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RankineCycle Operator Manual

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    RankineCycler

    Steam Turbine Power System Operators ManualTurbine Technologies, LTD

    REVISION 9.05

    THIS MANUAL MUST BE KEPT WITHTHE SYSTEM AND AVAILABLE AT ALL TIMES

    Model RC-101

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    Copyright c2005 Turbine Technologies, LTD

    Service Publications410 Phillip StreetChetek, WI 54728

    All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwisewithout written permission from TurbineTechnologies, LTD, except for the explicit use and inclusion in a course of academic study utilizing the TurbineTechnologies, LTD RankineCycler Steam Turbine Power System

    Many of the designations used by manufacturers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks or servicemarks. Every attempt has been made to supply trademark information about manufacturers and their productsmentioned in this manual. A list of the trademark or service mark designations and their owners appears on pageiii.

    Every effort has been made to make this manual as complete and accurate as possible. The purchaser shall besolely responsible for determining the suitability of the information contained herein. See page v.

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    iii

    TRADEMARK NOTICES

    RankineCyclerTM and DigiDAQTM are trademarks of Turbine Technologies, LTD.

    Microsoft r, Windows r, Visual Basic r and C++ for Windows r are registered trademarks of Microsoft

    Corporation.

    Personal DaqsTM , Personal DaqViewTM , Personal DaqView PlusTM , eZ-PostViewTM , Personal DaqViewXLTM ,

    DASYLabTM and Out-of-the-Box TM are registered trademarks of IOtech, Incorporated.

    LabVIEWTM is a registered trademark of National Instruments, Incorporated

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    v

    SUITABILITY

    The Turbine Technologies, LTD RankineCycler is not offered as and shall not be construed bythe purchaser to be Consumer Products within the common definition of the United States FederalTrade Commission. All Turbine Technologies, LTD products are represented to be, and offered as,EXPERIMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, subject to the limitations in safety and performance inherent toequipment so classified. PURCHASER SHALL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE for determining, priorto purchase, at acceptance and for all subsequent usage, the suitability for any purpose(s) intendedof equipment, instructions, procedures or materials offered or supplied by Turbine Technologies, LTDfor use in any educational, laboratory or industrial setting.

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    vi

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    Preface

    The RankineCycler is the best tool on the market for laboratory teaching of thermodynamicprinciples and power generation, and it comes with the lowest price tag. In fact, as far as I can tell,

    it is the only available educational equipment of its kind.- Dr. Andy Gerhart

    Assistant Professor Mechanical EngineeringCollege of Engineering, Lawrence Technological University

    Southfield, MI

    Since the first century AD and the invention of the aeolipile by Heron of Alexandria, man hasendeavored to harness the power of steam. Refined by Denis Papin and improved throughout theIndustrial Revolution by the likes of Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen and James Watt, the steamengine became an important source of mechanical power. The steam turbine, made practical byCharles Parson and improved commercially by George Westinghouse, furthered the use of steampower and helped accelerate the electrification of the modern world.

    William Rankine, a Scottish physicist and early pioneer in the study of thermodynamics, compiledthe first comprehensive study of steam power in his 1859 Manual of the Steam Engine and OtherPrime Movers. Describing the production of power with a vapor power plant, the Rankine Cyclebecame the basis for all future thermodynamic power system and cycle study.

    Challenging generations of engineering students ever since, the Rankine Cycle has been usedto theoretically model and teach the physical processes taking place in power-generating systems.The Turbine Technologies, LTD RankineCycler takes this abstract modeling to a new level, al-lowing students to not only measure the various variables that go into the Rankine Cycle, but tosee, hear and even feel the generation of steam power first hand. By making text book academicscome alive, the RankineCycler will help todays students become the real world engineers of tomorrow.

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    viii

    Manual Structure

    Section 1 - General Information Background information to help the new user become familiarwith the RankineCycler unit prior to operation.

    Section 2 - Limitations Important limitations for the safe operation of the RankineCycler.

    Section 3 - Abnormal Procedures Checklist Procedures for operations that exceed or are outsidethe scope of the RankineCycler Limitations or Normal Procedures.

    Section 4 - Normal Procedures Checklist Procedures for Normal Operation of the Rank-ineCycler.

    Section 5 - Systems Description of all unique RankineCycler systems and their operation.

    Section 6 - Service and Maintenance Information to maintain the RankineCycler in proper op-erating condition.

    Appendix A - Warranty Information

    Comments/Questions

    Please address comments and questions concerning this Operators Manual to the publisher:

    Turbine Technologies, LTD.Service Publications410 Phillip StreetChetek, WI 54728(715) 924-4876(715) 924-2436 (fax)

    A RankineCycler web page featuring an image gallery, press releases, video, product specificationsand operator produced technical papers is available at:

    http://www.turbinetechnologies.com/steam.html

    Specific questions regarding the operation or servicing of the RankineCycler should be addressed to:

    [email protected]

    For more information about Turbine Technologies, LTD and its products for engineering education,please see the Turbine Technologies web site at:

    http://www.turbinetechnologies.com

    Or email:

    [email protected]

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    Contents

    Preface vii

    Section 1 - General Information 1

    1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    1.3 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    1.4 Uncrating and Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Section 2 - LIMITATIONS 7

    Section 3 - ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 9

    3.1 ABBREVIATED ABNORMAL PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    3.1.1 Boiler Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    3.1.2 Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    3.1.3 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    3.2 EXPANDED ABNORMAL PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    3.2.1 Boiler Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    3.2.2 Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    3.2.3 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    Section 4 - Normal Procedures 15

    4.1 Abbreviated Normal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    4.1.1 Pre-Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    4.1.2 Start and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    4.1.3 Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    4.1.4 Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    4.1.5 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    4.1.6 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    4.2 Expanded Normal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    4.2.1 Pre-Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    4.2.2 Start and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    4.2.3 Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    4.2.4 Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    4.2.5 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    4.2.6 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    4.3 General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

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    x CONTENTS

    Section 5 - Systems 435.1 Steam Turbine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    5.1.1 Burner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.1.2 Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.1.3 Sight Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.1.4 Boiler Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.1.5 Steam Admission Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.1.6 Steam Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.1.7 Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.1.8 Condenser Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.1.9 Operator Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    5.2 Fill/Drain System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.3 Data Acquisition System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    5.3.1 Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.3.2 DAQ Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.3.3 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.3.4 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    5.4 Cabinetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.1 Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.2 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.3 Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.4 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    Section 6 - Service and Maintenance 536.1 General Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    6.1.1 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536.1.2 Condition Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536.1.3 Service Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    6.2 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556.3 Factory Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    Appendix A - WARRANTY INFORMATION 59

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    List of Tables

    1.1 Shipping Container Inventory List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.2 DAQ Channel Assignments and Sensor Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.3 Channel Configuration - Analog Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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    xii LIST OF TABLES

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    Section 1General Information

    1.1 Introduction

    The Turbine Technologies, LTD RankineCycler Steam Turbine Power System is a complete steamelectric power plant in miniature purposely designed for engineering education and research. Thesystem accurately represents a typical fossil-fueled vapor power plant in which water is the workingfluid.

    Turning heat energy into useful work is the purpose of any vapor power system. With the Rank-ineCycler, steam is generated by heating water in a multi-pass, flame-through tube type boiler witha super heat dome. This high-pressure steam is expanded through an axial flow turbine wheel thatdrives an AC/DC generator to produce electricity. Leaving the turbine at low pressure, the vaporthen enters a condenser tower, returning to its original liquid state. In a full scale power plant, thisliquid water would then be returned to the boiler.

