657 It is true that in addition to the diploma a certificate of .good conduct is necessary from the applicant’s Consul before a licence to practise is granted, but in many cases the ’Consul finds himself in the same difficulty as the department with regard to ascertaining if the person in possession of the diploma is the rightful owner or not. We recommend .any one of our readers who is attracted by the idea of medical practice in Egypt to obtain introductions to a resi- tlent in Egypt so that he may ascertain the chances of finding a remunerative opening and be provided with a witness to ,his identity. A knowledge of French or Italian and Arabic would be essential to any new-comer desirous of practising all the year round, for the tourist season only lasts from November to April. JAPAN. According to the regulations for medical licence, persons holding either diplomas of foreign universities, or medical schools, or foreign licences for practising medicine may be .granted licences for practising medicine in Japan, without being subject to the usual medical examination, upon pro- ducing such diplomas or licences obtained in foreign countries to the satisfaction of the home authorities." English medical practitioners will therefore have no difficulty in obtaining a licence in Japan. A local rate, which would be a small fee only, may have to be paid on opening a practice, but no charge is made for the right to practise. We have been informed that English practitioners in the foreign ,quarters of Japan are at some disadvantage for the reasons that the druggists, who are now nearly all Japanese, sell their drugs at a cheaper rate to native practitioners ; and, moreover, living is cheaper for the native than for the foreigner. Foreign practitioners depend largely upon -shipping and contract business work. SOUTH AMERICA. Argentine.-An examination which is held in the Spanish language must be passed. The fee for the examination is about E79, and there is an annual fee of about .88 15s. Brazil.-Legally the consent of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy must be obtained, but the law is somewhat lax. Certain small fees are demanded. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The laws regulating the practice of medicine in the various States and territories of the United States of America differ to a considerable extent in detail. In spirit, however, they are beginning to assume that uniformity which all medical reformers must desire for them. It has long been pointed out that one of the most open doors to abuse of medical practice in the United States was the fact that while in some States an excellent medical curriculum was required before admission to legal practice, in other States but little scientific training was exacted and freedom to practise was extended to dangerous forms of quackery. This position of affairs had its origin, of course, in the evolution of the United States, certain divisions of the country being in the forefront of civilisation, while others were, to say the least, in a rudimentary plight; but of late a great process of levelling-up has been witnessed. The progress of the United States is in no way better shown than in the fact that throughout its vast length and breadth there is now an attempt to secure for the people of the country adequate medical treatment based on scientific grounds. A résumé of the legal regulations for medical practice in the States and territories of the United States of America can be secured by sending 30 cents to the American Medical Association, :535, Dearborn-avenue, Chicago, Illinois. In this digest of the medical laws of the various States, which has been brought quite recently up to date, existing legislation is explained on broad grounds so far as it pertains to medical practice. If the information with regard to some particular State is anywhere scanty in detail it is always possible for the intending practitioner to communicate with the secretary or executive officer of the medical board at the capital of the State. We must continue to warn the British medical man desiring to practise his profession in the United States of America that in all the more enviable centres he will find a vast number, almost a plethora, of medical men, the great proportion of whom have been thoroughly well educated and trained. He must remember also that in the more important States, generally speaking, although the remuneration may rule high, the expense of living is proportionate. He will understand that the less highly the State is developed the more easy will it be for him to obtain a footing, but the less pleasant in all probability will be his professional career. Examinations are now required of all applicants in all States. (To be continued.) POST-GRADUATE STUDY. POST-GRADUATE study is divided into three main divisions -the general study of professional subjects (including the special study of some branch), the study of State medicine, and the study of tropical medicine. We have already described the provision made for instructing graduates in the last two divisions, mentioning the procedure necessary to obtain diplomas or certificates for proficiency in them. The following article shows the principal arrangements existing for general post-graduate instruction, and some little repeti- tion has been necessary :- LONDON. The London Post- Graduate Association.-The London Post- Graduate Association is now so well known that it is hardly necessary to remind our readers that it is composed of the following hospitals and medical schools (general and special)-viz. : General Hospitals: Charing Cross, Guy’s, King’s College, St. George’s, St. Mary’s, St. Thomas’s, University College, and Westminster. Special Hospitals: : The Brompton Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest, the Hospital for Sick Children (Great Ormond- street), the London School of Tropical Medicine, the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (Queen-square), the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, late Moorfields (City-road), St. Mark’s Hospital for Diseases of the Rectum, and the Medical Graduates’ College and Polyclinic. One ticket (the charge for which is 10 guineas for a three months’ course, or 15 guineas for six months) admits the holder to the clinical instruction in the wards and out-patients’ depart- ments, the operations, necropsies, and other hospital practice of all the institutions mentioned above. For the purpose of enabling qualified medical men to keep up to date in their work we can heartily recommend the scheme offered by the London Post-Graduate Association, which thus places the best of all the hospital work in London at the disposal of its ticket-holders. The office of the association is now at 20, Hanover-square. Further particulars may be obtained by writing to the Secretary, the London Post-Graduate Association, 20, Hanover-square, London, W., or by personal application between the hours of 10.30 A.M. and 1 P.M. any week-day except Saturday. Medical Graduates’ College and Pulyelinic.-This institu- tion affords to medical practitioners special facilities for acquiring technical skill and for advancing their clinical and scientific knowledge. The building contains lecture- and consulting- rooms, a pathological and clinical laboratory, a Roentgen-ray room, an ophthalmoscope-room, a museum, a library, and reading- and waiting-rooms, &c. Cliniques are given on each working day of the week except Saturday at 4 P.M., and a lecture on medicine, surgery, or their special branches, is delivered daily except on Fridays and Saturdays, at 5.15 p. M. Practical laboratory instruction in the various branches of Clinical Pathology is also provided. Classes are also held in Otology, Laryngology, Rhinology, Ophthalmo- logy, Radiography, Anatomy, Nervous Diseases, Microscopy, Urinary Analysis, Gynaecology, Practical Bacteriology, Sigmoidoscopy, Cystoscopy, Mental Diseases, Hygiene and Public Health, and Operative Surgery. Extra classes in any subject are formed to suit the convenience of practitioners unable to attend those already provided. Special tutorial classes are held for practitioners reading for the higher examinations. A monthly journal, the Polyclinic, recording the work done in the college, is issued free to subscribers and members. The annual subscription for medical practi- tioners of either sex is 1 guinea. Full information can be obtained from the Medical Superintendent at the College, 22, Chenies-street, Gower-street, W. C. The autumn session will commence on Monday, Sept. llth. The Hospitals of the Seamen’s Soeiety.-In connexion with these hospitals there are two post-graduate schools-viz.,
It is true that in addition to the diploma a certificate of.good conduct is necessary from the applicant’s Consul beforea licence to practise is granted, but in many cases the’Consul finds himself in the same difficulty as the departmentwith regard to ascertaining if the person in possession ofthe diploma is the rightful owner or not. We recommend
.any one of our readers who is attracted by the idea ofmedical practice in Egypt to obtain introductions to a resi-tlent in Egypt so that he may ascertain the chances of findinga remunerative opening and be provided with a witness to,his identity. A knowledge of French or Italian and Arabicwould be essential to any new-comer desirous of practisingall the year round, for the tourist season only lasts fromNovember to April.
