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QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HOT MIX ASPHALT · PDF file Mix Asphalt (HMA) in...

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  • QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HOT MIX ASPHALT

    CONSTRUCTION IN DELAWARE

    by

    Radha Akkinepally and

    Dr. Nii Attoh-Okine Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    University of Delaware

    July 2006

    Delaware Center for Transportation University of Delaware

    355 DuPont Hall Newark, Delaware 19716

    (302) 831-1446

    DCT 173

  • QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HOT MIX ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION IN

    DELAWARE

    by

    RADHA AKKINEPALLY and

    DR. NII ATTOH-OKINE Associate Professor

    Civil and Environmental Engineering Department University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716

    DELAWARE CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION University of Delaware

    Newark, DE 19716

    This work was sponsored by the Delaware Center for Transportation and was prepared in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Transportation. The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Delaware Center for Transportation or the Delaware Department of Transportation at the time of publication. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

  • The Delaware Center for Transportation is a university-wide multi-disciplinary research unit reporting to the Chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and is co-sponsored by the University of Delaware and the Delaware Department of Transportation.

    DCT Staff

    Ardeshir Faghri Jerome Lewis Director Associate Director

    Wanda L. Taylor Lawrence H. Klepner Sandi Wolfe Assistant to the Director T2 Program Coordinator Secretary

    DCT Policy Council

    Robert Taylor, Co-Chair Chief Engineer, Delaware Department of Transportation

    Eric Kaler, Co-Chair

    Dean, College of Engineering

    The Honorable Tony DeLuca Chair, Delaware Senate Transportation Committee

    The Honorable Richard Cathcart

    Chair, Delaware House of Representatives Transportation Committee

    Timothy K. Barnekov Dean, College of Human Resources, Education and Public Policy

    Michael J. Chajes

    Chair, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    Ralph A. Reeb Director of Planning, Delaware Department of Transportation

    Stephen Kingsberry

    Director, Delaware Transit Corporation

    Shannon Marchman Representative of the Director of the Delaware Development Office

    Roger Roy

    Representative, Transportation Management Association

    Jim Johnson Executive Director, Delaware River & Bay Authority

    Delaware Center for Transportation University of Delaware

    Newark, DE 19716 (302) 831-1446

  • ii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    First, I would like to thank my advisor Professor Nii Attoh Okine for his support

    and his advice to me throughout my Master’s program at the University of Delaware.

    Second, I would like to thank the engineers at Delaware Department of

    Transportation (DelDOT), Wayne Kling and Steve Curtis for their support and help in

    understanding the data.

    I would also like to thank Dr. Stephen Muench, Assistant Professor, Civil and

    Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle and Dr. James Burati,

    Professor, Civil Engineering, Clemson University, South Carolina for their guidance and

    support during my research.

    Finally, I would like to thank my family – my father Madhusudan Rao, my

    mother Jayashree, my sister Sudha and my fiancé Rama Attaluri for their support

    throughout my academic study.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF FIGURES…………………………….….………………………….

    LIST OF CHARTS……………………………………………………………

    LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….

    ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………… Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….. 1.1 Background…………………………………………………………….... 1.2 Scope……...……………………………………………………………... 1.3 Objective….……………………………………………………………... 1.4 Statement of Problem…………………………………………………… 2 ACCEPTANCE PLANS…………………………………………………… 2.1 Acceptance Plans Basics………………………………………………... 2.2 Acceptance Sampling…………………………………………………… 2.3 Types of Acceptance Plans……………………………………………… 2.4 Quality Acceptance Plan……………………………………………...… 2.5 Attribute and Variable Acceptance Plans……………………………....... 2.6 Quality Characteristics………………………………………………….... 2.7 Quality Level……………………………………………………….......... 2.7.1 The PWL Quality Measure………………………………………… 2.7.2 The PD Quality Measure…………………………………………... 2.7.3 The Average Deviation from the Target Quality Measure…………

    2.7.4 The Conformal Index Quality Measure……………...………..…..

    VII VIII X XI 1 1 6 6 7 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 18 19 19 20

  • iv

    2.7.5 The Moving Average Quality Measure……………………….......

    2.8 Recommended Quality Measure…………………………………...…..… 2.9 Payment Quality Characteristics……………………………………..…... 2.10 Risk…………………………………………….………………….……. 2.11 Pay Factor……………………………………………………..………... 3 CONTROL CHARTS…………………………………………….………... 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………. 3.2 Uses of Control Charts…………………………………………………… 3.3 Types of Control Charts……………………………………...…………... 3.3.1 Control Charts for Attributes……………………………..………… 3.3.2 Control Charts for Variables……………………………………... 3.4 Comparison between Attribute Control Charts and Variable Control Charts…………………………………………………………………...... 4 DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………………….. 4.1 Introduction…………………………………………..…………………. 4.2 Types of Analysis……………………………………………………….. 4.3 Normal Probability Plot for various Quality Characteristics……………. 4.4 Box and Whisker Plots for various Quality Characteristics…………….. 4.5 Individual Control Charts for various Quality Characteristics………….. 4.5.1 X and MR (2) - Initial Study for Air Voids………………………...

    4.5.2 X and MR (2) - Control to Standard for Air Voids…………….......

    4.5.3 X and MR (2) - Initial Study for Density of Core…………………..

    21 21 22 23 24 26

    26

    27

    28

    28 29 29 31 31 31 32 34 36 37 39

    41

  • v

    4.5.4 X and MR (2) - Control to Standard for Density of Core……..........

    4.5.5 X and MR (2) - Initial Study for Measured Asphalt………………..

    4.5.6 X and MR (2) - Control to Standard for Measured Asphalt………..

    4.5.7 X and MR (2) - Initial Study for VFA……………………...……….

    4.5.8 X and MR (2) - Control to Standard for VFA………………………

    4.5.9 X and MR (2) - Initial Study for VMA…………………….………..

    4.5.10 X and MR (2) - Control to Standard for VMA………...………….. 4.6 Average and Range Control Charts; X and R Control Charts…………...

    4.6.1 X-bar and Range - Initial Study for Density of Core………….……

    4.6.2 X-bar and Range - Control to Standard for Density of Core…...…..

    4.6.3 X-bar and Range - Initial Study for Air Voids……………………..

    4.6.4 X-bar and Range - Control to Standard for Air Voids…………..…

    4.6.5 X-bar and Range - Initial Study for VMA………………………….

    4.6.6 X-bar and Range - Control to Standard for VMA…………...……..

    4.6.7 X-bar and Range - Initial Study for VFA……………………..…....

    4.6.8 X-bar and Range - Control to Standard for VFA………

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