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Ppt shweta singh

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Shweta Singh, Ph.D., M.S.W.

Associate Professor,

School of Social Work, Loyola University Chicago

SCHOOLING GIRLS:

GETTING RID OF

PARADOXES

Explores pathways to identity and its underlying motivations in the context of

urban education and schooling.

Used structured focus groups:

Study of girls aged 11 to 15 years enrolled in grades 6 to 10 from 5 different schools

located in urban India.

TENSIONS OF IDENTITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND

SOCIET Y: URBAN SCHOOLING FOR GIRLS IN INDIA

Literature on women and girls identity: Religion and the media are considered the most influential

cultural influences (Collet, 2007; Housee, 2012; Mankekar,

1993)

With adolescent identity development in Asian populations, family and parental control are found to be important

influencers of self-concept (Lam, 2007).

For girls in India, the negotiation of identity is influenced by both traditional values and values of the evolving social

systems (Bhatia, 2006).

Adolescents in Delhi reported the self-other construction, i.e. importance of others in defining self, as important aspect of

identity (Sapru, 2006)

IDENTITY IN CULTURAL CONTEXTS

Six focus groups discussions

Open-ended questions- narrative-like content.

Interview questionnaire focused on descriptions of self and articulation of identity

Stories and anecdotes of life experiences were encouraged

40 girls in the age range of 11 to 15 years old enrolled in five dif ferent schools in a North Indian

The schools in the study can be categorized as public and private schools, coeducational and girls only schools, and schools with

English versus Regional (Hindi) language as medium of instruction .

The participants came from a range of middle class households and the majority of the participants were Hindu.

RESEARCH PROCESSES

The responses described identity as -- important, great, unique, good, special, talent, and respect

illustrates an underlying grasp of self

The importance of good over bad is stressed in traditional and religious texts and in contemporary media, television, and

newspapers in India (Kothari, 1994) as well as in the primary

cultural discourse surrounding construction of self and

identity

The integration of being and doing and the instinctive association of both with growing up automatically as a

function of aging

Responses were indicative of the continued collectivist nature of Indian society, which supports the importance of group over

individual.

SENSE OF SELF

The association with family in Indian culture is a salient factor of locating self

for these school-going girls (Chaudhuri,

2001).

School was mentioned more frequently as a context than family

RECOGNITION FROM OTHERS

Integrates poststructuralist feminist thinking with social psychology and cultural anthropology

Explore the multiplicity of pathways to identity and its underlying motivations under the influence of divergent cultural, social, and institutional discourses

The application of identities of women framework demonstrates that finding meaningful ways to articulate concepts like: identity, self-location with social systems, and individual ranking of systems can be useful tools in social development

IDENTITIES OF WOMEN FRAMEWORK

Shows need for a developing research approaches in International Social Work

To identify the divergences in composition of self and identity, roles of social institutions and their values in

constituting and influencing the individual, and

identify and assimilate the likely differences within

societies like Indias

NEED

For the girls in this study, home and school are both physical and social spaces, comprising of individuals with whom they have significant social relationships and of symbolic positions within these spaces

13 structured focus groups with 40 girls enrolled in grades 7-10 from five schools in Northern India.

Phenomenological research examines the linkages between goal-setting as agency and the experience of girlhood in the home and the school

LINKAGES BETWEEN GOAL-SETTING AS

AGENCY AND THE EXPERIENCE OF GIRLHOOD

IN THE HOME AND THE SCHOOL.

Goal-setting is a multi-layered concept that involves the establishment of long-term career

goals

Process comprises the coordination of learning or mastery, performance and social goals in classrooms

in pursuit of such long-term objectives.

Hypothesis that individual womens nonlinear construction of contexts, grounded in culture,

informs the nature, scope and perceived

outcome of agentic performance.

CONCEPTS OF GOAL-SETTING, CONTEXT

AND AGENCY

Students pursue learning or mastery goals according to how much they value the content

and whether they are taught in ways that

encourage or at least allow deep processing

strategies (Brophy, 2005)

Job values are multi-dimensional constructs and examine the content of job -related goals,

that is, what individuals seek to attain through

work (Barten and Stromso, 2008).

GOAL-SETTING IN LITERATURE

Phenomenological research Reflection on the phenomenon being studied

Researcher identifies emergent common themes and key statements after deep engagement with the

data.

Selection of the statements Interpreting the selected statements and exploring the

interrelationships between concepts.

Synthesized and constructed into a case study that highlights the essential structure of the phenomenon.

Verifies the constructed case with the participants

METHODOLOGY

Family members values are the most significant factors influencing goal-

setting.

On multiple occasions, student state that they are motivated and encouraged by

different family members to pursue

specific career goals

RESULTS- HOME

Fathers (n=21), mothers (n=9), and sisters (n=12) appear in higher

frequency in the girls narratives in

connection with education and life goals

than such figures as brothers (n=7),

grandfathers (n=4) or uncles (n=2)

TYPOLOGY OF INFLUENCE

School is a formal goal-processing site.

School is instrumental for the achievement of life goals and capacity for agency.

However, the educational agenda of the school converges with the goals set by actors in the home sphere.

The non-formality of the home takes precedence over the formal atmosphere of the educational

institution

The school staff, including teachers, is not viewed as career role models

RESULTS- SCHOOL

Ideological values are ascribed through practices in the home and the school and disseminated through

the media.