According to the regulations for medical licence, personsholding either diplomas of foreign universities, or medicalschools, or foreign licences for practising medicine may be.granted licences for practising medicine in Japan, withoutbeing subject to the usual medical examination, upon pro-ducing such diplomas or licences obtained in foreigncountries to the satisfaction of the home authorities." Englishmedical practitioners will therefore have no difficulty in
obtaining a licence in Japan. A local rate, which would bea small fee only, may have to be paid on opening a practice,but no charge is made for the right to practise. We havebeen informed that English practitioners in the foreign,quarters of Japan are at some disadvantage for the reasonsthat the druggists, who are now nearly all Japanese, selltheir drugs at a cheaper rate to native practitioners ; and,moreover, living is cheaper for the native than for theforeigner. Foreign practitioners depend largely upon-shipping and contract business work.
Argentine.-An examination which is held in the Spanishlanguage must be passed. The fee for the examination isabout E79, and there is an annual fee of about .88 15s.
Brazil.-Legally the consent of the Faculty of Medicineand Pharmacy must be obtained, but the law is somewhatlax. Certain small fees are demanded.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
The laws regulating the practice of medicine in the variousStates and territories of the United States of America differto a considerable extent in detail. In spirit, however, theyare beginning to assume that uniformity which all medicalreformers must desire for them. It has long been pointedout that one of the most open doors to abuse of medical
practice in the United States was the fact that while in some States an excellent medical curriculum was required beforeadmission to legal practice, in other States but littlescientific training was exacted and freedom to practise wasextended to dangerous forms of quackery. This position ofaffairs had its origin, of course, in the evolution of theUnited States, certain divisions of the country being in theforefront of civilisation, while others were, to say the least,in a rudimentary plight; but of late a great process oflevelling-up has been witnessed. The progress of the UnitedStates is in no way better shown than in the fact thatthroughout its vast length and breadth there is now an
attempt to secure for the people of the country adequatemedical treatment based on scientific grounds. A résuméof the legal regulations for medical practice in the States andterritories of the United States of America can be securedby sending 30 cents to the American Medical Association,:535, Dearborn-avenue, Chicago, Illinois. In this digest ofthe medical laws of the various States, which has beenbrought quite recently up to date, existing legislation is
explained on broad grounds so far as it pertains to medicalpractice. If the information with regard to some particularState is anywhere scanty in detail it is always possible forthe intending practitioner to communicate with the secretaryor executive officer of the medical board at the capital of theState.We must continue to warn the British medical man
desiring to practise his profession in the United States ofAmerica that in all the more enviable centres he will finda vast number, almost a plethora, of medical men, the greatproportion of whom have been thoroughly well educated andtrained. He must remember also that in the more importantStates, generally speaking, although the remuneration may
rule high, the expense of living is proportionate. He willunderstand that the less highly the State is developed themore easy will it be for him to obtain a footing, but the lesspleasant in all probability will be his professional career.Examinations are now required of all applicants in allStates. -
(To be continued.)
POST-GRADUATE study is divided into three main divisions-the general study of professional subjects (including thespecial study of some branch), the study of State medicine,and the study of tropical medicine. We have alreadydescribed the provision made for instructing graduates inthe last two divisions, mentioning the procedure necessary toobtain diplomas or certificates for proficiency in them. The
following article shows the principal arrangements existingfor general post-graduate instruction, and some little repeti-tion has been necessary :-
The London Post- Graduate Association.-The London Post-Graduate Association is now so well known that it is hardlynecessary to remind our readers that it is composed ofthe following hospitals and medical schools (general andspecial)-viz. : General Hospitals: Charing Cross, Guy’s,King’s College, St. George’s, St. Mary’s, St. Thomas’s,University College, and Westminster. Special Hospitals: :The Brompton Hospital for Consumption and Diseases ofthe Chest, the Hospital for Sick Children (Great Ormond-street), the London School of Tropical Medicine, the NationalHospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (Queen-square),the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, late Moorfields
(City-road), St. Mark’s Hospital for Diseases of the Rectum,and the Medical Graduates’ College and Polyclinic. Oneticket (the charge for which is 10 guineas for a three months’course, or 15 guineas for six months) admits the holder to theclinical instruction in the wards and out-patients’ depart-ments, the operations, necropsies, and other hospital practiceof all the institutions mentioned above. For the purpose ofenabling qualified medical men to keep up to date in theirwork we can heartily recommend the scheme offered by theLondon Post-Graduate Association, which thus places thebest of all the hospital work in London at the disposal ofits ticket-holders. The office of the association is now at20, Hanover-square. Further particulars may be obtainedby writing to the Secretary, the London Post-GraduateAssociation, 20, Hanover-square, London, W., or bypersonal application between the hours of 10.30 A.M. and1 P.M. any week-day except Saturday.Medical Graduates’ College and Pulyelinic.-This institu-
tion affords to medical practitioners special facilities foracquiring technical skill and for advancing their clinicaland scientific knowledge. The building contains lecture-and consulting- rooms, a pathological and clinical laboratory,a Roentgen-ray room, an ophthalmoscope-room, a museum,a library, and reading- and waiting-rooms, &c. Cliniques aregiven on each working day of the week except Saturday at4 P.M., and a lecture on medicine, surgery, or their specialbranches, is delivered daily except on Fridays and Saturdays,at 5.15 p. M. Practical laboratory instruction in the variousbranches of Clinical Pathology is also provided. Classes arealso held in Otology, Laryngology, Rhinology, Ophthalmo-logy, Radiography, Anatomy, Nervous Diseases, Microscopy,Urinary Analysis, Gynaecology, Practical Bacteriology,Sigmoidoscopy, Cystoscopy, Mental Diseases, Hygiene andPublic Health, and Operative Surgery. Extra classes in anysubject are formed to suit the convenience of practitionersunable to attend those already provided. Special tutorialclasses are held for practitioners reading for the higherexaminations. A monthly journal, the Polyclinic, recordingthe work done in the college, is issued free to subscribersand members. The annual subscription for medical practi-tioners of either sex is 1 guinea. Full information can beobtained from the Medical Superintendent at the College,22, Chenies-street, Gower-street, W. C. The autumn sessionwill commence on Monday, Sept. llth.
The Hospitals of the Seamen’s Soeiety.-In connexion withthese hospitals there are two post-graduate schools-viz.,
(a) the London School of Tropical Medicine; and (b) the Pirie, Dr. Frederick Langmead, Dr. Gordon Holmes, Dr.London School of Clinical Medicine. Charles Singer, Mr. C. C. Choyce, Mr. H. Curtis, Mr. A. J.
