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  • FROM DEVICE TO SYSTEMEFFICIENCY:

    Examples from Buildings

    L.D.Danny Harvey

    Department of GeographyUniversity of Toronto

    Email: [email protected]

  • Alternative Population and GDP/P Scenarios

    456789

    101112

    2000 2025 2050 2075 2100

    Po

    pu

    latio

    n (

    bill

    ion

    s)

    0500010000150002000025000300003500040000

    GN

    P/P

    ers

    on

    (U

    SD

    )

    (a)

    Population

    GNP/capita

  • Medium Population, 1.6% per yeargrowth of GDP per capita, 450 ppmv peak

    020406080

    100

    0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0Rate of Energy Intensity Decline (%/yr)

    Required C

    arb

    on-F

    ree P

    ow

    er

    (TW

    )

    2100

    2075

    2050

    2025

  • Low Population, Declining Rate of Growth inGDP per capita, 450 ppmv peak

    0

    20

    40

    0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0Rate of Energy Intensity Decline (%/yr)

    Required C

    arb

    on-F

    ree P

    ow

    er

    (TW

    )

    2100

    2075

    2050

    2025

  • C-Free Power (TW) required to stabilize at 450 ppmv CO2for various rates of reduction in energy intensity,

    medium population and high GDP/P growth

    05

    10152025303540

    2000

    2005

    2010

    2015

    2020

    2025

    2030

    2035

    2040

    2045

    2050

    2055

    2060

    2065

    2070

    2075

    2080

    2085

    2090

    2095

    2100

    Prim

    ary

    Pow

    er

    (TW

    )

    Extra for 1.0%/yr vs 1.5%/yrExtra for 1.5%/yr vs 2.0%/yrExtra for 2.0%/yr vs 2.5%/yrExtra for 2.5%/yr vs 3.0%/yrFor 3.0%/yr

  • Factor by which energy intensity decreases (relative to 2000)for various annual rates of decrease starting in 2000

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100

    Year

    Factor

    3.0%/yr

    2.5%/yr

    2.0%/yr

    1.5%/yr

    1.0%/yr

    0.5%/yr

  • Energy and the New Reality: Facing upto Climatic Change

    Island Press (Washington), Spring 2005 160,000 words 225 figures+photos 130 tables 13 mathematical boxes

  • A Primer on Energy-EfficientBuilding Design and Retrofits

    Proposal to Island Press, Summer 2004 release 110,000 words 105 figures 60 Tables 15 mathematical boxes

  • Electricity Use in OECD Countries

    Industry36%

    Residential26%

    Commercial23%

    Power Plant6%

    Agriculture1%

    Transport1%

    Distribution7%

  • Natural Gas

    Electricity Generation21%

    District Heating10%

    Industry29%

    Residential26%

    Other2%

    Commercial12%

  • Primary Energy

    Industry32%

    Transport27%

    Residential21%

    Commercial14%

    Agriculture2%

    Non-energy3% Other

    1%

  • Residential Energy Use, USA

    Space Heating35%

    Space Cooling8%

    Water Heating14%

    Refrigerators/Freezers9%

    Lighting6%

    Cooking3%

    Clothes Dryers3%

    TVs4%

    Furnace Fans2%

    Miscellaneous16%

  • Commercial Sector Energy Use, USA

    Space cooling7%

    Water heating6%

    Office equipment9%

    Lighting25%

    Ventilation4%

    Refrigeration4%

    Miscellaneous32%

    Space heating13%

  • Commercial Sector Electricity Use, Toronto

    Heating11%

    Cooling7%

    Ventilation20%

    Hot Water3%

    Lighting47%

    Plug Load8%

    Other4%

  • Electricity Use, 16-story New York Office Building

    Lighting41%

    Office Equipment18%

    Heating1%

    Cooling12%

    Cooling tower2%

    Pumps3%

    Fans18%

    Hot Water1%

    Elevator4%

  • Electricity Use, Generic Hong Kong Office Building

    Lighting29%

    Chillers41%

    HVAC Auxiliaries13%

    Office Equipment16%

    Heating1%

  • Envelope Heat Loss

    0.00.10.20.30.4

    0.50.60.70.80.9

    1.0

    0 5 10 15 20RelativeH ea t Lo ss Single-Glazed (R1, U=5.7 W m

    -2 K-1)Double-Glazed (R2, U=2.8 W m-2 K-1)Double-Glazed, Argon-filled,low-e (R4, U=1.4 W m-2 K-1)Triple-Glazed, Argon -filled, low-e (R5.7, U=1.0 W m -2 K-1)

    0.00.10.20.30.4

    0.50.60.70.80.9

    1.0

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60R Value

    Relati ve He at Los s

    OBD, Walls (R12, U=0.47 W m-2 K-1)NBC, Walls (R20, U=0.28 W m-2 K-1) NBC, Roof (R32, U=0.18 W m-2 K-1)Walls (R40)Roof (R60)Advanced House:

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1.0

    0 5 10 15 20

    Relativ

    eHeat

    Loss

    Single-Glazed (R1, U=5.7 W m-2 K-1)

