Published by Department of Sociology College ofDevelopment Studies Covenant University Ota, Nigeria
First published 2014
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©Department of Sociology, College ofBusiness and Social Sciences, Covenant University 2014
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Dedication Acknowledgements Foreword Preface About the Contributors
SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: Industrial Developr:nent in Nigeria: Achieving The Brass Tacks
- Imhonopi, D.O. & Urim, U.M.
SECTION TWO: GENDER AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 2: Gender, Politics and Industrial Development in Nigeria
iii iv v
- Urim, U. M., Imhonopi, D. 0. & Ahmadu, F. 0. 14 Chapter 3: Entrepreneurship Development and Women Empowerment: Whither Nigeria?
- Aluko, Y. A. 24 Chapter 4: Gender Equity and Industrial Development in Nigeria
- Yusuf, H. E. '
Chapter 5: Gender Inequality and Its Effect on Industrial Development: Lessons for and from Developing Countries -George, T. 0. & Chukwuedozie, 0.
Chapter 6: Industrialisation Elements and Social Development in Nigerian Children - Etuk, G. R. & Ajake, U. E.
SECTION THREE: SECURITY AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 7: Stepping out ofthe Shadows: Achieving Industrial Development in an
Environment oflnsecurity in Nigeria
- Imhonopi, D. 0. Urim, U. M. & Kasumu, M. 72 Chapter 8: Exploring Arbitration as a Legal Forum for Industrial development in Nigeria
- Urim C. Y. 85 Chapter 9: Towards Intemal Security and the Search for Industrial Development
in Nigeria- Kasumu, T.
Chapter 10: Security Challenges and Implications for Industrial Development in Nigeria - Hussaini, M. L.
Chapter 11: Functional National Security: A Panacea for Attaining Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria - Issah, M., Olatunji, A. & Yusuf, M. S.
Chapter 12: The Nexus of Security and Industrial Development in Nigeria - Adebayo, A. A.
SECTION FOUR: ICT AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 13: Cyber Security and Industrial Development in Digital Nigeria
- Ndubueze, P. N. Chapter 14: Information Support Systems and the Growth ofNigerian Small
and Medium Enterprises: A Pathway to Industrialisation - Ibidunni, A. S., Olokundun, A. M. & Faiola, H. 0.
Chapter 15: ICT and HRM in the Banking Sector: Stimulating Industrial Development in Nigeria- Yousouph, R. 0. & Suleiman, S. R.
SECTION FIVE: INFRASTRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 16: The Role of infrastructure on Industrial development in Nigeria - Ahmed, A. V.
Chapter 17: Infrastructural Transformation: An Imperative for Nigeria's Industrial Development- IseOlorunkanmi, J. 0.
Chapter 18: Casual Workers in Construction Firms and Industrial Development in Nigeria - Okafor, E. E & Bamidele, R.
SECTION SIX: POLITICAL LEADERSIDP AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 19: Impact of the Political Leadership on Industrial Development in Nigeria:
Issues and Challenges of the National Economic Empowerment and
Development Strategy (NEEDS)- Enwere, C. & Khalil-Babatunde, M. 216 Chapter 20: Investment Opportunities in Non-Oil Industry and Industrial Development
in Nigeria: Politics of Corruption and Governance - Aminu, A. A. 229 Chapter 21: Leadership Crisis: A Drag on Industrial Development in Nigeria
- Igbadumhe, F. A & Ewuoso, B. R. 241
SECTION SEVEN: EDUCATION AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 251 Chapter 22: The Academy, Student Entrepreneurship and Industrial Development
in Nigeria- Akanle, Y., Adebisi, S. & Busari, D. A. 252 Chapter 23: Strengthening Tertiary Education in Nigeria for Industrial Development
- Akinlotan, R. A. 265
SECTION EIGHT: ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 279
Chapter 24: Entrepreneurship Education: A Pivotal Catalyst in Nigeria's Industrial Development- Onyeukwu, P. E. & Igbokwe, A. 280
Chapter 25: Rethinking Entrepreneurial Education for Viable Industrial Development in Nigeria- Olatunji, A., Issah, M. & Sakariyahu, 0. R. 287
Chapter 26: The Role of Small Scale Business in Poverty Alleviation: The Gains for Industrial Development in Nigeria- Micah, D. J. & Manzo, A. 304
Chapter 27: Youth Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria - Kalejaiye, P. 0. & Ogunola, A. A. 317
SEC1 Chap1 Chap1 Chap1
SECTION NINE: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 28: The Place of Human Resource Management in Underpinning Industrial Development in Nigeria- Kalejaiye, P. 0. & Ogunola, A. A. ·
Chapter 29: Personnel Management Via Public Relations in GT Bank: A Catalyst for Industrial Development in Nigeria- Igbinoba, A. 0. & Olukunmi, G. I.
Chapter 30: Organisational Citizenship Behaviours (OCB): A Key to Industrial Development in Nigeria - Olowookere, E. I.
