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Quotes and Citations – Excitement Galore! Citing sources Setting up Quotes Integrating quotes

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  • Quotes and Citations Excitement Galore!Citing sourcesSetting up QuotesIntegrating quotes

  • To Cite or Not to Cite

  • What does not need to be cited?All information that would be considered common knowledge

    Anything that we would consider encyclopedia information (birthdays, basic statistics, basic facts)

    Anything that is your idea or opinion (although these need to be supported with facts and information)

  • What does need to be cited?The exact words of anotherPrimary source quotes from literatureA dictionary definition that must be preciseThe original ideas, research, critical analysis, or opinions of another (even if paraphrased in your words)

  • When should I quote?When what is said is stated much better than you could ever say it. When it is something that must be exact like a definition or a formulaWhen the quote adds dimension, meaning, or insight to your supporting point

  • If I dont quote, what are my options? Paraphrase


    **Still need to cite these if not common knowledge

  • QUOTING!!!A quote should be sandwiched between the point you are trying to make and your follow-up analysis of how the quote demonstrates that point.I. Set up the quote by stating your point.II. Attribute the quote with a dialogue tag introducing the speaker of the quote.III. Cite the quote in parentheses (last name pg#).IV. Analyze how the quote proves your point.

  • STEP 1: Set up your quote.Set up the quote before integrating it. Take enough time to reveal the context without summarizing plot.

  • STEP 2: Attribute quote. Do NOT do the following in introducing your quote:

    Heres a quote byThe book says . . . The quote says . . .In the following quoteThis can be seen in the quote

  • STEP 2: Attribute quote, cont. Make sure you attribute the quote to someone. Tell us who is speaking!

    Formal: (Needs a comma)Rudkus says, Rudkus notes the physical deformities among the workers, saying As Sinclair explains,

    Informal: (part of your sentence; doesnt need a comma)Jurgis describes a workday that began at four oclock in the morning

  • STEP 3: Cite the quoteEx: Jurgis says, Each in its way was as horrible as the killing beds (Sinclair 305).

    If author is mentioned in body of your essay, do not need it again in citation: Ex: Sinclair describes a workday that began at four oclock in the morning (305).

  • Use parenthetical citations also for indirect quotes or critical analysis of anotherIndirect Quote:After observing the factory, Rudkus notices that many of the workers have physical deformities as reminders of the brutal tasks they perform daily. (Sinclair 305)

    Paraphrase of critical analysis:Critic Arthur Goldblum sees the novel as a seething indictment of unregulated industry during the Progressive era. (Muckrakers 12)

  • STEP 4: Analyze the quoteDo not explain the quote; we understand. Make a more sophisticated analysis of the quote by tying it to your thesis or main point.

  • When does a quote lose its effectiveness?When its too long (People tend not to read beyond a certain point) When its not properly set up & integrated When you dont take enough time for the reader to understand its significanceWhen it has little to do with the point you are trying to make

  • MODEL QUOTE INTEGRATIONMaggie, on the other hand, is typical prey of the Bowery jungle. Nave and inexperienced when she meets Pete, Maggie immediately places all her hope and future in that relationship. Crane describes how Maggie leaned with a dependent air toward her companion timid, as if fearing his anger or displeasure (39). Here, Maggie takes on the submissive role of the relationship, becoming vulnerable to predators like Pete and Nell. Even after Pete leaves her, Maggie fails to adapt to her harsh environment, leading to her death or natural selection.

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