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PIPESIM 2010.1 Fundamentals H

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  • PIPESIM Fundamentals

    Workflow/Solutions TrainingVersion 2010.1

    Schlumberger Information SolutionsNovember 3, 2010

  • Copyright Notice 2010 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.

    No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of Schlumberger Information Solutions, 5599 San Felipe, Suite100, Houston, TX 77056-2722.

    DisclaimerUse of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Schlumberger reserves the right to revise the information in this manual at any time without notice.

    Trademark InformationSoftware application marks used in this publication, unless otherwise indicated, are trademarks of Schlumberger. Certain other products and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.

  • Table of Contents

    About this ManualLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1What You Will Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1What to Expect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Course Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Workflow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    Module 1: PIPESIM IntroductionLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Lesson 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Lesson 2: A Tour of the User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Lesson 3: PIPESIM File System and Calculation Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Output Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Lesson 4: Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Lesson 5: Single Branch Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    System Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Pressure/Temperature Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Flow Correlation Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Data Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22NODAL Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Optimum Horizontal Well Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Reservoir Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Well Performance Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Gas Lift Rate vs. Casing Head Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Artificial Lift Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Wax Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Module 2: Simple Pipeline TutorialsLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Lesson 1: Single-Phase Flow Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Exercise 1: Modeling a Water Pipeline with Hand Calculations . . . . . . . . . . 29Exercise 2: Modeling a Water Pipeline with PIPESIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Performing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 i

  • The Primary Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41The Auxiliary Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Exercise 3: Analyzing Multiple Scenarios with Sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Exercise 4: Modeling a Single-Phase Gas Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Exercise 5: Calculating Gas Pipeline Flow Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    Lesson 2: Multiphase Flow Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Exercise 1: Modeling a Multiphase Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Module 3: Oil Well Performance AnalysisLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Lesson 1: NODAL Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Exercise 1: Building the Well Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Exercise 2: Performing NODAL Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Exercise 3: Performing a Pressure/Temperature Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    Lesson 2: Fluid Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Single Point Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Multi-Point Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Exercise 1: Calibrating PVT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78GOR Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    Lesson 3: Pressure/Temperature Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Exercise 1: Flow Correlation Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Exercise 2: Matching Inflow Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    Lesson 4: Well Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Conducting a Water Cut Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Exercise 1: Evaluating Gas Lift Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Exercise 2: Working with Multiple Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

    Lesson 5: Flow Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Exercise 1: Modeling a Flow Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98ii PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Module 4: Gas Well PerformanceLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101Lesson 1: Compositional Fluid Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

    Equations of State (EoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Binary Interaction Parameter (BIP) Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Exercise 1: Creating a Compositional Fluid Model for a Gas Well . . . . . . . 107Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

    Lesson 2: Gas Well Deliverability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111Exercise 1: Calculating Gas Well Deliverability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Exercise 2: Calibrating the Inflow Model Using Multipoint Test Data . . . . . 115Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    Lesson 3: Erosion Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117API 14 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117Salama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Exercise 1: Selecting a Tubing Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

    Lesson 4: Choke Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Exercise 1: Modeling a Flowline and Choke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122Exercise 2: Predicting Future Production Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

    Lesson 5: Liquid Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126Turner Droplet Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126Exercise 1: Determining a Critical Gas Rate to Prevent Well Loading . . . . 128

    Review Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

    Module 5: Horizontal Well DesignLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131Lesson 1: Inflow Performance Relationships for Horizontal Completions . . . . 131

    Exercise 1: Constructing the Well Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134Exercise 2: Evaluating the Optimal Horizontal Well Length . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Exercise 3: Specifying Multiple Horizontal Perforated Intervals . . . . . . . . . 136

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 iii

  • Module 6: Subsea Tieback DesignLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139Lesson 1: Flow Assurance Considerations for Subsea Tieback Design . . . . . 140

    Exercise 1: Developing a Compositional PVT Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140Exercise 2: Constructing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142Exercise 3: Sizing the Subsea Tieback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

    Lesson 2: Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145Hydrate Mitigation Strategies in PIPESIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146Exercise 1: Selecting Tieback Insulation Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147Exercise 2: Determining the Methanol Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

    Lesson 3: Severe Riser Slugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150PI-SS Indicator (Severe-Slugging Group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Exercise 1: Screening for Severe Riser Slugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

    Lesson 4: Slug Catcher Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154Hydrodynamic Slugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154Pigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156Ramp-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Evaluating Each Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Exercise 1: Sizing a Slug Catcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

    Module 7: Looped Gas Gathering NetworkLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163Lesson 1: Model a Gathering Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

    Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Solution Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Exercise 1: Building a Model of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165Exercise 2: Performing a Network Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173Looped Gathering Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

    Module 8: Water Injection NetworkLearning Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Lesson 1: Crossflow in Multilayer Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

    Exercise 1: Determining Fluid Distribution in a Water Injection Network . . 182Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186iv PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Appendix A: PIPESIM 2010.1 Fundamentals Answer Key to ExercisesModule 2: Simple Pipeline Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

    Lesson 1: Single-Phase Flow Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189Module 3: Oil Well Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

    Lesson 1: Nodal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Lesson 2: Fluid Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Lesson 3: Pressure/Temperature Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Lesson 4: Well Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Question (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Lesson 5: Flow Control Valve Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

    Module 4: Gas Well Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192Lesson 2: Gas Well Deliverability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192Lesson 3: Erosion Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193Lesson 4: Choke Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193Lesson 5: Critical Gas Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

    Module 5: Horizontal Well Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Lesson 1: Inflow Performance Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

    Module 6: Subsea Tieback Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Lesson 1: Flow Assurance Considerations for Subsea Tieback Design . . 194Lesson 2: Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Lesson 3: Severe Riser Slugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195Lesson 4: Slug Catcher Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

    Module 7: Looped Gas Gathering Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195Lesson 1: Model a Gathering Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 v

  • vi PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger About this ManualAbout this Manual

    This training provides an introduction into the PIPESIM software application. PIPESIM is a production engineers tool that covers a wide range of applications relevant to the oil and gas industry.

    Applications featured in this training manual include well performance, fluid modeling, flow assurance and network simulation.

    Learning ObjectivesAfter completing this training, you will know how to:

    build a single branch well or pipeline model define a black oil or compositional fluid model perform single branch simulation operations build a network model perform a network simulation.

    What You Will NeedYou must have the following hardware and software to complete the training:

    Personal computer with minimum 512 MB RAM PIPESIM 2010.1 Training data sets.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 1

  • About this Manual SchlumbergerWhat to ExpectIn each module within this training material, you will encounter the following:

    Overview of the module Prerequisites to the module (if necessary) Learning objectives A workflow component (if applicable) Lessons, explaining a subject or an activity in the workflow Procedures, showing the steps needed to perform a task Exercises, which allow you to practice a task by using the

    steps in the procedure with a data set Scenario-based exercises Questions about the module Summary of the module.

    You will also encounter notes, tips and best practices.2 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger About this ManualCourse Conventions

    NOTE: Some of the conventions used in this manual indicate the information to enter, but are not part of the information For example: Quotation marks and information between brackets indicate the information you should enter. Do not include the quotation marks or brackets when you type your information.

    Instructions to make menu selections are also written using bold text and an arrow indicating the selection sequence, as shown:

    1. Click File menu > Save (the Save Asset Model File dialog box opens.)OR

    Click the Save Model toolbar button.

    An OR is used to identify an alternate procedure.

    Characters typed in Bold

    Represent references to dialog box names and application areas or commands to be performed. For example, "Open the Open Asset Model dialog." or Choose Components.Used to denote keyboard commands. For example, "Type a name and press Enter."Identifies the name of Schlumberger software applications, such as ECLIPSE or Petrel.

    Characters inside triangle brackets

    Indicate variable values that the user must supply, such as and .

