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Im Zinhle Mkwanazi student at University of Johannesburg,Im doing BEd Degree these is my third year, i will complete my course next year 2015

2. LIFE ORIENTATION IS CENTRAL TO THE HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNERS. IT ADDRESSES SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES FOR THEPERSONAL, SOCIAL, INTELLECTUAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL GROWTH OF LEARNERS, AND IS CONCERNED WITH THE WAY IN WHICH THESE FACETS ARE INTERRELATED. LIFE ORIENTATION GUIDES AND PREPARES LEARNERS FOR LIFE AND ITS POSSIBILITIES AND EQUIPS THEM FOR MEANINGFUL AND SUCCESSFUL LIVING IN A RAPIDLY CHANGING AND TRANSFORMING SOCIETY. 3. IM GOING TO TAKE 5WEEKS IN GRADE 9,TEACHING THEM THIS 5TOPICS The subject contains the following five topics in Grades 7 to 9:How can you effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of lifes problems?Managing StressRECENT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT STRESSStress, Health, and CopingStressand Depression 4. 1.How can you effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of lifes problems? Prevent and reduce distress Keeping a moderate amount of stress keeps you alert and ready to respond Too little stress causes boredom; too much and youre overwhelmed Create eustress When responses to stressors lead to productive outcomes and constructive coping, this is eustress Coping skills are needed Strive to live within your comfort zone You need to keep a certain level of arousal from stressors to stay within your comfort zone 5. Coping with Stress Buffer and protect yourself from negative consequences Coping helps to cushion the effects of stressors and provides a certain amount of protection from them Conserve, replenish, and build an inventory of resources needed to manage stress The coping process is where you spend a variety of resources to deal with a situation The more resources you have to spend, the better you cope Material resources, personal qualities, and social support are resources 6. Achieving the Goals for Coping with Stress; Thinking constructively Restructure how events are perceived Irrational beliefs fuel emotional fires Words like all, every, always, never, totally, essential, must, should, have to, need to, ought to, must, awful, terrible, horrible lead to personal problems leading to depression, irritability, loneliness, excessive worrying, etc. Three categories of irrational beliefs: Drivers: perfectionism, do it yesterday, macho, selfsacrifice, push to the limit Stoppers: catastrophizing, negative thinking, arbitrary inference, rigidity, living in the past, waiting around, quitting, procrastination Distorters: overgeneralizing, blaming others, narrowminded, denial, stereotyping, either/or thinking, overestimating, illogical thinking, personalization 7. The Role of Your Self-Image Three important definitions Self the I, me. or myself Self-image how you see yourself Self-concept how you define yourself Self-esteem the positive or negative feelings about yourself overall The self-image as a guide and regulator of your actions The self is tied to the roles you play and these roles are scripts that guide your actions The self-concept includes a variety of roles, so conflict can develop between roles The self-image in developing and maintaining relationships If you have insight into your positive and negative characteristics, you can see others more accurately 8. Relaxation TechniquesRelaxation helps to relieve stress, decrease tension, and slow down the physiological arousal associated with stressSlow, rhythmic breathingMany different techniques you can use You may use a mantra or key word that can help you to relaxGuided Imagery Seeing yourself in a nature scene where you are relaxed and comfortable Take your time to enjoy each scenario within your nature sceneDisengage yourself Whenever you feel tense and stressed, stop what youre doing and thinking Take a deep breath, and tell yourself to relax and clear your mind of all thoughts Concentrate on only one thing apart from where you are 9. Organize and manage your time more effectively Establish priorities Organize your activities allocating them into specific periods of time Filter your activities to determine what you really need to do The challenge is setting and acting upon your priorities within the time available Personal priorities need to focus on: Preventing problems Building relationships Acting on new opportunities for yourself Finding time for recreation and leisure Become a little selfishA selfish approach to life means you take time out of your daily schedule to devote to yourself Relaxing, taking walks, hobbies, reading, enhancing various skills, and other growthproducing activities 10. 2.Managing Stress Resolving Stress; Adaptive Stress Response ccccccccccccc responsechronic stress response 11. Effects of Stress Stress and immunity Chronic stress may cause the immune system to be under- or overactiveStress and cardiovascular disease Type A personality: Competitive, ambitious impatient Associated with heart attacksType B personality: Relaxed, patient 12. How Americans Cope with Stress 13. Social Aspects of Stress Management Maketime to have fun and play Laughteris effective Humancontact through social connections Petscan reduce stress 14. Environmental Aspects of Stress Management Reduce noise levels Amount/type of light Meaningful and challenging experiences Aesthetic quality of inhabited space Color Plants Photos Smell 15. Psychological Aspects of Stress Management Relaxation and deep breathingProgressive muscle relaxation (PMR)Guided imagery and visualizationMeditationHypnosisBiofeedback 16. 3.Stress, Health, and Coping A negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to cope Stressorsevents that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging 17. Social and Cultural Sources of Stress Social conditions that promote stress poverty, racism, crime low SES tend to have highest levels of stress Culture clashes lead to stress company owned by different culture refugees, immigrants suffer acculturative stress 18. Health Effects of Stress Indirect effectspromote behaviors that jeopardize physical well being. Use of drugs, lack of sleep, poor concentration Direct effectspromote changes in body functions, leading to illness such as headaches and other physical symptoms 19. Social Factors Promoting Health Social supportresources provided by others in times of needEmotionalexpressions of concern, empathy, positive regard Tangibledirect assistance such as lending money, providing meals Informationalsuch as making good suggestions, advice, good referrals 20. Social Support Improves ability to cope with stress & benefits health person modifies appraisal of stressors significance to be less threatening helps to decrease intensity of physical reactions to stress make person less likely to experience negative emotions Pets as social support especially for elderly and people who live alone Gender and social support 21. 4.RECENT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT STRESS INTRODUCTION; Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when we are under stress, what is stressing us and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both our mental and physical well being. Stress is one of the central concepts in Psychiatry. Stress has been invoked as a cause of major psychopathology, a precipitator or trigger of psychiatric illness and a contributor to considerable mental anguish. 22. DIFFERENT MODELS OF STRESS Alarm is the first stage. When the stressor is identified the body's stress response is a state of alarm. Adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fightor-flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol. Resistance is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. Exhaustion is the third. At this point all of the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. The initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear. If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the body, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. 23. CAUSES OF STRESS 24. Side Effects of Stress DEPRESSION : one of the side effects of stress, caused actually by the excess of stress WEIGHT GAIN :The calories intake increases significantly during stressful moments. When we are stressed, we try to compensate the problems we are facing by eating more than we need. WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM: Stress has a big role in weakening our immune System. INSOMNIA 25. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STRESS A)NEUROTRANSMITTER RESPONSE TO STRESS STRESS activates Noradrenergic systemSerotonergic systemDopaminergic systemAmino acid and peptinergic neurotransmitter system(B)ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO STRESS STRESS activates HPA AXIS CRH acts at the anterior pituitary to trigger release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)which acts at the adrenal cortex to stimulate the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids.Glucocorticoids themselves have myriad effects within the body, but their actions can be summarized in the very short term as promoting energy use, increasing cardiovascular activity (in the service of the flight-or-fight response), and inhibiting functions such as growth, reproduction, and immunity. 26. 5.STRESS AND DEPRESSION What Are Some Common Sources of Stress? Situations in the home Parents separation or divorce, A new stepparent, A new brother or sister, A single parent household, L

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