Report Uav

Date post:29-Sep-2015
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Components of Quad rotor1. Frame2. Motor x43. Electronic Speed Control (ESC) x44. Flight Control Board5. Radio transmitter and receiver6. Propeller x4 (2 clockwise and 2 counter-clockwise)7. Battery & Charger8. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)9. Arduino microcontroller

Frame

Every quadcopter or other multirotor aircraft needs a frame to house all the other components. Things to consider here are weight, size, and materials. The recommended DJI Flame Wheel F450 or one of the many clones. These are great quadcopter frames. Theyre strong, light, and have a sensible configuration including a built-in power distribution board (PDB) that allows for a clean and easy build. Quadrotor can be made of many materials but few of the common materials used are as follows:Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is the lightest material available for quadrotor in the market It has les vibrations, high strength and lesser weight as compared to any other alternative available in the market. The only disadvantage of this material is its less availability and high cost. This makes it difficult to use in every situation.

Aluminium Aluminium is a good alternative of carbon fiber in terms of cost, nut the disadvantages like high vibrations, and low strength make it unsuitable to be used in every area especially where cost is no issue.

Wood, such as Plywood or MDF (Medium-density fibreboard)Wood is the cheapest alternative of both the above. It absorbs some of the vibrations and possess little strength too. Thus, wood is commonly used for the quadrotors for the testing/ prototyping phase. The low cost of wood and easy availability makes it suitable for the purpose.

Fiber plasticsFiber plastics is the most commonly used material for the commercial quadrotors. The biggest advantage of fiber plastic is the ability to be mold into any shape and size which makes it suitable for aesthetic looks. Fiber plastics have considerable tendency of absorbing vibrations as well.

Motors

The motors have an obvious purpose: to spin the propellers. There are tons of motors on the market suitable for quadcopters, and usually you dont want to get the absolute cheapest motors available, but you also dont want to break the bank when some reasonably priced motors will suffice. Motors are rated by kilovolts, and the higher the kV rating, the faster the motor spins at a constant voltage. When purchasing motors, most websites will indicate how many amps the ESC you pair it with should be and the size of propeller you should use. Generally a 1000kV motor is a good size to start with.

Electronic Speed Controls

The electronic speed control, or ESC, is what tells the motors how fast to spin at any given time. You need four ESCs for a quadcopter, one connected to each motor. The ESCs are then connected directly to the battery through either a wiring harness or power distribution board. Many ESCs come with a built in battery eliminator circuit (BEC), which allows you to power things like your flight control board and radio receiver without connecting them directly to the battery. Because the motors on a quadcopter must all spin at precise speeds to achieve accurate flight, the ESC is very important. These days if you are building a quadcopter or other multirotor, it is pretty much standard to use ESCs that have the SimonK firmware on them. This firmware changes the refresh rate of the ESC so the motors get many more instructions per second from the ESC, thus have greater control over the quadcopters behavior. Many companies sell ESCs that have the SimonK firmware already installed. The RCTimer 30A SimonK ESC, is a good option for a first quadcopter build and pairs well with the RCTimer motors mentioned previously.

Flight Controller

The flight control board is the brain of the quadcopter. It houses the sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers that determine how fast each of the quadcopters motors spin. Flight control boards range from simple to highly complex. A great flight control board for first time quadcopter builders is theHobbyKing KK2.0.It is affordable, easy to set up, and has strong functionality. It can handle just about any type of multirotor aircraft so if you later want to upgrade to a hexacopter or experiment with a tricopter, you wont need to purchase another board.

Radio Transmitter and Receiver

The radio transmitter and receiver allow you to control the quadcopter. There are many suitable models available, but you will need at least four channels for a basic quadcopter with the KK2.0 control board. We recommend using a radio with 8 channels, so there is more flexibility for later projects that may require more channels. TheTurnigy 9xis a great choice for a first radio. Its inexpensive yet still has some advanced functionality. There is also a large community of 9x users out there, so troubleshooting is easier.

Propellers

A quadcopter has four propellers, two normal propellers that spin counter-clockwise, and two pusher propellers that spin clockwise. The pusher propellers will usually be labeled with an R after the size. For the quadcopter configuration using 94.7 props is agood size for the motors and ESCs .