(a) The London School of Tropical Medicine.-The school Walton, Mr. R. Bickerton, Dr. Wilfrid Fox, Mr. G. N.buildings, laboratories, museum, library, &c., are within the Biggs, Dr. Maynard Horne, Dr. Cecil Hughes, and Dr.grounds of the Branch Hospital, Royal Victoria and Albert R. E. Delbruck.Dock (Station, Connaught-road, Great Eastern Railway). The extra-mural lecturers are: Dr. James Taylor, Dr.Opportunities are afforded to students and others who may W. H. B. Stoddart, Professor W. J. R. Simpson, Mr. Jamesbe desirous of studying diseases incidental to tropical -Cantlie, Dr. William J. Gow, Dr. Herbert Williamson, Mr.climates before entering the service or going abroad. In the Herbert S. Pendlebury, Mr. Ivor Back, Dr. Alexander Haig,hospitals of the society are to be found cases of tropical Dr. R. 0. Moon, Dr. Charles 0. Hawthorne, Dr. Thomas D.diseases such as may be met with in actual practice in the Lister, and Dr. William R. Dakin.tropics. There are three courses in the year, each lasting The Syllabus and other particulars of the School can bethree months, beginning on Oct. lst, Jan. 15th, and May lst obtained on application to Mr. C. C. Choyce, the Dean,respectively. The laboratory, museum, library, &c., are Seamen’s Hospital, Greenwich, S.E.open daily, and clinical instruction is given daily in the West London Post- Graduate College, lYest London Hospital.wards of the hospitals. The School Course is recognised -The West London Post-Graduate College was started in
by the University of Cambridge for its Diploma of Tropical 1895 and three years later its basis was enlarged by the pro-Medicine and Hygiene. Classes are arranged for advanced vision for the post-graduates of lecture-, reading-, writing-,Helminthology, Protozoology, and Entomology. The lecturers and class-rooms, &c., while owing to the continuued growthin the School are: Sir P. Manson, F.R.S., Dr. Andrew of the college these were transferred in 1901 to a buildingDuncan, Dr. C. W. Daniels, Dr. L. Westenra Sambon, Dr. especially constructed for the purpose. Over 2000 post-J. M. H. Macleod, Professor R. Tanner Hewlett, Mr. James graduates have been enrolled since its establishment, theCantlie, Mr. E. Treacher Collins, Dr. F. M. Sandwith, Mr. yearly entry being now about 220. The hospital, whichK. W. Goadby, and Professor W. J. R. Simpson. The Director contains 160 beds, is in the main Hammersmith-road, aboutis Mr. H. B. G. Newham. Certificates are granted after three miles from Hyde Park Corner, and very accessible byexamination to those who complete a full course. Resident omnibus, tram, or train. The physicians and surgeons (seechambers are available for students who must be qualified or p. 597) attend daily at 2.30 p. M. Post-graduates accompanyin the fifth year of their medical studies. Prizes : the Craggs the staff and the junior staff on their visits to the wards.
prize of .E50 and the Hon. Edward John Stanley Memorial Instruction is given in the out-patient department daily atFund, R60, are awarded yearly. 2.15 P.M. by the assistant physicians and assistant surgeons.
(b) The London School of Clinical Medicine (for qualified prac- The out-patient department has recently been enlarged, andtitioners only).-The lecture rooms, pathological laboratories there is ample accommodation for post-graduates to see
(two), museum, and operative surgery class-rooms are in and to examine the patients in all the special departments ofthe Dreadnought Hospital at Greenwich, and the whole the hospital. Clinical assistants are appointed from amonghospital of 250 beds with its out-patient departments is open the post-graduates to the Medical and Surgical out-patientsto students from 10 A.M. till 5 P.M. Medical, Surgical, and and to the Special Departments. The fee for a clinicalSpecial Department In-patient Clinics are held upon every assistantship to non-members is E3 3s. for three months,afternoon except Saturday by the senior members of the which includes membership of the college on the days onstaff, and operations are performed daily, whilst out-patients which the clinical assistant attends. Practical classes,in the Medical, Surgical, and Special Departments are limited in number, for instruction in special subjects, as welldemonstrated by the assistant physicians and assistant as in medicine and surgery generally, are held as required.surgeons daily in the forenoon. Practical classes are Operations are performed daily at 2 P.M. Post-graduates arearranged each session in the following subjects: The Prac- allowed to stand close to the table and can see thetice of Medicine, the Practice of Surgery, Diseases of the operations perfectly. The surgeons often avail themselvesEye, Diseases of the Throat, Nose, and Ear, Diseases of the of the assistance of post-graduates at operations. InstructionSkin, Diseases of the Nervous System, Operative Surgery, is given in the administration of anaesthetics by theClinical Pathology, Microscopy and Bacteriology, Mental anaesthetists on the operating days and post-graduates areDiseases, Radiography, Dental Surgery, the Administration allowed to administer anæsthetics under their super-of Anaesthetics, Hygiene and Public Health, Gynaecology, intendence. Post-mortem examinations are performed atSurgical Diseases of Women, Surgical Diseases of Children, 2 p.nz., and demonstrations on recent pathological specimensMedical Diseases of Women, Medical Diseases of Children, are given on Mondays at 12 noon during each session in theApplied Anatomy, and Midwifery. Three sessions of three pathological laboratory. Demonstrations are given eachmonths’ duration are held in each year, beginning on week on Practical Medicine on Thursdays at 12.15 P.M.Jan. 5th, April 15th, and Oct. lst. Every variety of disease Practical lectures and demonstrations are given each after-may be studied in the wards and out-patient rooms of the noon (except Saturdays), at 5 P.M., during the session.
hospital, at the dispensaries, and at the affiliated hospitals. Included in this course are lectures by outside specialists onMale patients chiefly are received as in-patients by the Mental Diseases and on Public Health, and in connexionSeamen’s Hospital Society, but arrangements have been with the former instruction is also given in certain asylums.entered into with the Royal Waterloo Hospital for the The college is licensed for the teaching of operative surgery.reception of graduates who desire instruction in Diseases of The fee is E4 4s. each member in a class of four. TheWomen and Children ; with the Bethlem Royal Hospital for practice of the hospital is well adapted to the needs ofthose who require tuition in Mental Diseases ; and with the medical officers of the Royal Navy and officers of the RoyalGeneral Lying-in Hospital, York-road, for the prosecution of Army Medical Corps, Indian Medical Service, and Colonialstudy in Midwifery. These hospitals are situated on the Service who have obtained leave for further professionalsouth side of the river, are directly linked to the Dreadnought study, and the certificate of attendance at the collegeby both railway and tramway, and are affiliated to the during such leave is recognised by the Admiralty andLondon School of Clinical Medicine. The certificates of other authorities. The college is recognised by the Uni-the School are recognised by the Admiralty, the War Office, versity of London for hospital practice before the M.D.the India Office, the Conjoint Examining Board of the degree and by the Royal College of Surgeons for the neces-Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, the Colonial Service, sary work before the Fellowship examination. The patho-and the University of London (for the higher degrees). The logical laboratory has recently been completely reorganisedsupply of material affords exceptional facilities for practical and placed in the hands of the pathologist, Dr. Bernstein,instruction in Operative Surgery and in Pathology on the who attends there during the whole day and gives instruc-cadaver. The hospital also offers a wide field for the study tion in Bacteriology and Microscopy. A special class meetsof Venereal Diseases, and there is a special department with on three mornings a week from 10 to 1, and post-open-air wards for the treatment of Tuberculosis. graduates joining the class can work in the laboratory atThe teaching staff consists of : Sir Dyce Duckworth, Dr. other times under the guidance of the pathologist. A
Frederick Taylor, Sir John Rose Bradford, F.R.S., Professor class meets 12 times and commences at the beginningR. Tanner Hewlett, Dr. Guthrie Rankin, Dr. S. Russell of each month. The fee for this class in bacteriology andWells, Sir William H. Bennett, Mr. William Turner, Mr. microscopy is Z5 5s. The fee for the hospital practice,Lawrie H. McGavin, Mr. E. Rock Carling, Mr. L. Vernon including all ordinary demonstrations and lectures, is £1 1s.