SECTION TEN: HEALTH AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 31: Health Financing for Industrial Development in Nigeria- Imhonopi, G. B. Chapter 32: Health and industrial development in Nigeria- Olawande, T. I. Chapter 33: Healthcare System and the Quest for Industrial Development in Nigeria:
Issues in Political Economy -Muoghalu, C. · Chapter 34: Sexuality in Indigenous Migration within Urban Sprawl in Nigeria:
Implications for Industrial Development - Amoo, E. 0., Adetoro, G. W. & Ola-David, 0.
SECTION ELEVEN: YOUTH AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 35: Challenges to Youth Involvement in Industrial Development in Nigeria
- Aliyu, T. & Mahmoud, K. 0. Chapter 36: Youth Empowerment and Industrial Development in Nigeria
- Adedire, S. A.
SECTION TWELVE: RELIGION AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 37: Jesus Dictum: ' Swear Not' (Matt 5: 33-37) and Oath Taking in Public
Office in Nigeria: Implications for Industrial Development- Ojo, 0 . P. Chapter 38: The Imperatives of Ethics in the Threshold ofNigeria's Quest
for Indush·ial Development- Essien, D. E.
252 SECTION THIRTEEN: MEDIA AND SUNDRY TOPICS ON
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 39: Industrialisation and the Quest for Socioeconomic Development in Nigeria:
Issues and Challenges- Adefolaju, T. Chapter 40: Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals and Its Implications
for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria - Oluwagbohunmi, J. A . Chapter 41: The Implications of Unemployment for Industrial Development - Oye, A. J. Chapter 42: The Press and Industrialisation: Stories From Nigeria: A Content
Analytical Study - Aririguzoh, S. A.
Index . ,.
379 380 391
)'. Prepared n Division . . tion of the
ium on the on Centre,
-::rofinance nen 21-26
1 Nigeria. ved from
Human . Oxford
5 GENDER INEQUALITY AND ITS EFFECT ON INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FOR AND FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
George, T. 0. and Chukwuedozie, 0. N.
Chapter Synopsis Development that is not engendered is endangered. Engendering industrial development through gender equality implies the effectiveness of institutional reforms, economic policies and active policy measures that promote greater equality between women and men. Gender is a central organising principle of societies and often governs the processes of production and reproduction, consumption and distribution. As gender becomes a cross-cutting issue in development praxis, a greater focus is placed on women's roles and functions in the society. Women represent over 70% of the world's poor due to unequal access to economic opportunities. Increasing female participation in the workforce and the development of the female human capital will not only help to reduce povetiy at the household. level, it will also radically enhance national growth and development. Nigeria largely depends on crude oil for its survival to the detriment of other resources. Since the nation has decided to use industrialisation as the basis for economic development, both genders must be involved. The global economic recession and the gulf between job creation and the growth in the numbers of job seekers have worsened the employment situation for women and men alike. But women face greater vulnerabilities in the labour market because of their relative lack of education and training, the tendency to channel women into certain occupations, and the continuous heavy burdens of unpaid domestic work, childbearing and childcare, which restrict the time and energy available for incomeearning activities. This chapter examines the effects of gender inequality on industrial development with a view to suggesting policy options and the way forward for developing countries. The ch.apter has utilised secondary sources of data and relevant industrial development models to buttress the crucial role of productivity to industrial output.
Introduction Gender is a sociological term that describes cultural and social attributes of men and women that are manifested in appropriate masculinity and femininity. Sociology is interested in how human behaviour is shaped by group life . Gender plays a key role in the ordering of group life. Gender draws attention
48 Trajectory to Industrial Development in Nigeria
to the socially constructed aspects of differences between women and men. Gender is a central organising principle of societies, and often governs the processes of production and reproduction, consumption and distribution (Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1997). Importantly, "gender issues" are not the same as "women issues". Rather, understanding 'gender' means understanding opportunities, constraints and the impact of change as they affect both men and women (Aina, 20 12). Anytime gender issue is discussed, varied misconceptions lead some people to believe that there is war or battle that needs to be fought and won by either the male or female. All that is needed is to give females equal opportunities as is given to the males in the society. The aim of gender and development is to ensure that change benefits both women and men (Imogie, 2009).
Gender not only refers to individual identity and personality, it can also be analysed from the symbolic and structural levels.
Symbolic Level: This describes the cultural ideals and stereotypes of masculinity and femininity . Gender ideas and roles vary from culture to culture. Baby boys and girls are turned into adult men and women by the processes of socialisation in child-rearing, education, youth culture, employment practices and family ideology.
Structural Level: This level describes sexual division oflabour in institutions and organisations . The existence of unequal division oflabour in the household, even between women and men who both have full-time jobs outside, and of discrimination in employment, where sex (rather than individuals' skills and qualification) plays a large part in determining types of job and chances of promotion.
