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PVMOD generic PV EMT models - Generic EMT Models … · There is a gap here namely in having...

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. www.epri.com Wes Baker, Deepak Ramasubramanian, Jens Boemer, Evangelos Farantatos, Anish Gaikwad, Mobolaji Bello EPRI Pouyan Pourbeik PEACE® WECC MVS Meeting 8/26/20 Generic EMT Models for PV
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Page 1: PVMOD generic PV EMT models - Generic EMT Models … · There is a gap here namely in having “generic‐EMT” models Potential value of generic‐EMT models: –They can help provide

© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m

Wes Baker, Deepak Ramasubramanian, Jens Boemer, Evangelos Farantatos, Anish Gaikwad, Mobolaji BelloEPRI 

Pouyan PourbeikPEACE®

WECC MVS Meeting 8/26/20Generic EMT Models for PV

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m2

Background

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m3

There is a hierarchy of models that we need a use for modeling any type of device

Broadly, we can characterize them as follows:– Hardware in the Loop (HIL) – Detailed proprietary vendor specific 3‐phase models prepared in Electromagnetic Transient (EMT) simulation tools (USR‐EMT)

– Detailed proprietary vendor specific positive‐sequence user‐written models (USRM)

– Generic parameterized models (Generic)

Background

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m4

There is presently an effort (CIGRE/IEEE TF, lead by G. Irwin) to encourage the used of compiled “real code” to be used for controllers (not electrical equipment) for USR‐EMT and USRM models All these models are useful, and all of them have their place USR‐EMT and USRM are critical for site specific studies USR‐EMT are essential for:

– SSR– Harmonics– Weak grid interactions– Any high frequency phenomena 

Background

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m5

We do not need to go into the need for generic models, that is quite clear in the context of WECC There is a gap here namely in having “generic‐EMT” models Potential value of generic‐EMT models:

– They can help provide a means of looking at high‐bandwidth phenomena in cases where USR‐EMT is not available, e.g. futuristic studies where specific vendor information is not available

– They can provide a tool for R&D– They can provide a tool to inform performance standard development– They ARE NOT intended to be used in lieu of vendor specific USR‐EMT models nor can they replace them.  Vendor specific USR‐EMT models are essential for project specific studies.

Background

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m6

THE CONCEPT OF GENERIC EMT MODELS

We have over the years developed rather detailed generic positive‐sequence models for Renewable Energy Systems (RES), namely: Type 4 WTG, Type 3 WTG, PV, BESS The controllers in the positive‐sequence models are essentially complete and can be translated directly to EMTWhat is grossly simplified in positive‐sequence tools are the high –bandwidth controls and electrical equipment– Generator/converter– PLL– Inner‐Current Control loop– Etc.

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m7

Basic concept of EMT models

Generic Positive-Sequence Generic EMT

REEC_D

REPC_C

IBFFR

WGO

convert

Need to Develop the Generator/Converter Models in EMT

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m8

PV-MOD

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m9

Acknowledgement

The work here is based on EPRI funded R&D, in collaboration with the US Department of Energy.

The work described in this presentation was funded in part by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-EE0009019/0000.

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m10

Continuation Model Development, Improvement, and Validation of Inverter-Based Resources (Generating & Storage)

•Actual Events / Field Measurements•Blue Cut, Canyon fire events•Duke event•Plant‐level performance

•Modeling Case studies•Utilities –Duke, Entergy, CenterPoint• ISOs ‐ CAISO, SPP

Actual Events & System Studies

Interconnection standards•IEEE 2800•IEEE 1547

Technical Interconnection Requirements•Transmission•DistributionPerformance 

Requirements

Test & Verification Standards•IEEE 2800.1•IEEE 1547.1 / UL 1741 SB•UL 1741 CRD Power Control Systems•MOD‐032

Laboratory Type/Unit Testing•Smaller scale units•Larger scale units

Test & Verification

Objectives•Plant‐level verification for interconnection•Plant‐level model for integration studies

Features•Existing/required features•New/optional features

Stakeholder Engagement•EPRI transmission & distribution members• Industry engagement: WECC, NERC, IEEE• Software vendor engagement

Unit & Plant‐Level Model Development, Improvement, and Validation

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m11

DOE PV-MOD: Project Overview

2020

• Field data collection• Smaller kW inverter 

characterization (lab testing)• Gap analysis of PV models 

(dynamic, short‐circuit, EMT/HIL, PQ)

• Inverter models for quasi‐static time series (QSTS)

2021

• Grid scale inverter characterization (NREL)

• Develop initial versions of refined or newly developed models

• Provide model specs to vendors• Model validation using the newly 

developed models 

2022

• Complete model validation• Refine models based on 

validation• Finalize specs for models & work 

with vendors

Validated; publicly available models for various types of studies, reports detailing the work, close collaboration with industry stakeholders (NERC, WECC, IEEE etc.)