    Initial thermodynamic calculations can be made using the classic Ideal Rankine Cycle model. Nu-merical predictions based on the temperature-entropy process flows of the cycle can then be measureddirectly on the RankineCycler with the integrated data acquisition system. Sensors located at variouspoints along the vapor path allow accurate measurements to be made of the operating conditions atthose points.

    Explaining the differences and accounting for the real world results presents limitless educationalopportunities. For safety and convenience, the RankineCycler is not equipped with a feedwaterreturn pump. Because actual pump work is significantly less than that in the turbine, neglecting thepump contribution will have negligible effect on the net work of the cycle and the cycle calculationsoverall.

    Additional opportunities in the study of Environmental and Pollution engineering are possiblethrough both qualitative and quantitative analysis of other parameters outside the scope of the stockRankineCycler.

    Reasonable expectations regarding experimental results must be made when operating the RankineCycler or anysimilar equipment where scale effects are present. By size and design, the system can only model full-size steam andpower generation. Efficiency, power output and overall system performance will naturally be much different thanthat for the same process on a larger scale. Additionally, temperatures and pressures are necessarily kept low forsafety considerations. In whole, the RankineCycler provides an excellent foundation for exploring the shortcomings(and pitfalls) of applying textbook formulas and ideal data to a problem without considering all aspects of the overallsystem. The challenge to the student is in the analysis of experimental run-time data and determining why the resultsmay differ from analytical expectations. This is the true benefit of hands-on, laboratory and experimental engineering.Rest assured, no Laws of Thermodynamics are broken during the operation of the RankineCycler.

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    2 SECTION 1

    1.2 SAFETY

    As with any piece of laboratory equipment, basic safety precautions must be followedat all times. Protective eyewear must be worn whenever the equipment is in operationor receiving service. Complete familiarization with all aspects of the RankineCyclersystem and its operation must be made prior to usage.

    During normal operation, various surfaces of the RankineCycler obtain temperaturesthat can cause severe burns. ALL surfaces of the system should be considered HOTduring operation. Under no circumstances should the boiler doors be opened duringoperation.

    The RankineCycler boiler has been low cycle fatigue pressure tested to 150% of normaloperating pressure. The boiler is NOT ASME rated, nor is it approved by any othertesting facility or regulatory body.

    DO NOT ATTEMPT TO MAKE ANY ADJUSTMENTS TO OR BYPASS SAFETYDEVICES AND/OR CONTROLS TO FORCE OPERATIONS OUTSIDE OF PUB-LISHED LIMITATIONS. DO NOT EXCEED, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES,THE PUBLISHED MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE.

    If any limitation is exceeded, operation of the system should be suspended until adetermination is made of the cause of the out of limit condition and suitability forcontinued operation.

    The RankineCycler is considered to be in operation WHENEVER the burneris ignited, there is positive boiler pressure or any surface is warmer than ambienttemperature.

    FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE LIMITATIONS AND USAGE AS SET

    FORTH IN THIS OPERATORS MANUAL MAY CAUSE SERIOUS

    INJURY OR DEATH.

    1.3 Specifications

    DIMENSIONS - Steam Turbine Power System

    LENGTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.0 inches (77 cm) WIDTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48.0 inches (122 cm) HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58.0 inches (148 cm) HEIGHT with FILL BEAKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.0 inches (209 cm) WEIGHT operational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 lbs (80 kg)

    OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS - Steam Turbine Power System

    ELECTRICAL SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 VAC Breaker Protected FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Propane (LP) Only ADEQUATE VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steam and Combustion Gasses ADEQUATE CLEARANCE to allow operator access to all four sides, RECOMMEND 48 inches(122 cm) on the RIGHT and REAR SIDES. RECOMMEND 72 inches (183 cm) on the LEFTand FRONT SIDES. Existing Fire and Safety Codes may prevail.

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    GENERAL INFORMATION 3

    1.4 Uncrating and Set-Up

    The RankineCycler is shipped in a custom built container for maximum protection against damageduring delivery. It is recommended that a thorough inspection of the containers exterior be madeprior to acceptance from the shipper. If any damage or discrepancy is noted, it should be brought tothe attention of the shipping agent immediately and prior to any further disassembly of the shippingcontainer.

    When unloading or moving the shipping container,DO NOT apply pressure or force to the container sides.

    Doing so may puncture the container and damage the contents inside.

    The steps necessary to uncrate the RankineCycler and prepare it for initial use are outlined asfollows. NOTE: DO NOT discard ANY material within the shipping container until a completeinventory has been made of the included contents.

    1. Remove Shipping Container Front Door DO NOT pry the container open! Locate thefront door of the container as indicated by the DOOR - OPEN THIS SIDE ONLY stencil.Approximately 21 screws, indicated by 1.0 inch (2.5 cm) red squares and located around thedoor perimeter, need to be removed to open the container front door. Only remove those screwsdelineated by the red squares. With all the screws removed, the door may be opened and setaside.

    2. Remove Packaged Contents Boxes Various items are separately boxed and/or located underthe RankineCycler cabinet. The following items are typically included:

    (a) Important Documents and System Keys A box marked Important Documentscontains all documents essential to the operation of the RankineCycler (including backupsoftware disks and sensor calibration data). Included are two copies of theRankineCyclerSteam Turbine Power System Operators Manual. One copy should be removed atthis time and used for the remainder of the SET-UP process and all subsequent operation.The other copy should be set aside for safe keeping. A set of QuickCheck operator checklistsare included for convenient reference and efficient operation of the RankineCycler. The keysfor the RankineCycler Master Switch are located within the manual binder, attached tothe top binder ring. It is recommended that one key be left in the binder for safe keepingand the other placed into the Master Switch until a specific key storage location and usagepolicy is determined.

    (b) Boiler Fill/Drain Beaker The fill/drain beaker is located in a box and wrapped inprotective plastic.

    (c) Computer Equipment Any computer equipment and accessories ordered with the systemwill be found in a box. All software required to operate the data acquisition system ispreloaded on this computer.

    3. Remove Hold Down Clips Three hold down clips secure the RankineCycler to the shippingcontainer. These clips are indicated by 2.0 inch (5.0 cm) red squares, one each on the left, rightand rear exterior sides of the shipping container. By removing the items in Step 2 above, accessis gained to the clips and the corresponding fasteners on the interior of the box. Remove thesethree clips and corresponding fasteners.

    Turbine Technologies, LTD is not responsible for damage due to shipping. It is the recipients responsibility toinspect the shipping container for obvious external damage and to make the appropriate claims with the shipping agentprior to accepting the contents or opening the shipping container.

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    4 SECTION 1

    4. Remove Perimeter Base Screws At the base of the left, right and rear exterior sides ofthe shipping container are the perimeter base screws holding the upright sides of the shippingcontainer to the pallet base. Approximately 12 screws, indicated by 1.0 inch (2.5 cm) red squares,need to be removed around the container base. No other screws need be removed.

    5. Remove Shipping Container Side/Top AssemblyWith the perimeter base screws removedin Step 4 above, the three container sides (with the top still attached) can be removed. Thisis accomplished by tilting the container assembly back, away from the open door. Take carethat the sides continue to clear the RankineCycler as the entire assembly is tilted back. Onceit is clear of the RankineCycler, the container side assembly can be set aside.