1. Conceptualising Gender Inequality In order to understand gender inequality, it is crucial to first conceptualise gender equality. According to Aina (20 12), gender equality is the measurable equal representation of women and men. It is a key element in the development process. The concept of equality emphasises that both men and women enjoy equal opportunities. Gender equity is a process or strategy for achieving gender equality. The United Nations regards gender equality as a human right; empowering women is an indispensable tool for advancing development and reducing poverty. Gender equality does not imply that women and men are the same, but that they have equal value and should be accorded equal treatment (International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2012).
The Nigerian society has been patriarchal in nature which i:s a major feature of a traditional society (Aina, 1998). It is a structu;e of a set of social relations with a material base which enables men to dominate women (Kramarae 1992; Lerner 1986; Stacey 1993 ). It is a system of social stratification and differentiation on the basis of sex, which provides material advantages to males while simultaneously placing severe constraints on the roles and activities of females.
Gender inequality varies tremendously across countries - both at the individual and national levels, the losses in achievement are due to gender inequality. Countries with unequal distribution of human development also experience high inequality between women and men, and countries with high gender inequality also experience unequal distribution of human development (United Nations Development Programme, 2013).
2. Gender Inequality and Industrial Development Women, girls, men and boys experience discrimination and exclusion from the industrial sector for different reasons. However, women and girls tend to experience greater bias specifically because of pre-existing inequalities that are found at the personal, situational, and structural levels (societal/
culture these i geogn laws a barrie: 2012) . ( to red oppor trade
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Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development... 49
cultural, organisational/institutional, and policy (Ellsberg, Heise & Gottemoeller, 1999). Some of these include: lack of control of personal resources including income; low access to technology; geographical disadvantage; gender differentials in earnings; and bias in local, state and federal laws and regulations. Gender inequality means that individuals- especially women and girls- face barriers to participating in, accessing, benefitting and controlling resources and rights (UNIDO, 2012).
Organisations such as the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) aspire to reduce poverty through sustainable industrial development so that every country can have the opportunity to grow a flourishing productive sector, to increase their participation in international trade and to safeguard their environment (UNIDO, 2012).
• Areas of Gender Inequality
(I) Labour and Employment- Women do not generally earn the same wages as men for the same work especially casual or unorganised labour which is where most women are employed. Those in public service are discriminated against in the area of maternity, sexual harassment and employment practices.
(2) Access to Finances and Credit - Most banks and finance homes do not give loans to women and most times women have to be guaranteed by men before they can access credit for economic activities. This results in more women becoming poorer, even those who are able to do some business for their economic enhancement. ,
(3) Harmful Traditional Practices - Traditional practices like female genital mutilation, widowhood practices, male preference, and domestic violence lend weight to discrimination against women. The heavy workload of women within the household and lack ofhome decisionmaking powers contribute to deprive women of their rights and life. Information on family planning where it exists sometimes produces harmful side effects. Male preference leads to abuse and low self-esteem for the female child even from birth and thus she does not develop her full potentials to enable her conh·ibute effectively to the nation.
(4) Violence against Women- Women are still victims of rape, sexual assault, sexuai harassment, battery, widowhood practices, forced labour, trafficking, incest, and other forms of gender assaults and abuses. Domestic violence is still regarded as a private affair requiring no legal or official intervention.
(5) Access to Justice - Women are politically, economically, socially, culturally, educationally, and legally disadvantaged. They cannot take advantage of facilities and opportunities available to them to achieve and enforce their human rights. They are mostly ignorant of their fundamental rights and freedoms. In many police stations, women are still not allowed to take people on bail (Othuke, 2012).
• Causes and Consequences of Gender Inequality in Indust1y There are several unique causes and consequences of gender inequality within the manufacturing industries that need to be identified for the development of a gender responsive, sustainable policy or framework. In order to rigorously address gender inequality within industrial and sustainable development, there is the need to explore the nexus of pervasive gender inequality in all three
- l~i l ,~ ,
50 Traject01y to Industrial Development in Nigeria
dimensions of sustainability- protection of the environment, promotion of economic growth, and social development (UNIDO, 20 12).
Firstly, structural causes of inequality- found at societal/cultural, institutional/organisation and policy levels- inhibit sustainable and gender-sensitive growth, production and employment in industry. Some of these causes include:
At the Policy Level: ·:· Discriminatory local, state, federal laws and statutes, regulations, standards and rights. ·=· Low participation of women in leadership and decision-making positions. ·:· Lack of gender-sensitive public sector spending, including a dearth of gender budgeting and
audits. ·:· Low levels of affirmative action and quota policies for women in national and state level
development and welfare provision. ·;· Low levels of public expenditure in healthcare, education and training, childcare and
infrastructure including clean water and roads. ·=· Gender-blind industrial policies, including low levels of industry competence and political
will to work on gender issues. ·:· Lack of recognition of women 's 'reproductive'/unpaid work. ·=· Lack of sex disaggregated data.
At the Organisational/Institutional Level: ·=· Bias in labour policies that dictate gender differentials in earnings. ·:· Labour market that is segmented according to socially constructed gender roles. ·:· Low levels of women's participation in l~adership and decision-making including in trade
umons. ·:· Machinery and technology designed by and for men and are not always appropriate or accessible
by women. ·:· · Casual, irregular, informal and unprotected employment. ·:· Data collection is gender blind; lack of sex disaggregated data. ·:· No affirmative action or quotas for women.