Cargill, Sir Malcolm Morris, Mr., Richard Lake, Dr. Howard for one week, £3 3s. for one month, E6 6s. for three months,
L10 10s. for six months, E15 15s. for one year, and £ 30 for PROVINCIAL.a life ticket; all fees to be paid in advance. A practitioner Birmingham.-At the University of Birmingham specialwho cannot attend the whole course may attend any ten courses for post-graduates have not yet been instituted,lectures or demonstrations during the session for a fee of except in the subject of Advanced Bacteriology (January to£ 1 1s. A vacation class is held each year in August, the fee March) and Clinical Pathology and Bacteriology (April tobeing .S3 3s. for the course of one month, including hospital June) and a course of Veterinary Pathology and Bacterio-practice. The fee for a three months’ course of instruction logy for Veterinary Practitioners (October to December),in the administration of anaathetics, including a special but the various departments of the University are open toclass, is L3 3s., or without the class, .S3 2 2s. A ticket for any graduates who can attend any of the systematic coursesof the above courses will be issued at any date. Arrange- on payment of a fee. Graduates may also work in thements can be made for gentlemen working for higher laboratories under the supervision of the professors for auniversity examinations to be coached. The Winter Session small fee to cover the incidental expenses. Applications forwill commence on Monday, Oct. 9th. All communications information should be made to the Dean. At the Generalshould be addressed to the Dean, Mr. L. A. Bidwell, Post- and Queen’s Hospitals Clinical Demonstrations for prac-Graduate College, or to Mr. Donald Armour, Vice-Dean, titioners are given by members of the staff twice a weekWest London Hospital, Hammersmith-road, W. during the autumn term. All classes at the University and
North-East London Post-Graduate College.-This post- hospitals are open to men and wemen.
graduate school is established in connexion with the Bristol.-Courses of post-graduate instruction adapted toPrince of Wales’s General Hospital, Tottenham, N., the requirements of those proceeding to the M.D. degree ofwhich is recognised by the University of London as the Universities, each lasting about 12 weeks will be helda place of post-graduate study for the M.D. and M.S. at the Bristol Royal Infirmary and General Hospital. The a place of post -graduate st ud y for the course will consist of: (a) clinical demonstrations on casesdegrees and by the Admiralty and the India Office for course will consist wards and clinical demonstrations on casespurposes of study leave. Facilities are there afforded to selected from the wards and from out-patients in medicinequalified medical practitioners for taking part in the work obstetrics, dermatology, and laryngology ; and laryngology,of an active general hospital of 125 beds and for attending
classes in medicine, obstetrics pathology, laryngology,demonstrations in various branches of medicine, surgery bacteriology and dermatology. Classes in clinical medicineand gynæcology, with opportunities for clinical instruction
will be held twice a week-once at the Infirmary andand gynæcology, with opportunities for clinical instruction once at the Hospital-by Dr. F. H. Edgewort at thein Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Throat, Nose, Skin, in Fevers, once at the by Dr. J. Michell Clarke and Dr. J.at thePsychological Medicine, the Administration of Anaesthetics, Infirmary and by Dr J. Michell Clarke and Dr. JO. S ymes
Radiography, and Dentistry. Administration of Anæestheties, at the Hospital. Classes in obstetrics will be held once aRadiography, and by members of the teaching staff demon- week on alternate weeks at the Infirmary and Hospital bystrationsare given by members of the teaching staS in the week on alternate weeks at the D.C.Rayner and Hospital bylecture-room, in the wards, in the various out-patient depart-
Dr. Walter C Swayne and Mr. D. C Rayner respectively.ments, and in certain affiliated institutions. Operations are A class in pathology will be taken once a week by Professorments, and in certain affiliated institutions. Operations are Walker Hall. Six demonstrations on dermatology will be performed on every afternoon of the week except Saturday. Walker Hall. J demonstrations on dermatology will beSpecial limited classes are arranged in Modern Methods of given by Dr. J. A. Nixon demonstrations Wills at the the Study and Treatment of Diseases of the Lungs and Infirmary and Hospital. Six demonstrations on laryngologyHeart, Gynæcology, Diseases of the Throat, Nose, and Ear,
will be given by Dr Watson-Williams at the Infirmary. A
Diagnosis of Diseases of the Nervous System, Ophthal- tutorial class in medicine will be held on one evening a week
moscopy and Refraction, Diseases of the Skin, Abdominal by Dr. G. Parker, Dr. Newman Neild, and Dr. J. R. CharlesSmgery. Radiography, Bacteriology (which is accepted by in rotation, and a similar class in obstetrics will be taken
the University of Cambridge for its D.P.H. diploma), once a week by Dr. Walter Swayne and Mr. Rayner alter-
Clinical Pathology, Vaccine Therapy, and Medical Elec- nately. The fees are as follows :-For the whole course,
tricity. A Vacation Course will be held between Sept. llth £77s.; for classes in clinical medicine, pathology, laryngo-and 22nd. The fee for a three months’ course of study, logy, and bacteriology and tutorial class in medicine, E5 5s. ;which may be begun at any time, in any single department,
for classes in obstetrics, pathology, and bacteriology, E3 3s. ;is 1 guinea. A fee of 3 guineas admits to the whole practice
and for clinical medicine and obstetrics only, £3 3s.of the hospital for a similar term (one month 1 guinea Applications to attend the classes should be made to theof the hospital for a similar term (one month 1 guinea), Dean of Medicine, University of Bristol. and a perpetual ticket for the practice of the hospital Dean of Medicine, University courses are held at Cambridgemay be obtained on payment of a fee of 10 guineas. during the month of vacation courses are held at CambridgeThe fee for the Vacation Course is 2 guineas. Clinical during the month of July and the first three weeks in August.assistants are appointed in the various departments. Clinical This year the course included lectures and demonstrationsassistants are appointed staff, the various obtained at the end cer-
on general and special pathology by Professor G. Sims
three months’ hospital staff, may be pathological the end of Woodhead and Mr. T. S. P. Strangeways, on bacteriology forand a pathological laboratory for original research are
medical students by Dr. Louis Cobbett, an advanced courseand a pathological laboratory for original containing are on bacteriology for students of sanitary science by Dr. G. S.available. A reading-and a writing-room, containing a Graham Smith, a course in pharmacology by Professor J. B.reference and lending library, is provided, and tea may be Bradbury and a course in pharmacology pathological andobtained. The hospital is connected with the Telephone Bradbury and Dr. W. E. Dixon. The pathological andobtained. The hospital is connected with the Telephone pharmacological laboratories are open to advanced studentsExchange (No. 23, Tottenham). and graduates. Applications for information should be