Common themes emerge in the dialogues referenced in the next sections highlight the moderate realist ontology that is

representative of the phenomenological methodology

The participants themselves do not explicitly mention broad ideological frameworks (such as

liberal feminism and developmental economics)

Examined the common strands and the substantial differences among the students articulations of their experiences

To identify and verify the influences of ideological currents in the process of goal-setting for the girls

IDEOLOGIES

The multiple goals perspective is especially instructive in this case

Actors in the home sphere seem to exert the most dominant influence

The social goal of pleasing parents and relatives seem to be the most prominent among the three categories of goals

Performance goals related to academics conform closely with performance goals deemed necessary for the achievement of long-term goals, as dictated by actors within the home.

Home and school are interconnected in the goal achievement process and rank first and second in the hierarchy of social institutions in the girls lives.

DISCUSSION

Teachers and principals do not act as role models or influential persons in regards to

goal-setting for the girls

Intrinsic job values of altruism and societal contribution, such as bettering the economic

lot of the less well-off in India, become

enmeshed with extrinsic job values such as

economic gain and prestige

DISCUSSION CONTINUED

For the adolescent girls in this study situated in Lucknow, the performance of agency is

inherent to the goal-setting process

Academic performance goals are coordinated with learning goals in the classroom

environment and social goals related to family

members approval

Career counseling can enhance the agentic performance of the girls during the goal -

setting process within the school setting and

later in life.

CONCLUSIONS

Proposes that research on girls education and schooling in the

developing societies of India and

China is an illustration of the gender

and development paradigm.

Dyad of social value and individual benefit

SCHOOLING GIRLS AND THE GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

PARADIGM:

QUEST FOR AN APPROPRIATE FRAMEWORK FOR WOMENS

EDUCATION

Feminists are concerned with study of gender bias against women in content, process, and

objectives

Social activists focus on incorporating content that is aware of the social and cultural

realities of women

Research approaches in education of women are grounded in macrotheories

PERSPECTIVE ON EDUCATION OF WOMEN

IN DEVELOPING WORLD

Social value of schooling in Indian and China is drawn from measurable outcomes

Two main themes in education of women research: Focuses on returns from education

Feminist theme with a focus on gender bias in education

Developmental research in womens education is primarily focused on the evaluation of the role of

education in generating individual and social

benefits in a cost-benefit framework

THEMES IN EDUCATION OF WOMEN

RESEARCH

Hypothesis of development proposes that educating women will yeild both social and

individual benefits (McMohan, 1999; Schultz,

1993).

Questioned due to: Variations in strength of associations between levels

of education attainments and labor force

participation and growth of domestic output

(Cameron et al., 2001).

Stems from use of labor force participation as indicator of womens contribution to economy

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

HYPOTHESES: Education leads to a desire for smaller family and autonomy

that helps make family planning decisions

Education leads to awareness of better childcare/lowers infant mortality

Womens awareness about good parenting increases costs of child rearing (school cost)

Education of women helps reduce bias against girl -child and desire for boy-child

Educated women marry later in life

Educated women find employment and have less time to devote to raising children

FERTILITY REDUCTION

Mothers education in less developed areas has been found to explain more of the

variance in child welfare outcomes (survival,

health, schooling)

Qualified by two factors: The son preference remains strong among women,

even those with higher status as a result of education

and work

The education of the mother either adversely affects or does not play a role in survival and health

quotients for a girl-child

CHILD WELFARE OUTCOMES

Social factors associated with the educational achievement gap are considered common to

most South Asian societies

Limited number of schools for girls, the inaccessibility of schools and poor infrastructure of

schools

Traditional role expectations affect the educational achievement of women, even at

high levels of education

Social limitations of subjects in higher education

SOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH

ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN INDIA

For girls especially: poverty and constraints in obtaining credit determine the level of investment a

family is willing to make in education of children

Parents prefer investing in the boys education when a choice has to be made between send a boy or girl to school

Rural areas also contributes to the gender gap in achievement

Gender disparity is noticeable at 2 levels of schooling:

Enrollment

Achievement level

INDIVIDUAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH

ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN INDIA

One reason for achievement gap in education is lower economic returns from educating women as compared to men

In addition to lack of opportunity, there is a lack of incentive for women and their families to support educational

achievement of women

Gender-based stratification of systems of society

Occupational systems, labor markets, or state structures, and economic factors, such as market failure or immature markets

Studies in India have found a positive association between higher education of women and increasing economic returns

Irrespective of gender, there is equality when the years of education are the same

Findings reaffirms gender bias against women in the labor market

GENDER GAP IN RETURNS FROM

EDUCATION

Identifies the: Inadequate incorporation of womens social contexts in setting

goals of womens education

Preoccupation with economic developmental goals in assessing outcomes of education

Narrow frame of reference for the identification of problems

Advocacy of universal solutions for womens education

Underlying principle of gender and development paradigm in research on womens education is that

education is beneficial, irrespective of local and

individual context

DO WE NEED A NEW PARADIGM?

The social outcomes of education/schooling are considered preludes to beneficial outcomes for the individual (self -

esteem/self -reliance)

The process of deciding upon the need, suitability, and usefulness of education emphasizes social benefits and

ascribed individual benefits while largely ignoring womens

viewpoints.

Focus of education women research is more on individual performance

Need to study education and schooling within individual contexts in order to provide alternative explanations for

dif ferences in educational achievement and education

associated outcomes for women

DO WE NEED A NEW PARADIGM? CONT.

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