    Characters typed in italics

    Represent file names or directories, such as "... edit the file sample.dat and..."

    Represent lists and option areas in a window, such as Attributes list or Experiments area.Identifies the first use of important terms or concepts. For example, "compositional simulation" or safe mode operation.

    Characters typed in fixed-width

    Represent code, data, and other literal text the user sees or types. For example, enter 0.7323.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 3

  • About this Manual SchlumbergerIconsThroughout this manual, you will find icons in the margin representing various kinds of information. These icons serve as at-a-glance reminders of their associated text. See below for descriptions of what each icon means.4 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger About this ManualWorkflow DiagramFigure 1 illustrates the workflow of the PIPESIM application.

    Figure 1 PIPESIM workflowPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 5

  • About this Manual SchlumbergerSummaryIn this introduction, we:

    defined the learning objectives outlined what tools you will need for this training discussed course conventions that you will encounter within

    this material provided a high-level overview of the workflow.6 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger About this ManualNOTESPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 7

  • About this Manual SchlumbergerNOTES8 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionModule 1 PIPESIM IntroductionThis module introduces PIPESIM 2010.1 and describes the graphical user interface (GUI) in detail to familiarize you with the application environment.

    Learning ObjectivesAfter completing this module, you will know how to:

    create a new or open an existing project navigate through the user interface understand the structure of the output file display plots in PsPlot.You will also develop an understanding of PIPESIM toolbars, file system, engines, and operations.

    Lesson 1 Introduction

    PIPESIM is a steady-state, multiphase flow simulator used for the design and analysis of oil and gas production systems. With its rigorous simulation algorithms, PIPESIM helps you optimize your production and injection operations.

    As shown in Figure 2, PIPESIM models multiphase flow from the reservoir through to the surface facilities to enable comprehensive production system analysis.

    PIPESIM is most often used by reservoir, production or facilities engineers as an engineering user type to model well performance, conduct nodal (systems) analysis, design artificial lift systems, model pipeline networks and facilities, and analyze field development plans and optimize production.

    NOTE: Steady-state flow simulation implies that the mass flow rate is conserved throughout the system. This means there is no accumulation of mass within any component in the system.

    PIPESIM Fundamentals,Version 2010.1 9

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerFigure 2 Total production system

    PIPESIM modules are available and licensed separately, depending on your needs:

    Base System Production system analysis software for well modeling, NODAL analysis, artificial lift design, pipeline/process facilities modeling and field development planning.

    Network Analysis (NET)

    Optional add-on to PIPESIM to model complex networks that can include loops, parallel lines and crossovers

    Compositional Model Optional add on to PIPESIM

    Multiflash Package Optional add-on to PIPESIM. Compositional model is not required.

    Multiflash Hydrates Optional add-on to Multiflash package.

    Multiflash Wax Thermodynamics

    Optional add-on to Multiflash package.

    Multiflash Asphaltene Optional add-on to Multiflash package.

    PIPESIM Linux Computation Engines

    Used only with Avocet IAM when ECLIPSE Parallel and is run on a Linux Cluster10 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionAvocet Gas Lift Optimization Module

    Network Optimization option that calculates the optimal gas lift allocation to a network of gas lifted wells

    PIPESIM OLGAS Steady State Flow Correlation 2-Phase

    Third-party 2-phase mechanistic multiphase flow model

    PIPESIM OLGAS Steady State Flow Correlation 3-Phase

    Third-party 3-phase mechanistic multiphase flow model

    PIPESIM Rod Pump Design / Optimization

    Third-party module for designing rod pumps

    PIPESIM Rod Pump Diagnostics

    Third-party module for diagnosing rod pump performance based on digitized dynocards

    PIPESIM DBR Wax Deposition

    Single-phase wax deposition model embedded in PIPESIM using wax properties characterized with the DBR Solids application

    DBR Solids Wax and Asphaltene Precipitation

    Standalone application that predicts the wax and asphaltene precipitation temperature

    DBR Solids Wax Deposition Characterization

    Standalone application that characterizes wax properties for use in PIPESIM wax depositionPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 11

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerLesson 2 A Tour of the User Interface

    The PIPESIM graphical user interface (GUI) allows you to easily construct well and network models within a single environment. To launch PIPESIM from the Start menu, select Program files > Schlumberger > PIPESIM.

    As shown in Figure 3, the PIPESIM interface consists of one main window, a menu bar, a status bar, a standard toolbar and three specific toolbars related to single branch and network modeling views.

    Figure 3 PIPESIM toolbars and menus

    The Standard toolbar (Figure 4) contains common commands that are displayed in both the single branch and network views.

    The Single Branch toolbar (Figure 5) is displayed only in single branch view, while the Network toolbar (Figure 6) and the Net Viewer toolbar are displayed in the Network view.

    You can hide the toolbars from view using the Menu bar.

    12 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionFigure 4 Standard toolbar functionality

    Figure 5 Single Branch toolbar

    Menu Bar This has familiar Windows menus including File, Edit, Help, and more. All the tools available in other toolbars, plus all operations in PIPESIM.

    Status Bar The status of running operation. If there is no operation running, it will show the path of model.

    Standard Toolbar

    Available in both single branch and network model and is comprised of the icons and processes shown in Figure 4.

    Single Branch Toolbar

    These tools (Figure 5) are available only in single branch models or the network model in single branch mode. It consists of all objects required to build the physical model. These tools can also be accessed from the Menu bar.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 13

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerNOTE: Icons in the Network toolbar and the Net Viewer bar are not highlighted in the Single Branch model. Similarly, icons in the Single Branch toolbar are not highlighted in the network model.

    From the Network model, you must access the Single Branch viewing mode by double-clicking on the object to insert necessary equipment, such as compressors, pumps, chokes, and more.

    Network Toolbar

    This toolbar (Figure 6) is available only in the network model view. It consists of all objects required to build the physical network model.

    These tools can also be accessed from the menu bar.

    Figure 6 Network toolbar14 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionLesson 3 PIPESIM File System and Calculation Engines

    PIPESIM generates several input and output files in its working directory when you run a model. The engines and file system are listed here:

    The file extensions are processed by the simulation engine to create output files.

    PIPESIM Engines

    PIPESIM uses one engine for a Single Branch model and another engine for a Network model.

    Psimstub.exe is the PIPESIM engine for single branch operations

    Pnetsub.exe is the PIPESIM engine for a network simulation

    You can set or change the path of these engines by selecting Setup > Preferences > Choose Paths.

    PIPESIM File System

    PIPESIM stores data in these formats:

    ASCII files Binary files Microsoft Access database.

    Extension Type of File Application Files

    *.bps Single branch model PIPESIM file

    All the data necessary to run a model. Single Branch model file includes data for units, fluid composition, well IPR, system data, and more.

    The support team requires these files when you make support queries.

    *.bpn Network model PIPESIM file

    Same as above for a Network model.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 15

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerExtension Type of File Output Files

    *.out Output file All output data in ASCII format. The output file is produced from both Single Branch and Network models. Node by node results are reported in output files. The output file is divided into sections. You have the option to show or hide a section by using Setup > Define Output.Mostly, errors are reported in output file. Remember to check this file in case of an error in a PIPESIM model.

    *.sum Summary file Summary report of PIPESIM output, such as pressures and temperatures at sources and sinks.

    Plot Files

    *.plc Profile plot Variables you can plot with distance and elevation in PsPlot. These variables include pressure, temperature and fluid properties, and more.PsPlot is a plotting utility in PIPESIM.