At the Societal/Cultural Level: ·:· Rigid and traditional gender norms. ·:· Discrimination against ethnic. groups, people with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. ·:· Geographical disadvantage consequently leading to low levels of access to technology, education
and training, healthcare and transportation. ·=· Low levels of social acceptability of women in leadership and decision-making positions. ·:· Low levels of community support and resources for women's movements.
• Consequences of Gender Inequality in Industrial Development Some of the consequences of gender inequality related to industrial development can be clustered into economic; environmental and social focus areas, and include:
Economic ·:· Low levels of women participating in the manufacturing sector. Women still account for only
24% of jobs in manufacturing and are more likely than men to access low-paid, low productivity
isation and in industry.
~ in trade
• for only ductivity
Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development... 51
and vulnerable jobs with no basic rights, social protection nor voice. Where manufacturing does not develop, women have fewer opportunities to gain economic status and this in turn has adverse consequences for development. For example, women have less incentive to acquire education (UNIDO, 2009).
Approximately one-third of women in the manufacturing sector are informal entrepreneurs concentrated in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Entrepreneurship and investment are critical for growth because they create important forward and backward linkages in the economy. Women owners ofSMEs provide valuable inputs to local, national and multinational companies, which are fundamental for the transition to an industrialised economy. In spite of these positive multiplier effects, women entrepreneurs face many gender-related constraints that limit their growth potential. They tend to be smaller than those run by men, with fewer employees, low-level technology, and without access to training, formal credit, information systems and professional networks. Particularly in developing countries, women's businesses are frequently an extension of their domestic activities such as garment making, weaving and food processing. They are less likely to join business or employers' associations due to a lack of self-confidence in their business endeavours. In cultures where mobility is restricted, they are compelled to rely on middlemen for raw materials and market access (UNIDO, 2012).
·:· Women produce between 60 and 80% of food in most developing countries and are responsible for half of the world's food production. Women play a central role as producers of food, managers of natural resources, income earners, and caretakers of household food and nutrition security. However, in terms of food consumption, women are at a disadvantage and receive the least in distribution within the household. In addition, food crises such as sudden increases in food prices and drought have negative repercussions especially for women and female-headed households, as in the case of food price crises in 2009. Globalisation and increasing competition are favouring technology-intensive production and skilled labour, particularly in agriculture and textiles, which have traditionally been seen as low-end positions/women's work. Additionally, with the expansion of employment opportunities in commodity and natural resource sectors that has favoured the employment of men, women have been side-lined in economic diversification opportunities (UNIDO, 20 12).
·:· According to UNDESA statistics, women account for two thirds of the world's 774 million illiterate adults, and just over one-quarter of scientific researchers (UNDESA, 2010). There is still a significant gender gap between boys and girls as they move from primary to secondary and tertiary education. The economic repercussions of these inequalities are far reaching, given the clear evidence that educated women invest more in their children and contribute to the welfare of the next generation. Low levels of income correlate with low levels of educationespecially low levels in tertiary education. This is particularly problematic in industrial sectors where tertiary education often leads to leadership and decision-making roles. Furthermore, if women's training, knowledge and skills are not upgraded to enable their full participation in the technology-based agricultural and agro-industrial production of the future; women are likely to face further disadvantages in finding and keeping jobs.
52 Trajectory to Industrial Development in Nigeria
·:· Low levels of access to efficient resources, technologies and operating practices exclude women, girls, men and boys from fully participating in economic growth and sustainable development. Without access and benefit from resource efficiency; dominant women-based industries, such as micro-industries in rural areas, are heavily affected by pollution, production C'jsts, higher use of energy and lower rates of productivity.
·:· Lack of energy access and low energy efficiency is one of the most pressing of all the global challenges and a major factor in sustaining gender inequality. One person in five lacks access to modem energy services and twice that number, three billion people, rely on wood, coal, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating. In today's economy, this is inequitable and a major barrier to eradicating poverty and gender equality. With low levels of energy access and efficiency, women and girls, particularly in rural areas, spend a significant portion of their day engaged in routine subsistence activities such as hauling water and gathering firewood, and thus their participation in productive and income generating activities and education and training opportunities are limited. Furthermore, in many developing countries, energy shmiages, unreliable and poor quality supply and inefficiencies in use have high economic costs in materials waste, low capacity utilisation and inefficient investment in standby equipment (UNIDO, 2011). Women suffer the disproportionate health impacts of unsustainable energy sources. Exposure to smoke from hazardous methods of cooking, heating, and lighting kills nearly two million people each year, 85% of whom are women and children who die from associated cancer, respiratory infections, and lung disease. Millions more suffer from exposure-related diseases (UNIDO, 2012).