Battery Quadcopters typically use LiPo batteries which come in a variety of sizes and configurations. We typically use 3S1P batteries, which indicates 3 cells in parallel. Each cell is 3.7 volts, so this battery is rated at 11.1 volts. LiPo batteries also have a C rating and a power rating in mAh (which stands for milliamps per hour). The C rating describes the rate at which power can be drawn from the battery, and the power rating describes how much power the battery can supply. Larger batteries weigh more so there is always a tradeoff between flight duration and total weight. A general rule of thumb is that doubling the battery power will get you 50% more flight time, assuming your quadcopter can lift the additional weight. For a quadcopter, theTurnigy nano-tech 3000mAh 3S LiPo is good.

Battery Charger Charging LiPos is a complex process, because there are usually multiple cells within the battery that must be charged and discharged at the same rate. Therefore you must have a balance charger. There are many chargers on the market that will do the job, but be careful of cheap or off-brand chargers as many of them have faulty components and can cause explosions or fires. In general you should absolutely never leave LiPo batteries charging unattended. Many people charge batteries outside on a cement area or in a fireproof LiPo bag (although the effectiveness of these is up for debate). TheIMAX B6 AC Balance Charger. It is affordable but reliable.

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU):The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is an electronic sensor device that measures the velocity, orientation and gravitational forces of the quadcopter. These measurements allow the controlling electronics to calculate the changes in the motor speeds. The IMU is a combination of the 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope, together they represent a 6DOF IMU. Sometimes there is also an additional 3-axis magnetometer for better Yaw stability (in total 9DOF).

Arduino Microcontroller:The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a resetbutton. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with anAC-to-DCadapter or battery to get started. It will be our Micro Controlling Unit (MCU).

Arduino Mega 2560 board

Recent developmentsAn unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.The typical launch and recovery method of an unmanned aircraft is by the function of an automatic system or an external operator on the ground. Historically, UAVs were simple remotely piloted aircraft, but autonomous control is increasingly being employed. The Nazi-German V-1 flying bomb flew autonomously powered by a pulsejet.Small scale unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become more commonly used for many applications The need for aircraft with greater maneuverability and hovering ability has led to current rise in quad copter research. The four-rotor design allows quad copters to be relatively simple in design yet highly reliable and maneuverable. Cutting-edge research is continuing to increase the viability of quadcopters by making advances in multi-craft communication, environment exploration, and maneuverability.If all of these developing qualities can be combined together, quad copters would be capable of advanced autonomous missions that are currently not possible with any other vehicle. Hence there is a need for combining all research together as one.Various recent developments during the given time span are:

Bell Boeing Quad Tilt Rotor:The Bell Boeing Quad Tilt Rotor (QTR) is a proposed four-rotor derivative of the V-22 Osprey tilt rotor developed jointly by Bell Helicopter and Boeing. The concept is a contender in the U.S. Army's Joint Heavy Lift program. It would have a cargo capacity roughly equivalent to the C-130 Hercules, cruise at 250 knots, and land at unimproved sites vertically like a helicopter.Bell developed its model D-322 as a quad tilt rotor concept in 1979. The Bell Boeing team disclosed in 1999 a Quad Tilt Rotor design the companies had been investigating for the previous two years. The design was for a C-130-size V/STOL transport for the US Army's Future Transport Rotorcraft program and would have 50% commonality with the V-22. This design was to have a maximum takeoff weight of 100,000 lb (45,000 kg) with a payload of up to 25,000 lb (11,000 kg) in a hover.[2][3] The design was downsized to be more V-22-based and to have a payload of 18,000 to 20,000 lb (8,200 to 9,100 kg). This version was referred to as "V-44". Bell received contracts to study related technologies in 2000. Development was not pursued by the US Department of Defense.

Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global HawkThe Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk is an unmanned (UAV) surveillance aircraft. It was initially designed by Ryan Aeronautical (now part of Northrop Grumman), and known as Tier II+ during development. In role and operational design, the Global Hawk is similar to the Lockheed U-2. The RQ-4 provides a broad overview and systematic surveillance using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and long-range electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors with long loiter times over target areas. It can survey as much as 40,000 square miles (100,000 km2) of terrain a day.The Global Hawk is operated by the United States Air Force and U.S. Navy. It is used as a high-altitude platform covering the spectrum of intelligence collection capability to support forces in worldwide military operations. According to the United States Air Force, the superior surveillance capabilities of the aircraft allow more precise weapons targeting and better protection of friendly forces. Cost overruns led to the original plan to acquire 63 aircraft being cut to 45, and to a 2013 proposal to mothball the 21 Block 30 signal-intelligence variants. Each aircraft was to cost US$60.9 million in 2001, but this had risen to $222.7 million per aircraft (including development costs) by 2013. The U.S. Navy has developed the Global Hawk into the MQ-4C Triton maritime surveillance platform.

