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MANUFACTURE OF PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN USING RESOL TYPE Report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the A project requirement for the award of the degree of “Bachelor of Technology” in Chemical Engineering Submitted By Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR ROLL NO. 07039 DEPARRMENT OF CHEMICAL OF ENGINEERING
Page 1: Rev a Nth



Report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the A project requirement for the award of

the degree of “Bachelor of Technology” in Chemical Engineering

Submitted By


ROLL NO. 07039




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1. The report for the allotted project must be handed over to the vice principal ,University

College of Technology,OU,on or before 3 PM ,21April 2011,marketed outside as project

report (report name) and bearing the candidate’s name and hall ticket number.

2. The report may be type written on bond size paper and on sketches and drawings with

dimensions must be Xerox copies of originals.The project is to be submitted in

duplicate.One copy would be returned to the candidate after the examination.

3. The students have to present the statues of their progress in the report preparation to the

supervisor on any day suggested by the supervisor.

4. The project report should be adjusted in the range 40-60 pages.neatness should be taken

into account.

5. Each project report should normally include the following chapters with details indicated

(where ever possible).

6. The material balance and energy balance over each process equipment should be

presented with necessary calculation consolidated in brief followed by tabular

presentations of the balances.

7. Details of calculations (along with formulae,if any) necessary for the design of the

equipment should be shown.All the design specifications of the equipment should be


8. All the reference should be indicated in the text with a super script number where ever

applicable in continues order from the beginnings to the end of the report.

It may be noted that the non adherence to any of the items listed above shell lead to loss

of credit in the award of grade.


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This is to certify that the project entitled “MANUFACTURE OF PHENOL-

FORMALDEHYDE RESINS” that is being submitted by Mr B.LAXMAN NAIK &

Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR in partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of

Technology in Chemical Engineering at the University College of Technology ,Osmania

University , Hyderabad,is a record of bonafide work carried out by him at OUCT under

my guidance and supervision.

The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or

institute for award of any degree.

Asst. Prof.P.RAJAM Dr T.Sankarshna

Project guide , Principal,

Department of chemical engineering, College of Technology,

University College of Technology, Osmania University.

Osmania University.


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I am very much grateful to P.RAJAM,Assistant Professer,Department of Chemical

Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for his

kind help and valuable guidance through out this project work.

I would also like to thank Dr T.Sankarshna,Principal and Head of Department,Chemical

Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad,for his

kind support he has shown in my project work.

I would also like to thank other staff members of University College of

Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for their kind support in materializing this




B.TECH:- 4/4




ROLL NO.:07039

B.TECH:- 4/4


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On July 13, 1907, Leo H. Baekeland applied for his famous “heat and pressure” patent for the

processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins. This technique made possible the worldwide

application of the first wholly synthetic polymer material (only cellulose derivatives were known

before). Even from his first patent application of February 18, 1907, it was clear that Baekeland,

more than these predecessors, was fully aware of the value of phenolic resins.

Before his involvement with phenolic resins Baekeland had worked on

photographic problems with the same intensity. His success in developing a fast-copying

photographic paper, known throughout the world under the name Velox, gave him the financial

independence, which allowed him to build his own research laboratory in his home in Yonkers,

New York. There, starting in 1905, he devoted his whole time to the investigation of phenolic


However, the first patent covering phenolic resins (as substitute for hard

rubber) was granted to A. Smith in 1899. A. Von Bayer found in 1872 while studying phenolic

dyes, that phenol reacting with formaldehyde was converted to a colorless resin. He first noticed

that a reddish-brown resinous mass was produced during the reaction of bitter almond oil with

pyrogallic acid. However, nothing was done with this resinous material. Ter Meer, A. Claus and

E. Trainer continued the experiments. Claus and Trainer obtained a resinous material from 2 mol

of phenol and 1 mol of formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid. After the non-converted phenol was

distilled off, a soluble resin was obtained with a MP of 100°C. However, they also could not

think of application for this material and reported disappointedly: “It is not possible to crystallize

this resinous material.”

Phenols and formaldehyde are converted to resinous products in the presence of acidic and

alkaline catalysts. These may be permanently fusible and soluble in organic solvents or heat-

curable depending upon the preparation conditions.

Phenolic resins were already being sold as substitutes for shellac, ebonite, horn and celluloid.

These are colorable, can be mixed with fillers and under the influence of heat shaped in molds

into solid parts.