·:· Rapid resource depletion and the depletion of ecosystems through current systems of production and consumption impinge on women's livelihoods and economic opportunities. Furthermore, the need to meet the requirements of the growing world population will further increase pressure on agricultural production and resource availability.
·:· Women are especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change and extreme weather affecting crops, rural livelihoods as they traditionally tend to stay behind while men find work in the cities.
·;· Negligent chemicals management adversely affects women through exposure and the resulting health effects impact on theit income, livelihoods and family life negatively.
·:· Women bear the brunt of unpaid work - primarily domestic and care work. Women have different needs and face greater constraints than men when running a business. In particular, in developing countries, the limited provision of welfare services, such as lack of childcare and healthcare infrastructures, increases the time women need to spend in the care economy. In addition, women entrepreneurs face severe constraints in terms of limited access to finance, information, productive resources, education and relevant skills, while household responsibilities and societal constraints increase their risk adverseness and affect their self-confidence.
·:· The migration of men from rural to urban areas leaves unbalanced family structures behind, with women, children and elderly expecting remittances, thus many female head-households and rural families need to diversify their sources of income and employment in view of
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Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development. .. 53
increasingly small parcels ofland, low agricultural productivity, volatile weather conditions and soil erosion.
·:· Complex demographic shifts such as in the case of China, where a shift to an older population profile, potentially impacts growth in the productive sectors and places additional demands on women who traditionally care for elders.
·:· Urbanisation - and more specifically - rapid urbanisation has resulted in sprawling urban slums, particularly in low-income countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Women living in urban areas are more likely to suffer from urban poverty, including: violence, unemployment, poor sanitation, and inadequate access to clean water.
·:· Migration can negatively impact upon women's and girls' lives through: isolation from communities and networks; risk of economic exploitation; 'political insecurity; violence and abuse.
3. Industrial Development -A Regional Solution Industrialisation (formation of industries) is one of the major forms of development. Industries are of great benefits to the citizens of the nation. Industries play crucial role in the society:
I. Industries provide employment opportunities. 2. They enhance/improve the economic growth of the country. 3. They bring about innovation, scientific and technological breakthroughs. 4. They reduce the rate of social problems.
According to Aina (2012), development was originally conceived as 'western project' with the principal aim of modernising post-colonial societies. These earlier efforts did not bring about improvement in the living conditions of the developing world. Rather, the process led to poverty, deprivations, environmental degradations and gender inequalities, among others. A developed state or economy must therefore, undertake:
111. Environmental Quality
IV. Institutional Development
v. Greater Equality for Women
• Formulatillg Altemative Developmellt Strategies for Sustaillable llldustrial Developmellt Every society aims at development. Even the founding fathers of sociology were deeply concerned with how to proffer solutions to the numerous social problems of the society of their time. For instance, stability, order and cooperation were their main concerns. The dream of every society is development. The gap between the developed and the developing countries is not static or narrow but is continually widening. A large majority of the world's population in developing world lives in a state of poverty. The problems of urban population, rural stagnation, unemployment and growing inequalities continue to face less developed countries, which Nigeria belongs (Lawai & OluwatoyiT'. 2011).
54 Traject01y to Industrial Development in Nigeria
The following strategies are tenable for sustainable industrial development.
(1) Education and Human Capital Education and training for professional and personal development is a fundamental basic human right that is necessary for economic growth, poveiiy reduction, and social change. 'JNIDO is promoting education and skills acquisition for industrial development through the Entre Jreneurship Curriculum Programme (ECP). The programme delivers practical hands-on entrepreneurship courses to young boys and girls in secondary and vocational schools. The aim is to impart entrepreneurial be P, skills and knowledge that can stimulate and enable them to develop a positive attitude towards varij entrepreneurship, business and self-employment. The project was launched in 2001 in Uganda and me9 has expanded to several other countries including Mozambique, Timor-Leste, Namibia, Angola edw and Cameroon. of n
In effect, this is to tackle the effect of gender stereotyping in the school curriculum and the academic streaming process, where certain subjects and courses such as the sciences, mathematics and other technical disciplines are tagged masculine, while secretarial studies and home economics are tagged feminine, thereby denying both sexes the opportunities to benefit from exposure to all subject areas or a wider choice of subjects. The female inferiority complex established from childhood through social interactions in the home, including the differential levels of support and motivation, influence the aspirations and eventual learning achievement of boys and girls (Makama, 20 13).
(2) Research and Funding Importantly, proper allocation of funds to approved policies; when funds are not well allocated to policies undergoing execution; they are bound to suffer failure. It is to this fact that public policies should be followed up at reasonable instances to take inventories of development so that effective evaluation could be made. Any policy that is not well researched on is probable to meet the rock at the stage of implementation. The effect may be stunted development. Any nation that effectively pursues policy making and implementation does not fiddle around with research. It is, therefore, pertinent that Nigeria pursues a consistent and lasting policy for research in all facets oflife, including the overriding need to set up a special camp of researchers on strategically designated areas of the country for the full time profession of data gathering, analysing and implementation. In as much as consistency and continuity are very important for public polices, a stable government and peaceful economic conditions are leverages to policy excellence.