Qinetiq ZephyrZephyr is a series of lightweight solar-powered UAV originally designed and built by the United Kingdom Company, QinetiQ. And is now part of the Airbus High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) programme. The Zephyr 7 holds the official endurance record for an unmanned aerial vehicle for its flight from 9 July to 23 July 2010, lasting 336 hours and 22 minutes (2 weeks / 14 days). Record claims have been verified by the Fdration Aronautique Internationale (FAI) for both duration and altitude, at 21,562 meters. It more than doubled the previous endurance record for unmanned flight.

UsesBeyond the military applications of UAVs with which "drones" became most associated, numerous civil aviation uses have been developed, including aerial surveying of crops, acrobatic aerial footage in filmmaking, search and rescue operations, inspecting power lines and pipelines, counting wildlife, delivering medical supplies to remote or otherwise inaccessible regions, with some manufacturers rebranding the technology as "unmanned aerial systems" (UASs) in preference over the military-connotative term "drones." Further uses include reconnaissance operations, border patrol missions, forest fire detection, surveillance, coordinating humanitarian aid, search & rescue missions, detection of illegal hunting, land surveying, fire and large-accident investigation, landslide measurement, illegal landfill detection, and crowd monitoring.Commercial aerial surveillanceAerial surveillance of large areas is made possible with low cost UAV systems. Surveillance applications include livestock monitoring, wildfire mapping, pipeline security, home security, road patrol, and anti-piracy. The trend for the use of UAV technology in commercial aerial surveillance is expanding rapidly with increased development of automated object detection approaches.

JournalismMany journalists are interested in using drones for newsgathering. The College of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has established the Drone Journalism Lab. The University of Missouri also has created the Missouri Drone Journalism Program. The Professional Society of Drone Journalists was established in 2011 and describes itself as "the first international organization dedicated to establishing the ethical, educational and technological framework for the emerging field of drone journalism." Drones have been especially useful in covering disasters such as typhoons. A coalition of 11 news organizations is working with the Mid-Atlantic Aviation Partnership at Virginia Tech on how reporters could use unmanned aircraft to gather news.Law enforcementMany police departments in India have procured drones for law and order and aerial surveillance.UAVs have been used for domestic police work in Canada and the United States; a dozen US police forces had applied for UAV permits by March 2013. In 2013 the Seattle Police Departments plan to deploy UAVs was scrapped after protests. UAVs have been used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection since 2005. with plans to use armed drones. The FBI stated in 2013 that they own and use UAVs for the purposes of "surveillance".Search and rescueUAVs were used in search and rescue after hurricanes struck Louisiana and Texas in 2008. Predators, operating between 18,00029,000 feet above sea level, performed search and rescue and damage assessment. Payloads carried were an optical sensor and a synthetic aperture radar. The latter can provide images through clouds, rain or fog, and in daytime or nighttime conditions, all in real-time. Photos taken before and after the storm are compared, and a computer highlights areas of damage.[68][69] Micro UAVs, such as the Aeryon Scout, have been used to perform search and rescue activities on a smaller scale, such as the search for missing persons.Armed attacksMQ-1 Predator UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles have been used by the U.S. as platforms for hitting ground targets. Armed Predators were first used in late 2001 from bases in Pakistan and Uzbekistan, mostly aimed at assassinating high profile individuals (terrorist leaders, etc.) inside Afghanistan. Since then, there have been many reported cases of such attacks taking place in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia. The advantage of using an unmanned vehicle rather than a manned aircraft in such cases is to avoid a diplomatic embarrassment should the aircraft be shot down and the pilots captured, since the bombings take place in countries deemed friendly and without the official permission of those countries.Disaster reliefDrones can help in disaster relief by gathering information from across an affected area to build a picture of the situation and give recommendations to direct resources. T-Hawk and Global Hawk drones were used to gather information about the damaged Fukushima Number 1 nuclear plant and disaster-stricken areas of the Thoku region after the March 2011 tsunami.

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Components of Quad rotor 1.Frame 2.Motor x4 3. Electronic Speed Control (ESC) x4 4. Flight Control Board 5. Radio transmitter and receiver 6. Propeller x4 (2 clockwise and 2 counter-clockwise) 7. Battery & Charger 8. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) 9. Arduino microcontroller Frame
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