    6. Lift RankineCycler Clear of PalletWith adequate assistance, the RankineCycler may nowbe lifted clear of the container pallet and set on the floor. To avoid damage to the system, onlylift on the area adjacent to the cabinet legs. DO NOT lift by grasping any of the componentson the top side of the system cabinet.

    7. Unlock Caster Wheels All four caster wheels under the system cabinet are lockable and willbe locked for shipping. Lifting the locking tab releases the lock mechanism. Release all fourcaster wheel locks as necessary.

    8. Remove Protective Packing Material A large piece of plastic will be draped over the entireRankineCycler. Bubble-wrap type material will be wrapped around the entire system. The twoboiler doors will be secured with a length of plastic wrap. Remove all of this material from theRankineCycler.

    9. Inventory / General Condition Assessment / Cleaning Using Table 1.1 as a guide, in-ventory all received contents and verify their general condition. Separate Packing and Inventorylists will be found within the shipping container to further assist in this process. If any item isfound to be missing or damaged, contact Turbine Technologies, LTD immediately. With a softcloth, wipe any dust or dirt from the system cabinetry and accessories.

    10. Retain Shipping Container / MaterialsWith all RankineCycler components accounted forin Step 9, the shipping container may be removed for storage. All packing material should beplaced within the container and the container side assembly and front door reattached with theoriginal screws previously removed. While the container may be disposed of at this time, it isrecommended that the container and packing material be retained for future use should the needarise to move the RankineCycler over any appreciable distance, store for an extended period oftime or to return the RankineCycler to the factory for service or upgrade.

    11. Connect Suitable Fuel Supply An appropriate liquid propane tank with an adequate supplyof fuel is required to operate the RankineCycler. Tanks of the 20, 30 and 40 pound varietycommon to gas cooking appliances and portable heating equipment are acceptable. The 20pound size is ideal for classroom use, allowing portable operation with several hours of run-time.The fuel source gas regulator and hose assembly is tie-wrapped to the front, right cabinet leg.Cut the tie-wrap loose and connect the provided fuel source gas regulator to the selected fuelsource. This regulator is factory adjusted to work with liquid propane fuel. Please consult thefactory prior to using other fuel types.

    The RankineCycler is now ready for operation. See Section 4 - Normal Procedures for furtherinstructions.

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    GENERAL INFORMATION 5

    Table 1.1: Shipping Container Inventory List

    ITEM DESCRIPTIONNUMBER 1 2 3 4 Level QTY LOCATION

    1 SHIPPING CONTAINER 12 . RankineCycler 1 SHIPPING CONTAINER3 . . Fuel Source Gas Regulator/Hose Assembly 1 RankineCycler Front, Right Leg4 . Important Documents 1 SHIPPING CONTAINER5 . . Master Keys 2 Important Documents6 . . Operators Manual 2 Important Documents7 . . Computer Software various Important Documents8 . Box 1 1 SHIPPING CONTAINER9 . . Fill/Drain Beaker 1 Box 110 . Box 2 1 SHIPPING CONTAINER11 . . Computer/Power Cable/Power Adapter 1 each Box 212 . . USB Cable 1 Box 2

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    6 SECTION 1

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    Section 2LIMITATIONS

    The RankineCycler is designed to be operated within the following limitations. Under no circum-stances should these limitations be exceeded by any margin. Operator safety and efficient operationof the RankineCycler is contingent upon these limitations being followed.

    BOILER

    MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 psi (827 kPa) MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL BOILER STEAM TEMPERATURE . . . 608 F (320 C) MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL BOILER VOLUME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 oz (6,000 ml) OPERATING FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WATER

    BURNER

    FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIQUID PROPANE (LP) ONLY

    GENERATOR

    MAXIMUM GENERATOR OUTPUT, Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15.0 Volts MAXIMUM GENERATOR OUTPUT, Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 Amps MAXIMUM GENERATOR OUTPUT, Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Watts MAXIMUM GENERATOR SPEED, RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4500 RPM

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    8 SECTION 2

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    Section 3ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

    The RankineCycler is designed with the highest regard to operator safety. It is very unlikely duringthe normal course of operation and within the limitations set forth in this manual, that any conditionswill be encountered requiring the use of ABNORMAL PROCEDURES as set forth herein. Theseprocedures are provided in the event of a worst case scenario resulting from multiple system failures.

    The procedures in this section outline the minimum steps necessary to achieve a safe system state.When the system is secured and there is no further potential for personal harm, normal shutdownprocedures should be completed. All further operation of the system should be suspended until adetermination is made of the cause of the abnormal event and the suitability for continued operationis determined by qualified personnel.

    Summary operating checklists are provided in the ABBREVIATED PROCEDURES sections(3.1.X). Detailed procedures for the same steps are described in the EXPANDED PROCEDURESsections (3.2.X).

    In general, remembering OFF - OPEN - OFF, will be all that is necessary to deal with anyabnormal condition encountered with the RankineCycler.

    1. OFF - Shut OFF the Master Switch.

    2. OPEN - OPEN the Steam Admission Valve, relieving system pressure.

    3. OFF - Shut OFF the supply of gas to the burner.

    OFF - OPEN - OFF

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    10 SECTION 3

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    ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 11

    3.1 ABBREVIATED ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

    3.1.1 BOILER OVERPRESSURE

    1. MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF2. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN3. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF4. IF SAFETY IS NOT COMPROMISED

    a. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ONb. LOAD RHEOSTAT CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TURN FULLY CLOCKWISE

    3.1.2 FIRE

    1. MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF2. FIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISH WITH FIRE EXTINGUISHER3. IF SAFETY IS NOT COMPROMISED

    a. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPENb. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

    3.1.3 ELECTRICAL

    1. MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF2. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN3. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF4. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

    OFF - OPEN - OFF

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    12 SECTION 3

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    ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 13

    3.2 EXPANDED ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

    3.2.1 BOILER OVERPRESSURE

    BOILER OVERPRESSURE occurs anytime the boiler pressure exceeds 130 psi (896 kPa) as indicatedon the analog boiler pressure gauge. Multiple safety devices make the likelihood of an overpressurecondition unlikely. An independent boiler pressure transducer continually measures the boiler oper-ating pressure and regulates the burner accordingly. Flame control is provided for and monitored bya microprocessor based gas ignition and regulation module. Finally, a manual overpressure poppetvalve, located on top of the boiler, is designed to automatically relieve boiler pressure should theinternal pressure exceed 130 psi (896 kPa).In the event a failure of these three safety devices occurs, the operator should immediately eliminate

    the potential for any further pressure rise.

    1. The console MASTER SWITCH should be placed in the OFF position. Doing so removesall electrical power to the system. By removing electrical power, both the gas regulator andthe combustion blower will shut off. Both are needed to support combustion in the boiler.By eliminating the heat source, no additional energy transfer to the boiler is possible therebyeliminating the potential for further pressure rise.

    2. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned counter-clockwise to the fully OPENposition. This vents boiler pressure through the normal steam path across the turbine and intothe condenser tower. With no heat and an open steam admission valve, the boiler pressureshould begin decreasing immediately.

    3. Turn the OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) to the OFF position.

    Items 1 through 3 should sufficiently eliminate the potential for further pressure rise. If operatorsafety is in question, all personnel should leave the area until such time that the boiler has cooled.