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Appearance and odour: Odourless,brown in color.

Warning properties: Insufficient information available for evaluation, however, since

the material is odourless and Irritant properties are unreliable, assume warning properties

are poor.

Uses and occurrences: PF-resins are usually compression or transfer moulded.They are

used for preparing laminates of papers ,fabrics, etc.The dark colour,however,becomes a

disadvantage for the resin and hence , for applications such as decorative laminates,the

PF resins are used for forming the lower layers.They are used as cast resins , imitation

jewelleries, handles, knobs, electric switches, etc.They are used as adhesive for bonding

plywood and as binding agent for making grinding wheel out of caborandom

particles.presently,phenonlic structural forms are being manufactured which are heat

resistance with high impact strenghthly , atc.The cellular forms may have densities

arranging from 1-20 lb/ft3 . Phenol is used as a basic feedstock for producing numerous

derivatives. The major derivatives and uses are described briefly below. Phenolic resins

are the condensation product of phenol or substituted phenols with an aldehyde, such as

formaldehyde. The largest use for phenolic resins is in adhesives (for plywood), followed

by binders for insulation (fiberglass, mineral wool, etc.), impregnating and laminating

agents (for plastic and wood laminates), and molding compounds and foundry resins.

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High-Strength Glass Fiber Reinforced

Relative Density 1.69-2.0 (Kg/m3)

Melting Temperature ( 149-193 0 k)

Thermo set Processing Range (◦F) C:300-380 I:330-390

Molding pressure I-20

Shrinkage 0.001-0.004

Tensile Strength 7000-18000

Compressive Strength 16,000-70,000

Flexural Strength 12,000-60,000

Izod Impact (ft-lb/in) 0.5-18.0

Linear expansion 8-21

Hardness Rockwell E54-101

Flammability V-0

Boiling Point, °C(102 to 107)

Coefficient of Thermal Expansionper .0008

Flash Point °F 112 to 160

Specific gravity 1.69 to 2

Water absorption(%weight increases) 0.12-1.5

0.3 to 1.2(saturated after 24hr)

Specific Heat of Liq cal/gm/°C at 25-40°C 0.55 to 0.5

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When phenol reacts with formaldehyde in the presence of alkaline catalyst , methyols

form, is shown in the following reaction



Subsequently , methylol-methylol condensation may take place to give resol with an

ether linkage (c-0-c)








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For the manufacture of one-stage resins, all the necessary ingredients such as , phenol,

formaldehyde and catalyst are charged into the reaction kettle and a basic condition is

maintained by adding a weak alkali such as CA(OH)2.2H2O or NH4OH.The maolar ratio

of phenol to aldehyde is taken as 1:1.25.The temperature for the reaction is about 1600c.

The reaction that follows is quite fast,the time taken being usually less than one hour.The

reaction products are mostly the di- and tri-methylol phenols having high solubility in

water. To stop the reaction , the mixture is neutralized. The water is then removed by

vaccum distillation and the resin is thickend . Alternatively,the mixture can be dehydrated

by heating under vaccum.But heating should not be carried out for long has this may lead

to premature cross.linking ,accompained by exothermiuc heat evalution.the water-soluble

resin may ,how ever, be taken directly for adhesive or surface coating applications. If a

moulding compound is desired , the reaction mass is dehydrate under vaccum and quickly

discharged from the reaction kettle on to a water-cooled pan where it quickly cools to a

brittle solid.It is then broken up manually , ground and compounded.

Reactants: Phenol to aldehyde 1:1.25 ratio taking in the reaction and 1.5 part of Alkali

metal is adding.

Reaction conditions:

Temperature: 433 K

Pressure : 2 atm

Conversion : 80%

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Material balance equations involve the law of consevation of mass action.According

to this law , all the mass is conserved.The mass input is equal to the sum of the

mass output from the reactor,amount of material accumulated and the amount of

material generated are consumed.

(NOTE: All the amounts are given in KG)

Basis : 1,000 KG of PF-resin was produced per day.

Material balances can be done for each aquipment/unit individually.

The basic stoichiometric equation be



The molecular weights of each compound are:




(g mol)

Phenol(C6H5OH) 94

Formaldehyde(CH2O) 30





NH4OH 35

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ASSUMPTION:Let the conversion in the reactor be 80%

Compound Entering leaving

C6H5OH 221.5 -

CH2O 272.6250 -

C6H5OHCH2OH - 494.1250

NH4OH 11.75 11.75

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TOTAL 505.8750 505.8750


Material balances can be done for each aquipment/unit individually.