The lecturers are as follows :-In General Medicine : Dr made early in the year to Mr. E. E. Stubbing, PathologicalPercy Kidd, Dr. R. Murray Leslie, Dr. G. P. Chappel, Dr. Laboratory Museum, Downing-street, Cambridge.A. J. Whiting, Dr. A. G. Auld, and Dr. T. R. Whipham. Leeds.-The Anatomical, Physiological, and PathologicalIn General Surgery : Mr. Walter Edmunds, Mr. H. W. Laboratories at the University of Leeds are at the disposalCarson, Mr. J. Howell Evans, and Mr. E. Gillespie. In of qualified medical men for research or for routine work atGynaecology : Dr. Arthur Giles. In Diseases of the Eye : specially arranged fees, and though there is no definite post-Mr. R. Philip Brooks. In Diseases of the Ear, Throat, and graduate course at the General Infirmary the work of thisNose : Mr. H. D. Gillies. In Diseases of the Skin : Dr. large teaching institution is very freely accessible to qualifiedG. Norman Meachen. In Fevers (at the North-Eastern medical men at reduced fees.Fever Hospital, St. Anne’s-road) : Dr. Frederic Thomson. Liverpool.-At the University of Liverpool the departmentIn Psychological Medicine (at the Colney Hatch Asylum): of Bio-chemistry, under the superintendence of ProfessorDr. S. J. Gilfillan. In Tropical Medicine : Mr. James Benjamin Moore, is devoted chiefly to post-graduate teachingCantlie. In Radiography and Medical Electricity : Dr. A. and research work upon chemistry in relationship to biologyHoward Pirie. In the Administration of Anaesthetics : Dr. and medicine. The laboratory possesses a main room de-Hadfield, Mr. Trewby, and Dr. Dunkley. In Vaccine Therapy signed specially for research students in bio-chemistry. Inand Bacteriology : Dr. G. G. Macdonald. In Clinical Patho- this room there is ample accommodation for ten workers,logy and Pathological Chemistry : Dr. Hunter Duncan. each with independent working space. Competent studentsThe opening lecture of the Winter Session will be given desirous of undertaking research in problems of either phy-
at the hospital at 4.30 P.M. in the third week in October by siological or pathological chemistry can be supplied withSir J. Crichton-Browne, Bart. Further information, with accommodation in the Johnston Laboratory. Every assistanceprospectus and syllabus of lectures and demonstrations, may is given to such students, either in working out suitable pro-be obtained from the Dean of the school, Dr. A. J. Whiting, blems of their own choosing, or the professor is preparedat the Hospital, or at 142, Harley-street, London, W to suggest problems to persons having a knowledge of
bio-chemistry and desirous of carrying on work in that at the University. There are fully equipped laboratories insubject. Applications should be addressed to the Johnston anatomy, anthropometry, bacteriology, botany, chemistry,Professor of Bio-chemistry at the laboratory. A course of pharmacology, physics, physiology, public health, andlectures and practical work in the laboratory is given each zoology. Graduates or others desiring to engage in specialterm in comparative bacteriology and parasitology for army study or research may be admitted by the Senatus to prose-and colonial veterinary surgeons and others. Instruction cute such study or research in any of the laboratories inmay be obtained at the Johnston Laboratory and also at the accordance with certain provisions. Research students arefarm station of the Incorporated Institute of Comparative exempted from payment of laboratory fees, but are requiredPathology on the methods of manufacture and testing of the to matriculate each year, paying the ordinary matriculationvarious curative and preventive vaccines and sera used in fee (.B1 Is. for winter and summer ; 10s. 6d. for summer).medical and veterinary practice. Seven of the rooms on the Forms of application for admission as research studentsfirst floor of the Johnston Laboratories are utilised for the may be had from the Secretary of the Senatus. The feespurpose of the Liverpool Cancer Research carried on by the aid are .63 3s. for six hours per week in winter or nine hoursof the Sutton Timmis Fund. In the department of tropical per week in summer, 10s. 6d. and 7s. being charged for
pathology, under the guidance of Sir Ronald Ross and Pro- every extra hour per week in winter and summer respec-fessor R. Newstead special courses of laboratory instruction in tively. The fee for the Public Health Laboratory for
bacteriology, parasitology, morbid histology, pathology, and six months is E6 6 6s., and for the Bacteriologicalmedical entomology are given in each term in the Johnston Laboratory for three months is .B4 4s., E3 3s. and
tropical Laboratory at the University, or at the associated .61 11s. 6d. being respectively charged for a half course orlaboratory at Runcorn. On Mondays, Wednesdays, and any less time. At the Royal Lunatic Asylum, accommodatingFridays, at 4 P.M., during the summer, autumn, and Lent above 700 patients (fees, £2 2s. for three months), arrange-terms, Mr. D. Douglas Crawford delivers a course of lectures ments are made for extra teaching in the higher departmentsand demonstrations in surgical and applied anatomy which of medical psychology and cerebral pathology for graduatesis intended to meet the requirements of students preparing who desire it or wish to obtain the certificate of the Medico-for their final professional examinations. A practical course Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland.on the clinical examination of the blood, the staining and Clinical work may be done at the following places :-identification of pathogenic bacteria, and on the bacterio- (General Hospital): Aberdeen Royal Infirmary (accommo-logical diagnosis of certain diseases will be given on dating 200 patients; perpetual ticket .66, or first yearTuesdays and Thursdays, at 4 P.M., during the summer E3 10s. and second year £3, thereafter free); Sickterm, by Associate Professor Ernest E. Glynn, provided a Children’s Hospital (75 patients ; first year E2 2s., thensufficient number signify their intention of attending. Post- .61 Is.); City (Fever) Hospital (100 beds; .61 Is. for threegraduate courses are also given in operative surgery, months); General Dispensary and Lying-in and Vaccineophthalmology, surgical diseases of children, skin and Institution (10,000 out-patients per annum ; a fee of £3 3s.throat diseases, by the several lecturers appointed for those for the general practice of the Institution, a fee of £11s. forspecial courses of instruction. All post-graduate classes at the certificate of Vaccination, and a fee of E3 3s. for thethe University are open to persons of either sex. Maternity Practice) ; and Ophthalmic Institution (16,000’Manchester.-The plan adopted a few years ago at the patients per annum, fee El Is.). During the summer session