    4. IF SAFETY IS NOT COMPROMISED in any way, the following additional steps should beconsidered:

    a. Select the LOAD SWITCH to the ON position.

    b. Rotate the LOAD RHEOSTAT CONTROL to the FULLY CLOCKWISE position.

    Engaging the LOAD SWITCH helps to quickly dissipate the steam pressure by placing a load onthe steam turbine (through the generator). This also prevents damage to the turbine, generatorand associated bearings caused by overspeeding the turbine with the higher than normal steampressure.

    3.2.2 FIRE

    The likelihood of a FIRE is virtually non-existent with the RankineCycler. Although a flame ispresent within the boiler, only a failure at the operator panel gas valve, the fuel source regulator orthe connecting hose would produce a flame or persistent fire requiring the use of abnormal procedures.It should be noted that the burner may occasionally burp producing an audible popping noise

    with a small blue flame present at the blower inlet. This behavior is normal and should NOT beconsidered a fire requiring the execution of the fire abnormal procedures.

    1. The console MASTER SWITCH should be placed in the OFF position. Doing so removes allelectrical power to the system. By removing electrical power, both the gas regulator and thecombustion blower will shut off.

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    14 SECTION 3

    2. Using an available and appropriate FIRE EXTINGUISHER (ABC Type), extinguish the flames.

    If operator safety is in question, all personnel should leave the area, activate the appropriate firealarm and follow the required emergency plan.

    3. IF SAFETY IS NOT COMPROMISED in any way, the following additional steps should beconsidered:

    a. Because of the elevated heat around the system, the potential exists for a boiler overpressurecondition. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned counter-clockwise to thefully OPEN position.

    b. Turn the OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) to the OFF position,positively removing the fuel source and eliminating the potential for re-ignition.

    3.2.3 ELECTRICAL

    There are two distinct electrical systems within the RankineCycler, the main bus that powers theindicator lights, boiler combustion blower and the gas regulator system and a separate steam generatorbus allowing the measurement of electrical generating capability of the steam turbine and generator.The main bus is further divided into a high and low system, each equipped with its own resettablecircuit breaker (8 and 3 amps respectively). The main bus and the steam generator bus are electricallyisolated preventing any interaction between the two systems. Problems of an electrical nature wouldmost likely be caused through a short condition in either bus or between the two busses. Any electricalmalfunction of a short or overload nature will trip the on board circuit breaker, the facility circuitbreaker or both.If an electrical fault is suspected, either through an unexpected shut-down of the RankineCycler or

    through more obvious signs such as audible or visible arcing or electrical type smoke caused by meltinginsulation, the following steps should be followed. Once the system is secure, a close examination ofthe cause of the malfunction should be made prior to resetting any circuit breaker.

    1. The console MASTER SWITCH should be placed in the OFF position. Doing so removes allelectrical power to the system.

    2. As standard procedure and to maintain consistency with other abnormal procedures, theSTEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned counter-clockwise to the fully OPEN posi-tion.

    3. As with Item 2, turn the OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE (or FUEL SOURCE) to the OFFposition.

    4. The LOAD SWITCH should now be selected OFF to remove any resistance from the steamgenerator bus.

    OFF - OPEN - OFF

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    Section 4Normal Procedures

    The RankineCycler is designed with simplicity and operator convenience in mind. Inexperiencedoperators will quickly gain familiarity and confidence with the system permitting the collec-tion of meaningful data from the very first run. No special knowledge or skills are required to usethe RankineCycler thereby allowing its usage in even the most basic of science and engineering courses.

    This section provides a set of standard procedures to follow while operating the RankineCycler.The steps and the order in which they appear represent the most efficient procedure to initiateoperation of the RankineCycler and to collect run-time data for use in a typical academic setting.Aside from the necessary cool down time, a complete operational run can be accomplished within aone-hour lab session.

    Summary operating checklists are provided in the ABBREVIATED PROCEDURES sections(4.1.X). Detailed procedures for the same steps are described in the EXPANDED PROCEDURESsections (4.2.X).

    Familiarity with these procedures must be made prior to operating the RankineCycler for thefirst time. Experienced operators should continue to use the checklist for each operational run toeliminate the possibility of overlooking or inadvertently eliminating a necessary step. With powerremoved from the system (electrical service removed), the various switches, valves and controls maybe manipulated without harm to the system. This permits the ability to use the checklists in a dryrun or rehearsal fashion prior to operating the RankineCycler under power.

    The RankineCycler represents a dynamic system. Operation should not be initiated without apurpose or plan such as a lab procedure. Each participant needs to be familiar with their role andwhat to do in case of an emergency (see Section 3 - ABNORMAL PROCEDURES).

    WARNINGDo Not Permit Unattended Operation of the RankineCycler

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    16 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 17

    4.1 Abbreviated Normal Procedures

    Abbreviated Normal Procedures consist of a series of easy to follow summary operating checklists forthe safe and efficient operation of the RankineCycler.

    These checklists are presented in order of usage. Each item should be completed before proceedingto the next item. Each section must be completed before proceeding to the next section. It isrecommended that one operator read the checklist while another performs the task.

    Six separate Checklist are provided as follows:

    1. Section 4.1.1 PRE-START - Prepares the RankineCycler for operation.

    2. Section 4.1.2 START and OPERATION - Starts the RankineCycler and establishes a steadystate system.

    3. Section 4.1.3 DATA COLLECTION - Uses the data acquisition system to display and recordsystem operational parameters.

    4. Section 4.1.4 SHUTDOWN - Stops operation of the RankineCycler.

    5. Section 4.1.5MEASUREMENTS - Steps necessary to measure the quantity of boiler water usedand condensate collected.

    6. Section 4.1.6 STORAGE - Prepares the RankineCycler for extended storage.

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    18 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 19

    4.1.1 PRE-START

    1. AREA CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY SUITABILITY FOR OPERATION2. CASTER WHEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCKED3. KEYED MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF4. BURNER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF5. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF6. LOAD RHEOSTAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MINIMUM LOAD, FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE POSITION7. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF8. VISUAL INSPECTION

    a. FUEL TANK/SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDb. BURNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDc. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDd. BOILER PRESSURE GAUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDe. SIGHT GLASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDf. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKEDg. STEAM LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKEDh. OPERATOR PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKEDi. CONDENSER TOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKED

    9. CONDENSER TOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN10. FRONT and REAR BOILER DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED and LATCHED11. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN12. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN, COMPLETELY13. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL, 203 oz (6,000 ml) maximum - use provided beaker

    Allow approximately 5 minutes for complete fill.

