pewresearch.org/millennials 1
  • 2. SummaryofFindings Since2006,blogginghasdroppedamongteensandyoungadultswhilesimultaneouslyrisingamong olderadults.Asthetoolsandtechnologyembeddedinsocialnetworkingsiteschange,anduseofthe sitescontinuestogrow,youthmaybeexchangingmacrobloggingformicrobloggingwithstatus updates. Blogginghasdeclinedinpopularityamongbothteensandyoungadultssince2006.Blogcommenting hasalsodroppedamongteens. 14%ofonlineteensnowsaytheyblog,downfrom28%ofteeninternetusersin2006. Thisdeclineisalsoreflectedinthelowerincidenceofteencommentingonblogswithinsocial networkingwebsites;52%ofteensocialnetworkusersreportcommentingonfriendsblogs, downfromthe76%whodidsoin2006. Bycomparison,theprevalenceofbloggingwithintheoveralladultinternetpopulationhas remainedsteadyinrecentyears.PewInternetsurveyssince2005haveconsistentlyfoundthat roughlyoneintenonlineadultsmaintainapersonalonlinejournalorblog. Whilebloggingamongadultsasawholehasremainedsteady,theprevalenceofbloggingwithinspecific agegroupshaschangeddramaticallyinrecentyears.Specifically,asharpdeclineinbloggingbyyoung adultshasbeentemperedbyacorrespondingincreaseinbloggingamongolderadults. InDecember2007,24%ofonline1829yearoldsreportedblogging,comparedwith7%ofthose thirtyandolder. By2009,just15%ofinternetusersages1829maintainabloganinepercentagepointdropin twoyears.However,11%ofinternetusersagesthirtyandoldernowmaintainapersonalblog. Bothteenandadultuseofsocialnetworkingsiteshasrisensignificantly,yetthereareshiftsandsome dropsintheproportionofteensusingseveralsocialnetworkingsitefeatures. 73%ofwiredAmericanteensnowusesocialnetworkingwebsites,asignificantincreasefrom previoussurveys.Justoverhalfofonlineteens(55%)usedsocialnetworkingsitesinNovember 2006and65%didsoinFebruary2008. Astheteensocialnetworkingpopulationhasincreased,thepopularityofsomesitesfeatures hasshifted.ComparedwithSNSactivityinFebruary2008,asmallerproportionofteensinmid 2009weresendingdailymessagestofriendsviaSNS,orsendingbulletins,groupmessagesor privatemessagesonthesites. 47%ofonlineadultsusesocialnetworkingsites,upfrom37%inNovember2008. 2
  • 3. Youngadultsactmuchliketeensintheirtendencytousethesesites.Fully72%ofonline1829 yearoldsusesocialnetworkingwebsites,nearlyidenticaltotherateamongteens,and significantlyhigherthanthe40%ofinternetusersages30andupwhousethesesites. Adultsareincreasinglyfragmentingtheirsocialnetworkingexperienceasamajorityofthose whousesocialnetworkingsites52%saytheyhavetwoormoredifferentprofiles.Thatisup from42%whohadmultipleprofilesinMay2008. Facebookiscurrentlythemostcommonlyusedonlinesocialnetworkamongadults.Among adultprofileowners73%haveaprofileonFacebook,48%haveaprofileonMySpaceand14% haveaLinkedInprofile. 1 Thespecificsitesonwhichyoungadultsmaintaintheirprofilesaredifferentfromthoseusedby olderadults:YoungprofileownersaremuchmorelikelytomaintainaprofileonMySpace(66% ofyoungprofileownersdoso,comparedwithjust36%ofthosethirtyandolder)butlesslikely tohaveaprofileontheprofessionallyorientedLinkedIn(7%vs.19%).Incontrast,adultprofile ownersunderthirtyandthosethirtyandolderareequallylikelytomaintainaprofileon Facebook(71%ofyoungprofileownersdoso,comparedwith75%ofolderprofileowners). TeensarenotusingTwitterinlargenumbers.Whileteensarebiggerusersofalmostallotheronline applications,Twitterisanexception. 8%ofinternetusersages1217useTwitter. 2 ThismakesTwitterascommonamongteensas visitingavirtualworld,andfarlesscommonthansendingorreceivingtextmessagesas66%of teensdo,orgoingonlinefornewsandpoliticalinformation,doneby62%ofonlineteens. OlderteensaremorelikelytouseTwitterthantheiryoungercounterparts;10%ofonlineteens ages1417doso,comparedwith5%ofthoseages1213. HighschoolagegirlsareparticularlylikelytouseTwitter.Thirteenpercentofonlinegirlsages 1417useTwitter,comparedwith7%ofboysthatage. Usingdifferentwording,wefindthat19%ofadultinternetusersuseTwitterorsimilarservices topostshortstatusupdatesandviewtheupdatesofothersonline. YoungadultsleadthewaywhenitcomestousingTwitterorstatusupdating.Onethirdof online1829yearoldspostorreadstatusupdates. Wirelessinternetuseratesareespeciallyhighamongyoungadults,andthelaptophasreplacedthe desktopasthecomputerofchoiceamongthoseunderthirty. 1 Note:Becauserespondentswereallowedtomentionmultiplesitesonwhichtheymaintainaprofile,totalsmayaddtomorethan100%. 2 Note:ThequestionisaskeddifferentlyamongteensandadultsteenswereaskedDoyoueveruseTwitter?whileadultswereaskedhave youeverusedTwitteroranotherservicewhereyoucanupdateyourstatusonline?whichmayexplainsomeofthedifferenceinthedata betweenthetwogroups. 3
  • 4. 81%ofadultsbetweentheagesof18and29arewirelessinternetusers.Bycomparison,63%of 3049yearoldsand34%ofthoseages50andupaccesstheinternetwirelessly. Roughlyhalfof1829yearoldshaveaccessedtheinternetwirelesslyonalaptop(55%)orona cellphone(55%),andaboutonequarterof1829yearolds(28%)haveaccessedtheinternet wirelesslyonanotherdevicesuchasanebookreaderorgamingdevice. Theimpactofthemobilewebcanbeseeninyoungadultscomputerchoices.Twothirdsof18 29yearolds(66%)ownalaptopornetbook,while53%ownadesktopcomputer.Youngadults aretheonlyagecohortforwhichlaptopcomputersaremorepopularthandesktops. AfricanAmericansadultsarethemostactiveusersofthemobileweb,andtheiruseisgrowing atafasterpacethanmobileinternetuseamongwhiteorHispanicadults. Cellphoneownershipisnearlyubiquitousamongteensandyoungadults,andmuchofthegrowthin teencellphoneownershiphasbeendrivenbyadoptionamongtheyoungestteens. Threequarters(75%)ofteensand93%ofadultsages1829nowhaveacellphone. Inthepastfiveyears,cellphoneownershiphasbecomemainstreamamongeventheyoungest teens.Fully58%of12yearoldsnowownacellphone,upfromjust18%ofsuchteensas recentlyas2004. Internetuseisnearubiquitousamongteensandyoungadults.Inthelastdecade,theyoungadult internetpopulationhasremainedthemostlikelytogoonline. 93%ofteensages1217goonline,asdo93%ofyoungadultsages1829.Onequarter(74%)of alladultsages18andoldergoonline. Overthepasttenyears,teensandyoungadultshavebeenconsistentlythetwogroupsmost likelytogoonline,evenastheinternetpopulationhasgrownandevenwithdocumentedlarger increasesincertainagecohorts(e.g.adults65andolder). Oursurveyofteensalsotrackedsomecoreinternetactivitiesbythoseages1217andfound: 62%ofonlineteensgetnewsaboutcurrenteventsandpoliticsonline. 48%ofwiredteenshaveboughtthingsonlinelikebooks,clothingormusic,upfrom31%who haddonesoin2000whenwefirstaskedaboutthis. 31%ofonlineteensgethealth,dietingorphysicalfitnessinformationfromtheinternet.And 17%ofonlineteensreporttheyusetheinternettogatherinformationabouthealthtopicsthat arehardtodiscusswithotherssuchasdruguseandsexualhealthtopics. 4