(3) Inward Looking Strategy ofSe(fReliance The habit of self-help is a prerequisite for survival in the modem world (Anyanwu, 1992). Self-help initiatives enable the people to look inwards by rallying local resources and effOiis. Self-reliance is largely championed by the theorists of the dependency school. Self-reliance advocates the need for people to improve their condition using local initiatives and resources in their own hands (Anyanwu, 1992). Self-reliance is development on the basis of a country 's (region's) own resources involving its populations based on the potentials of its cultural values and traditions (Galtung, O 'Brien & Preiswerk, 1980). King and Slesser (1987:5) describe self-reliance as "local initiative applied locally". This involves the harnessing of intellectual powers, management and human resources to help raise the material standard ofliving. In the broadest sense, self-reliance means "the right and ability to set one's own goals, and then realising them as much as possible through one 's own efforts using one's own factors" (lkoku, 1980:3 7). It is seen as a development strategy based on indigenous socioeconomic engineering. Its philosophy is improvement from within.
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Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development... 55
14) Diversification of Economy \igeria suffers from weak agricultural and industrial base. The subsistent nature of agriculture in \igeria makes it unattractive and a back-breaking job with little or no remuneration. According to Ogen (2004), the agricultural sector has a multiplier effect on any nation's socioeconomic and mdustrial fabric because ofthe multifunctional nature of agriculture. The cocoa crop, for instance, can be produced into many varieties such as butter, cream, food substances and others. Cassava can be produced into ga1Ti, starch, animal feeds and bread. Hence, technology is needed to provide ·arieties of food. Nigeria needs to advance to the use of biotechnology in agriculture in order to
meet up with the rapid population growth. Farmers need credit facilities, infrastructural facilities, education and orientation, good roads, modern farm implements, processing facilities and provision of market outlets.
Agricultural activities are concentrated in the rural areas where there is urgent need for rural transf01mation, redistribution, poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development (Ogen, 2004). Rural development is vital in reducing rural-urban migration. Also low industrial base has led to the closure of companies, for example, the Ajaokuta Steel industry in Kogi State. Technology must be driven by the industry of a nation. Absence of technical know how results into unemployment, more so, the inability to pay expatriates results into abandonment ofheavy machines and consequent closures of industries in Nigeria. Having a strong industrial base will reduce cost of production (overhead cost). For instance, imported Peugeot cars are cheaper than the ones assembled in Nigeria.
4. The Nigerian Situation Women are more than fifty per cent of the world's population. They perfom1 two-third of the \\Orld's work, yet receive one-tenth of the world's income and own one-hundredth of the world's property. They represent a staggering seventy per cent of the world's one billion poorest people. This is a stack development reality for the world (Elegbede, 20 12).
Nigeria has the highest population of any African country. With a population of over 162 million, Nigeria is ranked the world's seventh most populated country. Of this magnitude, 49 per cent are female; some 80.2 million girls and women. Comparatively, 38 per cent of women in Ntgeria lack fmmal education as against 25 per cent for men and only four per cent of women have htgher education against the seven per cent of their male counterpart. Nigeria ranks 118 out of 134 countnes in the Gender Equality Index (Elegbede, 2012). Undoubtedly, Nigeria and the world at large have in the last decade witnessed an unprecedented expansion of women's rights, being one of the most profound social revolutions the world has ever seen. Couple of decades back, only two countries allowed women to vote. Today, that right is virtually universal. Millions of men and women around the world now support the call for gender equality, although there is much to be done especially in developing countries like Nigeria (Eiegbede, 20 12).
In reviewing the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the 2012 Gender Report on Nigeria when compared to other societies shows that Nigeria's 80.2 million women and girls have significantly worse life chances than men. This reveals the neglect of the Nigerian people and government in tackling the issue of gender inequality despite calls from various quarters. It also brings to the fore the frail understanding of preparing the girl child for tomorrow's motherhood, family and societal challenges. The huge geographical and ideological disparities of Nigeria make it a unique country with though global yet slightly peculiar challenges and opportunities, even as it relates to gender inequality. Human development outcomes for girls and women are worse in the northern part of the country where poverty levels are sometimes twice as high as in the south. Nearly half of all children under age five are malnourished in the North-East, with the figures
56 Trajectory to Industrial Development in Nigeria
expected to increase across the country in the wake of national and international food crises (AfDB, 2012).
On maternal mortality, the 2012 DFID Gender Report in Nigeria noted that Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, a case where in every ten minutes, one Nigerian
_woman dies in childbirth. With about 47 per cent ofNigerian women being mothers be~ore the age of twenty, the report cautioned that without access to safe childbirth services, adequate ar d affordable emergency obstetric care, improved healthcare funding, enormous political will and civil society pressure, Nigeria's maternal mortality rate could double from its current 545 deaths per 100,000 live births. Note, "Every 90 seconds of every day, a woman dies in pregnancy or childbirth", world over (AfDB, 2012).
