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Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery...

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Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach Mr Kumaraguru V K Pillay Dept of Surgery Hospital Kuala Lumpur
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Page 1: Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery Injury Powerpoint.pdf · Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach ...

Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach

Mr Kumaraguru V K Pillay

Dept of Surgery

Hospital Kuala Lumpur

Page 2: Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery Injury Powerpoint.pdf · Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach ...

Case 1

23 year old man involved in an MVA

Sustained closed right tibial plateau fracture

Time of presentation from MVA site to hospital 5 hours

Referred to Vascular unit 8 hours later for right lower limb cold and pale

Pulse ?

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Case 2

27 year old man involved in a gun shot incidence

Right thigh gun shot wound noted

Proceeded with CTA

Referred to Vascular Unit 14 hours later

Pulse ?

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Documentation of Pulse

Crucial !!!

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Introduction

Recognized as the most limb threatening.

It is a true end artery with tenuous collateral supply.

Supplies the bulk of the lower limb and foot drainage.

This is why it is so DANGEROUS!

Fabian TC, Turkleson ML, Connelly TL, et al: Injury to the popliteal artery. Am J

Surg 143:225–228, 1982

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Anatomy

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Anatomy

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Epidemiology

Popliteal artery injuries account for 19% of all extremity arterial injuries.

5.6 per 1000 cases of penetrating trauma

1.6 per 1000 cases of blunt trauma.

Vascular trauma: History, general principles and extremity injuries. Callow AD, Ernst CB (eds): Vascular Surgery: Theory and Practice.

Stamford, CT,Appleton & Lange, 1995, pp 985–1037.

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Vascular Surgery

Radiology

Rehabilitation

Orthopaedic

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Vascular Injury

“ The clock starts to tick”

Irreversible damage occurs in 6 hours

• Blood loss

• Progressive ischemia

• Compartment syndrome

• Tissue necrosis

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Vascular Injury

Potentially frequent incidence

Proximity of vessels to bone

Tethering of vessels at joints

Superficial location of vessels

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Arterial injuries associated with fractures or dislocations

Clavicle fracture subclavian artery

Shoulder fx/dislocation axillary artery

Supracondylar humerus fx brachial artery

Elbow dislocation brachial artery

Pelvic fracture gluteal arteries

Femoral shaft fx femoral artery

Distal femur fracture popliteal artery

Knee dislocation popliteal artery

Tibial plateau fracture popliteal artery

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Mechanism of injury

Penetrating trauma GSW

Stab

Blunt trauma High energy

Low energy

iatrogenic

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Types of Vascular Injury

Spasm

Intimal flaps

Subintimal hematoma

Laceration

Transection

A-V fistula

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Prognostic Factors

Level and type of vascular injury

Collateral circulation

Shock/hypotension

Tissue damage (crush injury)

Warm ischemia time

Patient factors/medical conditions

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Speed is crucial Protocol Is Essential!

Rapid resuscitation

Complete, rapid evaluation

Urgent surgical treatment

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Diagnosis

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Physical exam

Doppler ultrasound

Duplex scanning

Imaging

Exploration Careful physical exam and high

index of suspicion are most

important !

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Hard Signs Major hemorrhage/hypotension

Arterial bleeding

Expanding hematoma

Altered/absent distal pulses

Temperature differential between extremities

Injury to anatomically-related nerve

Distal Ischemia ( The 5 P’s ) Eger M, Golcman L, Schmidt B, et al: Problems in the management of popliteal artery injuries. Surg Gynecol Obstet

134:921–926, 1972

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Author No. KD Hard Signs Present Hard Signs Absent

No. (%) a Surgery (%) No. (%) a Surgery(%) b

Kaufman et al 19 4 (21) 4 (100) 15 (79) 0

Treiman et al 115 29 (25) 22 (75) 86 (75) 0

Dennis et al 38 2 (13) 2 (100) 36 (87) 0

Kendall et al 37 6 (16) 6 (100) 31 (84) 0

Miranda et al 32 8 (25) 6 (75) 24 (75) 0

Martinez et al 23 11 (48) 2 (18) 12 (52) 0

Hollis et al 39 11 (28) 7 (64) 28 (72) 0

Stannard et al 134 10 (8) 9 (90) 124 (93) 0

Total 437 81 (18) 58 (72) 356 (82) 0

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Asymmetric pulses warrant doppler examination.

Absent pulses warrant emergent vascular consultation/surgical exploration

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Rutherford Classification

Category Description Cap. refill Paralysis Sensory loss

A V

I Viable Not immediately

threatened Intact - - Aud Aud

IIa Threatened Salvagable if

treated Intact/slow

- Partial _ Aud

IIb Threatened Salvagable if

treated emergently

Slow/absent

Partial Partial _ Aud

III Irreversible Primary

amputation req. Absent Complete Complete _ _

Doppler

Page 28: Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery Injury Powerpoint.pdf · Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach ...

Most limb-threatening complications of delayed diagnosis of popliteal vascular injury are the result of overlooking hard signs, rather than an absence of signs, on initial presentation.

Fabian TC, Turkleson ML, Connelly TL, et al: Injury to the popliteal artery. Am J Surg 143:225–228, 1982

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Doppler ultrasound

Determine presence/absence of

arterial supply

Assess adequacy of flow

PRESENCE OF SIGNAL DOES NOT EXCLUDE

ARTERIAL INJURY !

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Doppler ultrasound

Does not define extent or level of

injury

Abnormal values warrant further

evaluation

Mills, et al. J. Trauma 2004

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Duplex scanning

Noninvasive

Safe

Rapid

Reliable for Injury to arteries and veins

A-V fistulas

Pseudoaneurysms

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Click image to zoom out

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Angiography

Locates site of injury

Characterizes injury

Defines status of vessels

proximal and distal

May afford therapeutic

intervention

Multiple long bone fractures

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Angiography

Expensive

Time-consuming

Difficult to monitor/treat patient

Procedural risks

Renal burden from dye

Possibility of anaphylaxis

Injury to proximal vessels

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Operative angiography

Single view in operating

room

Rapid

Excellent for detecting site of

injury

Reduces wastage of time

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Missed Injuries: Case of Trauma Hide and Seek

Incidence 2 % till 50%

Leads to increased morbidity and mortality

Page 38: Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery Injury Powerpoint.pdf · Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach ...

WHY?

Instability of patients

Level of conscience

Inexperience of health care provider

Radiology errors

Technician errors

Admission to an inappropriate service

Inadequate exploration

Inadequate index of suspicion in the presence of injuries

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Management

Page 41: Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approachhklvascular.org/pdf/download/s4/Popliteal Artery Injury Powerpoint.pdf · Popliteal Artery Injury Multidisciplinary Approach ...

Surgical exploration

Immediate exploration is

indicated for:

Obvious arterial injury on

exam

No doppler signal

Site of injury is apparent

Prolonged warm ischemia

time

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No pulses Asymmetric pulses Normal exam

Reduce, stabilize, resuscitate

Injury

obvious

Multilevel

injury ?

Doppler

Present Absent

Angiography

or duplex

Surgery Observation

Modified from Brandyk, CORR 1005

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Conclusions

Time is crucial

Most important for diagnosis

High index of suspicion

Thorough physical exam

Have a defined protocol/relationship

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