- 1. WELCOME TO THE PRESENTATION ON PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT (PTD) K. GOVIND RAJ CHOWDARY
2. PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
- Participatory Technology Development (PTD) is one of the
established methods for ensuring effective peoples participation in
3. WHAT IS PTD ?
- PTD is a process of purposeful and creative interaction between
local farming groups and the change agency for generating
acceptable and affordable technologies. It is a process of building
up farmers capacity to identify, innovate, test and evaluate the
intended technologies enabling them to find a solution for their
4. THE PURPOSE OF PTD -For Farmers
- It helps in solving farm related problems.
- Expands their horizon of knowledge by providing various options
to the problem.
- Strengthens their inquiring tendency.
- Builds up the capacities to experiment.
5. THE PURPOSE OF PTD -For Change Agency
- Helps in getting a deeper understanding of the farmers
- Helps in understanding of farming situations and
- Creates a favorable situation for introducing its ideas on the
6. EXPECTED OUTCOME
- Development of location specific technologies for the
identified problem, by integrating the local technologies with the
- Improved capabilities of farming groups in farm trials and
- Greater use of Low External Inputs and Sustainable Agriculture
(LEISA) technologies in farm production.
- Building and strengthening of linkages with partners enabling
improved access to external resources.
- Improved farmer to farmer communication.
- Groups from critical mass for further diffusion of
7. ROLE OF PTD
- To improve indigenous technologies by careful use of external
- To enable greater acceptance of eco-friendly technologies by
- To foster effective spread of new technologies within a
- To make farmers more self reliant in agriculture.
8. CHARACTERISTICS OF PTD
- Problem solving approach.
- Focus on LEISA technologies.
- Create learning situations for farmers to try on their own
- Farmers as innovators and not passive receivers of
- Trials based on farmers needs.
- Participation of concerned partners enabling linkages.
9. When to do PTD?
- When appropriate technologies are not available/known for a
particular problem in a specific location.
- When the existing technology involves high external input usage
leading to high production cost and causing damage to the
10. Where is PTD done?
- PTD is done on farmers fields who are willing to take up
- Purpose is for comparison.
- Control plots are also to be identified.
- Control plots should be similar to the trial plots in all the
11. PARTNERS IN PTD
- Representatives from change agency.
- Representatives from Dept. of Agriculture.
- Representatives from Agril. Research stns.
- Representatives from input suppliers.
12. PROCESS INVOLVED IN PTD
- Step 2: Setting up a goal/objective.
- Step 3: Designing experiments.
- Step 4: Trying things out.
- Step 5: Sharing the results.
- Step 6: Keeping up the process.
13. PTDStep 1: Getting started.
- a)Purpose : It is a familiarization process. This includes how
PTD practitioners from outside the community choose an area,
introduce themselves, build up a good relationship with the local
people, analyze the existing agricultural situation and form a
basis for cooperation with network of farmers to start the process
of technology development. This includes widening of all involved
about the sociological, socio economic, cultural and political
dimensions of the current situation.
14. PTDStep 1: Getting started.
- Building up rapport with the local communities.
- Gather and analyze data on the existing agricultural
- Build contacts with necessary people in the village, like
village leaders, school teachers, local institution heads, local
experiment station staff etc.
- Identify group of farmers willing to participate in the PTD
15. PTDStep 1: Getting started.
- Individual and group contacts.
- Group meetings / discussions.
- Analyzing secondary data.
16. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 1.
- A basic understanding of the socio-cultural and agro ecological
situation in the selected villages.
- A clear perspective on the cooperation between the local
communities and the PTD team.
- A core network of persons, groups and organizations that can
play a role in strengthening and sustaining the local experimenting
- A group of farmers willing to conduct PTD identified
17. PTDStep 2:Setting up a goal/objective
- The purpose is to enable farmers to identify and prioritize
problems, analyze information, identify options for dealing with
the problems and develop an agenda for PTD.
18. PTDStep 2:Setting up a goal/objective
- Identifying crop related problems by farmers.
- Prioritizing problems by farmers.
- Screening local knowledge and past experimentation for likely
options for further testing or for unresolved problems.