University of Manchester of having special courses of (April to June) special classes, each costing .62 2s., are heldlectures on medicine and surgery for qualified medical men at the Royal Infirmary, the subjects being Diseases of thehas since that time been considerably modified. Classes Skin, Medical Electricity, Dental Surgery, Anaesthetics,are now held and lectures given on various special subjects, Ophthalmology, and Gynaecology. Lectures on Diseases ofas, e.g., diseases of the heart, diseases of the respiratory the Ear and Throat are given at the Dispensary. All theseorgans, of the kidney, and so on, and the same obtains as to facilities for post-graduate study are open to medical practi-surgical matters. These lectures are designed to meet the tioners generally.wants of senior students and practitioners. During the past Edinbqirgh.-Post-graduate teaching now occupies a recog-summer post-graduate clinical demonstrations have been nised place in the Edinburgh School, the arrangementsgiven twice a week at the infirmary by members of the staff, connected therewith being entrusted to a committee consist-and it is expected that a series of demonstrations, will be ing of representatives appointed by the Faculty of Medicinearranged for next summer. Classes for senior students and of the University and the Royal Colleges. Exceptionalpost-graduates are also held at the Ancoats Hospital. There facilities for post-graduate instruction are afforded duringare good opportunities also for post-graduate study at the the summer vacation. Three courses are held at this time-special hospitals for diseases of the eye, throat, ear, and viz., a course on Internal Medicine during August and bothskin, &c., but no special demonstrations are given. The a Surgical and General Course during September. (a) ThePublic Health Department, under the direction of Professor course on Internal Medicine, which will extend for fourS. Delepine, is largely attended by medical men, as are also weeks, will comprise classes upon medical anatomy (10the lectures given in the University on Sanitary Chemistry hours), the clinical examination of the blood (15 hours),by Dr. Gilbert J. Fowler and the Hygiene course by Dr. E. J. clinical bacteriology (15 hours), the examination of theSidebotham. Facilities are also given for the pursuit of heart (29 hours), the examination of the nervous systemresearch work in the public health laboratories, and in this (20 hours), the examination of urine and digestivedepartment the dates of post-graduate courses in pathology products (20 hours), and the examination of sick childrenand bacteriology are announced in the laboratory and in the (10 hours), in addition to a series of 40 specially arrangedmedical journals. There is no difficulty in Manchester in clinics dealing with diseases of the heart, lungs, blood andthe way of any practitioner who wants to have his recollec- ductless glands, nervous system, stomach and kidneys,tions revived or his knowledge enlarged and brought up to abdomen, and general diseases. The entries for this coursethe present standard in accomplishing his wish. Facilities will be limited to 25, and the fee will be 10 guineas. (b) Thefor research and post-graduate work are offered to women on Surgical Course will include classes upon surgical anatomythe same terms as men.
, (20 hours), surgical pathology (20 hours), and operativeNew castle-upon-Tyne.-At the University of Durham surgery upon the cadaver (30 hours), in addition to
courses of instruction are given in chemical and physical specially arranged daily clinics. The entries for thelaboratory work and lectures are delivered on comparative Surgical Course will be limited to 25, and the fee willpathology and practical bacteriology for the Diploma in be 10 guineas. (c) The General Course, subdividedPublic Health and the Degree of Bachelor in Hygiene. All into two independent fortnights, will also continuecourses are open to women students and graduates. for four weeks. Among the subjects included in this
Sheffield.-At the University of Sheffield post-graduate course are medical anatomy, the medical and surgicalcourses are held annually. The subjects vary from time to affections of children, the medical inspection of schooltime and include medical and surgical anatomy, physiology children, lectures upon infant feeding, demonstrations uponof digestion and nutrition, pathology of the blood, clinical the pathology of the eye, clinics on medicine, surgery,bacteriology, surgery, ophthalmic surgery, operative surgery, infectious diseases, neurology, venereal diseases, diseasesdiseases of the nose, and diseases of the ear. of the eye, demonstrations on morbid anatomy, &c.
SCOTLAND. The fee for the course will be 5 guineas, or 3 guineasAberdeen.-Although there is no special provision at for either fortnight. In addition to the subjects above
Aberdeen for post-graduate study such as exists in London, mentioned the following classes, the attendance upon whichstill there are some facilities for doing work of this nature is necessarily limited, are open to graduates who have
entered for the General and Surgical Course upon payment available both for graduates and students, board and lodgingof an additional fee of 1 guinea in each instance: bacterio- being charged at £1 7s. 6d. per week. Post-graduatelogy, diseases of the blood, diseases of the ear, nose, and classes are conducted at the Royal Infirmary during thethroat, ophthalmoscopy, errors of refraction, gynxcology, autumn months. The different courses are as follows :-
histological methods employed in medical diagnosis, and 1. Clinical Medicine: Dr. T. K. Monro, at 4.30 P.M. onX ray and electrical work. Further special lectures have Thursdays, Sept. 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th; Dr. J. M. Cowan,been arranged for dealing with the progress of medicine in at 4 P.M. on Tuesdays, Sept. 12th, 19th, and 26th ; and Dr.its various departments during the past ten years. These J. B. Mackenzie Anderson, at 4 P.M. on Mondays, Sept. 4th,lectures are open to local practitioners as well as to graduates llth, 18th, and 25th. 2. Clinical Surgery: Dr. J. H.
attending the September courses. Accommodation may be Pringle, at 11 A.M. on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday,obtained during September at one of the residences of the Sept. 6th, 8th, and llth ; and Dr. John Patrick, at 9.15 A.M.University Hall. Information regarding other accommoda- daily during September. 3. Hsematology : Dr. Walter K.tion may be obtained from the Secretary. The committee of Hunter, at 4 P.M. on Wednesdays, Sept. 6th, 13th, 20th, 27th,the University Union has decided to open the building and Oct. 4th. 4. Surgical Diseases of the Urinary Organs:during September, and gentlemen attending the course are Dr. David Newman, at 3 P.M. on Wednesdays, Sept. 6th,eligible for temporary membership for one month on pay- 13th, 20th, and 27th. 5. Clinical Examination of thement of a fee of 10s. The Union, which adjoins the Urine: Dr. John Henderson, at 10 A.M. on Mondays andUniversity buildings, contains a good medical library, read- Thursdays, Sept. 4th, 7th, lltb, 14th, 18th, and 21st. 6.
ing-rooms, dining hall, smoking-room, billiard-room, &c. Clinical Gynæcology : Dr. G. Balfour Marshall, at 9 A.M. onCopies of the syllabus of both the August and September Thursdays, Sept. 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th. 7. Diseases ofcourses may be obtained from the Secretary, Faculty Office, Throat, Nose, and CEsopbagus (A) : Dr. John Macintyre, atUniversity New Buildings, Edinburgh. The course of 4 P M. on Tuesdays and Fridays, Sept. 5th, 8th, 12tb, 15th,instruction is open to graduates of either sex. 19th, and 22nd. 8. Diseases of the Ear : Dr. J. Kerr Love,
Glasgow.-At Glasgow the possibilities for post-graduate at 4 P.M. on Wednesdays, Sept. 6th, 13th, 20tb, and 27th.