Model Development

Resource Characterization

Model Commercialization

Adaptive Protection Application

Existing Models

Lab Tests

Field Data

Stability (PSS/E, PSLF, …)

Protection (CAPE, CYME, …)

EMT (EMTDC, EMTP‐RV, …)

Test

Validate

Develop Design

Demonstration

HIL Testing

Unit, Plant & Aggr. Feeder/BTM

1 2 3 4

5QSTS (CYME, Synergi,…)

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m12

Generic PV EMT Models

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m13

Idea: Use the existing RE framework developed for positive sequence transient stability models as a starting point for plant‐level controls and high‐level (outer loop) inverter‐level controls. Ongoing: Add further performance functionality based on performance requirements from existing and draft grid codes. Starting: Refine based on:

– Industry forums– Inverter testing as part of PV‐MOD– Field measurements collected as part of PV‐MOD

Generic PV EMT Models

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m14

Utilizing existing high-level control structures

VSCPWMInner Control

Outer Control

Plant Control System

PLL

V,IGate Pulses

Modulating Signal

Current ReferencesP,Q, or V

Plant Level  V,I

ABC‐DQ

Inverter Level ControlsPlant Level Controls

Main : Graphs

sec 0.7450 0.7460 0.7470 0.7480 0.7490 0.7500 0.7510

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5 Vtri ma mb mc

VSC_3 : Graphs

sec 5.66 5.68 5.70 5.72 5.74 5.76 5.78 5.80 5.82 5.84 5.86

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0 the ta_PLL

REPC_C frameworkREEC_D framework (where 

applicable), develop other FRT controls

Develop lower level controls and PE hardware models

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REPC_C framework is sufficient– Plant level controls dominate the response of the IBR in the continuous operating mode

Translate REPC_C structure directly to EMT program– Common practice when the inverter manufacturer does not supply the plant controller during the impact study stage

Modeling of plant-level controls

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m16

Modeling of lower level controls – FRT example

FRT control

Inner current control loop

Sequence component filtering

Advanced PLL

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m17

Idea: Start with the REEC_D framework Expand to consider required capability of IBRs during VRT mode

– Example: negative sequence current injection  VDE: requires reactive current in the negative sequence proportional to change in negative sequence voltage P2800 Draft 3.1: requires IBR to inject negative sequence reactive current dependent on the terminal negative sequence voltage

Requires modeling of more advanced PLL, signal filtering, and current control structures

FRT control

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m18

Current research focuses on PV Can be extended to Type 4 wind and BESS Further thought needed regarding the need of modeling of the resource on the DC side DFIG WTGs a little more complex

– Doubly‐fed asynchronous machine (existing model in most EMT tools)– ¼ sized back‐to‐back converter acts between rotor and stator

Leads into generic EMT models for other types of IBR

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m19

Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m20

Backup

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© 2020 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.w w w . e p r i . c o m21

VSC

Vta Vtb

Ic

Ib

Ia

Ec

Eb

Ea

P = 0.9Q = 0.0688V = 0.606

VA

Vtc

R=0V

R=0V

R=0V

A

B

CVs_c

Vs_b

Vs_a+

L

+

L

+

L

+

R +

R +

R

Average vs switched model

Average Model Implementation

Switching Model Implementation

Main : Graphs

sec 0.465 0.470 0.475 0.480 0.485 0.490 0.495 0.500

-2.00k

-1.50k

-1.00k

-0.50k

0.00

0.50k

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Idc_p

Idc_n

IDC

IDC

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1.0e-8 [ohm]

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F]

Idc_p1

Idc_n1

Vp

Vn

1.0e

6 [u

F]

*0.001

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BRK_DC_P

R=0

R=0

BRK_DC_N

Vs_c

Vs_b

Vs_a+

L

+

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+

L

+

R +

R +

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2IIGBT

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DIGBT

2I

2IIGBT

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DIGBT

2I

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S1

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S3

S2

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