The basic stoichiometric equation be




The complete water is removed and the resin is thickened.

Vacuum distilation

Compound Molecular






Methylol phenol 125




Page 17: Rev a Nth

Amount of feed entering into vacuum distillation =1,011.75 KG

Amount of water removed from distilation = 11.75 KG

Amount of alkali present in distillation =11.75 KG

Total amount leaving = 1,011.75 KG.


Energy balance is made based on the first law of thermodynamics.According to first law of

Thermodynamics,energy is conserved.It cannot be produced or destroyed.It can be converte from

one form to other.

The values of specific heats and heat of information are given in the following table.

Compound specific heat(KJ/K.mol.0k)

Phenol 221.75

Formaldehyde 70.14

Methylol phenol 138.23

The basis of stoichiometric equation be



Energy balance in the reactor:

heat of reaction at 1600c

Heat input = (m.cp.dt)REACTANTS

=(221.5*2.21*103*(433-298)) + (272.6250*70.14*(433-298))

=92.20 KJ

Page 18: Rev a Nth

Heat output = (m.cp.dt)PRODUCTS

= 125*138.23*(433-298) = 92.20 KG


Compound specific heat(KJ/K.mol.0k)

Methylol phenol 138.23

Resin 74.4774

The basis of stoichiometric equation be



Energy balance in the vacuum distilation:

heat of reaction at 2000c

Heat input = (m.cp.dt)REACTANTS

= (138.23*125*(473-433))+(138.23*125*(473-433))

= 6.9*105 KG

Heat output = (m.cp.dt)PRODUCTS

= 232*74.47*(437-433)

= 6.9*105 KJ

Page 19: Rev a Nth


The basis reaction involved in the production of PF resin is



The rate kinetics for the above reaction is

-rA=k[C6H5OH] [CH2O]

The value of the rate constant is (k) = 5.6 x 10-4(lit/mol)2/sec

Compound Mass Flow(Kg/hr) Density(Kg/m3) Volumetric Flow


C6H5OH 221.5 1350 0.63

CH2O 272.6250 30.943 0.23

TOTAL 0.86

Intial concentration of Phenol (CA0) =221.5/(94x0.86) = 2.74 mol/lit

Intial concentration of Formaldehyde(CB0)=272.5/(30x0.86)=10.56 mol/lit

Therefore, M= CB0/ CA0=3.856

The mean residence time(t) = CA0.XA/(-rA)

= CA0.XA/k. CA03(1-XA)(M-XA)

= 1 hour

mean residence time(t) = volume/volumetric flow rate

Hence volumetric flow rate = 0.86 m3

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Material of construction:

Stainless steel type 4/4 is reccomended for the process reator etc.The rate of corssion for

stainless steel is low and it is economically satble,has it is cheeper than the other materials.It has

good strenghth of ductility , hence it can be easilt used.For other equipment such as storage tank,

decantor etc mild steel is used certain coating according to process temperature of

compositions.Mild steel is also cheep and easy to fabricate

Composition of properties

1)Stainless steel type 4/4

Chromium 12.5%

Nickle 2.5%

Iron 85%

Yield strenght 60000 psi

Tensile strenghth 98000 psi

Density 7800 Kg/m3

Melting point 2650-27500C

2) Mild steel

Manganese 0.45%

Carbon 0.2%

Silicon 0.25%

Iron 99%

Yield strenghth 38000 psi

Page 21: Rev a Nth

Tensile strenghth 65000 psi

Density 7800 Kg/m3

Melting point 27600C

AIM:To deisgn process reactor

TYPE:cylindrical with to hemispherical dished ends with agitation

Materials:stain less steel Chromium 12% Cr

Jacket-Mild steel


Opertaing pressure/design pressure =2 atm

Operating temperature/Design temperature = 1600C

Total volumes of reactants = 0.86 m3

Taking 50% has the safety factor design

Total volume of the reactor=1.5*0.86

= 1.29 m3

Let height of the reactor=1.5*Diameter of reactor

Total volume of the reactor=volume of cylindrical portion+2(volume of hemisphere portion)