work are considerable, and in almost every department 9. Diseases of the Eye. Dr. A. Maitland Ramsay, at
graduates, both male and female, have opportunities for 2 P M. on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, and
acquiring more special knowledge or carrying on original at 8 P.M. on Tuesdays and Fridays during September.work. In pathology, courses in Practical Bacteriology and 10. Diseases of the Skin: Dr. Alex. Morton, at 11 A.M. onPathological Histology for graduates will be commenced in Mondays and Wednesdays, Sept. 6th, 11th, 13th, 18th, andthe pathological department of the Western Infirmary about 20th. 11. Diseases of the Throat and Nose (a) : Dr. Robertthe middle of October. The courses will extend over eight Fullerton, at 10 A.M. on Tuesdays and Fridays, duringweeks, each class meeting thrice weekly. The fee for either September. 12. Asthma and Related Nasal and Pulmonarycourse is L3 3s., and for both courses £5 5s. In the Patho- Conditions: Dr. James Adam, at 4 P.M. on Thursdays,logical Institute there is a limited number of rooms specially Sept. 7th, 14tb, 21st, and 28th. 13. Venereal Diseases : Dr.
fitted up for research work, and arrangements can be made A. N. Macgregor, at 3 P.M. on Mondays, Sept. 4tb, llth,for graduates who are desirous of engaging in work of this at 4 and on Fridays, Surgical Diagnosis: 22nd, and 29th.nature. Those interested in embryology may take out the at 4 P.M. on Fridays, Sept. 1st, 8tb, l5th, 22nd, and 29th.practical course, or if they desire to do special work may 15. Tuesdays and Fridays, Mr. James R Riddell, at 9.30 19th,obtain the use of a table in the embryology laboratory with on Tuesdays and Fridays, 16. Vaccine Therapy 15th, 19th,such guidance and help as the lecturer can give. The 22nd, 26th, and 29th. 16. Vaccine Therapy and OpsonicUniversity also has the right of nomination to a table in the Technique : Mr. J. A. Campbell, at 2 P.M. daily, fromUniversity also has the right of nomination to a table in the
Sept. 18th to 22nd. 17 Immunity : Dr. E T Fraser, atlaboratory of the Marine Biological Station at Millport. laboratory of the Marine Biological Station the Millport. 2 P.M. daily from Sept. llth to 15th. 18 Anæsthetics :This station is happily circumstanced as regards the richness P. M. Donald at 3 P.M. on Friday Sepy 8th,15th,22nd,and variety is happily circumstanced as regards obtained and John Donald, at 3 P. M. on Fridays, Sept. 8th , 15th 22nd,and variety of the fauna, which can readily be obtained and Dr-JohnDonaM fee f or attendance Sept. 8th the a b ovekept alive in the tank rooms under approximately natural classes is The fee for attendance at each of the aboveconditions. It thus offers facilities for various kinds of classes is £ 11s. ; for any three of them, £ 2 2s. 19. Gynæco-conditions. It thus offers facilities for various kinds of
biological study and particularly for physiological and logy: Dr. A. G. Banks, at 10 A.M. on Tuesdays, Thursdays,pharmacological work on the marine invertebrates. Further
and Saturdays during September. Fee for course, £2 2s.
information regarding the station can be got from the 20 Operative Surgery: Mr. Henry Rutberfurd and Mr.
honorary secretary, Mr. Geo. Middleton, 83, Bath-street, James B a tt ers b y. at 12 noon daily, beginning Sept. 4th ; ;
Glasgow. Post-graduate instruction in public health labora- fee, £ 3 3s. 21. Bacteriology: Mr. David M,Cronie, five daystory work is given in the University laboratory during both a
week for three months, beginning Oct. 10th ; fee, £ 3 3s.
winter and summer sessions, and opportunities are offered IRELAND.under prescribed conditions for original research work. Belfast.-At the Queen’s University of Belfast a course inAs regards physiology and materia medica, every facility Clinical Pathology, consisting chiefly in practical instruction,is afforded to those wishing to engage in original has been given hitherto during the summer session, and,research work. During the winter months classes in should a sufficient number desire to attend, a post-graduatephysiological chemistry and physiological psychology course of practical work in the application of methods ofwill be conducted by the University lecturers in these chemical physiology to clinical investigation is also held opensubjects. At Anderson’s College Medical School the Public to practitioners. A course in Clinical Pathology or Bacterio-Health Laboratory course, conducted by Dr. Carstairs logy is given to medical practitioners, and members of thisDouglas, is open to all qualified medical practitioners (in- class have an opportunity of seeing the methods employed including women), and is recognised for the Diploma in Public the various investigations carried out in this department forHealth by the University of Cambridge, the Scottish Con- the public health committee of the Belfast corporation injoint Board, and the Irish Colleges. The laboratory is fully connexion with water-supply, sewage disposal, meat- andequipped and the complete course in Chemistry, Bacterio- milk-supply, and the diagnosis of cases of infectious diseases.logy, and Microscopy is carried out. It is supplemented Subject to the number of students presenting themselves,when desired by a three months’ course of lectures on Sani- arrangements are made for the necessary practical instructiontation, Vital Statistics, and Sanitary Law, attendance (1) in the chemical laboratories ; (2) in the pathological andon which enables candidates to dispense with three months bacteriological laboratories ; and (3) for outdoor sanitary-of the outdoor Public Health work. The course will work under the medical officer of health of Belfast. Thesecommence about the middle of October. As regards courses have been approved by the Privy Council in connexionOperative Surgery, graduates desirous of taking out a with the degree of M.D. in State Medicine in the Universitycourse in this subject can obtain the necessary facilities of London. The certificates of these courses are alsoby arrangement with the Dean of Anderson’s College. accepted for the Diploma in Public Health granted by the’The new Maternity Hospital gives exceptional scope for Queen’s University of Belfast, the University of Cambridge,post-graduate work. There are 110 beds and a large and the various licensing bodies. Post-graduate courses areoutdoor department. Gyneacological wards were opened last open to practitioners of both sexes.winter and are now available for teaching purposes. The Post- Graduate Research Fund.-Grants from this fundfees for post-graduate work are £3 3s. for a month, .B6 6s. may be obtained by graduates in medicine of the Universityfor three months, and £10 10s. for six months. There is also of Belfast of not more than three years’ standing. Sucha residence in the hospital grounds for 15 men, and research grants are available for graduates who desire to
prosecute original research or clinical study in some depart-ment of medicine. Applicants must give such evidence ofcapacity for the work which they desire to prosecute as shallappear satisfactory to the Faculty of Medicine. The holdersof such grants must furnish reports of their work eitherduring the prosecution of, or at the close of, their studies.Farther information regarding these research grants may beobtained from the Secretary of the University, to whom allapplications must be forwarded.
It is proposed to give opportunities for advanced clinicalwork to graduates at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast.The clinical rooms will afford excellent facilities for carryingon such work. For further information and particularsapplication should be made to Dr. R. J. Johnstone, honorarysecretary, medical staff, 17, University-square, Belfast, or
at the hospital.Cork.-At University College a post-graduate course has
been held hitherto for the Diploma in Pablic Health,including Chemistry, by Professor A. E. Dixon ; PublicHealth, by Mr. D. Donovan, public health officer of the cityof Cork ; and Bacteriology, by Professor A. E. Moore. Otherprofessors and lecturers would also give post-graduatecourses if requested to do so. No post-graduate courseshave up to the present been held at the hospitals. All theCollege and hospital courses are open to men and womenstudents.
