ReferencingHarvard APA (6th ed.)
1ReferencingAcademic writing requires you to understand the ideas and writing of other people. You should always acknowledge the work of othersReferencing your source material also allows your readers to find your sources and read them for themselves It stops you plagiarising!Chichester College uses Harvard APA 6th edition, following the style used at the University of Portsmouth2Explain the term plagiarising Harvard referencingIn the main part of your essay you need to detail clearly the name of the author you are quoting from and the year their work was published (add a page number if appropriate) citation
The reader should then be able to cross-reference this to a more detailed list at the end - reference list3So, how do we actually go about referencing.
When you are writing your report/essay, if you want to quote from someone's work, you should place the surname of the Author and the year that the work was published along with a page number in the main text of your work. This is known as a CITATION.
At the end of your essay, you will have a detailed list of all the sources. This is called the REFERENCE LIST.
It is really important that both the citations and the reference list are consistent, uniform and really easy to understand!
This is the suggested system for use in Chichester College. There are others! Check with your teacher that this is what they require.Direct quotesUse the exact words from the book or web pageKeep them brief, just a few words or a couple of sentencesPut quotation marks around the quoteAdd a citation and reference to show where you found the information
Indirect quotesIt is better to rewrite the information you find in your own wordsYou can summarise or paraphrase the informationYou still need to provide a citation and reference as you didnt create the original information yourselfSummarisingTo summarise you need to give a brief overview of the informationInclude the main idea and key points in your own wordsIt should be much shorter than the original writing
ParaphrasingTo paraphrase you need to completely rewrite the information in your own wordsIt shows what you know and understand about the subjectIt should be about the same length as the original informationHow to avoid plagiarising and last minute panicsGood record keeping and note taking are essential to this process
Do not copy and paste from the internet into your notesRead the article, make your own notes and use these for your assignmentMake sure you collect the information you need to reference the webpageHave a system to keep track of your sources of informationWrite a reference for every source you think you might useYou can collect these by using a spreadsheet, document, sheets of paper or cards Examples of citations from booksDirect quotationPeck and Coyle (2005) state that Writing is not the sameas thinking aloud.(p. 52).
Writing is not the same as thinking aloud. (Peck & Coyle, 2005, p. 52).
Indirect quotation Peck and Coyle (2005, p. 52) emphasize that in written work you have the opportunity to improve your presentation by re-evaluating and rewriting your first thoughts.
In written work you have the opportunity to improve your presentation by re-evaluating and rewriting your first thoughts (Peck & Coyle, 2005, p. 52).
9Note Webpages do not always have all the information available in other sources. Use the following formats.
Direct quotation as a five-year old I did not have any accurate understanding of what it was all about (Joseph, 2003).
Direct quotation with no date
Time management is about making things happen, rather than having them happen to you. You need to get control (Greenhow, n.d.).
Indirect quotation with no author
Alcohol Concern ("Call to stop", 2007) have proposed various policies to reduce children's drinking . . .
Examples of citations from webpagesReferencesThe reference you write in your reference list will give all the details of the source where you read the original quotation
The reference list should be one alphabetical list and include references to all types of resource used
Begin each reference with the surname of the author/editor or the organisation name which you used to begin the citation
Title The students guide to writing: grammar, punctuation and spellingEdition 2nd ed.Author Peck, J., & Coyle, M.Publisher Palgrave MacmillanYear 2005Place Basingstoke
This example shows where to find all the information necessary to compile a book reference12Harvard APA referencesbooksAuthor, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition, if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). Place of publication: Publisher.
Peck, J., & Coyle, M.(2005). The students guide to writing: grammar, punctuation and spelling (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.13Harvard APA references - webpagesThe basic pattern for a webpage isAuthors surname, Initials. (year, when site was produced or document published). Title. Retrieved from Internet addressJoseph, A. (2003). A Portsmouth childs life in WW2. Retrieved from the BBC website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/77/a1121077.shtml
14Webpage informationIf no year is given write n.d.
You can use an organisation as an author if you cannot see the name of a person
If no author is given begin with the title of the document
You must include the words Retrieved from before the web address
If the document is part of a large website e.g. a government department, give the name of the department followed by a colon : before the web address
15Harvard APA referencesArticles printed sourcesMagazine article:Barrett, L. (2001, August 23). Daewoos drive to survive in the UK. Marketing Week, 22-23.
Journal article:McQueen, H. & Webber, J. (2009). What is very important to learning? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 33 (3), 241-253.
If you havent read the original source you dont need to give the details of the original in your reference listYou should reference the source you actually readYou need to cite both sources, the original author and date and the source where you found it
Secondary referencingWhat if I havent read the original source?Secondary referencing examplea warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother
This is a quote from John Bowlby found on page 59 of a psychology textbook by Cardwell, Clark and Meldrum published in 2004
It is cited by the authors of the book as coming from an original source published in 1953
Secondary citation & referenceCitation for both sourcesa warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother (Bowlby 1953, cited by Cardwell, Clark and Meldrum 2004, p. 59)
Reference for the book you actually readCardwell, M., Clark, L., & Meldrum, C. (2004). Psychology (3rd ed.). London: Collins.
19Example Reference ListYour reference list will include all resources in one alphabetical sequence by author
Barrett, L. (2001, August 23). Daewoos drive to survive in the UK. Marketing Week, 22-23.
Cardwell, M., Clark, L. & Meldrum, C. (2004). Psychology (3rd ed.). London: Harper Collins.
Joseph, A. (2003). A Portsmouth childs life in WW2. Retrieved from the BBC website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/77/a1121077.shtml
McQueen, H. & Webber, J. (2009). What is very important to learning?. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 33 (3), 241-253.
Peck, J. & Coyle, M. (2005). The students guide to writing: grammar, punctuation and spelling (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stoddart, J. (Presenter). (2006). Lexis and skills. [DVD].London: International House.20One alphabetical sequence showing books, DVD and website and journal articlesWhere to get help - onlinehttp://referencing.port.ac.uk
23Where to get helpYou can download the referencing handouts from this page in Chichester Online
Ask in the library if you would like further help with referencing