  • 5. Introduction ThisreportfromthePewResearchCentersInternet&AmericanLifeProjectisapartofaseriesof reportsundertakenbythePewResearchCenterthathighlighttheattitudesandbehaviorsofthe Millennialgeneration,acohortwedefinehereasadultsages18to29.ThePewInternetProjecthas conductedmorethan100surveysandwrittenmorethan200reportsonthetopicofteenandadult internetuse,allofwhicharefreelyavailableonourwebsite:www.pewinternet.org.Thisreportbrings togetherrecentfindingsaboutinternetandsocialmediauseamongyoungadultsbysituatingitwithin comparabledataforadolescentsandadultsolderthan30.Allthemostcurrentdataonteensisdrawn fromasurveyweconductedbetweenJune26andSeptember24,2009of800adolescentsbetween ages12and17.MostoftheadultdataaredrawnfromasurveyweconductedbetweenAugust18and September14,2009of2,253adults(age18andover).Attimes,though,wedrawfromotheradult surveysandwewillnotewherethatoccurs. Moresothanfortheirelders,theinternetisacentralandindispensable elementinthelivesofAmericanteensandyoungadults. AsofSeptember2009,93%ofAmericanteensbetweentheagesof12and17wentonline,anumber thathasremainedstablesinceNovember2006.Incomparison,adultsarelesslikelythanteenstobe online.AsofDecember2009,74%ofadultsusetheinternet. 3 Theyoungestadults,1829yearolds,goonlineatarateequaltothatofteens(both93%).Overthepast decade,youngadulthaveremainedtheagegroupthatismostlikelytogoonlineevenastheinternet populationhasgrown,andevenasotheragecohortssuchasadults65andolderhaveincreasedthe percentageoftheirpopulationsonline. Amongadolescents,bothboysandgirlsareequally likelytogoonline,butyoungerteensremainslightly lesslikelytogoonlinethanolderteens.Fully95%of teensages1417goonlinecomparedwith88%of teensages1213.Mostofthevarianceamong youngerteensisaccountedforby12yearolds,of whom83%goonlinecomparedto92%of13year olds. 3 WeshouldnotethattheDecember2009surveyincludedSpanishlanguageinterviews(unlikeSeptember2009),andisthussurveying populationsthathavehadhistoricallylowerlevelsofinternetuse. 5
  • 6. Forfamilieswithteens,homebroadbandadoptiongrows. Amongfamilieswithchildrenbetween12and17,morethanthreequarters(76%)nowhavebroadband internetaccessathome,upfrom71%inFebruary2008andsignificantlylargerthanin2004,whenjust halfofallhouseholdswithteenshadsometypeofbroadbandaccess.In2009,aboutathirdofall internetusingfamilieshaveacablemodem(32%),anotherthird(30%)haveaDSLenabledphoneline, andanother11%reportawirelessinternetconnection.Threepercentoffamilieshaveafiberoptic connection. Just10%offamilieshaveadialupinternet connection,downfrom16%in2008and49%in November2004.Another8%offamiliesdonot haveacomputerathome,and4%havea computer,butthemachineisnotconnectedto theinternet. Movingbeyondjustfamiliestolookatthe Americanadultpopulationatlarge,60%ofadults goonlinefromhomeusingbroadband. 4 Morethanthreequartersofyoungadultsages1829have broadbandathome,asdo67%of3049yearolds,alittlemorethanhalf(56%)of5064yearoldsand justaquarter(26%)ofthose65andolder. 4 DatareportedinthisparagraphcomesfromPIPsDecember2009surveyandisalsodiscussedintheInternet,broadbandandcellphone statisticsrelease,availableonlineathttp://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Internetbroadbandandcellphonestatistics.aspx 6
  • 7. Nearly2in5households(37%)withbroadbandhaveacablemodem,28%haveaDSLconnectionand 17%haveawirelessconnectiontotheinternet.Another6%havefiberoptic,T1orsomeothertypeof fastconnection. 63%ofteensgoonlineeveryday Nearlytwothirdsofteeninternetusers(63%)goonlineeveryday36%ofteensgoonlineseveral timesadayand27%goonlineaboutonceaday.Morethanonequarter(26%)ofteensgoonline weeklyand11%goonlinelessoftenthanthat,patternsthathavebeeninplacesinceNovember2006. Therearefewdifferencesinfrequencyofusebasedondemographiccategories.Olderteensages1417 aremorelikelytogoonlinefrequentlythanyoungerteens.Nearlyfourinten(39%)olderteenssaythey goonlineseveraltimesaday,whilealittlemorethanaquarter(28%)ofyoungerteensgoonlineas frequently.Whiteteensarealsoslightlymorelikelytogoonlinefrequentlyseveraltimesaday comparedwithHispanicteens,whoaremorelikelytoreportgoingonlineonceadayor3to5daysa week. 7
  • 8. Broadbandandwirelessinternetusersgoonlinemuchmorefrequentlythandialupandstationary internetusers. Thefrequencyofteeninternetuseiscomparabletothefrequencyofinternetuseamongonlineadults 18andolder.Amongadultinternetusers,68%goonlinedaily,21%goonlineseveraltimesaweek,and 10%goonlinelessoftenthanthat.ThesefiguresfromSeptember2009arecomparabletoadultfindings fromDecemberof2006,when67%ofadultinternetuserswereonlinedaily,21%wereonlineseveral timesaweek,and6%wereonlinelessoftenthanthat. Youngadultinternetusersthoseunderage30donotgoonlineanymorefrequentlythaninternet usersage30andolder.However,adultinternetuserswithhomebroadbandconnectionsandadults whoaccesstheinternetwirelesslygoonlinemuchmorefrequentlyregardlessofagethanotherinternet users.Aboutthreequartersofadulthomebroadbandusers(76%)andwirelessinternetusers(76%)go onlineeveryday,comparedwithjust42%ofadultinternetuserswithouthomebroadbandconnections and52%ofwiredinternetuserswhogoonlinedaily.Teenswholiveinhouseholdswithbroadbandare alsomorelikelytogoonlinefrequentlythanteenswithdialupinternetaccessathome40%of broadbandusingteensgoonlineseveraltimesadaycomparedtojust21%ofthosewithdialupaccess. WhiteonlineadultsaremorelikelythanHispaniconlineadultstobedailyinternetusers,andthe frequencyofanadultsinternetuseispositivelycorrelatedwithbotheducationalattainmentand householdincome. Gadgetownershipandwirelessconnectivity RecentPewInternetreportshavenotedthatinternetconnectivityisincreasinglymovingoffthedesktop andintothemobileandwirelessenvironment,particularlyforspecificdemographicgroups. 5 5 Horrigan,John.(2009)WirelessInternetUsers,PewResearchCentersInternet&AmericanLifeProject,Washington,DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/12WirelessInternetUse.aspx 8
  • 9. Understandinganindividualstechnologicalenvironmentisnowavitalclueinunderstandinghowthat personusestheinternet,connectswithothersandaccessesinformation.Amongteens,theaverage personowns3.5gadgetsoutthefivewequeriedinoursurvey:cellphones,mp3players,computers, gameconsolesandportablegamingdevices.InSeptember2009,adultswereaskedaboutseven gadgets:cellphones,laptopsanddesktops,mp3players,gamingdevicesandebookreaders.Outofa possiblesevengadgets,adultsownedanaverageofjustunder3gadgets.Youngadultsages1829 averagenearly4gadgetswhileadultsages30to64average3gadgets.Andadults65andolderon averageownroughly1.5gadgetsoutofthe7. Majorityofgrowthinteencellphoneownershipisamongyoungerteenagers. Some75%ofAmericanteensages1217haveacellphone. Since2004,agehasconsistentlybeenoneofthemost importantfactorsinpredictingcellphoneuse. 6 Younger teens,particularly12yearolds,arelesslikelythanother teenstohaveacellphone.AsofSeptember2009,58%of12 yearoldshaveacellphone,muchlowerthanthe73%of13 yearoldsandthe83%of17yearoldswhoownamobile device.Muchoftherecentoverallgrowthincellphone ownershipamongteenshasbeendrivenbyuptakeamongthe youngestteens.In2004,just18%of12yearoldshadacell phoneoftheirown.Inthesame2004survey,64%of17year oldshadaphone. Cellphonesarenearlyubiquitousinthelivesofteenstoday,withownershipcuttingacrossdemographic groups.Beyondage,therearefewdifferencesincellphoneownershipbetweengroupsofteens.Boys andgirlsarejustaslikelytohaveaphone,thoughtheydonotalwaysuseitinthesameway.Thereare nodifferencesbyraceorethnicityinphoneownershipbyteens.Socioeconomicstatusisonearea wherecellphoneownershipratesvary,withteensfromlowerincomefamilieslesslikelytoowna mobilephone.Morethanhalf(59%)ofteensinhouseholds earninglessthan$30,000annuallyhaveacellphone,while morethanthreequartersofteensfromwealthierfamiliesown one. Bywayofcomparison,asofDecember2009,83percentof adultsownedacellphone(orBlackberry,iPhoneorother devicethatisalsoacellphone).Thisisan18percentagepoint increasesincePewInternetbegantrackingcellownershipin Novemberof2004;atthattime,roughlytwothirdsofadults (65%)ownedacellphone. 6 http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/14TeensandMobilePhonesDataMemo.aspx 9
