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Prelim Lecture Ss101

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Gospel, Gold, Glory Spanish Period

Spanish PeriodGospel, Gold, Glory

Expeditiony Ferdinand Magellan (1518-1521) y 1519- left San Lucar, Spain with 5 antiquated ships and 235

men and arrived on March 17, 1521 y Trinidad, San Antonio, Santiago, Concepcion and Victoria y Defeated and killed in Mactan y Results of expedition: Philippines became known to Europe; it proved that the earth is round; it established the vastness of the Pacific Ocean; that the East Indies could be reached by crossing the Pacific; that Americas was a land mass entirely separated from Asia

More expeditions(sailing from Mexico)y Saavedra (1527-29) y Villalobos (1541-46): 6 ships and 370 men; reached eastern

coast of Mindanao the Sarangani Island; left the island due to extreme hunger and surrendered to the Portuguese and succumbed malignant fever. y The greatest contribution of Villalobos was the naming of Kandaya or Tandaya (Leyte) in 1543 as Las Phelipinas y Legazpi-Urdaneta (1564): left Mexico 22 years since Villalobos sailed to Asia with 4 vessels and about 350 men y In 1565, reached Cebu and contracted blood compact

Changesy Blood compact with Si Katunaw and Si Gala of Bohol y Villa de San Miguel is changed to Ciudad del Santisimo

Nombre de Jesus after the discovered Santo Nino of Cebu and became the first Spanish town in the Philippine archipelago the first settlement in the country y Making Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as Adelantado de Filipinas

The Making of Indioy Political institutions: hierarchical set- up y Captain-general administered by the King of Spain through

the Mexican Viceroy y Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias (Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies) established in 1524 by Charles V and governed all Spanish possessions y Bureaucracy: different levels of administration from central/ national, provincial, city, municipal and barrio levels

National level provincial levely Gobernador y Capitan General or gobernador general:

commander in chief of the army and navy, president of Real Audiencia (Supreme court) and vice-real patron (ecclesiastical power in the church and mission work) y Alcalde mayor (provincial governor) led the alcadia (formerly encomiendas), provincia while corregimientos or unpacified military zones (Mariveles, Mindoro and Panay) headed by the corregidores: executive and judicial powers and a privilege to engage in trade through indulto de comercio; other multiple functions: judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, vice-regal patron, capt-general

Barrio level (municipal)y Filipino bureaucrats- little governor or gobernadorcillo

headed pueblo or municipio y Barrio administrator or cabeza de barangay- a highest position that could be attained by an Indio (or Chinese) y Functions of gobernadorcillo: prepared tribute list, recruitment of men for draft labor, communal public work, military conscription, postal clerk, judge in civil suits y Cabeza de barangay was a tax and contribution collector for the gobernadorcillo and was exempted from taxation; responsible for peace and order and recruited polistas, thus also exempted from forced labor

The Residencia and the Visitay Functions: to check the abuse of power of royal officials y 1501-1700 y The Visita conducted clandestinely by the visitador-general

Early Settlements of Ancestorsy Lineal or nucleated and scattered (ilaya and ibaba) y Resettlement made by the Spanish missionaries y Reduccion: under the sound of the bell or under the peal of y y y y y

the bell (Franciscan Fr. Juan de Plasencia) Construction of houses around the church Christian indoctrination Convento and plaza as the focal point of pueblo Pueblo- Christianized town Pasaway- remontados, cimarrones, ladrones, tulisanes

Use of enticements by the churchy Novel sights, sounds and even colorful rites and rituals like

processions, songs, candle lights, saints dressed in elaborate gold and silver costumes during May festivals, Flores de mayo, santacruzan sinakulo and moroy Giving of Christian names through baptism

Institutional impacty Economic institutions: taxation through direct( personal

y y y y y

tribute and income tax) and indirect (custom duties and the bandala), monopolies and others Buwis may be paid in kind or cash Samboangan or donativo de Zamboanga Bandala (mandala) Cedula personal or personal residence tax or community tax Polo y servicio or forced labor: Indio or Chinese, 16-60 years old, do 40 days of community work, construction projects, etc. falta or palya

Encomiendasy Encomenderos y Royal and private y The Manila-Acapulco Trade (1565-1815) aka galleon de y y y y

manila or nao de china Only small groups of Spaniards enjoyed the benefit of galleon trade Damaging effects: neglect of native extractive industries like agriculture Positive results: intercultural exchanges Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country

y y y

y y y

Royal Philippine Company (1785-1814) uniting American and Asian commerce (created by Charles III) Strong competitor of galleon trade Devoted exclusive preference to cotton production and weaving, cultivation of black pepper, propagation of silk, indigo and sugar Infrastructures, Telecommunications and Public Utilities Development 19th century modern ways of telecommunication developed Ferrocaril de Manila is the 1st railway

y Suspension bridges were constructed(Gustave Eiffel) y Toll fee: centavo for pedestrians and 2 centavos for horse

carts y Telephones y Public lighting using coconut oil to kerosene y 1893- powered by electricity the walled city and suburbs La Electricista de Manila

Educational transformationy Charles V decree in 1550 teaching of Spanish language y Society of Jesus y Founding of secondary schools for the sons of native ruling

y y y y

class in preparation for christianizing and for future political position (gobernadorcillo and cabeza de barangay) Christian doctrine; the 3 Rs; vocal and instrumental music and handicrafts Boys colleges and secondary schools Priesthood and general secondary education Curriculum: Latin, philosophy, canon & civil law, rhetoric

y College of Immaculate Concepcion ( now Ateneo de Manila

University) became Escuela Pia as school for poor boys founded by the Jesuits y Dominican managed schools: UST (formerly called Colegio de Nuestra Senora del Santisimo Rosario was converted in 1611 as Dominican University y 1620- College of San Juan de Letran founded as Seminario de Ninos Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo for orphaned Spanish children and is now considered oldest secondary school in the Philippines