    *.plt System plot Same as the *.plc file, but does not contain variables such as distance and elevation. This file is primarily used to see sensitivity of one variable to another. For example, you can plot water cut with system outlet pressure.

    Miscellaneous Files

    *.psm This is the keyword input file generated by the user interface for the PIPESIM single branch engine named psimstub.exe. In certain situations (mainly debugging), this file can be manually modified via expert mode.

    *.tnt All instructions sent to the PIPESIM network engine - pnetstub.exe. The PIPESIM engine reads this file for processing not the *.bpn file.

    *.mdb Access database file

    Black oil fluid data, electric submersible pump (ESP) performance curves, user-defined pump and compressor curves, and pressure survey data. You can access this file by selecting Setup > Preferences > Choose Paths. You can set the path of this file in the Data Source box.16 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionOutput Files

    The PIPESIM output file is an ACSII format file, generated by either a Single Branch or a Network model. This is a very large file divided into many sections. You can customize the output report by selecting Setup > Define output (Figure 7).

    Figure 8 is a sample of the output from the primary output section.

    Figure 7 Define Output tab

    Extension Type of File Miscellaneous Files

    *.pvt PVT file A single stream composition and a table of fluid properties for a given set of pressure and temperature values. If needed, this file can be created by a commercial PVT package, such as Multiflash, Hysys, DBRSolids or others, or using the Compositional module in PIPESIM.

    *.unf Unit file Stores user-defined unit sets, which can be passed from user-to-user.

    *.env Phase envelope file

    *.map Flow regime mapPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 17

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerFigure 8 Sample output file (primary output section)18 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionLesson 4 Plots

    Plots in PIPESIM are displayed with a plotting utility called PsPlot. The path to the PsPlot executable is normally located in the PIPESIM installation directory, such as C:\Program Files\Schlumb erger\PIPESIM\Programs\PSPlotX.exe.

    You can set the path of PsPlotX.exe by selecting Setup > Preferences > Choose Paths. You can use PsPlot to open both *.plc and *.plt files.

    Optionally, you can view data in tabular mode (Figure 9) by clicking on the Data tab.

    Figure 9 Tabular view of PsPlot data

    PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 19

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerYou can change display settings of PsPlot, such as title, minimum or maximum axis, color, legends and more, by selecting Edit > Advanced Plot Setup (Figure 10).

    Figure 10 Advanced Plot Setup dialog20 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionLesson 5 Single Branch Operations

    There are many single branch operations available in PIPESIM (Figure 11).

    Figure 11 List of single branch operations

    System Analysis

    The systems analysis operation enables you to determine the performance of a given system for varying operating conditions on a case-by-case basis. Results of the system analysis operation are provided in the form of plots of a dependent variable, such as outlet pressure, versus an independent variable, such as flow rate.

    You can generate families of X-Y curves for the system by varying either a single sensitivity variable (such as water cut) or by applying permutations of a group of sensitivity values.

    The ability to perform analysis by combining sensitivity variables in different ways makes the system analysis operation a very flexible tool for plotting data on a case-by-case basis.

    PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 21

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerA typical plot resulting from a system analysis operation is shown in Figure 12.

    Figure 12 Typical System Analysis plot

    Pressure/Temperature Profile

    You can generate pressure and temperature profiles of the system as a function of distance/elevation along the system.

    Both temperature and pressure profiles are generated on a node-by-node basis for the system.

    NOTE: The system analysis operation also generates Pressure/Temperature profile plots for each case. Likewise, Pressure/Temperature Profile operations generate a system plot.

    Flow Correlation Comparison

    Quickly compare various multiphase flow correlations against measured data. The Data Matching operation introduced in PIPESIM 2009.1 is recommended for regression of friction and holdup multipliers to tune multiphase flow correlations to match well test data.

    Data Matching

    Select parameters that will be automatically adjusted to match measured pressure and temperature data for a particular system. These parameters include multipliers for heat transfer coefficient (to match temperature measurements), as well as friction factor and holdup factor multipliers (to match pressure measurements).22 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionThis operation allows you to select and rank multiple flow correlations, and to simultaneously match pressure and temperature measurements.

    NODAL Analysis

    A common way to analyze well performance is through a NODAL analysis plot to visually assess the impact of various system components.

    This is done by splitting the system at the point of interest known as the NODAL analysis point and graphically presenting the system response upstream (Inflow) and downstream (Outflow) of the nodal point.

    The point at which the inflow and outflow curves intersect is the operating point for the given system, as shown in Figure 13.

    Figure 13 NODAL analysis Inflow/Outflow curves

    Optimum Horizontal Well Length

    Predicts hydraulic well bore performance in the completion. The multiple source concept leads to a pressure gradient from the blind-end (toe) to the producing-end (heel) which, if neglected, results in over-predicting deliverability.

    The reduced drawdown at the toe results in the production leveling off as a function of well length, and it can be shown that drilling beyond an optimum length would yield no significant additional production.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 23

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerReservoir Tables

    For the purposes of reservoir simulation, it is often necessary to generate VFP curves for input to a reservoir simulation program. The VFP curves allow the reservoir simulator to determine bottomhole flowing pressures as a function of tubing head pressure, flow rate, GOR, water cut and the artificial lift quantity.

    The reservoir simulator interface allows you to write tabular performance data to a file for input into a reservoir simulation model. Currently, the following reservoir simulators are supported:

    ECLIPSE PORES VIP COMP4 MoReS (Shells in-house reservoir simulator).

    Well Performance Curves

    These can be created in the network solver to produce faster solution times. A curve is created that represents the performance of the well under specified conditions. The network solver will then use this curve instead of modeling the well directly.

    Gas Lift Rate vs. Casing Head Pressure

    Determines the gas lift injection rate possible based on the casing head pressure for a well.

    Artificial Lift Performance

    Analyzes the effects of artificial lift of a production well using either gas lift or an electric submersible pump (ESP). The performance curves allow for sensitivities on various parameters, including wellhead pressure, water cut, tubing and flowline diameters.

    Wax Deposition

    With various deposition model/methods, generates wax deposition profile (Distance vs. Wax deposition thickness) and system (Wax Volume against time) plots. 24 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger PIPESIM IntroductionDepending on selected methods, you must enter wax properties or provide a properties file.

    NOTE: The artificial lift operation is essentially a specific implementation of the system analysis operation.

    Review Questions What is the basic premise of steady-state flow modeling? What single branch operations are available?

    SummaryIn the module, you gained an understanding of PIPESIM toolbars, file system and engines, and operations. You also learned about:

    starting PIPESIM with a new or existing project navigating and learn the user interface viewing results in output file displaying plots in PsPlot selecting single branch options identifying PIPESIM executables and data files.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 25

  • PIPESIM Introduction SchlumbergerNOTES26 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsModule 2 Simple Pipeline TutorialsThe purpose of these tutorials is to familiarize you with the PIPESIM Single Branch interface by building and running simple examples. You begin by performing a simple hand calculation to determine the pressure drop in a water pipeline, and then construct a simple pipeline model to validate pressure drop along a horizontal pipeline for a given inlet pressure and flow rate.

    You will also run some sensitivity studies on the model.

    Learning ObjectivesAfter completing this module, you will know how to:

    build the physical model create a fluid model choose flow correlations perform operations view and analyze results.

    Lesson 1 Single-Phase Flow Calculations

    Consider the case of a pipeline transporting water (Figure 14).

    Figure 14 Pipeline transporting water

    PIPESIM Fundamentals,Version 2010.1 27

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerThe pressure change per distance L for single phase flow is given by Bernoullis equation:

    = + +

    The accelerational term is normally negligible except for low pressure and high velocity gas flow, although PIPESIM will always calculate this term.