  • 10. Adultsyoungerthanage30aremorelikelythanthoseage30andoldertoownacellphone93%of youngadultsowncellphonescomparedwith80%oftheiroldercounterparts.Cellownershipdropsoff afterage50:82%ofthoseages5064ownacellphone,and57%ofthose65andolderownone. Amongalladults,cellphoneownershipincreaseswitheducationalattainmentandincome,andmenare morelikelythanwomen(86%v.79%)toowncellphones.Asweseeintheteenpopulation,thereareno racialorethnicdifferencesincellphoneownershipamongadults. Computers Nearlyseveninten(69%)teensages1217haveacomputer.Teensfromwealthierfamiliesearning morethan$75,000ayearareslightlymorelikely(74%)thanlesswelloffteenstopersonallyhavea desktoporlaptopcomputer.Olderteensarealsomorelikelytoreportowningadesktoporlaptop;73% of1417yearoldshaveacomputerwhile60%of12and13yearoldsdo. Amongadults,desktopcomputersareslightlymorepopularthanlaptopcomputersandnetbooks. Overall,sixintenadults(58%)ownadesktopcomputer,comparedwith46%whoownalaptopor netbook.However,whilelaptopcomputershavebeenincreasinginpopularityamongadultsoverthe pastthreeyears,desktopcomputershavebeendecreasinginpopularity. 10
  • 11. Laptopshaveovertakendesktopsasthecomputerofchoiceforadultsunder30. Itisimportanttonotethatyoungadultsthoseunderage30aresignificantlymorelikelythanall otheradultstoownalaptopornetbook,andamongthisgroup,laptopshaveovertakendesktopsin popularity.Amongadultsages1829,66%ownalaptopornetbookwhilejust53%ownadesktop. Aswithcellphones,computerownershipratesincreasewithrisingeducationalattainmentandincome. WhiteadultsaremorelikelythanHispanicadultstoownadesktopcomputer,andaremorelikelythan bothAfricanAmericanandHispanicadultstoownalaptopcomputer. 11
  • 12. MusicandEBooks Nearlyfourinfiveteens(79%)haveaniPodorothermp3player.Ownershipofmusicplayerscutsacross mostdemographicandagegroups,withallgroupsjustaboutaslikelytoownanmp3playerasanother. Theexceptionstothisareparentseducationalattainmentandfamilyincome.Unsurprisingly,asfamily incomeandeducationrises,sodoesthelikelihoodofateenowninganmp3playeroriPod. Youngadults&teensaremorelikelytohaveanmp3playerthanotheradults. InSeptember2009,PewInternetaskedadultsabouta largernumberofgadgets:computers,mp3players, gameconsoles,portablegamingdevices,andebook readers.Amongthesedifferentgadgets,mp3players aremostpopularwithadults(43%ownone),whilejust 3%ofadultsownanebookreader. Mp3playersareespeciallypopularwithyoungadults. Withnumbersthatmatchteens,fullythreequartersof 1824yearoldsownanmp3player;thatcompareswith slightlymorethanhalfof2529yearolds(56%)and3049yearolds(55%)andjustonefifthofadults age50orolder(20%).Aswithothergadgets,mp3ownershipispositivelycorrelatedwitheducational attainmentandincome. Ownershipofmp3playersbyadultshasrisensteadilysincethequestionwasfirstaskedinJanuary2005, whenjust11%ofadultsownedadigitalmusicplayer.Amongteens,thepercentageofteenswithan mp3playerhasalsoincreasedsignificantly,from51%ofteensinNovember2006tonearly80%today. 12
  • 13. GamingDevices Teensareenthusiasticconsumersofgamingdevices bothwiredandportable.Fully80%ofteensbetween theagesof12and17haveagameconsolelikeaWii,an XboxoraPlayStation.Whileyoungerandolderteens areequallylikelytohaveagameconsole,boysare morelikelythangirlstohaveone.Nearly9in10(89%) boyshaveagameconsole,while70%ofgirlsreport ownership.Youngerteens,ages12to15aremorelikely toownagameconsolethan1617yearolds. Halfofteens(51%)haveaportablegamingdevicelikea PSP,DSoraGameboy.Unlikeothertechgadgets, portablegamingdevicesaremoreoftenownedby youngerteens,withtwothirds(66%)ofteensages12 13owningaportablegameplayercomparedwith44% of14to17yearolds.Aswithconsoles,boysaremore likelythangirlstoownaportablegamingdevice;56%ofboysownone,asdo47%ofgirls.Beyondthe ageandgenderdifferencesinownership,portableandconsolegamingplatformsareequallylikelytobe foundinhouseholdsregardlessofrace,ethnicity,householdincomeorparentseducation. Adults30andolderaremuchlesslikelytoownagameconsolethanteensoryoungadults. Overall,37%ofadultsreportowningagame consolelikeanXBoxorPlayStation,and18%report owningaportablegamingdevicesuchasaPSPor DS. Notsurprisingly,adultsunderage30aremore likelythanolderadultstoowngamingconsoles,but theyarenotjustfortheveryyoung.While59%of adultsunderage30ownagamingconsole,that numberdropsjusteightpercentagepointsto51% among3049yearolds.Moreover,1829yearolds arelesslikelythan3049yearoldstoowna portablegamingdevice(22%v.30%). Therearealsogenderdifferencesinthisarea;men areslightlymorelikelythanwomentoownagame console(39%v.34%),whilewomenareslightly morelikelytoownaportablegamingdevice(20% v.16%). 13
  • 14. Wirelessdevicesandconsolesprovidenewwaysforteens&adultstogoonline. Accesstotheinternetischanging.Teensandadultsnolongeraccesstheinternetsolelyfroma computerorlaptop.Theynowgoonlineviacellphones,gameconsolesandportablegamingdevicesin additiontotheirhomedesktoporlaptopcomputer. Overallthecomputerremainsthemostpopularwayfor teenstogoonline,with93%ofteenswithadesktopor laptopcomputerusingthedevicetogoonline.Butother moreportabletechnologiesarealsonowprovidingnew pathstotheinternet.Amongteencellphoneusers,more thanaquarter(27%)saytheyusetheircellphonetogo online.Similarly,24%ofteenswithagameconsole(likea PS3,XboxorWii)useittogoonline.Otherhandheld gamingdevicesalsoallowinternetconnectivityamong teenswithaportablegamingdevice,aboutoneinfive (19%)useitforthispurpose. Adultsandwirelessinternetaccess 7 Mostadultinternetusers(63%)accesstheinternetusingmultipledevices;thisisespeciallytrueofadult internetusersyoungerthanage50,ofwhom70%accesstheinternetwithmorethanonedevice. AsofSeptember2009,54%ofadultsaccessedtheinternetwirelessly.Themostcommonmeansof wirelessaccessamongadultsisthelaptopcomputer,with38%ofAmericanadultsreportingthatthey accesstheinternetthisway.Accessingtheinternetviaahandhelddeviceisascommonamongadults asaccessviaalaptop35%ofadultsreportthattheyaccesstheinternetusingacellphoneorother handhelddevice.Oneinsevenadults(14%)accesstheinternetwirelesslythroughadeviceotherthana laptoporcellphonesuchasagamingdevice. 7 Notethattheadultdefinitionofwirelessinternetuserdoesnotapplytoteens,asthequestionsaboutwirelessinternetusewereasked differentlyandcannotbedirectlycompared. 14
  • 15. Youngadults,AfricanAmericansandHispanicsmorelikelytogoonlinewirelessly Wirelessratesareespeciallyhighamongadultsunderage30;eightintenadultsbetweentheagesof18 and29(81%)arewirelessinternetusers.Thatfiguredropsto63%among3049yearolds,and34% amongadultsage50andolder.Roughlyhalfof1829yearoldshaveaccessedtheinternetwirelesslyon alaptop(54%)oronacellphone(55%),andaboutonequarterof1829yearolds(28%)haveaccessed theinternetwirelesslyonadeviceotherthanalaptoporcellphone. Amonginternetusers,whiteadultsarelesslikelythanbothAfricanAmericansandHispanicstousethe internetwirelessly.AfricanAmericansarethemostactiveusersofthemobileinternet,andtheiruseis growingatafasterpacethanmobileinternetuseamongwhitesorHispanics.WhileAfricanAmericans arelesslikelythanwhitestouselaptopstoaccesstheinternet,theyaremorelikelytouseothermobile devicessuchascellphones.HalfofallAfricanAmericanadults(48%)haveusedtheircellphoneto accesstheinternet,comparedwith40%ofHispanicadultsandjust31%ofwhiteadults. Men,andadultswithhighincomeandeducationlevelsarethemostlikelytoaccesstheinternet wirelessly. Gender,education,andincomeareallrelatedtowirelessinternetuse.Overall,menareslightlymore likelythanwomentobewireless.Whilemenarenomorelikelythanwomentousewirelesslaptop connections,theyaremorelikelytoaccesstheinternetwirelesslyviaacellphoneorotherdevice. Wirelessinternetuse,particularlywirelesslaptopuse,ispositivelycorrelatedwitheducational attainmentandhouseholdincome.Whilewirelesscelluseandwirelessinternetuseviaotherdevicesis alsopositivelycorrelatedwitheducationalattainmentandincome,theimpactisnotasstrong. