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Pipe Fittings (Piping Systems)

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Pipe Fitting



  • GENERAL COMPOSITION OF THE PIPINGPiping system consists of the following components :1. The actual pipes2. The fittings: tees, elbows, reducers, etc.3. The range of connections: flanges, threaded fittings, weld fittings, etc.4. The range of seals: gaskets, etc.*Piping and connections

  • COPPER PIPING Copper tubes are best adapted for cold/hot water and gas pipes. It is sometimes necessary to anneal a tube to improve its malleability.Use a torch to heat the tube to redness on the part which is to be annealed. This work can be done with a blowtorch (oxy-acetylene)*Annealing

  • COPPER PIPING OLIVE COMPRESSION FITTINGS: These olive compression fittings simplify the installation, but they cannot withstand several disassemblies. GRIP FITTING: For a beginner this principle is the easiest and has the advantage of being indefinitely detachable.*Olive compression fittingGrip fitting

  • COPPER PIPING FLARE FITTINGIt consists of a female nut and a male union fitting.This fitting requires the installation of a fibre or rubber gasket for the sealing.


  • COPPER PIPING PROGRESSIVE RING FITTINGS (ERMETO): The Ermeto fitting is very popular due to its easy assembly which only needs two open spaners. SPHERICAL SEAT UNION: The tightening of the nut locally crushes the metal thus procuring a tight seal. *ErmetoSpherical seat

  • COPPER PIPING Weld fittingsThere are several kinds of copper weld fittings. With copper piping, the term welding is not used; we speak of soldering or brazing. Soldering and brazing consist of a lapped joint assembly of two pieces of metal by capillarity, using a welding rod. *Brazing

  • COPPER PIPING The difference between soldering and brazing:1. Soldering (melting point less than 450C)2. Brazing (melting temperature higher than 450C)


  • . Inbrazing, the filler metal melts at a higher temperature, but the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders containedlead, but environmental concerns have increasingly dictated use oflead-free alloysfor electronics and plumbing purposesSolderingis a process in which two or moremetalitems are joined together by melting and flowing afiller metal(solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lowermelting pointthan the adjoining metal . Soldering differs fromweldingin that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces

  • COPPER PIPING Two things should be noted when speaking of soldering or brazing:This is a capillary phenomenon (where a liquid spreads between the cracks of two parts in contact and which slowly progresses whatever the position of the parts)Wetting (when the bond between the soldering or brazing and the work piece is free of apparent defects and the coating of the soldering or brazing appears even)*Welding sleeves:

  • STEEL PIPING The steel pipes are much larger than those made of copper but steel pipes can also be found in small sizes. Steel is divided into three categories: 1. Non-alloy steels2. Alloy steels3. Stainless steels*

  • STEEL PIPING The choice of steel for the piping depends on the nature, temperature and pressure of the fluid transported. To connect steel pipes the electrical welding( with welding electrodes) process is used for big diameters.


  • BUTT WELD FITTINGS1. Reducing T-pieces 2. Reducers Concentric 3. Reducers Eccentric4. Elbows 90 5. Collars6. Stub-ends7. T-pieces8. Caps*1223456788

  • PIPE FITTINGSPipe fitting such as elbow, tees, reducers, etc. are used to:1. Change flow directions2. Change size and geometry of the line3. Fittings are manufactured from the same pipe materials.4. Fittings must have the same pressure rating of piping system and corrosion resistance to the conveyed flow.*

  • PIPE FITTINGSElbowsElbows may be 180, 90 and 45 degrees. The radius of curvature is generally equal to 1 or 1.5 times the nominal diameter. They are used to change the direction by 45, 90, or 180.TEE: used to connect three pipes together and branching a pipe line at 90CROSS: used to connect four pipes together


  • FITTINGS Weld bend welding fittings are permanently identified by die marking to designate: 1. Manufacturer2. Size3. Wall Thickness4. Material Grade5. Heat Identification*



  • WELDING FITTINGS (SHORT AND LONG RADIUS ELBOWS AND RETURN BENDS)*90 degrees elbows180 degrees elbow (Return bends)

  • PIPE FITTINGS ( REDUCERRS)*To connect two pipes with two different diameters

  • PIPE FITTINGS (BUTT WELDING TEES)*TEE: used to connect three pipes together and branching a pipe line at 90

    Butt- welding TeesStraight butt-welding TeeReducing butt - welding Tee

  • PIPE FITTINGS (COUPLINGS)*Full couplingReducer: Join two different diameters of pipe

  • PIPE FITTINGS (CROSS CONNECTION)*CROSS: used to connect four pipes together


  • WELDING FITTINGS*Butt- welding capTo close the end of the pipeFlat closure


  • TYPES OF FITTINGS*900 male elbows450 male elbowsTeeUnion cross

  • NIPPLES, COUPLING AND UNIONNipples and Couplings are used to connect pipes permanently. Nipples have a male thread but couplings have a female one.


