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Psych 101: Review Session

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Psych 101: Review Session. Sara J. Buhl. Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology. Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology. psychological factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity, and exercise aims to enhance individual and team performance managing emotions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Psych 101: Review Session Sara J. Buhl
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Page 1: Psych 101: Review Session

Psych 101: Review Session

Sara J. Buhl

Page 2: Psych 101: Review Session

Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology

Page 3: Psych 101: Review Session

Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology

psychological factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity, and exercise

aims to enhance individual and team performance

managing emotions minimizing the psychological effects of injury and

poor performance

Page 4: Psych 101: Review Session

Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology

skills taught: goal setting relaxation visualization self-talk awareness and control concentration confidence

Page 5: Psych 101: Review Session

Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology

Motivation – intrinsic motivation (inner motivation, e.g., self

accomplishment) extrinsic motivation (outer motivation, e.g.,

money or awards)

Attention Focus – Being able to block everything out, e.g., a

crowd http://appliedsportpsych.org/

Page 6: Psych 101: Review Session

http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/02/04/vegetative.state/index.html

fMRI in the News

functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) can decipher the brain's answers to questions in healthy, non-vegetative, participants with 100% accuracy

patients believed to be in a vegetative state were scanned using fMRI signs of awareness were detected in 17%

Page 7: Psych 101: Review Session

fMRI in the News

'Vegetative state' man responds to questions severe head injuries in a car crash believed to be in a vegetative state used functional magnetic resonance imaging

(fMRI) mapped brain activity while asked to answer

"yes" or "no" to questions such as "Is your father's name Thomas?"

Page 8: Psych 101: Review Session

fMRI in the News

The patient communicated answers through brain activity.

Page 9: Psych 101: Review Session

http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/new-poll-shows-support-for-repeal-of-dont-ask-dont-tell/

Survey/Polls in the News

“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” PolicyMajority of public supports allowing openly

gay men and women to serve in the military

BUT there is less support for allowing homosexuals to serve openly

Why?

Page 10: Psych 101: Review Session

http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/new-poll-shows-support-for-repeal-of-dont-ask-dont-tell/

Survey/Polls in the News

Wording2 Groups:

half asked their opinion on permitting “gay men and lesbians” to serve

70% favored allowing them to serve 60% favored them serving openly

half were asked about permitting “homosexuals” to serve

59% favored allowing them to serve 44% favored them serving openly

Page 11: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) Established the 1st psychology laboratory

1st psychology experiments Emphasis on introspection

Examining one’s own emotions and mental processes

William James also emphasized introspection Wrote 1st widely recognized text of

Psychology

Page 12: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

BEHAVIORISM (1920-1960) Science viewed as rooted in observations

Famous Behaviorists: John B. Watson

Little Albert Study conditioned fear of a white rat in baby Albert

B.F. Skinner Studied how consequences shape behavior Pigeons learning to turn/peck by rewarding with food Reinforcement – slot machines “reward” our behavior (putting

in coins) by letting us win at various intervals

Page 13: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

Hindsight Bias “Hindsight is 20/20”After learning the outcome of a situation, we tend

to believe that we knew what would happen all along

Page 14: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

Naturalistic Observation Watching & recording behavior in a natural

environment Jane Goodall – Chimpanzee observations

Correlation Relationship of two or more variables Does not indicate causality

Page 15: Psych 101: Review Session

Correlation

Positive or Negative?

Page 16: Psych 101: Review Session

Correlation

Positive or Negative?

Page 17: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

Experiment one or more factor is manipulated to observe

the effectDouble Blind Procedure

Used in Experiments Both researchers & participants are “blind”

(unaware) about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo

Page 18: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

Experiments manipulate a factor to determine its effect.