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. Teensandonlinesocialnetworks TeenscontinuetobeavidusersofsocialnetworkingwebsitesasofSeptember2009,73%ofonline Americanteensages12to17usedanonlinesocialnetworkwebsite,astatisticthathascontinuedto climbupwardsfrom55%inNovember2006and65%inFebruary2008. Aswehaveseenconsistentlyovertime,olderonlineteensaremorelikelytoreportusingonlinesocial networksthanyoungerteens.Whilemorethan4in5(82%)onlineteensages1417useonlinesocial networks,justabitmorethanhalfofonlineteensages1213say theyusethesites.Theseagefindingsareunderstandableinlightof agerestrictionsonsocialnetworkingsitesthatrequestthat12year oldsrefrainfromregisteringorpostingprofiles,butdonotactively preventit.Indeed,amongonlineteensjust46%of12yearoldsin thestudyusedsocialnetworksites,while62%of13yearoldsused them. Teenswhogoonlinedailyarealsomorelikelytousesocialnetwork websites(orperhapsareencouragedbythesitestogoonlinedaily), with80%ofdailyinternetusersvisitingthesesitescomparedwith 62%ofteenswhogoonlinelessoften.Teensfromlowerincome families(thoseearninglessthan$30,000annually)aremorelikelytouseonlinesocialnetworksthan teensfromwealthierhouseholds,withmorethanfourinfiveteensfromthelesswelloffhouseholds usingsocialnetworkscomparedtoroughly70%ofteensfromwealthierhomes. InNovember2006,thecompositionoftheteensocialnetworkusingpopulationwassomewhat differentthanitistoday.Therewerenosignificantdifferencesinfamilyincomebetweenteensocial networkusersandthosewhodidnotusethesites.Girlsweremorelikelytousethesitesthanboys unliketodaywhenboysandgirlsareequallylikelytovisit.However,littlehaschangedbetween2006 and2009withregardstotheageofsocialnetworkusers thenasnow,12and13yearoldteensweremuchlesslikely touseonlinesocialnetworksitesthantheirolder,high schoolagedcounterparts. Adultsandsocialnetworks Althoughthenumberofadultswhousesocialnetworking websiteshasgrownrapidlyoverthelastseveralyears,adults asawholeremainlesslikelythanteenstousethesesites.As ofSeptember2009,47%ofonlineadultsusedasocial networkingwebsite,comparedwiththe73%ofteenswho didsoatacomparablepointintime.Thepercentageof adultswhouseonlinesocialnetworkshasgrownfrom8%of internetusersinFebruary2005to16%inAugust2006to 17
  • 18. 37%inNovember2008.Onatypicaldayin2009,justoveronequarter(27%)ofadultinternetusers visitedasocialnetworkingsite. Justaswithteens,usageofsocialnetworkingwebsitesbyadultsvariesdramaticallybyage.Nearly threequarters(72%)ofonline1829yearoldsusethesesitessimilartotherateamongteenswith45% doingsoonatypicalday.Bycontrast,39%ofinternetusersthirtyandolderusesocialnetworking websites.Withintheunderthirtycohort,thoseages1824(73%)andthoseages2529(71%)are equallylikelytousesocialnetworkingsites.Menandwomenareequallylikelytousethesesites,asare whites,AfricanAmericansandHispanics.However,usageofonlinesocialnetworksamongadultsdoes varybyeducationalattainment50%ofonlineadultswithatleastsomecollegeexperienceusethese sites,comparedwith43%ofsuchadultswithahighschooldegreeorless. Moreadultsonmultiplesocialnetworksites Asthenumberofadultswhouseonlinesocialnetworkshasgrown,sohasthepercentageofsocial networkingsiteuserswhomaintainaprofileonmultiplesites.InMay2008,54%ofadultswithasocial networkingsiteprofilehadaprofileonjustonesite,while29%hadprofilesontwositesand13%had profilesonthreeormoresites.AsofSeptember 2009,thepercentageofprofileownerswithonly oneprofilehadfallenbyninepercentagepointsto 45%,whilethepercentagewithtwoprofileshad grownfrom29%to36%ofprofileowners.The proportionofsocialnetworkingsiteuserswith profilesonthreeormoresiteshasremained consistentoverthistimeperiod16%currently haveprofilesonthreeormoresuchsites.Profile ownersages1829areslightlymorelikelytohave multipleprofilesthanthoseoverthirty.Justunder sixinten(57%)profileownersages1829maintain aprofileonmorethanonesite,comparedwithhalf (49%)ofprofileownersagesthirtyandup. Amongadultprofileowners,Facebookiscurrentlythesocialnetworkofchoice;73%ofadultprofile ownersnowmaintainaprofileonFacebook,48%ofalladultprofileownershaveaprofileonMySpace and14%ofprofileownersuseLinkedInasofSeptember2009. 8 Whenitcomestouseofspecificsocialnetworkingsitesbydifferentagecohorts,youngadultprofile ownersstandoutbybeingmuchmorelikelythanthosethirtyandoldertohaveaprofileonMySpace. Foradultprofileownersunderthirty,MySpaceandFacebookareapproximatelyequalinpopularity, withLinkedInadistantthird71%ofprofileownersbetweentheagesof18and29haveaprofileon Facebook,66%haveaprofileonMySpaceandanadditional7%haveaprofileonLinkedIn.Three 8 Note:Becauserespondentswereallowedtomentionmultiplesitesonwhichtheymaintainaprofile,totalsmayaddtomorethan100%. 18
  • 19. quartersofprofileownersagesthirtyandolder(75%)haveaFacebookprofile,similartothefiguresfor profileownersunderthirty.However,MySpaceismuchlesspopularamongolderadults,asjust36%of profileownersinthisagegrouphaveaprofileonMySpace.LinkedIn,withitsfocusonprofessional networking,isalsomorewidelyusedamongprofileownersthirtyandolder19%ofprofileownersin thisagegrouphaveaLinkedInprofile. Aswiththeusageofsocialnetworkingsitesingeneral,thespecificsitesonwhichadultusersmaintain theirprofilesalsovariesbyeducationalattainment.Amongadultprofileownerswithahighschool degreeorless,64%haveaprofileonMySpace,63%haveaprofileonFacebookandjust3%havea LinkedInprofile.Amongprofileownerswithatleastsomecollegeexperience,FacebookandLinkedIn aremuchmorepopular41%haveaprofileonMySpace,78%haveprofileonFacebookand19%havea LinkedInprofile.Ananalysisbasedonhouseholdincomeproducessimilarfindings:comparedwith profileownersearning$50,000ormoreperyear,thosewithannualhouseholdincomesoflessthan $50,000peryeararesignificantlymorelikelytohaveaprofileonMySpace(64%vs.36%)andmuchless likelytohaveaprofileonLinkedIn(6%vs.22%).Theproportionofhighandlowincomeprofileowners withaprofileonFacebookissimilar71%ofprofileownersearninglessthan$50,000peryearhavea profileonFacebook,comparedwith77%ofthoseearningmorethan$50,000peryear. Usageofdifferentsocialnetworkingsitesalsovariesbygenderandrace.Amongadultprofileowners, men(18%)aremorelikelythanwomen(10%)tomaintainaprofileonLinkedIn,whilewomen(78%)are morelikelythanmen(68%)tohaveaprofileonFacebook.Additionally,whiteprofileownersappearto gravitatetowardsFacebookandLinkedIn,whileminorityprofileownerstendtowardsprofileson MySpacehowever,duetothesmallnumberofminorityprofileownersinourSeptember2009survey thesedifferencesarenotpresentedindetailhere. 19
  • 20. Teensandsocialnetworkcommunicationpractices Evenwithteenscontinuedenthusiasmforsocial networking,recentchangesintheircommunicationpatterns onthesitessuggesttheyaresomewhatlesstetheredto theirprofiles.Teenshaveremainedsteadyorevenshowna slightdeclineintheirlikelihoodofusingsocialnetworksites toconnectwithfriends.Abitmorethanathird(37%)of socialnetworkusingteenssaidtheysentmessagesto friendseverydaythroughthesocialsites,adropfromthe 42%ofsuchteenswhosaidtheydidsoinFebruaryof2008. Additionally,fewerteensaresendingbulletinsorgroup messagesorsendingprivatemessagestofriendsfrom withinsocialnetworksites.Abouthalfofteensocial networkuserssendgroupmessages,downfrom61%in 2006.Andtwothirdsofsocialnetworkusingteenssend privatemessagestofriends,downfrom82%inNovember 2006.Fewerteensarepostingcommentstoafriendsblog withinasocialnetworkingsite,with52%ofteens commentingonblogs,downfrom76%in2006.Thedecline inblogcommentinginsocialnetworksmayalsoreflect recentfindingsabouttheoveralldeclineinbloggingamong teens. Postingcomments,eithertoapicture,pageorwallremains popularwithteenswhousesocialnetworks.Fully86%of teensocialnetworkuserspostcommentstoafriendspage orwall,and83%haveaddedcommentstoafriendspicture. Sendinginstantmessagesortextmessagestofriends throughasocialnetworksitehasremainedstable,with58% ofsocialnetworkingteenssayingtheysenttextsorIMs. Teensalsojoingroupsonsocialnetworksitesabitmore thanathird(37%)saytheyhavedoneso. 20