    Double-Glazed (R2, U=2.8 W m-2 K-1)

    Double-Glazed, Argon-filled,low-e (R4, U=1.4 W m-2 K-1)

    Triple-Glazed, Argon -filled, low-e (R5.7, U=1.0 W m -2 K-1)

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1.0

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60R Value

    Relativ

    eHeat

    Loss

    OBD, Walls (R12, U=0.47 W m-2 K-1)

    NBC, Walls (R20, U=0.28 W m-2 K-1)

    NBC, Roof (R32, U=0.18 W m-2 K-1)

    Walls (R40)Roof (R60)Advanced House:

  • Dynamic Insulation

    Inner air layer

    Airtight envelope

    Installation space

    Outer roof

    Dl-insulation layer

    Moisture barrier

    Outer air layer

  • Effective R-values with Dynamic Insulation

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

    Thickness of Insulation (m)

    R-V

    alue

    (Btu

    ft-2

    hr-

    1 oF

    -1)-

    1

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    V=1.5 m/hr

    V=1.0 m/hr

    V=0.5 m/hr

    Actual

  • Advanced House in Switzerland

    Heat pump

    Preheattank

    Point-of-usewater heater

    Exhaust air

    Supply air

    Heated air

    Dynamic InsulationOutdoor air

    Hermeticallysealedenvelope

    Auxiliary heatingExpelled air

    Intake fan

    Low-temperaturefloor heating

  • Temperatures in Advanced House

    40 CO

    25 CO

    45 CO22 CO

    20 CO

    16.5 CO

    -2 CO

    -10 CO

    45 CO

    40 CO

    60 CO

    Taps

    Individual hotwater tanks

    Main preheattank

    Roof

    Concrete floors

    Living spaces

    Heat Pump

    Temperaturesin the airstream

    Low temperaturefloor heating

    DHW

  • Solar-Air Collectors

    System type 1 System type 2 System type 3

    System type 6System type 5System type 4

  • Cooling loads in a Los Angeles Office Building

    Lighting28%

    Fans13%

    People12%

    Office Equipment5%

    Windows21%

    Walls3%

    Roof8%

    Fresh Air10%

  • Cooling Loads, Generic Hong Kong Office Building

    Lighting18%

    Fans10%

    People27%

    Office Equipment13%

    Windows8%

    Walls4%

    Roof0%

    Fresh Air20%

  • Air-Flow Windows

    Window

    Outdoor-Outdoor

    summercooling

    Window

    Indoor-Indoor

    winterheating

    Window, Wall,Perforated Wall

    Outdoor-Indoor

    winterheating

    Window,Wall

    Indoor-Outdoor

    summerventilation

  • Passive Ventilation

  • Pump or Fan Energy Use

    0102030405060708090

    100110

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    %Peak Flow

    %P

    ea

    k P

    ow

    er

    FansPumps Inlet Vane

    Throttle Valve

    Outlet Damper

    VSDs

    Cubic Law

  • Solar-Powered Desiccant Dehumidification withDisplacement Ventilation and Chilled-Ceiling Cooling

    123

    67

    8 9 10 11

    Room

    Ambient

    Exhaust

    Sensible Heat Wheel

    Gas Heater

    Desiccant Wheel

    Cooling Coil

    Evaporative Cooler

    Chilled Ceiling

    1413

    512 13

    4

    a)

    0.000

    0.005

    0.010

    0.015

    0.020

    0.025

    0.030

    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    Temperature (oC)Sp

    ecifi

    cH

    umid

    i ty( k

    g /kg

    )

    1

    2

    34

    Saturation

    97

    5

    6

    810

    11

    b)

  • Light Shelves

    View glazingTiltedglazing

    Path of roller

    RollerReflective plastic film

    Protectiveglazing

    Reflected

    rays

    Rays fromlow altitudewinter sun

    Rays from

    high altitude

    summer sun

    Plastic film

    Roller

    Reflectedrays

    Increased uniformity of daylight level

    Shading from high summer sun

    Fixed Light Shelf Adjustable Light Shelf

  • Light Pipes

    Prism Light Guide

    Pipe Solar Input Housing

    TrackingReflector

    HeliostatDrive C

    onve

    rgin

    g Ra

    ys

    ConvergingReflector

    Solar Rays Ref

    lected

    Ray

    s

    Diffuser

    Reflector

    End Mirror

    Light

    Prism Light Guide

    Light Ray

  • Light-guiding Shades

  • Laser-cut Panels

    Venetian Blind

    LCP Deflected light80%

  • Electrochromatic Windows

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5Wavelength (um)

    Tran

    smitt

    ance

    (%)

    Fully Bleached State

    Coloured State

  • Heat Pump Performance

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15Evaporator Temperature (oC)

    Hea

    ting

    CO

    P

    30oC

    50oC70oC

    90oC

    (a)

    CondenserTemperature:

    nc=0.65

  • European Office Retrofit Project

    0

    50

    100

    150

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