    Assuming the accelerational term to be zero for your hand calculation, the pressure gradient equation becomes:

    = (frictional) - (elevational)

    Where:

    = fluid density (lbm/ft3)g = gravitational constantf = moody friction factorv = fluid velocity (ft/s)d = pipe inside diameter (ft)

    totaldLdp

    frictionaldLdp

    lelevationadLdp

    onalacceleratidLdp

    totaldLdp

    gdvf

    2

    2 sing28 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsExercise 1 Modeling a Water Pipeline with Hand Calculations

    In this exercise, using the data in Table 1 and assuming the flow is isothermal, you perform a hand calculation to determine the delivery pressure of the pipeline using single-phase flow theory.

    NOTE: You will need a hand calculator or MS Excel to complete this exercise.

    TIP: To ensure unit consistency when performing hand calculations, refer to the converted unit in the far right column of the table.

    Table 1: Water Pipeline Modelling Data

    Pipeline Data

    Diameter d 3 in (= 0.25 ft)

    Length L 20,025 ft

    Elevation Change Z 1,000 ft

    Horizontal Distance X 20,000 ft

    Ambient Temperature Tamb 60 degF

    Inclination Angle q 2.866 (=.05002 radians)

    Roughness e 0.0015 in

    Relative Roughness /d 0.0005 inFluid Data

    Water viscosity w 1.2 cp (= 8.06e-4 lb/ft-s)Water density w 63.7 lbm/ft3

    Operating Data

    Source Temperature Tinlet 60 degF

    Inlet Pressure Pin 1,200 psia

    Water Flow rate Qw 6,000 BPD (= 0.39 ft3/s)

    Constants

    Gravitational g 32.2 ft/s2

    PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 29

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger1. Calculate the water velocity:

    = _____________ ft/s

    2. Calculate the Reynolds number:

    = ______________

    Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (See the Moody diagram, Figure 15.)

    3. Determine the friction factor using the Churchill equation for turbulent flow. NOTE: Alternatively, you can look up the friction factor using

    the Moody diagram in Figure 15.

    f = __________________________

    4

    2dQv w

    vdRe30 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsFigure 15 Moody diagram

    4. Evaluate the frictional pressure term, :

    = __________ psf/ft

    divide this by 144 to get_______ psi/ft5. Multiply by the given length of pipe, L, to get the total

    frictional pressure drop:

    = _____________ psi

    6. Evaluate the elevational pressure term, NOTE: If using Excel, be sure the angle is in radians.

    = __________ psf/ft

    divide this by 144 to get________ psi/ft

    gdvf

    2

    2

    frictiondLdp

    frictiondp sin

    frictiondpPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 31

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger7. Multiply by the given length of pipe, L, to get the total elevational pressure drop

    = _____________ psi

    8. Add the frictional and elevational terms to determine the total pressure term:

    9. = +

    = ________ psi/ft

    10. Multiply by the given length of pipe, L, to get the total pressure drop

    = _____________ psi

    11. Calculate the outlet pressure given the inlet pressure:

    Pout = Pin - = __________ psia

    Exercise 2 Modeling a Water Pipeline with PIPESIM

    In this exercise, you use PIPESIM to build the water pipeline you hand calculated in . You will define parameters for each component in the model, perform operations, view and analyze the results, and compare PIPESIM results to your hand calculations.

    There are three parts to this exercise:

    1. Starting the application2. Creating the fluid model (water) and selecting flow

    correlations3. Building the physical model.

    elevationdp

    totaldLdp

    frictionaldLdp

    lelevationadLdp

    totaldLdp

    totaldp

    totaldp32 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsGetting StartedTo start the application:

    1. Start PIPESIM by selecting Start > Program Files > Schlumberger > PIPESIM.

    2. Click NEW Single Branch Model.

    3. From the Setup > Units menu, select the Eng(ineering) units.

    4. From the Setup > Define Output tab, uncheck all report options except Primary Output and Auxiliary Output.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 33

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerBuilding the Physical Model (a Water Pipeline Model)You begin by defining the physical components of the model.

    1. Click Source and place it in the window by clicking inside the Single Branch window.

    2. Click Boundary Node and place it in the window.

    3. Click Flowline .4. Link Source_1 to the End Node S1 by clicking and dragging

    from Source_1 to the End Node S1.NOTE: The red outlines on Source_1 and Flowline_1

    indicate that essential input data is missing.34 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials5. Double-click Source_1 and the source input data user form displays.a. Fill in the form.

    b. Click OK to exit the user form.6. Double-click Flowline_1 and the input data user form is

    displayed. 7. Fill the form as shown below, ensuring that the rate of

    undulations = 0 (no terrain effects).PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 35

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger8. Click the Heat Transfer tab and fill in the form for an adiabatic process, as no heat was gained or lost between the system and its environment.

    9. Click OK to exit the user form and accept the overall heat transfer coefficient (U value) defaults.

    Creating the Fluid Model (Water) and Selecting Flow CorrelationsTo create the fluid model and select flow correlations:

    1. Select Setup > Black Oil to open the Black Oil Fluid menu. 2. Fill in the Black Oil user form and click OK when you are

    finished.36 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials3. Select File > Save As and save the model as Exercise1_WaterPipe.bps.

    4. From the Setup > Flow Correlations menu, select the Moody single-phase flow correlation.

    5. Click OK.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 37

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerPerforming Operations

    PIPESIM Single Branch mode offers several simulation operations, depending on the intended workflow. Many of these operations are explained in the exercises that follow.

    The Pressure/Temperature Profile operation is used to acquire the distribution of pressure, temperature and many other parameters across the flow path.

    To perform these operations:

    1. In the Operations menu, select the Pressure/Temperature Profile operation.NOTE: The Pressure Temperature Profile operation requires

    that you designate a calculated variable and specify all other variables. Generally, two specifications are provided for use with the rate, inlet pressure and outlet pressure, while the third is calculated. However, all three can be specified and a forth variable will be calculated, for example choke size.

    2. Enter the known flowing conditions.

    3. Click Run Model. The pressure calculation uses the Moody correlation (default single-phase correlation).

    38 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials4. View and analyze the results. The pressure profile below should be visible upon completion of the run.

    5. To display a tabular output of the Pressure/Temperature profile, click the Data tab at the top of your graph. Notice that the outlet pressure is 89 psia.

    6. (Optional) Copy this data into Excel:a. Highlight the cells of interest.b. Press Ctrl + C.c. Select a cell in Excel and press Ctrl + V.d. To view an abbreviated form of the full output file, select

    Reports > Summary File.You can observe the output:

    The Liquid holdup value displayed (175 bbl) is the total liquid volume for the entire pipe.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 39

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger7. The Summary file reports the frictional and elevational components of the total pressure change in the pipeline. Compare the results of PIPESIM to your hand calculations by entering the appropriate values in the table.

    8. View the output file by selecting Reports > Output File. By default, the output file is divided into five sections: Input Data Echo (Input data and Input units summary)

    Fluid Property Data (Input data of the fluid model)

    Profile and Flow Correlations (Profile and selected correlations summary)

    Primary Output

    Auxiliary Output.

    NOTE: If the units reported in the output file are not the desired ones, you should change the units (Setup > Units), pick the preferred unit system, and rerun the simulation.

    ResultHand

    Calculation PIPESIM

    Liquid Velocity (ft/s)

    Pfrictional (psi) Pelevational (psi) Ptotal (psi) Outlet Pressure (psia) 40 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsThe Primary Output File

    The primary output is shown in Figure 16.