  • 21. Twitteramongteensandadults TherehasbeenmuchmediaattentiongiventoTwitterandothermicrobloggingservicesoverthepast yearandinitiallythesuppositionwasthat,aswithothertypesofsocialnetworkservices,teenagers wouldbeleadingtheadoptionchargeonasocial,connectivetechnology.However,datafrom September2009suggestthatteensdonotuseTwitterinlargenumbers.WhileaSeptember2009 surveyofadultssuggeststhat19%of adultinternetusersages18andolderuse Twitterorupdatetheirstatusonline, 9 teendatacollectedatasimilartimeshow thatonly8%ofonlineAmericanteens ages1217useTwitter. 10 Itshouldbe notedthatthequestionwordingforteens isquitedifferentfromhowthequestion wasposedtoadultssotheresultsarenot strictlycomparable.Formoreonour adultfindingsabouttwitter,pleasesee http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/17TwitterandStatusUpdatingFall2009.aspxand http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Twitterandstatusupdating.aspx Olderteensages1417aremorelikelytouseTwitterthanmiddleschoolteensages1213.Among internetusers,oneinten(10%)highschoolagedteensusesTwitterwhilelessthanhalfthatnumberof youngerteensjust5%doso.Highschoolagedgirlsaredrivingtheagedifferences;13%ofonline girlsinthatagegroupuseTwitter,comparedto7%ofboysthatage.Teensfromhouseholdswiredwith broadbandareslightlymorelikelytoreportusingTwitterwith9%ofbroadbandusersonTwitter comparedtojust3%ofteenswithdialup accessathome.Therearenodifferencesin Twitteruseamongteensbyrace,ethnicityor socioeconomicstatus. Amongadults,youngadultsarethemost activeusersofstatusupdateservicessuchas Twitter;onethird(33%)ofinternetusers undertheageofthirtypostorreadstatus updatesonline.Theseservicesareespecially popularamongtheyoungestadultsfully 37%ofonline1824yearoldspoststatus 9 PleaseseethePewInternetProjectsTwitterandStatusUpdatingmemoonlineathttp://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/17Twitter andStatusUpdatingFall2009.aspxformoredetailsabouthowadultsusetwitter. 10 Note;thequestionisaskeddifferentlyamongteensandadultsteenswereaskedDoyoueveruseTwitter?whileadultswereaskedhave youeverusedtwitteroranotherservicewhereyoucanupdateyourstatusonline?whichmayexplainsomeofthedifferenceinthedata betweenthetwogroups. 21
  • 22. updatesaboutthemselvesonlineorviewtheupdatesofothers,upfrom18%oftheyoungestadultsin December2008.ThesehigherratesofTwitteruseandstatusupdatingamongyoungadultsrelativeto teensmaybepartiallyduetoourquestionwordingcapturingstatusupdatesonsocialnetworkingsites. Manysocialnetworkingsitesoffertheabilitytopostshortstatusupdates,andusageofsocial networkingsitesishighlycorrelatedwithstatusupdatebehaviorfully35%ofsocialnetworkingsite usersalsopoststatusupdatesonline,comparedwithjust6%ofinternetuserswhodonotusesocial networkingwebsites.Thereislittlevariationintheuseofstatusupdateservicesbasedonrace,ethnicity orsocioeconomicstatus;however,onlinewomen(21%ofwhomuseTwitterorotherstatusupdate services)aremorelikelytousetheseservicesthanmen(17%ofwhomdoso). Adults,teensandvirtualworlds Virtualworldsarepersistentonlineplayspaceswhichallowuserstodeterminethedirectionofgame play.TeenuseofvirtualworldshasremainedsteadysinceFebruary2008currently,8%ofonlineteens saytheyvisitvirtualworldslikeGaia,SecondLifeorHabboHotel,similartothe10%ofsuchteenswho visitedvirtualworldsin2008.Aswesawin2008,youngerteenscontinuetobemoreenthusiasticusers ofvirtualworlds11%ofonlineteens1213usevirtualworlds,while7%ofteeninternetusers1417 usethem.Thereisnodifferenceinvirtualworldusebetweenboysandgirls,byraceorethnicityor householdincome. Useofvirtualworldsismorecommonamongteensthanamongadults.InSeptember2009we measuredvirtualworldusageamongadultsforthefirsttimeandfoundthat4%ofonlineadultsvisit virtualworlds.Usageofvirtualworldsisrelativelyconsistentacrossagecohorts,with4%ofinternet usersunderage30and4%ofthosethirtyandupvisitingvirtualworlds.Amongadultsthereareno differencesonvirtualworlduserelatedtogender,race/ethnicity,income,oreducation. ContentCreation Inpreviousreports, 11 wehavehighlighted teenswhoareavidandclevercreatorsof digitalcontent.Recentdatasuggeststhat someonlinecontentcreatingactivitieshave remainedconstantovertime,whileothers haveshownslightorevensignificant declinessince2006.Adults,however,have shownsomeincreasesincontentcreating overthepastfewyears,withmostofthe increasesfoundamongadultsolderthan30. 11 TeensandSocialMedia,http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/TeensandSocialMedia.aspx;TeenContentCreators, http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2005/TeenContentCreatorsandConsumers.aspxandContentCreationOnline http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2004/ContentCreationOnline.aspx 22
  • 23. Sharingcontent Teensshareselfcreatedcontentonlinelikephotos,videos,artworkorstories.Onlinesharingof contentthatteenshavecreatedthemselveshasremainedsteadysince2006;38%ofinternetusing teenssaytheysharedcontentonlinein2009,similartothe39%whosaidthesameinNovember2006. Thereisnovariationamongteenstodayinsharingself createdcontentbysex,age,race,ethnicityorsocioeconomic statusallgroupsareequallylikelytoshare.Bycomparison, in2006,girlsandolderteensweremorelikelytoshare contentonline.Still,in2006andin2009,therewereno differencesinsharingcontentbyrace,ethnicity,family incomeorparentseducationlevel. Whilecreativecontentsharingamongteenshasnotincreased significantlysince2006,moreadultsnowshareselfcreated contentonlinethandidsotwoyearsago.Threeintenonline adults(30%)shareonlinecontentasofSeptember2009,upfrom21%ofsuchadultsinDecember2007. Interestingly,almostnoneofthisgrowthovertimehascomefromyoungadults.Thirtysevenpercentof online1829yearoldsnowsharetheirpersonalcreationsonline,afigurethatisunchangedfromthe 36%whodidsoin2007.Incontrast,28%ofinternetusersagesthirtyandupnowtakepartinthis activity,atwelvepointincreasefromthe16%whodidsoin2007. Therearenomajordifferencesinonlinecontentsharingamongadultsbasedongenderor race/ethnicity,althoughthereissomevariationbasedoneducationalattainment.Onethird(34%)of internetuserswithatleastsomecollegeexperienceposttheirowncreationsonline,comparedwith onequarter(24%)ofthosewithahighschooldegreeorless. Remixing Aswithcontentsharing,teenshaveheldsteadyintheirreportsofremixingonlinecontenttaking materialtheyfindonlinesuchassongs,textorimagesandremixingitintotheirownartisticcreations. Aboutoneinfiveonlineteens(21%)reportremixingdigital content,whichisnotastatisticallymeaningfuldifferencefrom ourpreviousfindingthat26%ofteensreportedremixingin November2006.Girlsaremorelikelytoremixcontentthan boys,withonequarter(26%)ofonlinegirlsremixingonline materialcomparedto15%ofboys.Youngerboysaretheleast likelytoremixcontentjust9%ofonlineboysages1213 remix.Remixingshowsnovariationbyrace,incomeor parentslevelofeducation.Remixingin2006showedsimilar patternsto2009,withtheonlydifferencebeingthatboysand girlswereequallylikelytoreportremixingcontentin2006. 23