  • CAPS AND PLUGS1. Caps and plugs are used to plug (close) pipe ends2. Plugs are having external thread3. Caps are having internal thread


  • FLANGES FlangesWhen the tube diameters are larger than the diameters of the largest fittings, steel pipes are joined by flanges. The steel pipes with a small diameter can also be fit with flanges depending on the nature and pressure of the transported fluid.


  • TYPES OF FLANGESConnection to the pipe1. Welding-neck2. Slip on3. Screwed4. Blind5. Lap joint6. Socket-welding*12463







    *Stub endLap joint flange



  • FLANGES Flanges are permanently identified by die marking to designate: 1. Manufacturer 2. Size 3. Class 4. Material Specification 5. Heat Identification 6. Production Code (Optional) *

  • TYPES OF FLANGE FACES1. Flat face flange2. Raised face flange3. Male & female flange4. Ring joint flange (RTJ)*

  • TYPES OF FLANGE FACES*Flat face flangeRaised face flangeMetal ring joint face flange (RTJ)

  • FLANGE FACES1. FLAT FACE FLANGE1. The flange face is completely flat. 2. Both flanges to be coupled are identical.3. The gasket must be of the disc type, entirely contained within the diameter of the bolt holes or, more commonly, of the full-face type and the bolt holes punched out.4. These require a very wide gasket, and are not suitable for high pressures.


  • 1. FLANGE FACES - FLAT FACE FLANGE*Flat face flange (FF)Gasket for flat face flange

  • FLANGE FACES1. FLAT FACE FLANGE*Flat face flangeFlat face flange gasket

  • FLANGE FACES 2. RAISED FACE FLANGE1. The two flange faces are identical.2. The gasket rests against the raised face.3. The purpose of the raised face is to ensure uniform distribution of pressure over the gasket.4. Coupled flanges can easily be separated since the external part is placed so as to permit the application of tools and wedges.*

  • 2. RAISED FACE FLANGE FACES*Raised face flange (RF)

  • 3. FLANGE FACES MALE AND FEMALE FLANGE FACE* Large male and female flange

  • 3. FLANGE FACES MALE AND FEMALE FLANGE* Large tongue and groove flange

  • 4. FLANGE FACES RING JOINT FLANGE*Ring-joint flanges (RTJ)

  • SPECIAL FLANGES1. Blind flanges2. Spectacle blind flanges3. Orifice flanges


  • SPECIAL FLANGES 1. BLIND FLANGE OR END BLIND These flanges are used only for closing lines and valves *

  • SPECIAL FLANGES1. BLIND FLANGEThese flanges are used only for closing lines It is inserted between two flanges *

  • SPECIAL FLANGES2. SPECTACLE BLIND1. These flanges are used to keep the line open or close2. It gives indication if the line is open or closed 3. It is inserted between two flanges *Spectacle blindFlangesGasketsStud bolts



  • SPECIAL FLANGESTHE WORKING PRINCIPALE OF ORIFICE*For this kind of flanges:The orifice disc must be installed in the correct directionThe holes in the flanges must be cleaned every timeThe gaskets must be replacedOrifice plate

  • SPECIAL FLANGES1. ORIFICE FLANGE*For this kind of flanges:The orifice disc must be installed in the correct directionThe holes in the flanges must be cleaned every timeThe gaskets must be replacedOrifice discThe orifice disc holeHoles to connect the instrument system

  • FLANGE RATING The ratings defined by the following:150 pounds: corresponds to a maximum allowable pressure of 150 psig (pound per square inch gauge) at 500F (260C) for all materials300 pounds: max allowable pressure 300 psig at 850F (454C) for carbon steel600 pounds: max pressure (P=600psig) at the same temperature as the 300 lbs rating


  • FLANGE RATING The ratings defined by the following:900 pounds: max pressure (P=900psig) at the same temperature

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