It is pertinent to note that the quality of the world's democracy, the strength of its economies, the health of its societies and the sustainability of peace -are all undermined when it fails to fully tap half of the world's talent and potential. Where women have access to secondary education, good jobs, land and other assets, national growth and stability are enhanced, and there will be lower maternal mortality, improved child nutrition, greater food security, and less risk of HIV and AIDS (Elegbede, 2012).
5. Model Framework Demographic Dividend
From a long-term demographic perspective, and in the light of recent impressive growth performance, African countries face the challenge of turning a young population into a development bonus. But unlike the situation in other developing regions, with the exception of South Asia, demographic trends in Africa are not contributing to easing pressure in labour markets, as indicators of youth employment signal a worsening of the problem. Reversing these trends calls for a different policy scenario in which employment creation, and youth employment in particular, is among the principal goals of macroeconomic frameworks and a priority for fiscal policy. •
On gender, because of social and cultural norms and historical value systems concerning prescribed gender roles, women and girls in many African (and other developing) societies are disadvantaged as compared with men and boys - such as in terms of access to education, incomeearning and other socioeconomic opportunities, participation in economic, social and political life, and control over resources - at a cost to development.
Globally, despite the progress made in enhancing the voices of women globally in the last half a century, the way in which economic progr~ss is judged in the contemporary world tends to give a much larger role to men's needs and demands. This realisation prompted the distinguished economist, Professor Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate, in his contribution to a panel discussion on 'Securing the future we want: Gender equality, economic development and environmental sustainability', during the 67th UN General Assembly in New York in September 2012, to advocate that "empowering women and girls with more choices and more freedoms is crucial for achieving a better future for all" (Sen, 2012).
From the standpoint of economic development, a rapidly-expanding labour force implied in Africa's demographic transition and the empowerment of women and girls offer the possibility of accelerated economic growth and social development and, in addition, a youthful population with equal opportunity for both genders can be a formidable asset for innovation and creativity in economies and societies.
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Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development... 57
' Also, with ageing populations in advanced economies and rising wages in China and other Asian countries, Africa's demographic transition provides opportunities for the continent to become the next global centre for manufacturing and service industries. However, in order for African countries to benefit from this demographic dividend, young people need to be productively employed and integrated in the society. Countries need a comprehensive strategy and sensible policies to provide young men and women with relevant skills and knowledge to take advantage of these opportunities .
Moreover, new patterns of growth are needed, including industrial strategies and policies that encourage economic diversification and the creation of good quality jobs. The renewed sense of urgency for prioritising youth employment in transitional agendas in Africa is not only a question of meeting young people's aspirations for a better life, but also a necessity for enhancing the wellbeing of societies at large.
When it comes to the gender question, the essence of Professor Sen's pronouncement, when translated to the objective of this chapter, is that the assessment of economic transformation and advancement in emerging Africa has to include the measurement of progress achieved in enhancing the voices and meeting the specific needs of women and girls. African leaders and their International development partners have to ensure that the goals and targets relating to women's participation and empowerment in the economic, social and political spheres of the development process be systematically included and prioritised in policy formulation and implementation as well as in resource allocation (Africa Development Bank [AfDB], 2012).
• T!te Asiau Tigers Model The enviable growth and development patterns of several Asian countries are well known. East Asia is the only region in the world that has been able to maintain strong, consistent growth patterns over several decades, led first by Japan and the newly industrialising economies of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, among others (Adelman, 1995; Mimiko, 1998). The Asian Tigers adequately inculcate their culture in their means of production clearly seen in the use of native names such as Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Samsung, Honda, Hyundai, among others.
Apart from the homogenous nature of these societies, other several factors were responsible for their development. These were: development of agricultural sector, a system of mass education, development of indigenous industries, export-oriented strategy, the Spartan discipline of their leadership, existence of efficient bureaucracy, human resources development, encouragement of a dynamic private sector working in co-operation with the government towards a society-wide vision of development, institutional capacity building and attention to the problems of governance, consistency and policy stability, and others (Mimiko, 1998).
Also, the Asian Tigers are models of development that have succeeded using the inward looking strategy. The four Asian Tigers in reference to the highly developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. These nations and areas were notable for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 per cent a year) and rapid industrialisation between the early 1960s and 1990s. By the 21st century, all four have developed into advanced and highincome economies, specialising in areas of competitive advantage. Developing countries have a lot to learn from the economic success stories and models of the Asian Tigers. Notably, Nigeria's oil palm has made Malaysia (Southeast Asia) to emerge as the largest producer of oil palm in the world. The slogan "Welcome to Malaysia, the land of oil palm" is their gateway message.
