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Political Struggles in France

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Political Struggles in France. Mr. McLaughlin. Congress of Vienna. Places Louis XVIII on the throne Ultra royalist - conservatives aristocrats who wanted the establish the old order ABSOLUTE RULE. Revolt in France. Charles X becomes King after Louis XVIII - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Political Struggles in France Mr. McLaughlin
Page 1: Political Struggles in France

Political Struggles in France

Mr. McLaughlin

Page 2: Political Struggles in France

Congress of Vienna

• Places Louis XVIII on the throne• Ultra royalist- conservatives

aristocrats who wanted the establish the old order


Page 3: Political Struggles in France

Revolt in France

• Charles X becomes King after Louis XVIII• He tries to pass an act to repay Aristocrats

for lands lost in the French Revolution• This is an unpopular act

The legislative assembly becomes more liberal due to elections

Page 4: Political Struggles in France

The July Ordinances

• Charles issues in response to the legislative assembly

• The ordinances abolish freedom of the press

• Restricts voting rights

Page 5: Political Struggles in France

The Papers call for a Rebellion

• July 27th, 1830—Angry Parisians storm the streets

• By July 29th—”3 Glorious Days”• Revolutionaries force Charles X to give up

his rights as monarch and abdicate the throne

• He flees to Great Britain

Page 6: Political Struggles in France

Louis Philippe

• Cousin of Charles accepts the throne• Becomes known as the Citizen-King• He dressed and acted like a middle-class

person• He supported the wealthy• People began to demand political reforms

– Especially in voting rights

Page 7: Political Struggles in France


• Louis Philippe refused• People appealed to the Prime Minister

Francois Guizot (Gee-Zoh)

Page 8: Political Struggles in France

Revolt of 1848

• In 1848 a political banquet was held• Guizot tries to cancel it—too late• Louis Philippe calls in the troops• The troops sympathized w/the rebels and

join them• Louis Philippe fearing—abdicates and flees

to Great Britain

Page 9: Political Struggles in France

The Second Empire

• France is now claiming to be a Republic• Now want a President• Extend Voting Rights to all males• Only briefly do the French enjoy the

freedoms of the 1848 Revolt

Page 10: Political Struggles in France

The Rise of Louis Napoleon

Page 11: Political Struggles in France

Presidential Elections of 1848• Louis Napoleon is the nephew of Napoleon

Bonaparte• Won overwhelmingly• Presented himself as a reformer but really

wants to establish himself as Emperor• Gained the confidence of the Army,

Church, middle class and peasants

Page 12: Political Struggles in France

• Support of Catholics created an uproar in Paris

• Louis Napoleon uses this to show that the Republic doesn’t work

• National Assembly restricted people due to the violence in Paris

• Louis Napoleon uses this to his advantage• Revoked voting Rts. Of 1/3rd of the people

Page 13: Political Struggles in France

Coup d’etat

• Dec. 2, 1851 Louis Napoleon quickly seizes power

• He dissolves the National Assembly• Arrest 70 of his opponents• He reestablishes voting Rts. For all French

men (This makes him popular)• He calls for a plebiscite (National Vote)

Page 14: Political Struggles in France

• This gives him the right to create a new Constitution

• 2nd Plebiscite vote on the constitution• 95% in favor of the new constitution

that turns France from a Republic to a Heritary Empire

• 1852-----Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III of France

Page 15: Political Struggles in France


• He does have successful economic programs

• Built new railroads and roads• Restricted press and civil liberties

Page 16: Political Struggles in France

The Crimean War

Page 17: Political Struggles in France

France and Britainvs


Page 18: Political Struggles in France

• Fighting over the Ottoman Empire• Over who would protect Christians

visiting the Holy sites in the Ottoman Empire

• Ottoman’s pick the French• Czar Nicholas I upset—tries to

extend Russian territories by expanding on the Ottoman’s land in the Balkans

Page 19: Political Struggles in France

The Balkans

Page 20: Political Struggles in France

• France/G. Britain want to protect their trading resources in the Ottoman Empire—Middle East