    14. FILL EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOWED - DO NOT leave beaker in condenser tower15. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED16. COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONNECT USB CABLE17. RANKINECYCLER ELECTRICAL SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT18. FUEL SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT to barbed fitting, only use provided regulator on fuel source19. FINAL CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETE

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    20 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 21

    4.1.2 START and OPERATION

    1. COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPUTER ON2. FUEL SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON3. FUEL LEAK CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED4. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON5. MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON - GREEN LIGHT6. BURNER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON - RED LIGHT7. COMBUSTION BLOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VERIFY ON8. PURGE FUEL LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NECESSARY9. BURNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VERIFY LIT within 45 SECONDS10. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY POSITIVE PRESSURE within 3 MINUTES11. PREHEAT

    Allow approximately 7 minutes to complete the following preheat steps:

    a. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 psi (758 kPa)b. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPENc. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 psi (276 kPa)d. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSEe. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 psi (758 kPa)f. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPENg. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 psi (276 kPa)h. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSEi. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 psi (758 kPa)

    12. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPEN slowly13. VOLT METER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FULL SCALE DEFLECTION 15.0 Volts14. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON15. ADJUST LOAD RHEOSTAT to MAINTAIN:16. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 psi (758 kPa)17. ADJUST STEAM ADMISSION VALVE / LOAD RHEOSTAT TO ACHIEVE STEADY STATE CONDITION.

    a. AMP METER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2 Ampsb. VOLT METER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 Voltsc. BOILER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 psi (758 kPa)d. WHEN STEADY STATE ACHIEVED, RESUME CHECKLIST

    18. TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTED19. SIGHT GLASS UPPER BEZEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET TO WATER LEVEL20. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PERIODIC ADJUSTMENT, STEADY STATE21. CONDUCT EXPERIMENT AS REQUIRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MONITOR WATER LEVEL

    (NOT LESS THAN 1 inch (2.5 cm) FROM BOTTOM OF SIGHT GLASS)

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    22 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 23

    4.1.3 DATA COLLECTION

    NOTE: The following steps assume the use of the standard PersonalDaqView and default settingsas supplied with the RankineCycler. Use of non-default settings or other software may necessitatealternative methods or procedures for data collection. Consult the PersonalDaqView or softwarespecific manuals as required.

    1. OPEN DAQ SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pDaqView2. RECORD DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELECT Arm Trigger for Disk Recording3. DISPLAY DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELECT Enable Readings Column4. CONFIGURE CHARTS, GRAPHS or METERS . . . . .Select the appropriate button on the Main Control

    Window

    5. Make Changes as Necessary6. SAVE RECORDED DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DE-SELECT Arm Trigger for Disk Recording

    Consult the PersonalDaq UsersManual.pdf and the PostAcquisition Analysis.pdf manu-als for more information on the capabilities and usage of the included data acquisition software. Thesemanuals are found in the C:\Program Files\pDaqView\Applications\Users Manuals directory.

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    24 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 25

    4.1.4 SHUTDOWN

    1. TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NOTED2. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED3. SIGHT GLASS LOWER BEZEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET TO WATER LEVEL4. BURNER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF, RED LIGHT EXTINGUISHED5. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF6. LOAD RHEOSTAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MINIMUM LOAD, FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE POSITION7. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF8. MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF, GREEN LIGHT EXTINGUISHED9. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN10. FUEL SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

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    26 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 27

    4.1.5 MEASUREMENTS

    1. To Measure Condensate Collected

    a. INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FOR HANDLING and THERE IS NO BOILERPRESSURE

    b. CONDENSER TOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN FULLYc. CONDENSATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECORD VOLUMEd. DISCARD CONDENSATE - DO NOT REUSE

    2. To Measure Boiler Water Consumed

    a. INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FOR HANDLING and THERE IS NO BOILERPRESSURE

    b. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPENc. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL TO SIGHT GLASS UPPER BEZELd. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN TO SIGHT GLASS LOWER BEZELe. BOILER WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RECORD VOLUMEf. STOW MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT

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    28 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 29

    4.1.6 STORAGE

    1. COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF, DISCONNECT, STOW USB CABLE2. LOAD RHEOSTAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MINIMUM LOAD, FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE POSITION3. LOAD SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF4. BURNER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF5. KEYED MASTER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF6. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF7. FUEL SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF8. FUEL SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISCONNECT, SUPPLY LINES STOWED9. RANKINECYCLER ELECTRICAL SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT, CORD STOWED10. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN11. INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FOR HANDLING and THERE IS NO BOILER PRESSURE12. BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN13. FRONT and REAR BOILER DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED and LATCHED14. CONDENSER TOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRAIN15. FINAL CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETE16. RANKINECYCLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SECURED

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    30 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 31

    4.2 Expanded Normal Procedures

    Expanded Normal Procedures consist of a series of descriptive steps detailing each summary operatingchecklist item necessary for the safe and efficient operation of the RankineCycler.

    These steps are presented in order of usage. Each item should be completed before proceedingto the next item. Each section must be completed before proceeding to the next section. It isrecommended that one operator read the steps aloud while another performs the task.

    Six separate sections are provided as follows:

    1. Section 4.2.1 PRE-START - Prepares the RankineCycler for operation.

    2. Section 4.2.2 START and OPERATION - Starts the RankineCycler and establishes a steadystate system.

    3. Section 4.2.3 DATA COLLECTION - Uses the data acquisition system to display and recordsystem operational parameters.

    4. Section 4.2.4 SHUTDOWN - Stops operation of the RankineCycler.

    5. Section 4.2.5MEASUREMENTS - Steps necessary to measure the quantity of boiler water usedand condensate collected.

    6. Section 4.2.6 STORAGE - Prepares the RankineCycler for extended storage.

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    32 SECTION 4

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 33

    4.2.1 PRE-START

    The PRE-START checklist must be completed prior to operating the RankineCycler. The checklistestablishes that all systems are ready for operation and that heat can be safely applied to the boiler.

    1. The AREA CHECK is a general assessment to VERIFY SUITABILITY FOR OPERATION. Thisincludes a suitability determination of safety and facilities factors, additional equipment require-ments and the presence of trained, knowledgeable operators. All operators and personnel in theimmediate area should know the location of fire extinguisher equipment, circuit breakers and fuelsupply valves, as well as being familiar with existing safety policies and procedures, emergencyescape routes, and emergency services telephone numbers/points of contact. The facility mustprovide adequate ventilation sufficient to vent the anticipated amounts of steam and combustiongas production. In addition to safety glasses, all operators should have access to face shields,gloves, lab coats or other items of personal protection as deemed necessary. All operators mustbe thoroughly familiar with the contents of this manual prior to operating the RankineCycler.It is strongly encouraged that two or more individuals operate the RankineCycler as a team toenhance safety and insure that all checklist items are completed.

    2. CASTER WHEELS must be in the LOCKED position prior to operation, preventing movementthat may either pose a safety hazard or disrupt critical operations such as boiler filling.

    3. KEYEDMASTER SWITCH to theOFF position puts the system into a known, safe condition fromwhich it can be properly started. The MASTER SWITCH controls electrical power distributionto the entire system. With the MASTER SWITCH OFF, no electricity can flow to the burner,thereby preventing any chance for ignition prior to the system being ready.

    4. BURNER SWITCH to the OFF position puts the system into a known, safe condition from whichit can be properly started.

    5. LOAD SWITCH to the OFF position puts the system into a known, safe condition from whichit can be properly started.

    6. LOAD RHEOSTAT to the MINIMUM LOAD, FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE POSITIONputs the system into a known, safe condition from which it can be properly started.

    7. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE to theOFF position puts the system into a known, safe conditionfrom which it can be properly started.