V = π/4 * 1.5 D3 + 2 * 4/3* πD3/8*1/2

V = 13/24 πD3

1.29 = 13/24 πD3

D= 0.9117 m

H=1.3675 m

Page 22: Rev a Nth

Volume of bottom of hemisphere = 4/3 πD3/8*1/2

= 0.1985 m3

Volume of reactants in the cylindrical portion=volume of reactants – volume of hemisphere

= 0.86 – 0.1985 = 0.6615 m3

Height of cylindrical portion=volume of cylindrical portion/ π/4*D2 = 0.6998 m

Height of liquid from bottom=h+D/2=1.1557 m

Toal height of reactor = 1.1557+0.9117=2.0674 m

Shell thickness:

Operating pressure = 2 atm

Design presuure 10% excess of internal pressure = 2.25 atm=2.32 Kgf/cm2

t=P D/(2fj-p)+CA

From IS CODE standards for stainless steel 4/4 type 1978-1961 ST.18

f=10.5*102 Kgf/cm2

CA= 2mm

D= 91.17 cm

t = 2.32*91.17/(2*10.5*100-2.32)

= 0.1008mm

Assuming safety factor as 50%

t=0.1008*1.5=0.1512 mm

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Corrosion allowance=2 mm

Reactor shell thickness (t) = 0.1008+2=2.1008 mm

Therefore,the consider the thickness os the shell as 4mm

Dome end Thickness:

t= P D/(4fj-p)+CA+TA

t=2.32*91.17/(4*10.5*100-2.32) = 0.0504 mm

Assume 50%safety factor then thickness=1.5*0.0504=0.0756mm


Dome end thickness=2.0756+2.5=4.5756

Therefore,we consider Dome end thickness as 5mm

Impeller Design


Number of baffles = 4

The number of blocks = 6

Typical properties are as follows

(D/Dt) = 1/12 ; (W/Da) = 1/5

(L/Da) = 1/4 ; (J/Dt) = ½.4

Let (Da/Dt) = 1/2

Da=Dia of Impeller

Dt=Dia of reactor

D=length of Impeller

Page 24: Rev a Nth

J=baffle spacing width

Dt = 0.9117 m

Da/Dt = 1/2

Da=0.4559 m

D = 0.076 m ; W=0.0912 m

L=0.114m ; J=0.3799m

Height of baffle=2*Dt=2*0.9117=1.8234m

Power consumption

μ = 8.98*10-4Kg/m sec

ρ =114.2 Kg/m3

Let n=60 rpm=1rps

NRe=nDa2 ρ / μ


= 264.45*103 (turbulent)

Therefore , Froude number is neglected

NPO=Pgc/N3Da5 ρ

P = 6*13*0455951142.6 = 135.01 W

Page 25: Rev a Nth


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Phenolic resin chars when heated to temperatures greater than 480°F (250°C). This process

continues at very high temperatures greater than 1,000°F (>500°C), until the resin completely

converts to amorphous carbon. This characteristic contributes to the unique ablative properties of

phenolic resins. An ablative surface is a heat shield designed to wear away in a controlled

fashion at very high temperatures. Examples are rocket nozzles, rocket blast shields, and

atmospheric reentry shields.

Several aerospace ablative applications specify PLENCO resins.


The variety of abrasive products available in the market is practically endless, as they have to

meet the specific needs of the individual grinding applications and substrates. Applications range

from simple cut off wheels to precision sanding tasks, and involve materials like metal, wood,

minerals, and composites. Generally, there are three groups of abrasive products: bonded, coated,

and non-woven.

Bonded abrasives

Bonded abrasives like grinding wheels are comprised of abrasive particles embedded in a

bonding matrix. While the grit used may be from a wide variety of minerals and abrasive

particles, phenolic resin is the matrix binder of choice. Achieving the optimal combination of

Page 27: Rev a Nth

resistance to burst or fracture strength, flexibility and porosity, coupled to the manufacturing

method, requires optimization of the binding resin to the specific application of the wheel in

question. Modification of the blend of phenolic novolac powder, hexa, and liquid resol resin is

usually needed to achieve such optimization. For increased strength, fiberglass reinforcement

inlays are used. These inlays are themselves typically saturated with a special liquid phenolic


Plastics Engineering Company tailors powdered and liquid resins for bonded abrasives to the

specific needs of the customers and their unique cold forming or hot molding process.

Accelerated cure resins are available as well as dust reduced powdered novolac-hexa products.