  • 24. Amongonlineadults,15%takepartinremixcultureandaswithonlinecontentsharing,remixinghas grownsomewhatinpopularityamongolderadultsoverthelasttwoyearsandnotatallamongyoung adultsorteens.Oneinfive(19%)online1829yearoldsremixescontenttheyfindonline(unchanged fromthe20%whodidsoinlate2007),while13%ofinternetusersagesthirtyandupdoso(afive percentagepointincreasefromthe8%whodidsoin2007).Incontrasttoteens,amongadults,menand womenareequallylikelytoremixcontent.Thereislittlevariationamongadultsbasedonrace/ethnicity orsocioeconomicstatus. Blogging Amongallthecontentcreatingactivitiesdiscussedhere,most strikingisthedeclineinbloggingamongteensandyoungadults. Since2006,bloggingbyteenshasdroppedfrom28%ofteen internetusersto14%ofonlineteensin2009.Teensarenow beginningtoresembletheireldersintheirlikelihoodofblogging,as about12%ofadultshaveconsistentlyreportedbloggingsince February2007.Thisdeclineisalsoreflectedinthedeclineofthe numberofteenswhosaytheycommentonblogswithinsocial networkingwebsites52%ofsocialnetworkusingteensreport commentingonfriendsblogswithinthesesites,downfrom76% commentingin2006(asdiscussedearlierinthisreport.) Continuingatrendinteenbloggingthatfirstemergedin2006, teensfromlowerincomefamiliesthoseearningbelow$50,000 annuallyaremorelikelytoreportkeepingablogthanteensfrom householdsearningmorethan$50,000.While23%ofonlineteens fromfamiliesearninglessthan$50,000peryearkeepablog,just8%ofteensfromhouseholdsearning morethan$50,000ayearsaytheykeepablog.Unlikeinyearspast,boysandgirlsarestatisticallyjustas likelytokeepablog.Therearenoracialorethnicdifferencesinbloggingbyteens. Thisdeclineinteenbloggingmirrorsasimilardecreasein bloggingactivityamongtheyoungestadultinternetusers.In December2007,fully28%ofonline1824yearolds maintainedablog.BySeptember2009thatfigurehadfallen byhalf,andjust14%ofinternetusersages1824maintained ablog.Despitethisdeclineamongyoungadults,the proportionofalladultinternetuserswhobloghasnotbudged overthissametimeperiod(12%ofadultinternetusersdidso in2007,and11%dosonow). Theprevalenceofbloggingamongadultsasawholehas remainedconsistentbecausethedeclineinbloggingamong youngadultshasbeenmarkedbyacorrespondingincreasein bloggingamongolderadults.Forexample,inDecember2007, 24
  • 25. 24%ofonline1829yearoldsreportedblogging,comparedwith7%ofthosethirtyandolder.By2009, thatdifferencehadnearlydisappeared15%ofinternetusersunderagethirtyand11%ofthoseages thirtyandupnowmaintainapersonalblog.Amongadultinternetusers,bloggingisequallycommon amongmenandwomen;whites,blackandHispanics;andthosewithlowandhighlevelsofincomeand education. AdditionalAdultContentCreationActivities Alongwiththecontentcreationactivitiesanalyzedabove,ourSeptember2009surveyaskedadult internetusersaboutthreeadditionalcontentcreationactivitiesthatwerenotaskedofteens.These activitiesinclude:creatingorworkingonapersonalwebpage;creatingorworkingonawebpageorblog belongingtosomeoneelse(suchasfriends,groups,orforwork);andpostingcommentstoanonline newsgroup,website,blogorphotosite. Buildingwebsites Theproportionofadultswhocreateorworkonawebsite(eitherapersonalsite,orsomeoneelses)has remainedconsistentoverthelasttwoyears.Fourteenpercentofonlineadultsmaintainapersonal webpage(unchangedfromthe14%whodidsoinDecember2007),while15%workonthewebpagesof others(alsounchangedfromthe13%whodidsoinDecember2007). Adultinternetusersunderagethirtyaremorelikelythanthoseagesthirtyanduptoworkonapersonal webpage(18%vs.13%)aswellastoworkonawebpageforsomeoneelse(21%vs.13%).Withinthe underthirtycohort,thoseages1824andthose2529areequallylikelytoworkonwebpagesofany kind.Menaremorelikelythanwomentoworkontheirownwebpage(16%ofonlinemendoso, comparedwith12%ofonlinewomen)aswellastoworkonwebpagesforothers(17%vs.12%). Postingcomments Postingcommentsonline(suchasonanewsgroup,website,blogorphotosite)hasbecomesomewhat morecommonamongadultsoverthelasttwoyears.Justoveronequarter(26%)ofwiredadultsposted commentsonlineasofSeptember2009,upfrom22%ofsuchadultsinlate2007.Aswithmanyofthe contentcreationactivitiesdiscussedhere,thoseunderagethirtyarenomorelikelytopostonline commentsin2009thentheywerein 2007,whileforolderadults commentinghasbecomemorepopular inrecentyears.In200933%ofinternet usersages1829postedcomments online(unchangedfromthe35%who didsoinDecember2007).Among internetusersagesthirtyandup,one quarter(24%)nowpostcomments online,upfrom18%inlate2007.As reportedearlier,teensareenthusiastic 25
  • 26. onlinecommenterswithinthesocialnetworkcontext.Fully86%ofsocialnetworkingteenspost commentstoafriendspageorwallonasocialnetworksiteand83%postcommentsonfriendsphotos postedtoanonlinesocialnetwork. Thereislittlevariationinonlinecommentingbyadultsbasedongender,race/ethnicityorincome. However,educationdoesplayarole31%ofadultinternetuserswithatleastsomecollegeexperience postcommentsonline,significantlyhigherthanthe20%ofthosewithahighschooldegreeorlesswho doso. Theinternetasaninformationandeconomicapplianceinthelivesofteensand youngadults. Beyonditsroleasanindispensablecommunicationshub,internetaccessconnectsuserstoreamsof vitalinformation,necessaryforlifemanagement,healthandcivicengagement.Thesectionbelow explorestheintersectionofteenandadultdataovertimeonhealthinformationsearches,newsseeking behaviorsandonlinepurchasing. Teens,adultsandonlinehealthinformation Aboutathird(31%)ofonlineteensages12to17usetheinternettolookforhealth,dietingorphysical fitnessinformation,afindingthathasremainedrelativelystablesincethequestionwasfirstaskedin December2000,when26%ofonlineteensgatheredhealthinformationonline.Olderteensaremore likelythanyoungerteenstolookonlineforhealthinformation(38%ofteensages1417vs.13%of teensages1213).Backin2000,whenwefirstaskedteensabouttheironlinehealthinformation seekingpractices,teensshowedsimilarvariationsolderteens,particularlyolderteengirlsweremore likelytolookforhealthinformationonline. Teensalsousetheinternettolookforinformation onhealthtopicsthatarehardtotalkabout,like druguse,sexualhealthordepression.Abitmore thanoneinsix(17%)internetusingteenslook onlineforinformationaboutsensitivehealth topics,statisticallyequivalenttothe22%who reportedsuchsearchesin2004. Girlsaremorelikelythanboystolookonlinefor sensitivehealthinformation(23%vs.11%). Youngerboysaretheleastlikelygrouptolookfor informationonahealthtopicthatishardtotalk aboutjust4%ofonlineboysages1213have doneso,comparedwith13%ofolderboysages14 17.Teensfromthelowestincomefamiliesthose earninglessthan$30,000annuallyarethemost 26
  • 27. likelytoseekhealthinformationonline.Justaboutaquarter(23%)ofonlinelowincometeenslookfor healthinformationcomparedwith11%ofteensfromhouseholdsearningmorethan$75,000ayear. Thesepatternsaresimilartothedifferencesvisiblebetweengroupswhenwefirstaskedaboutlooking forsensitivehealthinformationin2004.Backthen,asnow,girls,olderteensandespeciallyoldergirls werethemostlikelytolookforsensitivehealthinformationonline,aswerelowerincometeens.In 2009,therearenoracialorethnicoreducationleveldifferencesinthosewholookforsensitivehealth informationonlinecomparedwiththosewhodidnot.However,in2004,nonwhiteteensandteens withlesswelleducatedparentsweremorelikelytolookonlineforanswerstohealthquestionsthat werehardtoaskofothers. ADecember2008PewInternetsurveyofadults18andolderindicatesthatoverall,sixintenadultsare onlinehealthinformationseekers. 12 Inthatsurvey,adultswereaskedaboutaseriesofhealthtopics, and61%saidtheyhadlookedonlineforatleastoneofthoseitems. 13 Thisisanotableincreaseoverthe 45%ofallAmericanadultswhowerelookingonlineforhealthinformationin2002.Specifically,in2008, 38%ofadultsindicatedthattheylookonlinefor informationaboutexerciseorfitness,and21%said theylookonlineforinformationaboutdepression, anxiety,stressormentalhealthissues.Overall,one quarterofadults(24%)reportlookingonlinefor informationabouthowtoloseweightorhowto controltheirweight.Thisisparticularlycommon amongadultsinthe2539agerange;fourintenadults inthispopulation(40%)lookonlineforinformation aboutweightcontrol. Thekeyagedivideamongadultonlinehealth informationseekersis50yearsofage.Seveninten adultsunderage50areonlinehealthinformation seekers72%ofthoseunderage30and71%ofthose age3049.Incomparison,just46%ofadultsage50or olderlookforhealthinformationonline.Overall,onlinewomenaremoreavidhealthinformation seekersthanonlinemen,andaresignificantlymorelikelythanmentolookforinformationabout exerciseandfitness(56%v.48%),informationabouthowtoloseweight(42%v.24%),andinformation aboutdepression,anxietyandothermentalhealthissues(35%v.22%). 12 Fox,SusannahandSydneyJones,TheSocialLifeofHealthInformation(PewInternet&AmericanLifeProject:June11,2009).Availableat: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/8TheSocialLifeofHealthInformation.aspx 13 Healthquestionswereaskeddifferentlyofadultsandteens. 27
