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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Transport Study - Aromatic Hydrocarbon Transport Study —...

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  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    Transport Study

    Project Summary Report

    State Water Resources Control Board Agreement No. 15-064-190

    Submitted October 2017

  • Disclosure Statement per Gov. Code 7550, 40 CFR 31.20: The Draft and Final Project Summary Report were prepared through Agreement with the Water Boards. The City of San Diego received $151,899.75 (Agreement No. 15-064-190) in compensation to complete Phase IV and Phase V. The efforts funded by the agreement, described above, includes the completion of monitoring, data analysis of all monitoring results (Phases I through IV), and preparation of the Draft and Final Project Summary Reports.

  • PAH Transport Study Summary Report Table of Contents

    Page | i

    Table of Contents

    Page

    Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................................... vi Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ x 1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................... 1-1

    1.1 PAHs in the Environment ............................................................................. 1-1 1.2 Regulatory Drivers ....................................................................................... 1-3 1.3 Project Team and Technical Advisory Committee ........................................ 1-3 1.4 Project Design and Questions ...................................................................... 1-4 1.5 Document Organization ............................................................................... 1-7

    2 REVIEW OF PAH SOURCES AND TRANSPORT MECHANISMS ..................... 2-1 2.1 Characteristics of PAHs ............................................................................... 2-1 2.2 Transport Mechanisms and Deposition Processes ...................................... 2-5 2.3 PAH Transport and Source Conceptual Model Diagram .............................. 2-7

    3 ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MONITORING TECHNICAL APPROACH ......... 3-1 3.1 Site Selection and Descriptions .................................................................... 3-1 3.2 Analytical Methodologies ............................................................................. 3-7 3.3 Dry Weather Deposition Monitoring ........................................................... 3-10 3.4 Wet Weather Deposition Monitoring ........................................................... 3-12

    4 RESULTS ............................................................................................................. 4-1 4.1 Event Monitoring Summary .......................................................................... 4-1

    4.1.1 Dry Weather Deposition Sample Collections ..................................... 4-1 4.1.2 Wet Weather Deposition Sample Collections .................................... 4-2

    4.2 Summary Statistics ...................................................................................... 4-3 4.3 Temporal Patterns of Total PAHs ............................................................... 4-12 4.4 Spatial Patterns of Total PAHs ................................................................... 4-13 4.5 Flux and Loading Rates ............................................................................. 4-14

    4.5.1 Dry Weather Data Analysis ............................................................. 4-15 4.5.2 Wet Weather Data Analysis ............................................................. 4-28

    4.6 Diagnostic Ratios ....................................................................................... 4-32 4.6.1 Dry Weather Analysis ...................................................................... 4-33 4.6.2 Wet Weather Analysis ..................................................................... 4-35 4.6.3 Comparison Plots ............................................................................ 4-37

    4.7 Source Apportionment ............................................................................... 4-40 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................... 5-1

    5.1 Conclusions .................................................................................................. 5-1 5.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................... 5-7

    6 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 6-1

  • PAH Transport Study Project Summary Report Table of Contents

    Table of Contents (continued)

    Page

    Page | ii

    List of Appendices

    Appendix A Quality Assurance Project Plan Appendix B Data Quality Objectives and Quality Assurance and Quality

    Control Review Appendix C Lab Reports and Electronic Data Deliveries Appendix D Summary Statistics Appendix E Diagnostics Ratios from Literature Review

    List of Tables

    Table ES-1. Project Questions and Answers .................................................................. xi Table 1-1. Project Watershed San Diego Bay With 303(d) Listings ....................... 1-3 Table 1-2. Project Phase Summary ....................................................................... 1-6 Table 2-1. Characteristics of LMW PAHs and HMW PAHs.................................... 2-2 Table 2-2. Characteristics of LMW PAHs and HMW PAHs.................................... 2-3 Table 3-1. Monitoring Sites and Descriptions ........................................................ 3-2 Table 3-2. PAHs Analyzed ..................................................................................... 3-9 Table 4-1. Dry Weather Events Conducted ........................................................... 4-2 Table 4-2. Monitored Wet Weather Deposition Events .......................................... 4-3 Table 4-3. Non-Detects per Analyte for Project Samples ...................................... 4-5 Table 4-4. Relative Molecular Weights, Diffusivities, and Henrys Law

    Coefficients Used to Calculate Dry Gas Exchange Fluxes and Loads for Each Analyte ....................................................................... 4-20

    Table 4-5. Assumptions for Dry Weather Flux and Load Estimations .................. 4-21 Table 4-6. Statistics for Water Quality Concentration Data Used in Dry Gas

    Exchange Flux Calculations Gathered from the Regional Harbor Monitoring Program and City of San Diego Storm Characterization Study ....................................................................... 4-23

    Table 4-7. Assumptions for Wet Weather Flux and Load Estimations ................. 4-30 Table 4-8. PAH Compounds available for Diagnostic Ratio Analysis and

    Selected Diagnostic Ratios ................................................................. 4-33 Table 4-9. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect

    Sites in Dry Weather, Using the Ratio 2-Methylnaphthalene/Phenanthrene ...................................................... 4-34

    Table 4-10. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Dry Weather, Using the Ratio Naphthalene/Phenanthrene ................................................................ 4-34

  • PAH Transport Study Project Summary Report Table of Contents

    Table of Contents (continued)

    Tables (continued)

    Page

    Page | iii

    Table 4-11. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio 2-Methylnaphthalene/Phenanthrene ...................................................... 4-35

    Table 4-12. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio Naphthalene/Phenanthrene ................................................................ 4-35

    Table 4-13. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio Fluoranthene/Pyrene ............. 4-36

    Table 4-14. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/(Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + Benzo(g,h,i)perylene) ............ 4-36

    Table 4-15. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio Fluorene/(Fluorene + Pyrene) ............................................................................................... 4-37

    Table 4-16. Count of Diagnostic Ratio Results for Reference and Transect Sites in Wet Weather, Using the Ratio Fluoranthene/(Fluoranthene + Pyrene) ............................................... 4-37

    Table 4-17. Data Sources, Constraints, and Assumptions for Estimated Monthly PAH Loads ............................................................................ 4-40

    Table 5-1. Dry Weather Gas Exchange Fluxes and Loads, Per Month ................. 5-3 Table 5-2. Dry Weather Particle Depositional Fluxes and Loads, Per Month ........ 5-4 Table 5-3. Wet Weather Depositional Fluxes and Loads, Per Event ..................... 5-5

    List of Figures

    Page

    Figure 1-1. Organizational Chart ............................................................................. 1-4 Figure 2-1. Atmospheric Deposition Processes ...................................................... 2-6 Figure 2-2. PAH Transport and Source Conceptual Model Diagram ...................... 2-8 Figure 3-1. PAH Monitoring Sites Within Project Watershed .................................. 3-5 Figure 3-2. PUF Sampler for Ambient Air ............................................................. 3-11 Figure 3-3. Wet Weather Deposition Sampler..............................

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