PLENCO resins are available as solvent-based flexible phenolic resins for use in fiberglass

reinforcement inlays as well.

Coated Abrasives

Coated abrasives are flexible grinding materials typically available as sheets, discs or belts.

These applications require abrasive grains fixed to the surface of a variety of backings, like paper

or fabric, by special liquid phenolic resin binders. The manufacture of coated abrasives with their

unique properties requires multiple production steps.

PLENCO resins in solvent or aqueous liquid solutions meet the special requirements of this


Non-Woven Abrasives

Household and industrial applications use non-woven abrasives, also called abrasive pads. The

characteristically green pads used for cleaning the dishes are the most publicly visible non-

woven abrasive.

Manufacturers of non-woven abrasive parts typically employ the use of liquid phenolic binders.

PLENCO phenolic resins provide the excellent wetting properties and the short drying times

needed by abrasive pad manufacturers to meet the technical requirements while achieving a high

line speed for improved productivity.

Page 28: Rev a Nth


Wood bonding applications such as particleboard or wafer-board have traditionally used

phenolic resin binders. Due to their specific “affinity” for wood and wood fibers, special liquid

phenolic resins may be required for the specialty wood adhesives industry typically in

combination with a polyvinylacetate (PVAc) backbone polymer.

PLENCO liquid phenolic resol resins with low free phenol and low free formaldehyde contents

are available especially for use in adhesive applications. Plastics Engineering Company can also

supply low ash content, soluble solid resol resins, and of course a wide range of novolac resin-

hexa systems.


Phenolic resins have an excellent affinity for graphitic and other forms of carbon. Manufacturers

often use the resin simply as a binder and adhesive for their carbon materials. At high

temperature, phenolic resins form a char of amorphous carbon. This means phenolic bonded

carbon materials can be heat treated to yield an all carbon structure. Because of these unique

properties, phenolic resins find application in the manufacture of electrodes, carbon-carbon

composites, carbon seals, and washers.

Phenolic resins are the binder of choice for manufacturing the carbon brushes used in electrical

motors, starters and the like. Depending on the manufacturing process, powdered or liquid

solutions of novolac resin-hexa blends, powdered resol resins, and liquid resol binding systems

provide the desired binding properties.

Several PLENCO phenolic resins meet the requirements demanded by this technically

challenging application.

Page 29: Rev a Nth


Cured phenolic resins demonstrate exceptional chemical resistance. Railroad cars, storage tanks

and heat transfer equipment are coated using phenolic resins as part of baked phenolic coating


PLENCO straight phenolic resin systems approved for coating applications are available and the

researchers at Plastics Engineering Company are ready to tailor a resin system to the

requirements of the customer.


Phenolic resins are the polymer matrix of choice in composite products especially when meeting

high flame, smoke and toxicity (FST) properties. Phenolic resins provide for excellent strength at

elevated temperatures in a variety of environments and are compatible with a multitude of

composite fibers and fillers. Multiple applications benefit by using phenolic resins in the

following composite part manufacturing processes:

Resin Transfer Molding

Pultrusion and Profile Extrusion

Filament Winding

Hand Lay-up

Lightweight and high strength honeycomb structured core materials for aircraft and other

aerospace applications utilize phenolic binding resins, usually in a dipping-saturating process.

The composite manufacturing processes and components vary significantly from product to

product and process to process so that customized PLENCO phenolic resins are the best answer

for our customers to find the optimum process and composite performance.

Page 30: Rev a Nth

Felt Bonding

Fiber felt manufacturers use phenolic resins with reclaimed or virgin fibers to produce thermal

and acoustical insulation for the automotive and household appliance industries. Felt

manufacturers achieve optimum rigidity, sound absorption and acoustical insulation performance

by varying the density of the felt product. The versatility of the phenolic resin to affect the part

density mirrors the versatility of substrate fibers used. Phenolic resins provide exceptional

resistance under all environmental conditions.

Specific applications are:

Functional components used in visible areas (e.g., package deck)

Below surface products used for padding and sound absorption (e.g., hood liner)

Rigid parts used as substrate for decorative material

Felt manufacturers achieve specific performance requirements by judicious use of PLENCO

powder resins. Resin formulation provides for good mold release, improved compatibility with

scrim materials, and accelerated cure speeds for production efficiency.