    8. At this point, a thorough VISUAL INSPECTION of each major component or system is performed.This will verify that the component or system is in a safe condition for proper operation. Thisimportant step verifies that no components were damaged, tampered with or removed sincethe last run. If any component is in doubt, qualified personnel should be consulted prior tooperation.

    a. The FUEL TANK/SOURCEmust be CHECKED for general condition. Liquid Propane (LP)bottles and corresponding regulators should be free from rust or corrosion, not damagedin any way and intact with all standard safety features in place. Fuel lines should be freefrom cuts and abrasion. All fittings and open lines must be clean and free from dirt andmoisture. Any liquid propane fuel source may be used providing it can accept the TurbineTechnologies, LTD provided fuel source gas regulator and hose assembly.

    b. The BURNER must be CHECKED for general condition. All external surfaces should befree from damage such as dents or cracks. All external fasteners should be in place. Thealuminum fins inside the blower fan should be straight and free from contamination. Thevortex disk, visible through the open boiler doors should appear clean and straight.

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    34 SECTION 4

    c. The BOILER must be CHECKED for general condition. The boiler mantle should be cleanwith no obvious signs of leakage. The front and rear boiler doors must fit tight when closed,with no binding, and latch securely.

    d. The BOILER PRESSURE GAUGE must be CHECKED for general condition. There shouldbe no obvious signs of leakage around the base fittings or the pressure gauge head. Thepressure gauge steam line must be free from kinks or non-original bends. The gauge itselfmust be undamaged with no cracks permitted in the clear faceplate.

    e. The SIGHT GLASS must be CHECKED for general condition. All fittings should be tightwith no obvious signs of leakage. All external fasteners should be in place. The SIGHTGLASS should be intact with no cracks.

    f. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE must be CHECKED for general condition. There shouldbe no obvious signs of leakage around the valve. The valve should move from fully closedto fully open with no binding.

    g. The STEAM LINES must be CHECKED for general condition. There should be no obvioussigns of leakage around any STEAM LINE fittings. The lines must be free from kinks ornon-original bends. The orange insulating tape should be secure at all locations.

    h. The OPERATOR PANEL must be CHECKED for general condition. All switches, controlsand meters should be secure in the console. The clear meter face plates must be in placeand not cracked or otherwise damaged.

    i. The CONDENSER TOWER must be CHECKED for general condition. The CONDENSERTOWER should be free from dents or other damage. The outlet must be free from obstruc-tion.

    9. The CONDENSER TOWER should be DRAINED. This provides a known starting condition forthe next experimental run. CONDENSER TOWER condensate will usually contain some amountof minerals depending upon water quality. Drain the CONDENSER TOWER using the attachedclear tubing and pinch-clamp. Discard any condensate collected from the CONDENSER TOWER.

    10. The FRONT and REAR BOILER DOORS must be CLOSED and LATCHED.

    11. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE must be OPEN to allow air to vent out of the boiler duringthe fill operation. Water will not enter the boiler with the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE closed.

    12. The BOILER should be DRAINED completely. This provides a known starting condition forthe next experimental run. The BOILER can be quickly drained using the fill/drain valve andbeaker assembly. Place the beaker on a firm support lower than the boiler fill/drain valve atthe rear of the boiler. Insert the aluminum coupler at the end of the beaker hose assembly intothe fill/drain valve coupling hole. Firmly pressing the coupler into the fill/drain valve will openthe internal valve and allow water to flow out of the boiler. Open the beaker ball valve to allowwater to drain into the beaker. When it appears that no more water is draining from the boiler,close the beaker ball valve and remove the aluminum coupler from the fill/drain valve. Thewater collected from this draining operation may be discarded.

    13. Fill the BOILER with 203 oz (6,000 ml) of clean, distilled water (tap water is acceptable, although,depending on dissolved mineral content, boiler fouling may eventually result). This amount willfill the boiler to the recommended level allowing for the most efficient operation. Any quantityover this recommended amount will likely degrade boiler performance and may prevent theboiler from producing any pressure. With the beaker ball valve closed, fill the beaker to thedesired boiler level. Place the beaker on a firm support higher than the boiler fill/drain valveat the rear of the boiler. If this is the first run of the day or adequate time has passed that thecondenser tower is sufficiently cool, the base of the beaker may be placed into the top opening ofthe condenser tower for convenience. Insert the aluminum coupler at the end of the beaker hose

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 35

    assembly into the fill/drain valve coupling hole. Firmly pressing the coupler into the fill/drainvalve will open the internal valve and allow water to flow into the boiler. Open the beakerball valve to allow water to fill the boiler. When all the water has emptied from the beaker,close the beaker ball valve and remove the aluminum coupler from the fill/drain valve. Allowapproximately five minutes to completely fill the boiler using the beaker.

    14. The FILL EQUIPMENT should be STOWED, keeping it out of the way during operation and ina safe location. If the beaker assembly was placed into the top opening of the condenser towerwhile filling the boiler, remove it before proceeding to the next step.

    15. The STEAM ADMISSION VALUE to the CLOSED position puts the system into a known, safecondition from which it can be properly started. Starting with a closed valve allows boilerpressure to properly build.

    16. The COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM USB cable should now be CONNECTED to the DigiDAQsystem receptacle on the left side panel of the RankineCycler. A computer with the appropriatedata acquisition software should be connected to the opposite end of the cable. Make sure thecomputer is OFF prior to connecting the cable or the DAQ Module hardware/software may notproperly initialize.

    17. The RANKINECYCLER ELECTRICAL SERVICE should be CONNECTED to the electrical outlet.

    18. The FUEL SOURCE line should be CONNECTED to the barbed gas inlet underneath the Rank-ineCycler cabinet. Verify that the Turbine Technologies, LTD gas source regulator and hoseassembly are used for this purpose. Use of any other regulator or hose combination may resultin poor RankineCycler performance. If any other regulator or hose combination is to be used,please consult the factory for assistance.

    19. Insure that a FINAL CHECK of all items is COMPLETE. Verify that each checklist item hasbeen covered.

    4.2.2 START and OPERATION

    The START and OPERATION checklists details the steps necessary to take the RankineCycler fromthe shutdown, cold condition through preheating and run-time data collection at steady state. Thevarious values are recommendations and should provide satisfactory results under most conditions.As skill is gained and operational technique refined, the ability to establish a steady state conditionwill come more readily.

    1. The COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM (data acquisition computer) should be turned ON. This allowsthe computer adequate time to initialize prior to data collection. Make sure the computer isconnected via USB cable to the DigiDAQ system receptacle on the left side panel of the Rank-ineCycler prior to turning the computer ON or the DAQ Module hardware/software may notproperly initialize.

    2. The FUEL SOURCE regulator can be turned ON.

    3. A FUEL LEAK CHECK must be COMPLETED prior to proceeding further. A hissing gassound and/or gaseous odor (characterized as rotten eggs) will indicate that there is a problemwith the fuel supply connection to the RankineCycler. IMMEDIATELY shut the FUEL SOURCEOFF. DO NOT proceed further until the source of the gas leak can be determined and rectified.

    4. Turn the RankineCycle OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE to ON. This permits the flow of fuelto the fuel control system.

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    36 SECTION 4

    5. Select the MASTER SWITCH to the ON position. Verify illumination of the GREEN panel light.Electrical power is now available to the system and the controls.

    6. Select the BURNER SWITCH to the ON position. Verify illumination of the RED panel light.Electrical power is now available to the combustion blower.

    7. Observe the COMBUSTION BLOWER and VERIFY ON. The COMBUSTION BLOWER motorwill begin to rotate, drawing air into the burner and forcing it through the boiler.

