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Presentation title Emergency Care Part 3: Surgery in Children with Diabetes

Date post:26-Mar-2015
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Presentation title Emergency Care Part 3: Surgery in Children with Diabetes Slide 2 Emergency care Slide no 2 1 2 3 Managing DKA Surgery in children with diabetes Treating and preventing hypoglycaemia Slide 3 Surgery Surgery is more complicated when the patient has diabetes Need to monitor continuously Risks for: Hypoglycaemia Hyperglycaemia Ketones Elective surgery only at a centre with expertise in treating children with diabetes Slide no 3 Slide 4 Surgery at Echelons 1-2 Consider surgery at echelons 1-2 only if Minor surgery Emergency major surgery Slide no 4 Slide 5 General Principles Correct DKA/ketosis before surgery First on a surgical list (ideally morning) Maintain blood glucose of 510 mmol/l during and after surgery Frequent monitoring May need repeated doses of short-acting insulin and maintenance IV fluids No solid food for 6 hours before general anaesthesia Slide no 5 Slide 6 Minor Procedures (1) Rapid recovery anticipated: Early morning procedure Delay insulin and food until completion of the procedure Check blood glucose 0-1 hour pre-operatively After surgery, check glucose, give full dose of insulin and food Slide no 6 Slide 7 Minor Procedures (2) Rapid recovery and/or early feeding may not occur: Give 50% of usual insulin dose Monitor glucose 2 hours pre-operatively If glucose above 10 mmol/l: Give dose of short-acting insulin (0.05 U/kg) OR Start insulin infusion at 0.05 U/kg/hour If glucoseSlide 8 Post-operation Check blood glucose hourly Start oral intake or continue IV glucose Give small doses of short-acting insulin for hyperglycaemia or for food intake Give the dinner time or evening dose of insulin as usual Because of post-op DKA possibility, more overnight blood glucose monitoring at home or admit to hospital Slide no 8 Slide 9 Major Surgery For emergency major surgery Correct DKA/ketosis before surgery Consider transfer to a centre with expertise in treating children with diabetes Consider major surgery at echelon 1-2 only if: Dire emergency Unable to transfer to a centre with appropriate expertise Take to operating theatre and start DKA protocol simultaneously Slide no 9 Slide 10 For elective surgery First on surgical list (ideally morning) If control is uncertain or poor, admit for stabilisation of glycaemic control If diabetes is well controlled, admit to hospital on the day before surgery Only consider surgery once diabetes is stable Slide no 10 Slide 11 Pre-operative In the evening before surgery Frequent blood glucose monitoring Usual evening insulin(s) and snack Short-acting insulin to correct high blood glucose values every 3-4 hours Keep nil by mouth from midnight If the child develops hypoglycaemia, start an IV infusion of dextrose (5-10%) Slide no 11 Slide 12 Intra- and Post operation On the day of surgery Omit usual morning fast or rapid insulin Consider decreasing or omiting intermediate or long acting morning insulin Instead give insulin by IV insulin infusion at 0.05 U/kg/hour OR Repeated doses of short-acting insulin every 3-4 hours Give IV fluids (half normal saline with 5% dextrose). Check blood glucose and electrolytes regularly DKA can occur during or after surgery Slide no 12 Slide 13 Intra- and Post operation Monitor glucose 1-2 hourly before surgery Every 30 minutes during surgery Hourly post-operatively Aim for 5-10 mmol/l Adjust rate of insulin and dextrose-saline Feed and start regular doses of insulin once awake Monitor ketones if glucose is >15 mmol/l Slide no 13 Slide 14 Questions Slide 15 Changing Diabetes and the Apis bull logo are registered trademarks of Novo Nordisk A/S

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