Environmental considerations continue to grow in importance. PLENCO phenolic resins for felt

bonding applications exhibit low emission and odor levels. Low dust level versions of PLENCO

phenolic resins are available also.


Special phenolic resins in combination with the proper cure catalysts, surfactants and blowing

agents produce foam products. Phenolic foam has a unique set of properties such as excellent fire

and heat resistance and a low smoke and toxicity rating when burned. Proper surfactants produce

closed cell foams with excellent insulating R-values. Other surfactants produce open cell foams

demonstrating unique water absorption properties.

Page 31: Rev a Nth

Typical application fields are:

Floral foam (dry and wet foams)

Orthopedic foam (for making foot print casts)

Insulating Foams

PLENCO phenolic resins are widely accepted by the foam industry for their superior

consistency, crucial for the challenging production process.


Many technologies are available to foundries for the production of dies for metal castings.

Manufacturers using the shell molding process experience excellent dimensional accuracy,

surface smoothness and high production rates using phenolic resin coated foundry sands. The

shell molding process involves first creating mold cavities and cores by shaping sand coated with

phenolic resin over a not metal form. Removed from the form and assembled, the mold and cores

create the “negative” shape of the desired metal form. Hot metal is poured into the resin-sand

mold and allowed to cool. Once hard, the excess resin-sand material is broken away revealing

the metal part. Some recover the broken away sand for reuse. The careful selection of sand type,

resin characteristics and coating method results in the desired mold and core properties such as

strength, rigidity, flexibility, surface finish, part release and applicability to reuse.

Plastics Engineering Company provides phenolic novolac sand coating resins in pastille form,

for consistent melting and coating, efficient transport, and low dust. Resin formulations make use

of proprietary accelerants, plasticizers or release agents to achieve a wide range of properties.

These additives together with a customized phenol level, melt point, and hexa amount achieve

optimal performance for each foundry’s requirements, like a low peel to improve release from

the hot metal former. The PLENCO product range includes resins for core sands, mold sands,

and recyclable sand.

Page 32: Rev a Nth


Phenolic thermoset resin is the choice for composite friction materials: the pads, blocks, linings,

discs and adhesives used in brake & clutch systems that create retarding or holding forces with

application against a moving part. The inherently heat resistant phenolic resin carbonizes and

chars at extreme service temperatures, it does not melt and smear like other polymer matrices.

This property results in restored friction properties when the material cools and “recovers” from

hard braking.

Formulas for phenolic composite friction materials are combinations of friction and wear-

controlling agents, reinforcing fibers and inert fillers blended with un-cured phenolic resin in an

amount necessary to bond the other ingredients in place with sufficient strength and resiliency

when finished. Judicious selection of the types and amounts of raw materials used allows for the

optimization of performance with cost and consistency. Formulas for basic friction applications

may contain 5 to 10 different ingredients while specialized material formulas may include a

score or two of raw materials. Only one type of bonding resin is typically used. The effect of that

one binder on the final composite’s properties depends on the total formulation and

manufacturing method however. That is, no single type of resin product works optimally with all

friction formulas or applications.

The salient step in the manufacture of phenolic composite friction materials is the molding and

initial curing of the composite under heat and pressure. This molding step typically involves

pressing a uniform blend of ingredients in a shaped mold preheated to 280° - 400°F (140° –

200°C) from one to three tons of pressure per square inch. The phenolic resin melts and flows

during the molding operation to coat and then secure the other ingredients when the resin cross-

links or “cures” to an infusible state. The resin’s performance during the hot molding step is

most important to assuring an efficient manufacturing process. Friction material manufacturers

select the type and amount of binder resin product used as a complement to the envisioned

manufacturing process, its compatibility with other raw materials, environmental concerns and

the expected service requirements.

Page 33: Rev a Nth

To this end, Plastics Engineering Company is uniquely suited to assist friction material designers

with a number of liquid and solid novolac (2-stage) and resol (1-stage) phenolic resins

demonstrating a wide variety of flow and cure character combinations. The resins can be custom

formulated with cure accelerating or performance enhancing additives. PLENCO resins are

suitable for all types of brake and clutch uses, including pads for lawn & garden equipment and

automotive brakes, blocks for on and off road trucks, and linings for industrial, oil field and

marine friction applications.