Dublin -Trinity College and the Royal College ofSurgeons each make arrangements for a course of post-graduate instruction in the year. The course arranged byTrinity College is held in September-October and occupiesthree weeks. Instruction is usually given in the following11 subjects: Medicine, Surgery, Gynæcology, Diseases of
Eye, Diseases of Throat, Nose, and Ear, Diseases of Skin,Pathology, Anatomy, Physiology, X Ray Work, and Cysto-scopy. One or two teachers deal with each subject, and adetailed syllabus is published beforehand, care being takento choose matters of particular interest at the time. Thecourses in pathology, anatomy, and physiology are designedwith special bearings on clinical problems. The classes areheld in the School of Physic, Trinity College, and inSir Patrick Dun’s, the Adelaide, the Royal City of Dublin,the Rotunda, and the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospitals.Arrangements are made by which a limited number ofmembers of the class can reside in College rooms and dine oncommons, at an inclusive cost of £1 1s. per week. The
composite fee for the entire course is ,E5 5s. The autumncourse for 1911 will begin on Sept. 25th and end on
Oct. 14th. Full particulars can be obtained from the
honorary secretary, 27, Lower ritzwilliam-street. Dublin.The post-graduate courses arranged under the auspices of
the President and Council of the Royal College of Surgeonsin Ireland have hitherto proved a most gratifying success.The object of these courses is to render available the wholeof the clinical material in the city for the post-graduatestudent, so that he may see as much as possible during thebrief time at his disposal. With this object in view theten general hospitals of the city are included (Richmond,Jervis-street, Adelaide, St. Vincent’s, Dr. Steevens’, MaterMisericordiæ, Meath, Mercer’s, Royal City of Dublin, andSir Patrick Dan’s), and also the various hospitals which aredevoted to "specialties." The opportunities afforded areshown by a glance at the list of special subjects and theinstitutions where they are respectively cultivated : Skin,Adelaide Hospital; Eye and Ear, Royal Victoria Eye andEar Hospital ; Throat and Nose, Mater Misericordiæ Hos-
pital and Sir Patrick Dan’s Hospital ; Gynascology, RotundaHospital, Coombe Hospital, and National Maternity Hos-pital ; X Ray and Light Therapeutics, Meath Hospital andSir Patrick Dun’s Hospital ; Pathology and Bacteriology,Richmond, Whitworth, and Hardwicke Hospitals, MaterMisericordiæ Hospital, Meath Hospital, and School ofSurgery, Royal College of Surgeons ; Diseases of Children,Orthopsedio Hospital, Temple-street Hospital, and Harcourt-street Hospital ; Lunacy, Richmond District Lunatic
Asylum ; Anaesthetics, Dental Hospital ; Cadaver Operations,Professors at Schools of Surgery, R.C.S 1. ; Anatomy, Pro-fessor of Anatomy, R.C.S.I. ; Sanitary Science, Professor ofHygiene, R.C.S. I. The course for 1911 will begin on Monday,Sept. 18th, and will terminate on Oct. 10th following.Fee for course, inclusive of all, Z5 5s. Full details regard-ing the course can be obtained from, and all applicationsare to be addressed to, the Professor of Anatomy, RoyalCollege of Surgeons in Ireland. A list of addresses oj
apartments and hotels, which have agreed to modified rates forpupils while passing through the course, can be obtained byapplication at the Royal College of Surgeons.
In addition to the special courses detailed above, arrange-ments can be made at the various laboratories and hospitalsfor individual post-graduate work. In particular the prac-tice of the maternity hospitals, the Rotunda, the Coombe,and the National Lying-in, is made much use of by graduatesfrom all parts of the world.
All courses are open to women practitioners on the sameterms as to men.
THE TRAINING OF CADETS IN THEMEDICAL UNIT OF THE CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY OFFICERS’TRAINING CORPS.
BY H. BUCKLEY RODERICK, M.A., M.D. CANTAB.,UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATOR OF SURGERY; OFFICER COMMANDING
MEDICAL UNIT, C.U.O.T.C.
THE medical unit of the Cambridge University Officers’Training Corps his been established three years, and thescheme of training of the cadets, which at frrat, of necessity,was of an experimental nature, has now taken definite shapeand resolved itself into :-(A) Individual instruction, consist-ing (1) of lectures and demonstrations, and (2) of drills; and(B) the exercising of the medical unit as a whole in the field.
A. Individual Instruction.1. Lectures and demonstations.-Owing to the multifarious
lectures and demonstrations which the medical student iscompelled to attend in the course of his ordinary studiesthere is little time or inclination left for much instruction ofthis nature. It has, therefore, been found sufficient toconfine this branch of the training to one lecture a week.During the Michaelmas term a course of lectures anddemonstrations is given in first aid, dressing and healing ofwounds, antiseptic principles, preparation of a patient,instruments, &c., for operation, and the application oftriangular and roller bandages. The Lent term is devoted tolectures on military hygiene and sanitation and the generalorganisation of the Army and of Field Medical Units and thework of Field Medical Units in the field. Owing to thenearness of the triposes and M.B. Examinations no lecturesare given during the Easter term.
2. Drills.-During the Michaelmas and Lent terms squad,company, and stretcher drills are held every week at times tosuit the convenience of cadets. During the Easter term thework is confined to early morning (7 A M.) parades twice a.
week. The annual inspection of the corps takes place in theEister term and necessitates some practice in ceremonialdrill. Otherwise nothing more is attempted during theEaster term.
B. The Exercising of the Medical Unit as a Whole in the Field.This has resolved itself into the holding of two field days a.
term-i e., Michaelmas and Lent. In one a small scheme is.worked out in detail, whilst in the other an extensive schemeis worked out in skeleton. In the former the unit takes the-field as a section of a field ambulance and falling in withthe general scheme of the corps the tent division establishesa dressing station on a suitable site near the scene of opera-tions, subsequently converting it into a tent divisioncompany, pitching the operating tent, bell tents, andbivouacs, and constructing trench kitchens, latrines, incine-rators, and slop sinks. The bearer division search for, andattend to, the "wounded," on whom "tallies" " are fixedstating the nature of the wound, and convey them on
stretchers to the ambulance wagons at the wagon rendezvousand thence back to the dressing station. The cadets arethus made acquainted with the detailed work of a section ofa field ambulance, which they, in fact, represent.On the second field day in each term a more extensive
scheme is attempted, and the unit is made to represent inskeleton perhaps three field ambulances (i.e., the medicalestablishment of a division) depending on the nature of thescheme. On these occasions the cadets parade with
bicycles at the medical schools which represents the head-quarters of the " administrative medical officer." Here theyare informed of the "general idea" of the day’s battleand receive their special orders and instructions before pro-ceeding to their respective localities. On these days