  • 28. Teensandonlinepurchasing Nearlyhalf(48%)ofonlineteensbuythingsonlinelikebooks,clothingormusic,apracticethathasbeen steadilyincreasingsincethequestionwasfirstaskedinDecember2000,when31%ofonlineteensmade onlinepurchases.Olderteensages1417aremorelikelytobuyitemsonlinemorethanhalf(53%)of onlineteensinthisagegrouphavepurchaseditemsonline,while38%ofmiddleschoolagedteenshave madeonlinepurchases.Oldergirlsdrivethistrend,with57%ofonlinegirlsages1417makingonline purchaseswhilelessthanhalf(48%)ofonlineboysthesameagebuythingsonline. Inboth2000and2009,teenslivinginhouseholdswith higherincomesandeducationlevelswereconsistentlymore likelytobuythingsonline.Themoststrikingdifferences between2000andtodayrelatetogender.Olderteenswere andaremorelikelytobuyonline.However,olderboyswere themostlikelyonlinepurchasersin2000,whileoldergirls leadthetrendin2009. Asonewouldexpect,adultspurchasegoodsonlineata muchhigherratethanteens.AsofApril2009,threeinfour onlineadults(75%)reportpurchasingaproductonlinesuch asbooks,music,toysorclothing.Thatfigurehasincreased atafairlysteadyratesincePewInternetfirstbeganasking thisquestioninMarch2000.Atthattime,abouthalfofall onlineadults(48%)hadeverpurchasedaproductonline. Overall,whiteadultinternetusersaremorelikelytopurchaseproductsonlinethanAfricanAmerican adultinternetusers(77%v.60%),andeducationalattainmentandincomearebothpositivelycorrelated withonlineshopping.Morethaneightintenadultinternetusers(85%)livinginhouseholdswithannual incomesof$50,000ormorehavepurchasedsomethingonline;thatfiguredropsto64%amonginternet userslivinginhouseholdswithincomesbelow$50,000. Otherdriversofonlineshoppingarewireless internetuseandabroadbandconnectionat home.Eightintenwirelessinternetusers(80%) haveboughtaproductonline,comparedwith justsixinteninternetuserswhoarenot wireless(62%).Likewise,homebroadbandusers aremorelikelythanthosewithoutbroadbandat home(81%v.64%)tobeonlineshoppers. 28
  • 29. Teensandnews/politicalnews Abouttwothirds(62%)ofinternetusingteensconsumeonlinenewsaboutcurrenteventsandpolitics. Thesenumbershaveremainedroughlythesamesince2000,exceptforspikesaroundmidtermand generalelectionsinourNovember2004andNovember2006studies,whennewsconsumptionroseto 76%and77%ofonlineteens,respectively.Olderteensaremorelikelytovisitsitesfornewsorpolitical information;68%ofonlineteensages1417visitedonlinenewssites,whilejustabouthalf(49%)of12 13yearoldssaidthesame.Therearenogenderdifferencesinwhetherteensvisitonlinenewssites. Whiteteensandteensfromfamilieswithhigherincomeandeducationlevelsaremorelikelytoreport visitingsitesforonlinenewsorpoliticalinformation.Twothirdsofonlinewhiteteens(66%)saythey havegoneonlinetogetnewsorinformationaboutcurrenteventsorpolitics,while44%ofblackteens and59%ofEnglishspeakingHispanicteenshavedonethesame.Teenswhoseparentshaveacollege degreeorearnmorethan$75,000annuallyaremorelikely thanteenswhoseparentshaveahighschooldiplomaorearn lessthan$50,000inhouseholdincometoseekoutonline informationaboutpoliticsorcurrentevents. PreviousPewInternetstudieshaveshownsimilarfindingsfor onlinenewsuseandhouseholdincomeandeducationand age.However,previousresearchdidnotshowanyracialor ethnicdifferenceinonlinenewsuse. InPewInternetsurveys,adultsaregenerallyaskedtwo separateitemsaboutgettingnewsonlineandgoingonlinefor newsorinformationaboutpolitics.AsofApril2009,72%of onlineadultsgetnewsonline,andasofDecember2009,68% ofonlineadultsgetnewsorinformationonlinethatis specificallyaboutpolitics.Thepercentageofadultinternet userswhogetnewsonlinehasheldfairlyconstantsince2002, when71%ofadultinternetusersreportedgettingnews online.Incontrast,gettingpoliticalnewsonlinehasincreased dramaticallysinceitwasfirstmeasuredbyPewInternetin Marchof2000.Atthattime,just35%ofonlineadultswere gettingpoliticalnewsonline. Similartoteennewsconsumptionbehavior,aswellasadultsonlineshopping,educationalattainment andincomearebothpositivelycorrelatedwithgettingnewsonline.Eightintencollegeeducatedadult internetusers(81%)getnewsonline;thatfiguredropsto59%amonginternetuserswhohavenot attendedcollege.Thesamepatternholdswhenlookingatonlinepoliticalnewsconsumption;threein fourcollegeeducatedinternetusers(75%)getpoliticalnewsonline,comparedwithjust56%ofinternet userswithlowereducationalattainment. 29
  • 30. Wirelessinternetusersaremorelikelythanwiredinternetuserstogetbothgeneralnewsonline(79%v. 56%)andtogetpoliticalnewsonline(73%v.58%).Likewise,thosewithhomebroadbandconnections aremorelikelythanotheronlineadultstogetgeneralnews(79%v.50%)andpoliticalnews(73%v. 49%)ontheinternet.Finally,thosewhogoonlinedailyaremorelikelythanthosewhousetheinternet lessfrequentlytogetbothgeneralnewsandpoliticalnewsandinformationonline. Acknowledgements ThankstotheUniversityofMichiganandourresearchcolleaguesScottCampbellofMichiganandRich LingofITUinCopenhagen,Denmarkfortheirworkonthisproject. 30
  • 31. Methodology SUMMARY Forthe2009teensdatamentionedinthisreport,thebulkofthedatacomesfromthe2009ParentTeen CellPhoneSurvey,sponsoredbythePewInternetandAmericanLifeProject.Thesurveyobtained telephoneinterviewswithanationallyrepresentativesampleof800teensage12to17yearsoldand theirparentslivinginthecontinentalUnitedStates.ThesurveywasconductedbyPrincetonSurvey ResearchAssociatesInternational.TheinterviewsweredoneinEnglishbyPrincetonDataSource,LLC fromJune26toSeptember24,2009.Statisticalresultsareweightedtocorrectknowndemographic discrepancies.Themarginofsamplingerrorforthecompletesetofweighteddatais3.8%.For methodologicalinformationonteensdatacollectedpriorto2009,pleasevisitthedatasetpageforeach studyathttp://www.pewinternet.org/DataTools/DownloadData/DataSets.aspx TheadultdatainthisreportisbasedonthefindingsofadailytrackingsurveyonAmericans'useofthe Internet.TheresultsinthisreportarebasedondatafromtelephoneinterviewsconductedbyPrinceton SurveyResearchAssociatesInternationalbetweenAugust18toSeptember14,2009,amongasampleof 2,253adults,age18andolder.InterviewswereconductedinbothEnglish(n=2,179)andSpanish (n=74).Forresultsbasedonthetotalsample,onecansaywith95%confidencethattheerror attributabletosamplingandotherrandomeffectsisplusorminus2.3percentagepoints.Forresults basedInternetusers(n=1,698),themarginofsamplingerrorisplusorminus2.7percentagepoints.In additiontosamplingerror,questionwordingandpracticaldifficultiesinconductingtelephonesurveys mayintroducesomeerrororbiasintothefindingsofopinionpolls. Afewoftheadultdatapointsinthisstudy(wherenoted)arebasedondatafromtelephoneinterviews conductedbyPrincetonSurveyResearchAssociatesInternationalbetweenNovember30andDecember 27,2009,amongasampleof2,258adults,age18andolder.InterviewswereconductedinbothEnglish (n=2,197)andSpanish(n=61).Forresultsbasedonthetotalsample,onecansaywith95%confidence thattheerrorattributabletosamplingandotherrandomeffectsisplusorminus2.4percentagepoints. ForresultsbasedInternetusers(n=1,676),themarginofsamplingerrorisplusorminus2.8percentage points. FormethodologicalinformationforadultdatacollectedpriortoSeptember2009,pleasevisitthedata setpageforeachstudyathttp://www.pewinternet.org/DataTools/DownloadData/DataSets.aspx Detailsonthedesign,executionandanalysisofthesurveyarediscussedbelow. DESIGNANDDATACOLLECTIONPROCEDURES SampleDesign Acombinationoflandlineandcellularrandomdigitdial(RDD)sampleswasusedtorepresentallteens andtheirparentsinthecontinentalUnitedStateswhohaveaccesstoeitheralandlineorcellular 31
