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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in Municipal...

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  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in Municipal Firefighters

    PI: Michael Knipp, DO Presented by Faculty Advisor: Erin N. Haynes, DrPH, MS Research Collaborators: Chief Ronald Texter, District Chief Cincinnati Fire Department Stuart Baxter, PhD Samarat Yeramaneni, BMMS, Epidemiology PhD student Glenn Talaska, PhD Tiffany Beddoe, Industrial Hygiene MS student John Joskolka , Industrial Hygiene MS student

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

     Product of incomplete combustion

     Lipophilic (soluble in oil)  Carcinogenic  Urinary 1-HP correlates well

    with external PAH exposure (Brandt & Watson Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2003)

  • Skin as an Important Route of Exposure

     Lipophilic compounds readily cross the skin.

     Skin absorption increases with increasing temperature.

    Plantar foot arch 1

    Lateral ankle 3 Palm 6 Ventral forearm 7

    Back 12 Scalp 25 Forehead 43 Jaw angle 93 Scrotum 300

    Relative Regional Permeability of Human

    Skin to Topical 14C- Hydrocortisone

  • Chimney Sweeps: A Lesson in History

     English chimney sweeps – Very infrequent washing, loose

    clothing – scrotal & testicular cancer

    (Pott 1776, Butlin 1892)

     Belgian, French, Swedish & German sweeps – Daily washing, tight fitting

    clothing – no cancer

    (Butlin, 1892; Gustavsson, 1988, 1993)

  • Cancers of Firefighters

    LeMasters GK et al, 2006. Cancer risk among firefighters: A review and meta analysis of 32 studies. JOEM.

    Review of 32 articles on firefighters (110,000 full- time firefighters) and health effects found:

     Cancers probably elevated in firefighters are: – Multiple myeloma – Non-Hodgkins lymphoma – Prostate cancer – Testicular cancer

  • Hypothesis

     Firefighting will result in a significantly higher exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as measured by dermal exposure and urinary 1-HP than a non- firefighting occupation.

  • Research Requires Collaboration!

    + =

  • Methods: Study Population

     Firefighters – Cincinnati Fire Stations 19 (Corryville) – 14 (4th St. and Central)

     Nonfirefighters – UC Radiation Safety

  • Demographics Firefighters Radiation Safety

    n 35 9 Age (years) 42 43

    Female 1 (3%) 2 (22%) Smoking status

    Never 21 of 30 (70%) 2 (28%) Current 5 of 30 (17%) 3 of 7 (43%) Former 4 of 30 (13%) 2 of 7 (28%)

    Unknown 5 of 35 (14%) 2 of 9 (22%)

  • Kelly Day 1-HP vs. Post Fire Event 1-HP in Firefighters

    Urinary 1-HP Concentration (µg/L)

    Kelly Day Mean (St.Dev)

    Post Fire Event Mean (St.Dev)

    P value (one-tailed)

    n 10 13 1-HP 0.34 (0.44) 0.96 (1.19) 0.02

    1-HP analyzed under the direction of Dr. Glenn Talaska.

  • Kelly Day 1-HP vs. Post Fire Event 1-HP in Firefighters

    Urinary 1-HP Concentration (µg/L)

    Kelly Day Mean (St.Dev)

    Post Fire Event Mean (St.Dev)

    P value (one-tailed)

    n 10 13 1-HP 0.34 (0.44) 0.96 (1.19) 0.02

    Analyses remaining: Analyze remaining firefighter urine and unexposed group urine for 1-HP.

  • Detectable PAHs in Firefighter Dust/Face Wipes Following a Fire Event

    PAH

    N (%) of samples detected

    Mean (St. Dev) Concentration (ng)

    Benz[a]anthracene 3 (15%) 0.11 (0.023)

    Benzo{b,j,k] fluoranthene 13 (65%) 0.16 (0.049) Benzo[a]pyrene 2 (10%) 0.09 (0.04)

    Benzo[e]pyrene 1 (5%) 0.11

    Chrysene 1 (5%) 0.10

    7,12-DImethylbenz[a]anthracene 1 (5%) 0.05

    Fluoranthene 3 (15%) 0.08 (0.03)

    Ideno[1,2,3,-c,d]pyrene 1 (5%) 0.06

    Phenanthrene 1 (5%) 0.15

    Pyrene 6 (30%) 0.12 (0.02)

  • Preliminary Conclusions

     Benzo{b,j,k] fluoranthene and pyrene were the most frequently detected PAHs in the soot collected from the face/neck skin wipe of firefighters following a fire event.

     Urinary 1-HP was significantly higher following fire event than Kelly Day urine.

  • Future Directions & Questions

     Complete laboratory & data analysis What is the interaction of the individual

    PAHs in soot?  Evaluate the long-term effect of PAH

    exposure using cumulative effect biomarkers of exposure, i.e., chromosome aberrations.

  • Thank you!

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