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Pipes and Piping

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    Pipe Material Selection

    Pipe materials include:

    1. Steel pipes2. GI pipes3. HDPE4. PVC5. Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)6. Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe (RCPP)7. Asbestos-Cement Pipe (ACP)

    Buried piping for municipal water transmission and distribution must resist internal pressure,

    external loads, differential settlement, and corrosive action of both soils and, potentially, the

    water it carries. General factors to be considered in the selection of pipe include the following:

    Service conditions

    Pressure (including surges and transients)

    Soil loads, bearing capacity of soil, potential settlement

    Corrosion potential of soil

    Potential corrosive nature of some waters

    Availability

    Local availability and experienced installation personnel

    Sizes and thicknesses (pressure ratings and classes)

    Compatibility with available fittings

    Properties of the pipe

    Strength (static and fatigue, especially for water hammer)

    Ductility

    Corrosion resistance

    Fluid friction resistance (more important in transmission pipelines) Economics

    Cost (installed cost, including freight to job site and installation)

    Required life

    Cost of maintenance and repairs

    In summary the selection of pipe materials is based on

    carrying capacity strength ease of transportation and handling

    availability quality of water cost (initial and maintenance)

    Valves are required:

    to isolate segments of a pipeline, e.g. Gate and butterfly valves to regulate rate of flow, e.g. Check valves prevent backflow of water to control pressure (Pressure sustaining valves (PSV) and Pressure reducing valves (PRV))

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    to allow release or entry of air from pipe system (Air-release and vacuum valves)Factors considered in the selection of valves include:

    purpose and operation, capacity required, head loss and rate of flow, cost, Availability, etc.

    Purpose of Distribution reservoirs

    Equalizing supply and demand Increasing operating convenience Leveling out pumping requirements Providing water during source or pump failure Maintaining pressure levels within acceptable ranges Providing water to meet fire demands Increase detention times Blending water sources

    Distribution reservoir types

    Ground reservoirs Buried reservoirs Elevated reservoirs Stand pipes

    o Can be made of Concrete or masonryo Steel tank

    Distribution reservoirs design considerations and details

    Minimum capacity: Equalizing storage + Emergency reserve (about 25%) + Firestorage.

    Location: provide several smaller storage units Aesthetics: visual impacts Ventilation Overflow Security and safety

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    HARDCROSS METHOD (HCM)

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