  • 32. telephone.BothsampleswereprovidedbySurveySamplingInternational,LLC(SSI)accordingtoPSRAI specifications. Numbersforthelandlinesamplewereselectedwithprobabilitiesinproportiontotheirshareoflisted telephonehouseholdsfromactiveblocks(areacode+exchange+twodigitblocknumber)that containedthreeormoreresidentialdirectorylistings.Thecellularsamplewasnotlistassisted,butwas drawnthroughasystematicsamplingfromdedicatedwireless100blocksandsharedservice100blocks withnodirectorylistedlandlinenumbers. ContactProcedures InterviewswereconductedfromJune26toSeptember24,2009.Asmanyas7attemptsweremadeto contactandinterviewaparentateverysampledtelephonenumber.Aftertheparentinterview,an additional7callsweremadetointerviewaneligibleteen.Samplewasreleasedforinterviewingin replicates,whicharerepresentativesubsamplesofthelargersample.Usingreplicatestocontrolthe releaseofsampleensuresthatcompletecallproceduresarefollowedfortheentiresample.Callswere staggeredovertimesofdayanddaysoftheweektomaximizethechanceofmakingcontactwith potentialrespondents.Eachtelephonenumberreceivedatleastonedaytimecallinanattempttofind someoneathome. Contactprocedureswereslightlydifferentforthelandlineandcellsamples.Forthelandlinesample, interviewersfirstdeterminedifthehouseholdhadany12to17yearoldresidents.Householdswithno teenswerescreenedoutasineligible.Ineligiblehouseholds,interviewersfirstconductedashortparent interviewwitheitherthefather/maleguardianormother/femaleguardian.Theshortparentinterview askedsomebasichouseholddemographicquestionsaswellasquestionsaboutaparticularteeninthe household(selectedatrandomifmorethanoneteenlivedinthehouse.) Forthecellphonesample,interviewsfirstmadesurethatrespondentswereinasafeplacetotalkand thattheywerespeakingwithanadult.Callsmadetominorswerescreenedoutasineligible.Ifthe personwasnotinasafeplacetotalkacallbackwasscheduled.Interviewersthenaskedifany12to17 yearoldslivedintheirhousehold.Caseswherenoteenslivedinthehouseholdwerescreenedoutas ineligible.Iftherewasanageeligibleteeninthehousehold,theinterviewersaskedifthepersononthe cellphonewasaparentofthechild.Thosewhowereparentswentontocompletetheparentinterview. Thoswhowerenotparentswerescreenedoutasineligible. Forbothsamples,aftertheparentinterviewwascompleteaninterviewwascompletedwiththetarget child.Datawaskeptonlyifthechildinterviewwascompleted. WEIGHTINGANDANALYSIS Weightingisgenerallyusedinsurveyanalysistocompensateforpatternsofnonresponsethatmight biasresults.Theinterviewedsamplewasweightedtomatchnationalparametersforbothparentand childdemographics.Theparentdemographicsusedforweightingwere:sex;age;education;race; 32
  • 33. Hispanicorigin;andregion(U.S.Censusdefinitions).Thechilddemographicsusedforweightingwere genderandage.TheseparameterscamefromaspecialanalysisoftheCensusBureaus2008Annual SocialandEconomicSupplement(ASEC)thatincludedallhouseholdsinthecontinentalUnitedStates. WeightingwasaccomplishedusingSampleBalancing,aspecialiterativesampleweightingprogramthat simultaneouslybalancesthedistributionsofallvariablesusingastatisticaltechniquecalledtheDeming Algorithm.Weightsweretrimmedtopreventindividualinterviewsfromhavingtoomuchinfluenceon thefinalresults.Theuseoftheseweightsinstatisticalanalysisensuresthatthedemographic characteristicsofthesamplecloselyapproximatethedemographiccharacteristicsofthenational population.Table1comparesweightedandunweightedsampledistributionstopopulationparameters. Table1:SampleDemographics Parameter Unweighted Weighted CensusRegion Northeast 17.8 15.4 17.4 Midwest 21.8 24.6 22.1 South 36.7 36.8 36.9 West 23.7 23.3 23.6 Parent'sSex Male 43.7 36.3 42.4 Female 56.3 63.8 57.6 Parent'sAge LT35 10.0 11.8 10.2 3539 19.2 16.6 18.8 4044 26.4 21.3 25.6 4549 24.8 26.2 25.2 5054 13.1 16.0 13.5 55+ 6.4 8.1 6.6 33
  • 34. Parent'sEducation LessthanHSgrad. 13.1 7.5 11.6 HSgrad. 34.9 27.6 35.1 Somecollege 23.2 25.0 23.6 Collegegrad. 28.8 39.9 29.8 Parent'sRace/Ethnicity White,notHispanic 63.6 69.5 65.2 Black,notHispanic 11.9 14.8 12.3 Hispanic 18.1 10.0 16.1 Other,notHispanic 6.3 5.8 6.4 Kid'sSex Male 50.9 53.6 51.3 Female 49.1 46.4 48.7 Kid'sAge 12 16.7 14.3 16.1 13 16.7 17.0 16.8 14 16.7 15.6 16.6 15 16.7 17.8 16.8 16 16.7 16.3 16.7 17 16.7 19.1 17.0 34
  • 35. EffectsofSampleDesignonStatisticalInference Postdatacollectionstatisticaladjustmentsrequireanalysisproceduresthatreflectdeparturesfrom simplerandomsampling.PSRAIcalculatestheeffectsofthesedesignfeaturessothatanappropriate adjustmentcanbeincorporatedintotestsofstatisticalsignificancewhenusingthesedata.Thesocalled "designeffect"ordeffrepresentsthelossinstatisticalefficiencythatresultsfromsystematicnon response.Thetotalsampledesigneffectforthissurveyis1.18. PSRAIcalculatesthecompositedesigneffectforasampleofsizen,witheachcase havingaweight,wias: n n wi 2 deff i 1 2 n formula1 wi i 1 Inawiderangeofsituations,theadjustedstandarderrorofastatisticshouldbecalculatedby multiplyingtheusualformulabythesquarerootofthedesigneffect(deff).Thus,theformulafor computingthe95%confidenceintervalaroundapercentageis: p (1 p ) p deff 1.96 n formula2 where p isthesampleestimateandnistheunweightednumberofsamplecasesinthegroup beingconsidered. Thesurveysmarginoferroristhelargest95%confidenceintervalforanyestimatedproportionbased onthetotalsampletheonearound50%.Forexample,themarginoferrorfortheentiresampleis 3.8%.Thismeansthatin95outevery100samplesdrawnusingthesamemethodology,estimated proportionsbasedontheentiresamplewillbenomorethan3.8percentagepointsawayfromtheirtrue valuesinthepopulation.Itisimportanttorememberthatsamplingfluctuationsareonlyonepossible sourceoferrorinasurveyestimate.Othersources,suchasrespondentselectionbias,questionnaire wordingandreportinginaccuracy,maycontributeadditionalerrorofgreaterorlessermagnitude. 35
  • 36. RESPONSERATE Table2reportsthedispositionofallsampledcallbacktelephonenumberseverdialed.Theresponserate estimatesthefractionofalleligiblerespondentsinthesamplethatwereultimatelyinterviewed.At PSRAIitiscalculatedbytakingtheproductofthreecomponentrates: o Contactratetheproportionofworkingnumberswherearequestforinterviewwasmade o Cooperationratetheproportionofcontactednumberswhereaconsentforinterviewwasat leastinitiallyobtained,versusthoserefused o Completionratetheproportionofinitiallycooperatingandeligibleinterviewsthatagreedto thechildinterviewandwerecompleted Thustheresponserateforlandlinesamplewas14percentandtheresponserateforthecellsamplewas 11percent. Table2:SampleDispositions Landline Cell 95863 39997 TTotalNumbersDialed 5185 619 OFNonresidential 4147 29 OFComputer/Fax 59 0 OFCellphone 39588 14290 OFOthernotworking 6206 1145 UHAdditionalprojectednotworking 40679 23915 Workingnumbers 42.4% 59.8% WorkingRate 2069 382 UHNoAnswer/Busy 7575 5176 UONCVoiceMail 79 11 UONCOtherNonContact 30956 18346 Contactednumbers 76.1% 76.7% ContactRate 36
  • 37. 2611 3092 UORCallback 17958 8644 UORRefusal 10387 6610 Cooperatingnumbers 33.6% 36.0% CooperationRate 1232 837 IN1LanguageBarrier 1717 IN1Child'scellphone 8142 3426 IN2Noteeninhousehold 1013 630 Eligiblenumbers 9.8% 9.5% EligibilityRate 260 212 RParentrefusedchildinterview 209 162 RBreakoffchildorparent 544 256 ICompletes 53.7% 40.6% CompletionRate 13.7% 11.2% ResponseRate 37
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