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PV System Beyond Addernews.ubmthailand.com/Newsletter/2013/EPA/Files/SessionIII...7 O&M Service...

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PV System Beyond Adder for Private Households, Commercial Buildings and Industries in Thailand – Realized Cases, its Economics and Prospects June 2013
  • PV System Beyond Adder for Private Households, Commercial Buildings and

    Industries in Thailand – Realized Cases, its Economics and Prospects

    June 2013

  • 2


    | Annex Power company overview | From solar farms to solar rooftop systems | PV system choices for private households and small businesses| System set-up comparisons| Energy yields for solar rooftop systems | Tariff – Historical and forecasted tariffs| System sizing and cost | What are return expectations for current household owners and businessess| Needed government permits and hurdles| Final Conclusions

  • 3

    Company Overview

    | Annex Power spun-out of the Thai subsidiary of one of the largest renewable energy companies in the world, and has been operating independently since 2008

    | The local head office is located in Bangkok, Thailand| 75 MW of projects contracted and over 50 MW of renewable energy projects constructed,

    representing ~ 15% market share for EPC in the Thai solar VSPP market| More than 35% of the 100 full-time employees are experienced engineers with often multiple

    engineering degrees

  • 4

    Company Overview

    | Annex Power is one of the leading renewableenergy company in Thailand and the SoutheastAsian region. Annex Power provides reliability,international experience and tier one equipmentto all projects. Annex Power means quality fromstart to finish.

    | The Annex Power team includes experts fromevery relevant field in clean energy; engineers,technicians, biologists, financial and projectmanagers.

    | Annex Power has a full time staff of 90employees, mostly engineers and technicians, alocal distribution center near Bangkok and heavyconstruction equipment to meet every projectneed.

    | Together with our international and exclusivepartners, our point-of-sale outlets and our stronglocal teams, Annex Power is your one-stopcompany for renewable energy solutions inSoutheast Asia.

  • 5

    Operations Overview







    On – Grid Systems Solar Power Plants Off – Grid Systems

    Engineering, Procurement

    and Construction

    (“EPC”)Small Wind Systems Hybrid Systems

    Biogas Power Plants

    Wind PowerSolar Power Bio Power

    Bioenergy Power Plants Solar Power Plants

  • 6

    EPC Service Solutions

    Plant layouts

    Cost calculation

    Yield analysis

    Technical planning: conceptual, basic and detailed engineering


    Commercial and technical management

    Engineering Procurement Construction

    PV, Wind, Biogas and Hybrid EPC Business Segment


    Logistic services

    Quality control




    Site supervision

    Quality inspection



    Technical monitoring & default analysis

    Maintenance and service


    Contract controlling




  • 7

    O&M Service Solutions

    Plant availability guaranteesFixed service ratesPreventive maintenancePlant monitoring and performance analysis24h on site plant management and controlSpare part control and stock keepingSpecial technical services

    Annex Power’s local scale, technical breadth and specialization enables

    them to provide premium O&M services at a lower cost than its

    customers can manage independently

    Technical Management Commercial Management

  • 8


    General ConsultingDue DiligenceTechnical Consulting Environmental Issues Feasibility Studies Financial Projections Project Management Energy Audits

    Annex Power enables successful development of renewable energy projects for our clients through

    the following value-added consulting services:Annex Power’s Consulting services ensure that client

    projects reach construction phase and are an effective entry point

    from which to up-sell more substantial EPC services

    Commercial and technical management

    Engineering Procurement ConstructionCommercial

    and technical management

    ConstructionSitedevelopment Financing Engineering Procurement

  • 9

    From Solar Farm to Solar Roof System

    Solarta Sai Prapa PV Power Plant *

    Indorama PV Power Plant ** Build by Annex Power

    Carport System in the US

    Commercial Rooftop System

  • 10

    PV Systems for Private Households and Businesses

    Pitched Roof Flat Roof

    Car PortGround Mounted Custom Designs

    Metal Sheet Roof

    • The above systems are all project references installed by Annex Power in Thailand

  • 11

    System Set-up Comparisons

    PV Power Plants Small PV Systems

    Installation Area Free Field Roof / Carport / Free Space

    Shading Optimal shading or zero shading design Avoid shading / shading study designs

    Tilt Angle Optimum design tilt and azimuth May not have the perfect tilt and azimuth

    Grid Connection PEA Grid: 22kV ,115 KV 1-Phase 220V , 3-Phases 380V(No Power Transformer / MV Switchgear)

    PV Modules Thin-filmCrystalline Higher focus on Crystalline More concerns on modules efficiency

    Inverter Central Inverters String Inverter with 3 phases set-up

    Single Phase String Inverter 3- Phases String InverterMicro-InverterMulti-MPPT inverters may be required