    8. PURGE FUEL LINES IF NECESSARY. This is accomplished by allowing the COMBUSTIONBLOWER to operate for approximately 45 seconds, selecting the BURNER SWITCH to OFFthen immediately selecting the BURNER SWITCH back to ON. This assures that the fuel linesare purged by reseting the starting cycle of the fuel control system. After approximately 45seconds, the automatic gas valve will open and the BURNER will light.

    9. VERIFY that the BURNER has LIT within 45 SECONDS of selecting the BURNER switch to theON position. It should be noted that the burner may occasionally burp - producing an audiblepopping noise with a small blue flame present at the blower inlet. This behavior is normal andshould NOT be considered a fire requiring the execution of the fire abnormal procedures.

    10. Monitor BOILER PRESSURE. VERIFY POSITIVE PRESSURE within 3 MINUTES fromBURNER start. If there is no positive indication of boiler pressure within three minutes ofstarting the BURNER, select the BURNER switch to OFF and investigate. Verify that theproper amount of water is in the boiler and the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE is fully CLOSED.When ready to proceed, start with Step 9 above.

    11. The system should now be PREHEATED. This allows the steam lines, valves and turbine to comeup to the proper operating temperature. The turbine bearings are also lubricated at this time.During the preheating period, small vapor leaks and condensation droplets may be seen aroundthe turbine and related fittings. This is normal and should subside once the turbine bearingclearances close due to thermal expansion. The preheating process outlined below should takeapproximately 7 to 10 minutes to complete. This preheating process is essential to supplyingthe highest quality steam available to the turbine. If preheating is omitted, condensation willform in the steam lines degrading system performance overall.

    a. Allow the indicated BOILER PRESSURE to rise to approximately 110 psi (758 kPa).

    b. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned counter-clockwise to OPEN. This willallow steam to flow throughout the system. The turbine/generator may or may not rotateat this point.

    c. Monitor BOILER PRESSURE until it falls to approximately 40 psi (276 kPa).

    d. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned clockwise to CLOSE. This will stop theflow of steam throughout the system and allow the boiler pressure to build again.

    e. Allow the indicated BOILER PRESSURE to rise to approximately 110 psi (758 kPa).

    f. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned counter-clockwise to OPEN. This willallow steam to flow throughout the system. The turbine/generator may or may not rotateat this point.

    g. Monitor BOILER PRESSURE until it falls to approximately 40 psi (276 kPa).

    h. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned clockwise to CLOSE. This will stop theflow of steam throughout the system and allow the boiler pressure to build again.

    i. Allow the indicated BOILER PRESSURE to rise to approximately 110 psi (758 kPa).

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 37

    12. While maintaining approximately 110 psi (758 kPa) of BOILER PRESSURE, the STEAM ADMIS-SION VALVE should be OPENED slowly. The rate at which the STEAM ADMISSION VALVEis OPENED should be just enough to maintain 110 psi (758 kPa) of BOILER PRESSURE andto counter any tendency for the BOILER PRESSURE to increase beyond this value. Once theturbine begins to rotate, the generator will produce electricity. Generator output will be directlyindicated on the VOLT METER.

    13. Continue opening the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE until the VOLT METER shows an approximateFULL SCALE DEFLECTION or an indicated 15.0 Volts.

    14. The LOAD SWITCH should be selected to ON.

    15. The LOAD RHEOSTAT should be ADJUSTED to MAINTAIN:

    16. A BOILER PRESSURE of approximately 110 psi (758 kPa). This is nothing more than astarting point and the operator should not spend a great deal of time trying to achieve thesevalues exactly.

    17. In preparation of an experimental data run, the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE and the LOADRHEOSTAT may now be adjusted to achieve a STEADY STATE CONDITION. Satisfactory run-time results can be achieved with the following STEADY STATE values:

    a. An AMP METER indication of approximately 0.2 Amps.

    b. A VOLT METER indication of approximately 6.0 Volts.

    c. A BOILER PRESSURE indication of approximately 110 psi (758 kPa).

    d. These values need not be matched exactly. When a reasonable STEADY STATE isACHIEVED, RESUME CHECKLIST.

    18. To begin an experimental run, the TIME should be NOTED. This allows a steam rate calculationto be made at the conclusion of the experimental run.

    19. SET the SIGHT GLASS UPPER BEZEL to the current, indicated WATER LEVEL. This allowsmeasurement of the boiler water consumed during the experimental run.

    20. Use the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE to make PERIODIC ADJUSTMENT maintaining theSTEADY STATE established in Step 17.

    21. Allow time to CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT AS REQUIRED. Once the STEADY STATE hasbeen achieved, this is usually nothing more than collecting an appropriate amount of datawith the DAQ system for later analysis. While CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT, MONITORWATER LEVEL in the BOILER using the SIGHT GLASS. The WATER LEVEL must NOT fallto LESS THAN 1.0 in (2.5 cm) FROM BOTTOM OF SIGHT GLASS. Serious BOILER orBURNER damage may result if the BOILER is allowed to run out of water. At the conclusion ofthe experiment, or should the WATER LEVEL fall below the lower limit, proceed immediatelyto the SHUTDOWN checklist, Section 4.1.4.

    4.2.3 DATA COLLECTION

    NOTE: The following steps assume the use of the standard PersonalDaqView and default settingsas supplied with the RankineCycler. Use of non-default settings or other software may necessitatealternative methods or procedures for data collection. Consult the PersonalDaqView or softwarespecific manuals as required.

    Momentarily moving the mouse pointer over a button will reveal the name of that button.

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    38 SECTION 4

    1. From Windows, Open the PersonalDaqView software by double-clicking on the pDaqView short-cut icon in the RankineCycler folder located on the Windows Desktop. PersonalDaqView willstart with the Main Control Window and Channel Configuration Window displayed.

    NOTE: The computer must be connected to the RankineCycler USB port prior to openingthe PersonalDaqView software. The RankineCycler configuration software is dependent uponthe specific DAQ Module serial number as installed in the RankineCycler and will not functionproperly if the DAQ Module cannot be found. Exit the program, attach the USB cable and startover with Step 1 above. To verify that the software is communicating with the DAQ Module,select View from the Main Control Window and select Active Devices... on the drop downmenu. Verify that a check appears in the check box next to the appropriate device name.Generally, two device names will be present. A name specific to the DAQ Module installed(with a corresponding serial number) and a generic name such as PD1 representing a SimulatedDAQ Module.

    2. To record data to disk, select the Arm Trigger for Disk Recording button. This but-ton appears as a play button with a red record indicator on it. Data acquisition be-gins and data is stored to a disk file as indicated in the Data Destination Window.The default destination, including the default file name of PDAQ.BIN is C:\ProgramFiles\pDaqView\Applications\DATA\PDAQ.BIN. A different location and/or file name may beselected in the Data Destination Window. Step 2 may be skipped if recorded data is notnecessary.

    3. Start sampling real time data by pushing the play button - Enable Readings Column, withinthe Channel Configuration Window. Measured values are then displayed in the Reading column.

    4. With the system sampling and displaying measured data, scrolling charts, bar graph, analog ordigital meters may be displayed for any of the various channels as deemed appropriate for thetype of data being collected. Select the appropriate button on the Main Control Window forthe type of chart, graph or meter desired.