    Figure 16 Example of the primary output filePIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 41

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerThe primary output contains 17 columns:

    Node number: node at which all the measures on the row have been recorded. (The nodes have been spaced by default with a 1,000 foot interval)

    Horizontal Distance (cumulative horizontal component of length)

    Elevation (absolute) Angle of inclination (from the horizontal) Angle of inclination (from the vertical) Pressure Temperature Mean mixture velocity Elevational pressure drop Frictional pressure drop Actual Liquid flow rate at the P,T conditions of the node Actual Free gas rate at the standard P,T conditions of the

    node Total Mass flow rate of the node Actual Liquid density at the P,T conditions of the node Actual Free gas density at the P,T conditions of the node Slug Number Flow Pattern.Notice that, as the pressure decreases, the liquid density decreases, therefore the velocity must increase to maintain a constant mass flow rate. 42 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsThe Auxiliary Output File

    The auxiliary output is shown in Figure 17.

    Figure 17 Example of the auxiliary output filePIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 43

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerThe auxiliary output consists of 19 columns:

    Node number Horizontal distance (cumulative) Elevation (absolute) Superficial liquid velocity Superficial gas velocity Liquid mass flow rate Gas mass flow rate Liquid viscosity Gas viscosity Reynolds number No-slip Liquid Holdup Fraction Slip Liquid Holdup Fraction Liquid Water cut Fluid Enthalpy Erosional Velocity ratio Erosion rate (if applicable) Corrosion rate (if applicable) Hydrate temperature sub-cooling (if applicable) Liquid Loading Velocity Ratio (if Applicable).TIP: The values of the Reynolds number indicate that the flow

    regime is turbulent (NRE > 2000) and are consistent with the results of the hand calculations.

    44 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsExercise 3 Analyzing Multiple Scenarios with Sensitivities

    In this exercise, you will continue using the previous example to explore how your model responds to different inlet temperatures. You will set a range of temperatures, perform operations, and view and analyze your results.

    To modify the P/T profile operation and view the output:

    1. From the Operations menu, select the Pressure/Temperature Profile Operation. a. Select Source_1 as the Object and Temperature as the

    Variable. In the Pressure/Temperature Profile user form,

    click .

    b. Fill in the input form, as shown.

    c. Click Apply and close the Set Range window. The completed form is shown in the figure.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 45

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger2. Click Run Model. The pressure calculation uses the Moody correlation (Default single phase correlation).

    3. Observe the PsPlot output. This pressure profile should be visible upon completion of the run.

    Notice that the highest inlet temperature generates the lowest pressure drop. As the temperature increases: the viscosity decreases

    the Reynolds number increases

    the corresponding friction factor decreases

    the frictional pressure gradient is lower.

    In other words,

    T f NOTE: In the case of water, the effect of the temperature on

    the density is negligible, as water is essentially an incompressible fluid.

    vdRe

    frictiondLdp

    46 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials4. Select the Data tab in the Plot window to see all the data for each temperature in a tabular format.

    5. Open the output file (*.out). The output file can be opened in one of two ways:Click the Output File button from within the Operations (Pressure/Temperature Profiles) dialog:

    ORSelect Reports > Output File. By default, the output file contains the information for the first case only. (T = 20 degF).

    6. To report all sensitivity cases:a. Select Setup > Define Output.b. Ensure that options are selected as shown in the figure.c. Set the number of cases to print to 4.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 47

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger7. Rerun the operation.TIP: If you do not change the operation or alter any of the

    parameters within the Operations menu, you can run

    the simulation by clicking Run .

    8. Open the output report to view the results of the four sensitivity cases.

    9. To add segment data to your report, select Setup > Define Output and check the Segment Data in the Primary Output option.

    10. Re-run the operation. 11. Open the output file and observe that additional segments

    have been inserted.

    NOTE: By default, PIPESIM performs the pressure drop calculation for each of those additional segments to obtain precise averaged values of properties, such as liquid holdup or velocities at the main nodes.

    48 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsExercise 4 Modeling a Single-Phase Gas Pipeline

    In this exercise, you investigate the flow of a single phase gas without changing the physical components of our previous example.

    To investigate the flow of a single phase gas:

    1. Select Setup > Black Oil and modify the user form, as shown in the figure. This represents 100% gas a. Change Water Cut to WGR and GOR to OGR.b. Set values for WGR and OGR as 0.c. Rename the fluid as gas.

    2. Under the Setup > Define Output menu, uncheck the box labeled Segment Data in Primary Output.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 49

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger3. Select Operations > Pressure/Temperature Profile and modify the Pressure/Temperature profile operation.

    4. Click Run Model. As for the case of a single-phase liquid, the pressure calculation will be done using the Moody correlation.

    5. Inspect the pressure profile plot upon completion of the run.50 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsIn the previous example using water, the density remained constant because water is essentially incompressible. However, gas is a compressible fluid with a density described by the ideal gas law, rearranged into the following expression:

    Where:

    g = gas densityp = pressureM = Molecular Weightz = gas compressibility factorR = ideal gas constantT = Temperature

    Notice that the highest inlet temperatures yield the highest pressure drop. This is because, as the temperature increases the density decreases, which results in a decrease in the Reynolds number.

    Correspondingly, the friction factor increases and, as a result, the frictional pressure gradient is higher. In other words,

    T g f Also, because

    = the velocity increase due to gas expansion has an exponential effect on the frictional pressure term. This accounts for the increase in the frictional gradient along the flowline and the curvature in the pressure profile plot.

    NOTE: The viscosity of the gas increases slightly with increasing temperature, but this effect is small and does little to offset the effects of decreasing density.

    zRTpM

    g

    vdRe

    frictionadLdp

    frictiondLdp

    gdvf

    2

    2PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 51

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerExercise 5 Calculating Gas Pipeline Flow Capacity

    In the previous exercises, you calculated the outlet pressure given a known inlet pressure and flow rate. In this exercise, you specify known inlet and outlet pressures and calculate the corresponding gas flow rate.

    There are three key variables involved in Single Branch operations:

    Inlet pressure Outlet pressure Flow rate.Two of these variables must be specified but the third is calculated. Some operations allow you to specify all three variables, in which case a matching variable, such as pump speed or choke setting, must be specified.

    PIPESIM generally performs calculations in the direction of flow. Therefore, when the outlet pressure is calculated, as in the previous examples, the solution is non-iterative in that the outlet pressure is calculated during the first and only pressure traverse calculation.

    However, when outlet pressure is specified and either the inlet rate or the flow rate is calculated, the process becomes iterative, and successive estimates of the calculated variable are supplied until the calculated outlet pressure agrees with the specified pressure.

    To calculate gas deliverability:

    1. Open the Pressure/Temperature Profiles user form and select Gas Rate as the calculated variable.

    2. Specify 600 psia for the outlet pressure.52 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials3. Clear the temperature sensitivity values, shown in the figure, by highlighting the cells and pressing Ctrl + X.

    4. Click Run Model on the user form. 5. Observe the PsPlot output.

    The gas flow rate corresponding to the specified pressure drop is shown in the legend beneath the profile plot.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 53

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger6. Observe the output files (*.out). The iteration routine for this operation can be seen in the output file, as shown below. NOTE: To view this report, you must check Iteration

    Progress Log under Setup/Define Output)

    7. Save your file as exer5.bps.

    Lesson 2 Multiphase Flow Calculations

    While pressure losses in single-phase flow in pipes have long been accurately modeled with familiar expressions such as the Bernoulli equation, accurate predictions of pressure loss in two-phase flow have proved to be more challenging because of added complexities.