    Monitoring Required Optional

    System Sizing and Design

    Maximum power output to match PPA Unlimited load model

    Restricted by maximum available area Limited energy production

  • 12

    Shading Effects PV Array Voltages

    PV Array Shading Effects in Parallel PV Array Shading Effects in Series

  • 13

    Shading Analysis Tools

    | Shading analysis is crucial in the design phase| Shading calculations are important to estimate

    yields and to avoid negative long-term effects on modules

    Sun Eyes Shading Analysis Tools 3-D Model for Shading Calculations by PVsyst

  • 14

    String Inverters

    Single Phase String Inverter 3- Phase String Inverter Micro-Inverter

  • 15

    Thailand Solar Irradiation Power Study

    | Published by DEDE in 2010| Monthly irradiation on 7,416

    Tamboons ( Sub-districts) | +/- 3 % with Meteonorm data | Average 1795 kWh/m2/Y



    n –


    m2 /y

    No. of Tamboon

    Distribution of Irradiation in Thailand

  • 16

    System Yield Loss for PV Rooftop Systems

    Field Installation Roof Installation Design Parameters

    Tilt 0% - 0 % - 5.5% 0 to 40 Degree Roof Tilt

    Azimuth Optimization - 0 % - 4% -90 to 90 Degree ( South facing )

    Shading Loss 0.5-2 % Depends on Area

    Temperature Loss 9%-13% 12%-17% Due to less air flow and heat from roof

    Inverters Efficiency Loss (During Operation)

    1.5%-2.0% 2%-3% Different String Set-upsDifferent Tilt and azimuth

    Transformer Loss 1.5%-2.5% 0% No Transformer

    Wiring Loss 1.5% 1% Shorter Wiring

    Rooftop Performance Ratios are approximately > 3% less than field installations depending on site sepcifics

  • 17

    PEA Electrical Price System

    Type of Usage Normal TOU (Time of Usage) Peak/Off Peak

    TOU Weight average for PV

    Households 3.9361* 5.2674/2.1827** 4.2617

    Small Business < 30 KW

    3.9361* 5.2674/2.1827** 4.2617

    Medium Business >30 kW , < 1 MW

    2.8095** 3.9189/2.3027** 3.3920

    Large Business >1 MW

    TOD / 2.7815 3.7731/2.2695*** 3.2829

    Hotel / Apartment >30 kW

    3.9189/2.3027** 3.3920

    NGO 3.5263 3.9189/2.3027** 3.3920

    Agriculture Pumping 2.7549 3.7989/2.1827 3.2720

    Temporary Use 6.4369 6.4369

    Price = Service Charge + kWh ( Base Price or TOU +Ft+ Adder )

    * > 400 kWh , ** > 22kKV *** 69KV

  • 18

    Solar VSPP Electrical Sales Price (W/O) Adder

    Average monthly increase over the last years; 0.66% per year

    Adjust Based Price

  • 19

    Ft Trends


    • 3.468* % Annually increase• 1.38 Baht / kWh expected in the next 20 years

  • 20

    System Size and Cost

    | The costing is determined with PV roof installation

    | Including BOS and installation | Study System size 1.4kWp – 43kWp | The systems cost are 104-58 Baht/Wp| The electricity cost are 78-42 Baht/KWh


    System Capacity

  • 21

    Small System Break Down Cost Analysis


    System Size (KWp)

  • 22

    Financial Models for a Tax Incentive Program

    Assumptions;| New support scheme without special adder or FiT| TOU price below 22kV (Households and Small Business) | Irradiation at 1850 kWh/m2/Y | Fix Base Tariff + 3.4% increase for Ft rate| Performance Ratio 75%| IRR at 20 ,15 ,10 years| 3 different tax assumptions;

    | 1- Normal cooperate tax rates (10 years depreciation, with 20% tax on profits) | 2- Normal cooperate tax rate (5 years double depreciation, 20% Tax on profits)| 3- Personal income tax rate (100% deductible on annual revenues, 30% tax on income)

  • 23

    IRR – 20 Years IRR – 15 Years


    Key Financial Model Results

  • 24

    Key Results of the Financial Modeling

    | PV rooftop systems bigger than 15kWp results in a payback within 7 years without any tax incentive scheme

    | With a double depreciation tax incentive tax scheme; systems bigger than 4 kWp will result in a payback within 7 years

    | With a single deducible on revenue tax incentive scheme; systems bigger than 5 kWp will result in a payback within 7 years

    | A tax incentive program will increase the IRR by 5%-8%

    | Off-grid systems on islands or remote areas will achieve high IRR and paybacks without any support shemes

  • 25

    Required Permissions

    PV System Size (kW) MEA or PEA EGAT ERC

    Department of Industrial works ( Factory License

    รง. 4)

    Local Government


  • 26

    Final Conclusions

    | Technical designs and system choices are important for roof-top and off-grid systems| PV Roof systems will achieve a return of investments without any support schemes, if the

    capacity of the system is big enough.| A possible TAX incentive scheme will have a direct impact on IRRs and will result in better

    returns for Thai customers in the future| One main current hurdle for PV rooftop systems is the factories license requirement;

    | The application process requires a lot know how, which is not available for private or small businesses

    | Factories are not allowed near temples, school or in residential areas| Off-grid systems in remote areas or on islands for diesel replacements will achieve high returns

    and are feasible now without any support schemes

  • YOUR RENEWABLE ENERGY PARTNER IN ASIA PACIFICIf you have further question, so please contact us at [email protected] or Tel: +66 (0) 2 660 6800