Proppants (Frac Sand)

Oil and natural gas producers improve well yields using hydraulic fracturing fluids containing

round specialty sands coated with phenolic resin. The industry refers to these sands as proppant

or frac sands. The hydraulic fracturing fluid containing the proppant sand is pumped into the well

effectively pressurizing the borehole and fracturing the surrounding rock. The fluid fills the

nascent fissures and the resin-coated sand works as a prop to keep the fissure from sealing on

release of pressure. Round sand is used to provide a porous medium through which the oil and

gas can easily flow.

Proprietary proppant sands made with PLENCO resins continually improve petroleum yields

every day.


High carbon yield, wear resistance, and excellent particle wetting and bonding properties make

phenolic resins ideal for refractory products. There are two general categories of refractory

products: shaped and unshaped. Hydraulically pressed refractory bricks, slide gates, shrouds,

nozzles, and crucibles are examples of shaped products. Examples of unshaped products are tap-

hole compounds, tundish liners and ramming mixes used in steel making. Plastics Engineering

Company provides phenolic refractory resins as liquids in a variety of solvents, including water

based systems. Manufacturers may also choose from a wide range of novolac-hexa powder resin


Page 34: Rev a Nth

Some companies combine phenolic resins with temperature resistant ceramic fibers in a vacuum

forming process to manufacture riser sleeves, ladles, and hot toppings. This application typically

uses novolac-hexa powder resins with low emission levels. Non-hexa cured PLENCO resins are

available for this application to reduce ammonia and formaldehyde emissions.


Tires and technical rubber goods use straight phenolic novolac resins as reinforcing agents.

PLENCO novolac resin pastilles are the preferred choice for a manufacturer who compounds the

resin into the rubber for superior mix consistency and reduced dusting when compared to using

powders or resin in flaked form. Special effort assures consistent pastille size and shape to meet

the requirements of the automated dosing systems used by the industry. PLENCO phenolic

novolac pastille resins are available in a variety of softening point and emission level versions.

Some rubber applications require phenolic novolac-hexa powder resin products in combination

with the rubber compound. Plastics Engineering Company provides novolac-hexa with

customized flow and the hexa curing agent level specific to each application.



Factors affecting the cost of manufacturing:

Direct manufacturing costs: These costs represent operating expenses that vary with production

rate. When product demand drops, productin rate is reduced below the design capacity. At this

lower we would expect a reduction in the factors making up the direct manufacturing costs.

These costs are proportional to the production rate. These costs include cost of raw materials

(CRM), waste treatment (CWT), utilities(CUT), operating labor (COL), direct supervisory and clerical

labor, maintenance & repairs, operating supplies, laboratory charges and patents and royalties.

Fixed manufacturing costs: These costs are independent of changes in production rate. They

include property taxes, insurance and depreciation that are charged at constant rates even when

the plant is not in operation.

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General expenses: These costs represent an overhead burden that is necessary to carry out

business functions. They include management, sales, financing and research functions. General

expenses seldom vary with production level. However items such as research and development

and distribution and selling costs may decrease if extended periods of low production levels


The equation used to evaluate the cost of manufacture using these costs is given by,

Cost of manufacture (COM) = Direct manufacturing costs (DMC) + Fixed manufacturing costs

(FMC) + General expenses (GE). - IV

Multiplying factors used for estimating different manufacturing costs are:

Direct supervisory and clerical labor - 0.18 COL

Maintenance and repairs - 0.06 FCI

Operating supplies - 0.009 FCI

Laboratory charges - 0.15 COL

Patents and royalties - 0.03 COM

Depreciation - 0.1 FCI

Local taxes and insurance - 0.032 FCI

Plant overhead costs - 0.708 COL + 0.036 FCI

Administrative costs - 0.177 COL + 0.009 FCI

Distribution and selling costs - 0.11 COM

Research and development - 0.05 COM

Where COL is cost of operating labor, FCI is fixed capital investment and COM is cost of

manufacturing By adding all these costs, equation - IV becomes

COM = 0.304 FCI + 2.73 COL + 1.23 (CUT + CWT + CRM ) - V

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Estimation of cost of raw materials (CRM):

Cost of the propylene and benzene assumed are Rs 35 /kg and Rs. 20 /kg

As per the material balance calculations, consumption of phenol and formaldehyde are 4965.374

kg/ hr and 8338.294 kg/hr respectively

Assuming that plant operates 340 days a year, yearly raw material cost is calculated as,