- Gathering promising ideas from outside the villages.
- Reaching consensus on the plan of action for conducting
- (selecting priority problem, developing selection criteria and
screening options etc.)
19. PTDStep 2:Setting up a goal/objective
- Key informant group interviews.
- Diagrammatic representation of:
- -inventory of farmers indicators
- Preference ranking to understand farmers priorities.
- Study tours to gather ideas from other farms.
20. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 2.
- An accepted agenda for PTD
- Improvement in farmers skills in analysing problems and looking
- Increased social awareness and self confidence
- An improved organisational basis for conducting systematic
21. PTDStep 3:Designing experiments
- To develop trials that suit farmers purposes and to strengthen
their capacity (skills, organization and self confidence) in
designing trials independently. The idea is to improve, reinforce
and add to farmers experimental practice.
22. PTDStep 3:Designing experiments
- Reviewing farmers trials in the past
- (what do they try out/ how do they do it/ why do they do it
- Planning and designing the selected trials (who/size of
plots/control plots/criteria for location selection/treatment
plans/layout trials/inputs required etc.)
- Developing protocols for evaluating trials (criteria for
evaluation/who will do recording observations/monitoring, when, how
23. PTDStep 3:Designing experiments
- Farmer to farmer training
- Testing alternate options
24. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 3.
- Experimental designs that are reliable, evaluable and
manageable by farmers.
- Improved skills of farmers to design trials.
- Monitoring and evaluation systems in place.
25. PTDStep 4: Trying things out
- To carry out, measure and assess the trials and build up
farmers testing skills, strengthening their capacities to conduct
and monitor trials.
26. PTDStep 4: Trying things out
- Actual implementation of the trials designed.
- Learning the skills required for conducting trials.
- Exchanges and linkage building with other communities and
27. PTDStep 4: Trying things out
- Step wise implementation.
- Field days/Exchange visits.
- Strengthening supportive linkages.
28. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 4.
- A growing number of experiments, with technologies relevant to
local situations, are implemented and evaluated
- Development of PTD network, within and between villages.
- Institutional linkages are built.
- The practical skills of involved groups of farmers to implement
and evaluate experiments systematically are strengthened.
- Growing active support of outside organisations and
29. PTDStep 5:Sharing the results
- The main aim is to diffuse both promising options to try with
as well as ideas and experiences about how to conduct trials i.e.,
innovative concepts, skillsforms of organisation.
30. PTDStep 5:Sharing the results
- Farmer to farmer training individual level and group level
- Field days and stakeholder workshops
- Visit to sites where PTD is conducted
- Preparation and dissemination through products like manuals,
31. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 5.
- Enhanced farmer to farmer diffusion of ideas and
- An increasing number of villages involve themselves in
processes of organized technology development, making use of the
experiences of other communities.
- A farmer-managed system of inter-village training and
32. PTD Step 6: Keeping up the process
- After the trial process, to leave the communities with the
ongoing capacity to implement effective and reliable PTD
33. PTD Step 6: Keeping up the process
- Assisting PTD groups to consolidate.
- Strengthening consolidation of inter-village cooperation, eg.,
by stimulating linking up with existing, or developing new, farmers
organizations at area level.
- Consolidating the institutional support for local PTD processes
by promoting farmers participation in formal research programmes,
providing training possibilities for staff of those institutions,
promoting policy level support to PTD in area-development
strategies and institutional mandates.
- Developing local systems for monitoring the trials and
diffusion process and its impact on the agro-ecological system and
the livelihood of the communities involved.
34. PTD Step 6: Keeping up the process
- Regular group meetings, networking and building linkages with
the formal research institutions.
- Documentation/developing resource material
- Developing linkages between PTD groups and mass media like
radio, news papers etc.
35. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 6.
- Consolidated community networks/organizations for agricultural
self management and a more supportive institutional
- Documented and operationalised PTD approach and resource
- Ensured relevant services and input supply.
- In the context of improving farming systems, technology
development is a never ending process. No technology will ever be
permanent. In such a situation, the farming communities should be
change oriented. It is therefore of prime importance to strengthen
their innovative spirit and build up the capacity to continue
37. Thank You For Your Kind Attention