Girls schoolsy Colegios of Santa Potenciana and Santa Isabel were the first y y y y

boarding schools and considered oldest school for girls Founded for the benefit of orphaned Spanish girls Exclusive colegios were beaterios for daughters of upper class Other colegios established in 19th century: La Concordia College, Assumption college Free compulsory publicly-supported system of primary schools and mens normal school (educational decree of 1863)

From Indio to Filipino (REVOLTS)y First local heroes: Lapu-lapu of Mactan (1521) and Dagami

of Cebu (1567) y Not treated holistically y Reasons: personal led by former datus; religious by babaylan and katalonan; resistance to economic and religious institutions; and land problems

Personal and religious motivesy Lakandula and Soliman y Revolt in 1574 started by the relatives of the two former y y y y y y

datus Tamblot of Bohol used magic and religion Francisco Dagohoy of Bohol Diego Silang of Ilocos Hermano Pule (Apolinario de la Cruz) Cofradia de San Jose Muslims in the South Igorots in the Cordilleras

Resistance to Spanish Institutionsy Diego and Gabriela Silang y Formed forces with the British y Don Diego Silang as Maestro de Campo General y Teniente

de Justicia Mayor as the rightful head of Ilocos government y Peasant unrest y Laguna, Cavite

Filipino nationalismy Factors that contributed to the birth of nationalism y Idea of nationalism, a product of French revolution in the y y y y

18th century European liberalism Administration of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre Effects of secular-regular conflicts Cavite Mutiny of 1872

Reform and Revolutiony Execution of GOMBURZA y Role of the middle class: Spanish and Chinese mestizos y Peninsulares- Spanish born in Spain y Insulares- Spanish born in the Philippines y Indios are the natives of the Philippines y Gov-Gen Basilio Agustin called for the loyalty and aid of the

indios 1898 thus were called Filipinos y The administration of Gov. Gen Carlos Ma. Dela Torre y Abuses of the Spanish authorities as well as friars

The Reform Movementy Denounced Spanish abuses and demand to make the y y y y y

Philippines a province of Spain No clamor for independence; Filipinos to become Spanish citizens Represented in in the Spanish Cortes They would be immune from abuses and free from paying unreasonable taxes Assimilation of the Philippines to Spain Middle class: the rich and the intellectuals shunned revolution

The Great Reformistsy Some are members of the propaganda movement while some

y y y y y y y

are merely students hoping to become successful professionals and businessmen Graciano Lopez-Jaena (Iloilo) (Fray Botod) M. H. del Pilar (Bulacan) Dasalan at Tocsohan Jose Rizal (Laguna) Antonio Luna Mariano Ponce Jose Ma. Panganiban Eduardo de Lete

La Solidaridady The official newspaper of the propaganda in Barcelona y Defense against the malicious and slanderous attacks of the y y y y y y

friars Publication of studies about the Philippines and the Filipinos the first editor was Lopez Jaena Del Pilar and Rizal became editors Pen names used: Rizal Dimas Alang and Laong Laan Mariano Ponce- Tikbalang, Naning and Kalipulako Antonio Luna- taga-Ilog

Societies and affiliationsy Marcelo del Pilar- Plaridel y Jose Ma. Panganiban JOMAPA y Hispano-Filipino Association y Masonry Movement y La Liga Filipina founded by Rizal on July 3, 1892 in Tondo

Failure of the reform movementy Spain was too pre occupied with her internal problems y Friars were too powerful to counter attack the Sol y The reformists did not have sufficient means to carry out y y y y

their aims Difficulty in the collection of dues (fund) Futility of the peaceful propaganda Did not succeed in convincing Spain to grant the needed reforms The propagandists were divided against themselves by petty jealousy

Bonifacio and the Katipunany Founded with radical platform to secure independence and y y y

y y

freedom by force of arms The founding of KKK Rizals deportation to Dapitan July 7, 1892 Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano met at Tondo and formed an association called Kataastaasan Kagalang galang na Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan Ancient Blood Compact Triangle recruitment method

Katipunan Objectivesy Political - separation of the Philippines from Spain y Moral teaching of good manners y Civic- principle of self-help, defense of the poor and the


Structure of Katipunany Influenced by Masonry (initiation rites) and La Liga

(organization) y Bonifacio being a member of Liga and a Mason being affiliated with the lodge Taliba y 3 governing bodies: Kataastaasang Sanggunian or the Supreme Council; Sangguniang Bayan or Provincial Council and Sangguniang Balangay or Popular Council

Membership of KKKy 3 grades: y Katipon- wore black hood in meetings, password is Anak ng

Bayan y Kawal- wore green hood and password is Gom-Bur-Za y Bayani- wore red mask and sash with green borders symbolized courage and hope, password is Rizal

Flags and celebrationsy The first official flag is consisted of a red rectangular piece of

cloth with three Ks arranged horizontally at the center. y Benita Rodriguez and Gregoria de Jesus y Bonifacios flag is consisted of a red rectangular piece of cloth at the center of which is a white sun with an indefinite number of rays and below the sun are the 3 white Ks arranged horizontally y Feb 17 as the day of prayer in memory of GOMBURZA

The founder and the brainsy Andres Bonifacio Supremo y Emilio Jacinto wrote the teachings of KKK: Kartilla y Womens chapter: limited to wives, daughters, and sisters of

y y y y

male members of KKK, acted as front for the clandestine activities of KKK KKK newspaper is Kalayaan Pen names used by Jacinto Dimas Ilaw Bonifacio Agap ito Bagumbayan Valenzuela- Madlang Away