    The lower density and viscosity of the gas phase causes it to flow at a higher velocity relative to the liquid phase, a characteristic known as slippage. Consequently, the associated frictional pressure losses result from shear stresses encountered at the gas/liquid interface as well as along the pipe wall. Additionally, the highly compressible gas phase expands as the pressure decreases along the flow path.

    Further complicating matters are the variety of physical phase distributions that are characterized by flow regimes or flow patterns (Figure 18 and Figure 19). The prevailing flow pattern for a specific set of conditions depends on the relative magnitude of the forces acting on the fluids.

    54 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsBuoyancy, turbulence, inertia, and surface-tension forces are greatly affected by the relative flow rates, viscosities, and densities of a fluid, as well as the pipe diameter and inclination angle. The complex dynamics of the flow pattern govern slippage effects and, therefore, variations in liquid holdup and pressure gradient.

    Figure 18 Multiphase flow regimes for horizontal flow

    Figure 19 Multiphase flow regimes for vertical flowPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 55

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerMany empirical correlations and mechanistic models have been proposed to predict liquid holdup and pressure loss. (Refer to the PIPESIM help system for details). Some are very general, while others apply only to a narrow range of conditions.

    Many of these approaches begin with a prediction of the flow pattern, with each flow pattern having an associated method of predicting liquid holdup.

    Because the gas travels faster in steady-state flow, it will occupy less pipe volume. The fraction of pipe volume occupied by the liquid is called the liquid holdup and is illustrated in Figure 20.

    Liquid holdup is generally the most important parameter in calculating pressure loss. Liquid holdup is also necessary to predict hydrate formation and wax deposition and to estimate the liquid volume expelled during pigging operations for sizing slug catchers. The liquid holdup prediction is used to determine a two-phase friction factor from which a pressure gradient is calculated.

    Figure 20 Liquid Holdup56 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsExercise 1 Modeling a Multiphase Pipeline

    The previous exercises explored single-phase flow of water and gas through a pipeline. In this exercise, you modify the existing pipeline model and explore multiphase flow.

    1. Insert Report Tool at the beginning and end of the flowline, as shown.

    2. Click on the flowline to highlight the object and drag the tip connected to the source to the first Report icon.

    3. Release the mouse button when the arrow is on top of the Report Tool icon and the flowline turns yellow.

    4. Repeat the previous step for the second Report Tool icon.

    5. Select Connector and connect the first Report Tool to the Source icon. PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 57

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger6. Select the Boundary node and press the Delete key. Your model should now displays as shown below:

    7. Double-click on each of the Report Tool icons and enter the data shown in the figure.

    8. Double-click on the Flowline and select the Heat Transfer tab. 58 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials9. Choose the typical Heat Transfer Coefficient value for bare pipe exposed to air, as shown below.

    10. Select Setup > Black Oil and specify the fluid properties.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 59

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger11. From the Setup > Flow Correlations menu, select Beggs and Brill Revised (Taitel-Dukler map) for the horizontal flow correlation and Hagedorn and Brown for the vertical flow correlation.NOTE: Observe that the Swap angle is set to 45. This is the

    angle that corresponds to the switch between use of the vertical and horizontal flow correlation. In this example, the pipeline inclination angle is about 3, which means that only the horizontal flow correlation is used.60 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline Tutorials12. Double-click on Source_1 and change the pressure to 4800 psia.

    13. Select Operations > Pressure Temperature Profiles and enter the information.NOTE: The pressure drop is calculated using the Moody

    correlation (default single-phase correlation) and the Beggs and Brill Revised correlation.

    The results from the Taitel-Dukler Flow Regime map will be reported and will influence the pressure drop calculations performed by the Beggs and Brill Revised correlation if the flow regime is different from that predicted by the Beggs and Brill correlation. PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 61

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials Schlumberger14. Run the model.15. Observe the pressure profile plot.

    16. From the Reports menu, open the output file. The following display can be seen in the primary output section of the output file.

    Notice that the flow is initially single-phase liquid until the pressure falls below the bubblepoint upon which two-phase oil-gas flow is present. The single-phase Moody correlation is used in the first part of the pipe, and the Beggs and Brill multiphase correlation is used in the second part of the pipe after the pressure falls below the bubblepoint. TIP: The holdup for each of the segment can be seen in the

    auxiliary output. 62 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsThe number in the far right column is the Erosional Velocity Ratio (EVR = actual velocity/API 14e limit) and is displayed only when it is higher than 1.The spot reports output is shown in Figure 21.NOTE: To view the graphics and output in SI or Custom units,

    specify the units via the Setup > Units option and rerun the model.

    Figure 21 Sample spot report outputPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 63

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerThe flow regime map (Figure 22) can also be viewed in PsPlot by selecting Reports > Flow Regime Map.

    Figure 22 Flow regime map64 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Simple Pipeline TutorialsReview Questions Which types of pressure drop contributions are reported by

    PIPESIM in output file (by default)? What is the default single-phase flow correlation in

    PIPESIM? How do you describe a Black Oil fluid model for water or dry

    gas? Did you get any difference in pressure drop between hand

    calculation and PIPESIM reported results? If yes, why?

    SummaryIn this module, you learned about:

    building the physical model creating a fluid model choosing flow correlations performing operations viewing and analyzing results.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 65

  • Simple Pipeline Tutorials SchlumbergerNOTES66 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisModule 3 Oil Well Performance Analysis

    This module examines a producing oil well located in the North Sea. You analyze the performance of this well using NODAL analysis, calibrate black oil fluid (low GOR) using laboratory data, and match flow correlations with pressure survey data.

    You will also analyze the behavior of the well with increased water cut and find an opportunity to inject gas at a later stage when the well is unable to flow naturally.

    Learning ObjectivesAfter completing this module, you will know how to:

    perform a NODAL analysis estimate bottomhole flowing conditions calibrate pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) data perform flow correlation matching perform inflow performance relationship (IPR) matching conduct water cut sensitivity analysis evaluate gas lift performance install a flow control valve.

    Lesson 1 NODAL Analysis

    NODAL analysis evaluates the performance of an oil well. You specify a nodal point, usually at the bottomhole or wellhead, and divide the producing system into two parts: the inflow and the outflow. This is represented graphically in Figure 23.

    The solution node is defined as the location where the pressure differential upstream (inflow) and downstream (outflow) of the node is zero. Solution nodes can be judiciously selected to isolate the effect of certain variables.

    PIPESIM Fundamentals,Version 2010.1 67

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis SchlumbergerFor example, if the node is taken at the bottomhole, factors that affect the inflow performance, such as skin factor, can be analyzed independently of variables that affect the outflow, such as tubing diameter or separator pressure.

    Figure 23 Intersection points of the inflow and outflow performance curves

    Getting Started

    Before beginning an oil well performance analysis:

    1. Select File > New > Well Performance Analysis.2. From Setup > Units, set the engineering units.

    17

    Outflow

    Inflow

    PR

    PR

    Psep

    PsepPwf

    Pwf

    Flow rate

    Nodal Analysis68 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisExercise 1 Building the Well Model

    Model building refers to setting up all objects, from the source to the sink, and defining the properties of these objects. You can select PIPESIM single branch objects using either the Tool menu or the toolbar at the top of PIPESIM window.

    To build the well model:

    1. Click Vertical Completion on the single branch toolbar to choose a vertical completion object and place it in the Single Branch flow diagram.

    2. Click Boundary Node and place the selected node in the flow diagram.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 69

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis Schlumberger3. Click Tubing object and connect VertWell_1 to the End Node S1 by clicking and dragging from VertWell_1 completion to the End Node S1.NOTE: The red outlines on VertWell_1 and Tubing_1 indicate

    that essential input data are missing.