• Ottoman’s declare war on Russia in 1854• France, G.B. and Sardinia (small Italian

kingdom)• Most fighting takes place on the Crimean

Peninsula (just into the Black Sea from the Southern Ukraine)

Page 21: Political Struggles in France

• 1854-1855 Winter Hits• Armies battled: cold, violent storms,

cholera, frostbite and other diseases• Diseases caused more deaths than actual

fighting• 1855 British troops capture Sebastopol (port

town)• Russia is forced to make peace• 1856 Crimean War Ends

Page 22: Political Struggles in France

Crimean Peninsula

Page 23: Political Struggles in France

End of an Empire

• Napoleon III declares war on Prussia (July 19, 1870)

• He fears their growing power• Known as the Franco-Prussian War• French defeated in just over 6 weeks• Prussia wins at Sedan and take Napoleon III

as a prisoner (Sept. 2)

Page 24: Political Struggles in France

• The Empire collapses (Why?)• Prussia occupies France for 4

months before a truce is signed.

Page 25: Political Struggles in France

Peace with Prussia

• French elected a new National Assembly• Surrendered the provinces of Alsace and

Lorraine• Pay 5 billion francs (1billion U.S. dollars)• Prussia staged a victory march through

Paris---humiliating to the French

Page 26: Political Struggles in France

The New National Assembly

• Reinstated the rents of Parisian (suspended due to Prussian occupation)

• Stop paying the National Guard—Many Parisians are in

• This leads to Civil Unrest

Page 27: Political Struggles in France

The Commune of Paris

• During the revolt the workers established a Socialist Government known as The Commune of Paris

• Refuse to recognize the National Assembly• Called for France to become a decentralized

federation of independent cities• Declared war on propertied owning class

and church

Page 28: Political Struggles in France

• Introduced a new 10 hour workday• National Assembly fought back with the

army—in Paris• The commune burned public buildings

Page 29: Political Struggles in France

Bloody Week

• May 1871• During the week, the military arrested over

40,000 people• More than 20,000 killed• The Commune falls

Page 30: Political Struggles in France

The Third Republic

• 1875—New Constitution makes France a Republic again

• Provides for a 2 house legislature• The 2 houses elect a president• Every official act needed the support of

both houses• Cabinet of Ministers were responsible for

gov’t policy

Page 31: Political Struggles in France

• A new post is made• Premier• He was to handle all the executive


Page 32: Political Struggles in France

Threats to the Republic

• General Georges Boulanger (Boo-lahn-ZHAY)

• Hero-wanted France to seek revenge against Prussia

• Elections held in 1888 – prevailing attitude: Royalist support him and oppose the Republic

Page 33: Political Struggles in France

• He is urged (1889) to overthrow the Republic—Coup de’tat

• Gov’t tries to arrest him for treason• He flees to Belgium• The movement collapses w/o its leader

Page 34: Political Struggles in France

Panama Canal

• 1890’s France is trying to build the canal• The project fails—thousands of French

stockholders lost money• Scandals of dishonesty and poor

management practices• Gov’t officials are implicated---bribes are


Page 35: Political Struggles in France

Results of the failure of the Canal

• Elections of 1893• Nearly 50 socialists won seats in the

national convention• Socialism is growing in France

Page 36: Political Struggles in France

The Dreyfus Affair

• Alfred Dreyfus—Jewish military officer was arrested and charged with selling military secrets to the Germans

• Convicted and sentenced to life on Devil’s Island• Prison colony off the coast of South America• Many supporters and family maintained his


Page 37: Political Struggles in France

• 1897– evidence pointed to the fact that the evidence was forged

• Supporters demanded a retrial• Gov’t refused• This Affair becomes a national issue and

divided France• Socialist on Dreyfus side

Page 38: Political Struggles in France

• 1906—Civil Court pardoned Dreyfus• Reinstated him to the French army


• 1905-France separates Church and State