58 Trajectory to Industrial Development in Nigeria
6. Recommendations The problem of gender inequality in many African societies is further compounded by weak institutional capacities and insufficient prioritisation of resources which undermine the effectiveness of existing laws and efforts. Therefore, in terms of the link between gender equality and wider economic transformation, improving women's participation and empowerment within he economy and society needs to be prioritised in national and regional development agendas and, rurthermore, be given operational significance through financial and institutional suppmi, and with regular monitoring and reporting on progress (AfDB, 2012). Hence, some recommendations to these are giVen:
(1) Expanding economic opportunities for women should be at the centre of the development agenda, with focus on gender-sensitive employment creation, the provision of productive resources such as finance, market information, technology, innovations, skills and sustainable energy, and simultaneous investment in care services that reduce the burden on women's unpaid domestic and care work. Key elements will therefore include targets to increase national productive capacities that would benefit women's economic empowetment and maximise productive employment opportunities for women. The recognition of women's role in societies and their full rights to be equal citizens entails strong engagement of governments in promoting and guaranteeing women's rights, participation and empowerment.
(2) Manufactured exports and industries from developing countries are usually labour intensive, which also has a potentially equalising socioeconomic impact. Thus, labour intensive manufacturing-based development could help in creating more jobs and, in counh·ies with strongly growing manufacturing sectors; such expansion can be significant for job creation. It is pertinent that the manufacturing industry develops so that women can have fewer opportunities to gain economic status. This is because formal wage employment jobs are more secure and better paid, and offer greater scope for skill accumulation than either self· employment or informal wage work. This may be particularly important for gender equity as labour-intensive manufacturing is a key source of wage employment for women.
(3) Resource efficiency and green industry will play an increasingly important role in the context of gender-sensitive sustainable development. A green environment is essential for fresh air and good environment. Inefficient technologies and operating practices currently in use by many industries in developing countries will need to be either replaced or upgraded. This also applies to micro-industries in rural areas, where women are heavily involved in value chains. In particular, energy efficiency in these industries reduces pollution and improves incomes for women by reducing production costs through lesser use of energy.
(4) Ensuring the increase in accessibility to modem, off-grid energy resources to womenespecially in rural areas would greatly ease drudgery associated with collecting firewood and hauling water, and simultaneously usher multiple opportunities for women and girls to pursue education, economic and other choices. Additionally, it would also limit women and girls' exposure to air pollution, which causes acute respiratory infections and provide them with the necessary energy to develop rural and cottage industries and in the long term transform them into mainstream industries.
(5) Enhancing the role- of women as micro- and small-scale enterprise (MSE) entrepreneurs would be one way to achieve women's economic empowerment and reduce the inequality gap. Participation of women in the productive sectors, and especially as entrepreneurs, can be
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Gender Inequality and its Effect on Industrial Development... 59
fostered through policy and institutional support as well as capacity building. It follows from this that development strategies and policies will increasingly need to tackle socioeconomic inequalities stemming from unequal patterns of growth and wealth distribution.
(6) Develop human capital by improving gender equality through capacity development, increasing technical knowledge and skills and strengthening networks. It is, therefore, crucial for developing countries to commit to developing human capital including: creating enabling environments, improving multi-sectoral engagement, and strengthening collaborations and partnerships that lead to structural refmm and increased participation and empowe1ment of women, girls, men and boys. Education, both formal and non-forn1al, is necessary if women and girls are to access decent work and be able to improve their standards of living. And this has to start from a young age by promoting education and skills acquisition for industrial development through hands-on courses to young boys and girls in secondary and vocational schools.
(7) From a gender equality point of view, considering the vulnerable position of female migrants and the disruptive effects migration has on family structures and the women left behind, it is crucial to develop strategies and goals with the view to increase economic oppmiunities and the availability of decent work in the migrants' countries of origin.
(8) There are chronic gaps in the literature and research on gender equality and industrial development, specifically from individual, sociocultural and structural perspectives. Responding to the paucity of available literature and research in this area, specific genderresponsive tools and methodologies needed to be integrated into industrial development initiatives, especially data collection, such as a wage gap analysis to assess gender differentials in earnings. At the local level, there are women innovators and problem solvers who are already taking the lead in their communities to develop and implement sustainable development solutions. By employing local knowledge in all stages of the project cycle, new, culturally grounded alternatives can be generated.
Conclusion This chapter has reviewed the issue of gender inequality and its effect on industrial development for the benefit of developing countries. Evidently, women are an essential pari of a nation's human resources necessary for its growth and development. They should be assisted for maximum output and productivity in industry. Since Nigeria has decided to use industrialisation as the basis for economic development, both genders must be involved, the pool of unused female labour can provide immense contribution. Therefore, misallocating women's skills and talent comes at a high economic cost. This chapter also made use of the demographic dividend and Asian tigers models to capture the effective utilisation of both genders in the industrial process.
In close, this chapter revealed that all social interactions and institutions/organisations are gendered in some manner. Consequently, it results into unequal division oflabour and competence among the women folk. Therefore, empowerment will go a long way in fostering gender equity in development policies. Invariably, the achievement of gender equality cannot do without the other goals of sustainable development such as good governance, human rights, environmental sustainability, poverty reduction and inclusiveness in development planning and practice.
60 Trajectmy to Industrial Development in Nigeria
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