    4. Double-click on the completion and enter the properties listed in the table.

    Reservoir and Inflow Data

    Completion model Well PI

    Use Vogel? Yes

    Reservoir Pressure 3,600 psia

    Reservoir Temperature 200 degF

    Liq. Productivity Index 8 stb/d/psi70 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance Analysis5. Double-click on the tubing object and enter the tubing properties based on data listed in the tables.

    6. Specify an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient = 5 btu/hr/ft 2/F (override the default value).NOTE: Use the overall heat transfer coefficient to calculate

    total heat transfer through the pipe wall. The overall heat transfer coefficient depends on the fluids and their properties on both sides of the wall, as well as the properties of the wall and the transmission surface.

    7. Click the Summary table button to observe the configuration summary.

    8. Set the Distance between nodes to 100 ft.9. Select Setup > Black Oil.

    Deviation Data

    Measured Depth (ft) True Vertical Depth (ft)

    0 0

    1,000 1,000

    2,500 2,450

    5,000 4,850

    7,500 7,200

    9,000 8,550

    Geothermal Gradient

    Measured Depth (ft) Ambient Temp. (degF)

    0 50

    9,000 200

    Tubing Data

    Bottom MD (ft) Internal Diameter (inches)

    8,600 3.958

    9,000 6.184PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 71

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis Schlumberger10. Enter the fluid properties, as shown in the table. Assume default PVT correlations and no calibration data.

    The fluid physical properties are calculated over the range of pressures and temperatures encountered by the fluid and used by multiphase flow correlations to determine the phases present, the flow regime, and the pressure losses in single and multiphase flow regions.

    NOTE: The heat transfer calculations use the fluid thermal properties.

    11. From the Setup > Flow Correlation menu, ensure that the Hagedorn-Brown correlation is selected for vertical flow and the Beggs-Brill Revised correlation is selected for horizontal flow.Select the correlation that is best suited for the fluid and operating conditions of interest.

    NOTE: There is no universal rule for selecting a multiphase flow correlation that is good for all operating scenarios. See the PIPESIM help system for information on the applicability of flow correlations.

    12. Save the model as CaseStudy1_Oil_Well.bps.

    Black Oil PVT Data

    Water Cut 10 %

    GOR 500 scf/stb

    Gas SG 0.8

    Water SG 1.05

    Oil API 36 API72 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisExercise 2 Performing NODAL Analysis

    In this exercise, you perform a NODAL analysis operation for a given outlet (wellhead) pressure to determine the operating point (intersection) and the absolute open flow potential (AOFP) of the well.

    To do this, add a NODAL analysis point at the bottomhole to divide the system into two parts. Part A extends from reservoir to the bottomhole, while Part B runs from the bottomhole to the wellhead.

    To perform a NODAL analysis:

    1. Select a NODAL analysis point from the toolbar and drop it near the completion.

    2. Click on the tubing and drag its bottom tip over to the NODAL analysis point.

    3. Insert a connector to link the completion with the NODAL analysis point.

    4. Select Operations > NODAL analysis.5. Enter an Outlet Pressure (Boundary Condition) of 300 psia.

    N.A. PointPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 73

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis Schlumberger6. Leave Inflow Sensitivity and Outflow Sensitivity empty.TIP: For users having PIPESIM 2009.1 or older versions:

    Increasing the number of points in inflow and outflow curves provides more detailed curves from which a more accurate intersection can be read. Click Limits in the Nodal Analysis window to change the number of points in inflow and outflow curves.

    PIPESIM 2010.1 has implemented several modifications in Nodal Analysis calculation. The most significant is displaying the intersection point on the nodal plot. As a result, you do not depend on reading from the plot and the solution points are calculated with the values presented in Data tab.

    TIP: There is no need to specify/change number of points for inflow and outflow curve unless you wish to use those data for further processing. The PIPESIM engine automatically determines the number of points and their spacing for both inflow and outflow curves.

    7. Run the model.8. Inspect the plot and select the Data tab to determine the

    answers.

    Results

    (Outlet) Wellhead Pressure 300 psia

    Operating Point Flow rate

    Operating Point BHP

    AOFP74 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisExercise 3 Performing a Pressure/Temperature Profile

    The Pressure/Temperature profile calculates pressure and temperature on a node-by-node basis for the system. The results are plotted for pressure or temperature as a function of distance/elevation along the flow path.

    To estimate bottomhole flowing conditions:

    1. Run Operations > Pressure / Temperature Profile.2. Enter the Outlet (Tubing head) pressure of 300 psia.3. Specify the liquid rate as the calculated variable.4. Leave Sensitivity Data empty.

    NOTE: Inlet and outlet pressure always reference the boundaries of the system. In this particular case, inlet pressure is the reservoir pressure, while the outlet pressure corresponds to wellhead pressure. The inlet pressure is specified at the completion or source level, whereas the outlet pressure is always specified manually within the operation.

    5. Run the model.NOTE: PIPESIM 2010.1 generates a Profile plot for every

    valid combination of inflow-outflow cases. Because of this, there is no need to run a separate Pressure Temperature Profile operation.

    6. Inspect the plot and summary output report to determine answers.

    Results

    Wellhead Pressure 300 psia

    Production Rate

    Flowing BHP

    Flowing WHT

    Depth at which gas appearsPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 75

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis SchlumbergerQuestions

    These questions are for discussion and review.

    What is the significance of intersection between the inflow and outflow curves?

    What are the advantages/disadvantages of performing a Pressure/Temperature Profile versus a NODAL analysis?

    Lesson 2 Fluid Calibration

    Fluid properties (also known as PVT properties) are predicted by correlations developed by fitting experimental fluid data with mathematical models. Various correlations have been developed over the years based on experimental data sets covering a range of fluid properties.

    The PIPESIM help system describes the range of fluid properties used to develop each correlation, which helps you select the most appropriate correlation for the fluid at hand. The default correlations in PIPESIM are based on the overall accuracy of the correlations as applied to a broad range of fluids.

    To increase the accuracy of fluid property calculations, PIPESIM provides functionality to match PVT fluid properties with laboratory data. Calibration of these properties can greatly increase the accuracy of the correlations over the range of pressures and temperatures for the system being modeled.

    For example, calibration of the bubblepoint pressure can result in the initial appearance of gas at a depth of perhaps a thousand feet higher or lower than an uncalibrated model. This results in a significantly different mixture fluid density and, thus, a much different elevational pressure gradient.

    Likewise, calibration of the fluid viscosity can drastically improve the calculation of the frictional pressure gradient, especially in heavy oils and emulsions.

    If the calibration data is omitted, PIPESIM calibrates on the basis of oil and gas gravity alone, resulting in a loss of accuracy.

    After the calibration is performed, a calibration factor calculated as ratio of measured value to the value calculated by selected correlation.

    76 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisThere are two calibration options available in PIPESIM:

    Single Point calibration Multi-Point calibration.

    Single Point Calibration

    In many cases, actual measured values for some properties show a slight variance from calculated values. When this occurs, it is useful to calibrate the property using the measured point. PIPESIM can use the known data for the property to calculate a calibration constant Kc;

    Kc = Measured Property @(P,T)/Calculated Property @(P,T)

    This calibration constant is used to modify all subsequent calculations of the property in question, that is:

    Calibrated value = Kc (Predicted value)

    Multi-Point Calibration

    In multi-point calibration, black oil correlations are tuned so that the correlation honors all data points (Figure 24).

    Figure 24 Correlation running through all data pointsPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 77

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis SchlumbergerA calibration factor is calculated for every measurement point, and a plot is generated for the Pressure vs. Calibration factor, as shown in Figure 25.