    5. To change any setting within the Channel Configuration Window, it is first necessary to push thestop button - Disable Readings Column, within the Channel Configuration Window. Make thechanges as necessary, then repeat Step 3. Chart, graph and meter formatting may be changedby left, right or double clicking in the chart, graph or meter area. In some cases, it may benecessary to push the stop button - Disable Readings Column, to make changes to the chart,graph or meter. Repeating Step 3 resumes the display of measured values. It may also benecessary to push the play button on individual charts, graphs or meters if changes were madeto those independently.

    6. At the conclusion of the data run, deselect the Arm Trigger for Disk Recording button. Thespecific file saved during the data run must immediately be copied out of the present directoryand/or renamed. Attempting to take additionally data will overwrite the current file resultingin the loss of that data. Read all dialog boxes that appear on the screen and understand theresult of any action selected.

    Consult the PersonalDaq UsersManual.pdf and the PostAcquisition Analysis.pdf manu-als for more information on the capabilities and usage of the included data acquisition software. Thesemanuals are found in the C:\Program Files\pDaqView\Applications\Users Manuals directory ofthe default DAQ software installation.

    4.2.4 SHUTDOWN

    The SHUTDOWN checklists ceases RankineCycler operation and places the system into a known,safe condition.

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 39

    1. At the conclusion of the experimental run, the TIME should be NOTED for a steam rate calcu-lation.

    2. Turn the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE to the CLOSED position.

    3. SET the SIGHT GLASS LOWER BEZEL to the current, indicated WATER LEVEL. This allowsmeasurement of the boiler water consumed during the experimental run.

    4. Select the BURNER SWITCH to OFF. Verify that the RED light is extinguished indicating thatno electrical power is available at the burner or the blower. The blower should immediately stoprotating.

    5. The OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE should be selected OFF.

    6. The LOAD RHEOSTAT should be turned FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE, resulting in MINI-MAL LOAD.

    7. The LOAD SWITCH should be selected OFF.

    8. The MASTER SWITCH should be selected OFF. Verify that the GREEN light is extinguished.

    9. The STEAM ADMISSION VALVE should be turned to the fully OPEN position. This relieves allremaining boiler pressure.

    10. The FUEL SOURCE valve should now be turned OFF.

    4.2.5 MEASUREMENTS

    1. To Measure Condensate Collected

    a. INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FOR HANDLING and THERE IS NOBOILER PRESSURE.

    b. Locate a suitable measuring vessel for collecting the condensate. As the condensate willcontain suspended turbine oil, it is suggested that a disposable or condensate specific vesselbe used. Remove the pinch-clamp from the clear hose allowing the CONDENSER TOWERcondensate to FULLY DRAIN into the vessel.

    c. With all the CONDENSATE drained from the CONDENSER TOWER, replace the pinch-clamp on the clear hose. RECORD VOLUME of CONDENSATE drained.

    d. Because of the potential for concentrated mineral amounts, appropriately DISCARD CON-DENSATE - DO NOT REUSE in the boiler or for any other purpose.

    2. To Measure Boiler Water Consumed

    a. INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FOR HANDLING and THERE IS NOBOILER PRESSURE.

    b. OPEN the STEAM ADMISSION VALVE to vent the boiler.

    c. Using the fill beaker assembly, FILL the BOILER TO SIGHT GLASS UPPER BEZELlevel. This represents the volume of water in the boiler when the steady state conditionwas achieved and the experimental run time noted. With the beaker ball valve closed, fillthe beaker. Place the beaker on a firm support higher than the boiler fill/drain valve atthe rear of the boiler. If adequate time has passed that the condenser tower is sufficientlycool, the base of the beaker may be placed into the top opening of the condenser tower forconvenience. Insert the aluminum coupler at the end of the beaker hose assembly into thefill/drain valve coupling hole. Firmly pressing the coupler into the fill/drain valve will open

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    40 SECTION 4

    the internal valve and allow water to flow into the boiler. Open the beaker ball valve toallow water to fill the boiler. When the SIGHT GLASS water level reaches that marked bythe SIGHT GLASS UPPER BEZEL, close the beaker ball valve and remove the aluminumcoupler from the fill/drain valve.

    d. Empty the fill beaker assembly of any water remaining from Item (c) above. Using thefill beaker assembly, DRAIN the BOILER TO SIGHT GLASS LOWER BEZEL level. Thetotal volume of water drained into the fill beaker assembly represent the volume of waterconverted into steam and consumed during the experimental run. Place the beaker ona firm support lower than the boiler fill/drain valve at the rear of the boiler. Insert thealuminum coupler at the end of the beaker hose assembly into the fill/drain valve couplinghole. Firmly pressing the coupler into the fill/drain valve will open the internal valve andallow water to flow out of the boiler. Open the beaker ball valve to allow water to draininto the beaker. When the SIGHT GLASS water level reaches that marked by the SIGHTGLASS LOWER BEZEL, close the beaker ball valve and remove the aluminum couplerfrom the fill/drain valve.

    e. The total amount of water now in the beaker represents the total amount of BOILERWATER used during the steady state portion of the run. RECORD VOLUME.

    f. STOW MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT.

    4.2.6 STORAGE

    The STORAGE checklist prepares the system for an extended period of non-use. This can be anywherefrom overnight to several months. In general, the system needs to be cool, clean and fully drainedbefore being placed into storage. If the system is it be used within the same day, the STORAGEchecklist may be omitted. Resume operation with the PRE-START checklists.

    1. The COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM (data acquisition computer) should be turned OFF, the USBCABLE DISCONNECTED from the DigiDAQ system receptacle on the side panel of the Rank-ineCycler and all COMPUTER DAQ SYSTEM components STOWED for safe keeping.

    2. LOAD RHEOSTAT to the FULL COUNTER-CLOCKWISE POSITION for MINIMUM LOAD.

    3. LOAD SWITCH to the OFF position.

    4. BURNER SWITCH to the OFF position.

    5. KEYED MASTER SWITCH to the OFF position. The MASTER SWITCH KEYS should be re-moved and stored in a secure location.

    6. OPERATOR PANEL GAS VALVE to the OFF position.

    7. FUEL SOURCE REGULATOR to the OFF position.

    8. FUEL SOURCE should be DISCONNECTED from the barbed fitting underneath the system.The hose assembly should be STOWED.

    9. ELECTRICAL SERVICE to the system should be DISCONNECTED and the CORD STOWED.

    10. STEAM ADMISSION VALVE to the fully OPEN position. This vents the system and allows theboiler to be completely drained.

    11. For safety and before proceeding further, INSURE EQUIPMENT HAS SUITABLY COOLED FORHANDLING and THERE IS NO BOILER PRESSURE.

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    NORMAL PROCEDURES 41

    12. The BOILER should be DRAINED completely. The BOILER can be quickly drained using thefill/drain valve and beaker assembly. Place the beaker on a firm support lower than the boilerfill/drain valve at the rear of the boiler. Insert the aluminum coupler at the end of the beaker hoseassembly into the fill/drain valve coupling hole. Firmly pressing the coupler into the fill/drainvalve will open the internal valve and allow water to flow out of the boiler. Open the beaker ballvalve to allow water to drain into the beaker. When it appears that no more water is drainingfrom the boiler, close the beaker ball valve and remove the aluminum couple

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RankineCycler Steam Turbine Power System Operator’s Manual Turbine Technologies, LTD REVISION 9.05 THIS MANUAL MUST BE KEPT WITH THE SYSTEM AND AVAILABLE AT ALL TIMES Model RC-101
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