Independent Variable the factor that is manipulated factor that the researcher controls

Dependent Variable the factor that is being measured the outcome of interest

Page 19: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 1 Review

A study indicates that antioxidants found in blueberries may slow down the process of aging. In this study, rats were fed either their standard diet or a diet supplemented by blueberries. After eight weeks, the rats were given memory tests. The rats who had the blueberries added to their diet showed improvement on the memory tests. Independent Variable? Dependent Variable?

Page 20: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Dendrite branching extensions of a neuron receive messages and conduct impulses toward the

cell bodyAxon

the extension of a neuron, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Myelin Sheath a layer of fatty cells covering the axon of some

neurons greatly increases the speed of neural impulses

Page 21: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Neurons (Nerve Cells)

Page 22: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Synapse junction between the axon tip of the sending

neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap

Page 23: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review - Synapse

Page 24: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord) Peripheral Nervous System

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Somatic NS = Voluntary muscle control (skeleton)Autonomic NS = involuntary control of organs &

glands• Sympathetic Nervous System = part of the autonomic NS

that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

• Parasympathetic Nervous System = Part of the autonomic NS that calms the body, conserving its energy

Page 25: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 review

Page 26: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Brainstem the oldest part of the brain responsible for automatic survival functions

Medulla base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing

Thalamus on top of brainstem receives info from all senses (except smell) and sends it to the

correct brain region Reticular Formation

a nerve network in the brainstem plays an important role in controlling arousal

Page 27: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Page 28: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Limbic System A group of neural structures in the brain associated with emotions (fear & aggression) associated w/ drives (for food and sex)

Page 29: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Limbic System Includes hippocampus (ch. 8) amygdala

linked to emotion influences aggression, rage, & fear

hypothalamus also linked to emotion contains a “reward/pleasure” center

• rats will cross electric grid for stimulation directs several maintenance activities (eating, body

temp)

Page 30: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review

Corpus Callosum - neural fibers that connect the two brain hemispheres and carry messages between them

Page 31: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 2 Review The brain & language

Broca’s Area (1860s) Part of frontal lobe Controls language expression Directs muscle movements involved in speech Damage = difficulty forming words, but still able to sing

familiar songs

Wernicke’s Area (1870s) Part of temporal lobe Controls language reception Helps us comprehend and express language Damage = speak meaningless words; unable to

understand words spoken by others

Page 32: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 4 Review

Zygote (conception to 2 weeks) fertilized egg enters a 2-week period of rapid cell

division

Embryo (2nd through 8th weeks) organs begin to form; heart begins to beat

Fetus (9 weeks until birth) looks unmistakably human; organs continue developing

Teratogens agents that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause

harm

Page 33: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 4 Review

Piaget’s Stages (Cognitive Development) Sensorimotor (birth – age 2)

Object Permanence (know that things still exist even when you can’t see them); Stranger Anxiety

Preoperational (age 2 – 6) Pretend Play; Egocentrism (difficulty taking another’s

point of view) Concrete Operational (age 7-11)

Conservation; Concrete Thinking Formal Operational (age 12 – adult)

Abstract thinking

Page 34: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 4 Review

Attachment emotional tie with another person seen in young children when they seek closeness to

caregivers and show distress when separated

Separation Anxiety distress exhibited when young children are separated

from caregivers

Stranger Anxiety An infant’s fear of strangers

Page 35: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 4 Review

Attachment Styles: Securely Attached

Explore surroundings, play (when mother is present) Distressed when mother leaves; comforted when she

returns Insecurely Attached - Ambivalent

Less likely to explore and may cling to mother Seem indifferent when mother leaves and returns

Insecurely Attached – Avoidant Also less likely to explore and may cling to mother May cry loudly and remain upset when mother leaves and

returns

Page 36: Psych 101: Review Session

Chapter 4 Review

Harlow Experiments (1950s) Reared monkeys with two artificial mothers

One w/ bare wire and feeding bottle One w/ soft cloth and no bottle

Found that monkeys preferred contact with the cloth mother even though they got their food from the wire mother


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