    Figure 25 Pressure vs. Calibration factor

    NOTE: This is not a best fit method, as all points are fitted exactly. Any outlying data should be smoothed before entering it into PIPESIM.

    Exercise 1 Calibrating PVT Data

    To calibrate PVT data:

    1. From Setup > Black Oil, select the Viscosity Data tab.2. Enter the following calibration data:3. Under Dead Oil Viscosity, select Users 2 Data points as the

    correlation.4. Enter the following measurements:

    5. For Live Oil Viscosity, ensure that the Chew and Connally correlation is selected.

    6. For the Emulsion Viscosity Method, select the Brinkman 1952 correlation.

    7. For the Undersaturated Oil Viscosity, select the Bergman-Sutton correlation.

    Dead Oil Viscosity Measurements

    PropertyTemperature

    (degF) Value

    Viscosity

    200 1.5 cp

    60 10 cp78 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance Analysis8. Select the Advanced Calibration Data tab and click Single-Point Calibration.

    9. Enter the measured data to calibrate the PVT model.

    10. Select the following PVT correlations:

    11. From the Advanced Calibration Data tab, select Plot PVT Data (Laboratory Conditions GOR = GSAT) to generate a plot of the PVT properties for various pressures and temperatures.

    12. Select Series and change the y-axis to Oil Formation Volume Factor.

    PVT Calibration Data

    Range Property ValuePressure

    (psia)Temp (degF)

    P > Pb OFVF 1.18 3,000 200

    P = Pb Sat. Gas 500 scf/stb 2,100 200

    P

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis Schlumberger13. Verify that the predicted values match the calibration points.

    14. Repeat steps 12 and 13 for Oil viscosity and Gas viscosity to ensure the predicted values are correct. NOTE: Dead Oil conditions are at 14.7 psia.

    Notice that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 60 degF and 14.7 psia is 10.0 P, consistent with the laboratory dead oil data.80 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance Analysis15. Now that the fluid model is calibrated, rerun the Pressure-Temperature Profile.

    16. Determine the flowing bottomhole pressure, flowing wellhead temperature, and production rate for the given wellhead pressure.

    17. Compare your answers to the uncalibrated model results in .18. Inspect the plot and summary output to determine answers.

    Results

    GOR Property Definitions

    The quantity defined by PIPESIM as 'stock tank' GOR is actually the produced GOR, a dynamic property. The solution gas GOR calibration, an intrinsic property, is specific to the reservoir oil at reservoir conditions and is obtained through laboratory experiments.

    The solution gas liberated at standard conditions is called the associated gas. Produced gas can also include a contribution from the gas cap, otherwise known as free gas. In other words:

    Produced gas = associated (solution) gas + free gas.

    If free gas is produced, the produced GOR will be higher than the solution GOR and, therefore, the calculated bubblepoint based on the specified produced GOR will be higher than that defined by the solution GOR calibration point.

    Wellhead Pressure Calibrated Uncalibrated

    Production Rate

    Flowing BHP

    Flowing WHT

    Depth where gas appearsPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 81

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis SchlumbergerLesson 3 Pressure/Temperature Matching

    The pressure distribution of the fluid as it flows though the tubing is very important in production engineering tasks such as selecting tubing sizes, forecasting well productivity, and designing artificial lift installations.

    Pressure distribution along particular tubing can be obtained from actual measurements taken with pressure gauges using wireline/slickline at different depths in the well while it is flowing at a constant rate. The result of this measurement is a plot of fluid pressure along tubing versus vertical depth, called a Flowing Gradient survey (FGS) and shown in Figure 26.

    Figure 26 Flowing Gradient survey

    When an FGS is available, it is always best to compare different multiphase flow correlations with the FGS, to determine the one that best matches the FGS.

    Additionally, the correlation can be tuned to more accurately match the data. Optimization routines in PIPESIM allow the PIPESIM Single Branch engine to calculate optimal values of parameters to match measured pressure and/or temperature data. The match is performed by tuning parameters, such as friction and hold-up factor multiplier for pressure matching, and a U-factor multiplier for temperature matching. After the model is tuned, you should validate it against test data measured at different conditions.

    82 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance AnalysisWARNING: Avoid using large tuning factors. The recommended tuning range of friction and holdup factor multipliers are +/- 15% (such as 0.85 - 1.15). If it needs > -/+ 15% to match the actual measured data, you should review the data again. Large adjustments in friction and holdup factors could also be due to poor fluid characterizations.

    Exercise 1 Flow Correlation Matching

    An FGS is available for this well. In this exercise, you use the measured data to select the most appropriate vertical flow correlation.

    To perform a flow correlation match:

    1. Select Data > Load/Add Measured Data.2. Click New.3. Enter the test data, as shown.PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 83

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis Schlumberger4. Click Save Changes.5. Go to Operations > Data Matching and enter the range of

    calibration factors, as shown in the figure. NOTE: You can uncheck the calibration factor for horizontal

    flow as there is no horizontal flow in this model.

    6. Click the Flow Correlation tab and select some of the vertical multiphase flow correlations, as shown below.84 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance Analysis7. Go to the Run tab and specify the given Outlet Pressure (Wellhead) and Liquid Rate.

    8. Select the Inlet Pressure as the calculated variable and click Run model.

    9. View the results in Data Matching window to determine which flow correlation agrees most closely with the measured data.

    10. Select the best correlation and click Save Selected Results to update the model with this correlation and the matched values for the friction factor, holdup factor, and U-Value multipliers.NOTE: Weighting factors are used to set the relative

    importance of the pressure and temperature error terms if both pressure and temperature data have been specified.

    Results

    Best Vertical Correlation

    Flowing BHP

    Head Factor Multiplier

    Friction Factor Multiplier

    U Factor MultiplierPIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1 85

  • Oil Well Performance Analysis SchlumbergerExercise 2 Matching Inflow Performance

    It is known from a pressure gradient survey that this particular well can flow 6,500 bbl/d of liquid against 300 psia of wellhead pressure. Using the correct flow correlation from the previous exercise, run the Pressure/Temperature profile to determine how much this well can produce for the same boundary conditions.

    If the calculated flow rate is different from measured flow rate (6,500 bbl/d), it is time to determine the Productivity Index (PI) that matches the test data.

    In this exercise, you also determine the absolute open flow potential (AOFP) of the well with the new PI, given a reservoir pressure known to be 3,600 psia.

    TIP: The Productivity Index (PI) is expected to be in the range from 5 to10 stb/d/psi.

    To perform the IPR matching:

    1. Select Operations > Pressure/Temperature Profile.2. Enter the Outlet Pressure and the Liquid Rate.3. Select the User variable as the calculated variable and click

    Define.4. Select Object VertWell_1 and the Variable Productivity Index.5. Enter the expected range of PI and click OK.

    86 PIPESIM Fundamentals, Version 2010.1

  • Schlumberger Oil Well Performance Analysis6. Run the model and review the PsPlot for calculated Liquid PI.WARNING: Update the PI for the completion with the matched

    value.

    Results

    Questions

    These questions are for discussion and review.

    What is the minimum data requirement for black oil fluid model in PIPESIM?

    How can you use lab PVT data to improve black oil correlations?

    Which data should you use in black oil calibration, - flash or differential?

    What components of the pressure drop are reported by PIPESIM?

    What is the recommended way of selecting a multiphase correlation in PIPESIM?

    What is the role of the pressure loss in the completion during flow correlation matching?

    Lesson 4 Well Performance Analysis

    After you define the well and fluids descriptions and match them to generate an accurate model for the well, several simulation operations

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