CRM = 4965.374*24*340*35 + 8338.294*24*340*20

= Rs. 2787080395

Estimation of cost of operating labor (COL):

Operator requirements for various equipment is taken from table 3.3 of reference 2 of

bibliography Equipment in the plant, operator requirement per equipment is tabulated in the table

(operator requirement for process equipment)



Operator requirement

per equipment per shift

No of

equipments in

the plant


requirement per


Air plant 1 1 1

Boiler 1 2 2


towers1 2 2

DM plant 0.5 1 0.5


generator0.5 2 1

Sub station 0.5 1 0.5

Incinerator 2 1 2




2 1 2

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treatment2 1 2

Furnace 0.5 1 0.5


exchangers0.1 7 0.7

Tower 0.35 2 0.7

Reactor 0.5 1 0.5

Total operator requirement per shift 15.4

Assuming that single operator works on the average 49 weeks a year, five 8 hour shifts a

week, number of operators needed to be employed is 4.5 ( with reference to section 3.2 of

reference 2 of bibliography) .

Total no of operators = 15.4*4.5 = 69.3

Assuming that cost to company of operator, Rs. 250000 per annum

Cost of operating labor, COL = 69.3*250000

= Rs. 17325000

Estimation of total cost of manufacturing (COM):

Assuming that the cost of utilities, CUT is Rs. 200000000 and cost of waste water

treatment, CWT is Rs. 100000000.

Total cost of manufacturing is calculated by the equation - V

COM = 0.304*1174480906 + 2.73*17325000 + 1.23*(200000000 + 100000000 +


= Rs 4693448332


Capacity of plant is 300 metric ton/day

As assumed in the previous section, plant operates 340 days a year.

Yearly production of plant = 300*340

= 102000 t/year

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= 102000000 Kg/year

Assuming that the cost of cumene is Rs 50/kg

Total product cost = Rs. 5100000000


Profit per year = cost of product – cost of manufacturing (COM)

= 5100000000 – 4693448332

= Rs. 406551668

Net profit after tax, assuming tax to be 25%

= 406551668 (1-0.25)

= Rs. 304913751

Rate of return = net profit * 100/ fixed capital investment

= 304913751*100/1174480906

= 25.96 %

Pay back period = 1/rate of return= 1/25.96= 3.85 years.


PLANT LOCATION AND SITE SELECTION The location of the plant can have a crucial effect on the profitability of a project, and the scope

for future expansion. Many factors must be considered when selecting a suitable site. The other

considerations are as follows:

Location, with respect to the marketing area

Raw material Supply

Transport facilities

Availability of labor

Availability of utilities: water, fuel, power

Environmental impact, and effluent disposal

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Local community considerations.


Availability of suitable land

Political and strategic considerations

The major raw materials for cumene plant are propylene and benzene. Cumene plants are almost

always located near acetone and phenol plants, due to the difficulties of storage and

transportation of cumene. One more significant factor in plant location is the availability of

propylene. In view of its risk in handling and transportation of propylene they are located very

close to refineries. This factor minimizes the cost of transportation even. The most optimum

location would be in a petrochemical industrial area where there is requirement for acetone and



The process units and ancillary buildings should be laid out to give the most economical flow of

materials and personnel around the site. Hazardous processes must be located at a safe distance

from other buildings. Consideration must be given to the future expansion of the site. The

ancillary buildings and services required on a site, in addition to the main processing units


Storage for raw materials and products; tank firms and warehouses

Maintenance workshops

Stores, for maintenance and operating supplies

Laboratories for process control

Fire stations and other emergency services

Utilities: steam boilers, compressed air, power generation, refrigeration, transformer stations

Effluent disposal plant

Offices for general administration

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Canteens and other amenity buildings, such as medical centres

Car parks

When roughing out the preliminary site layout, the process units will normally be sited first and

arranged to give a smooth flow of materials through the various processing steps from raw

material to product storage. Process units are normally spaced at least 30m apart. Principal

ancillary buildings then be arranged so as to minimize the time spent by personnel in traveling

between buildings. Administration offices and labs in which a relatively large no of people will

be working, should be located well away from potentially hazardous processes. Control rooms

will normally be located adjacent to the processing units, but with potentially hazardous

processes may have to be sited at a safer distance. The siting of the main process units will

determine the layout of the plant roads, pipe alleys and drains. Utility buildings should be sited to

give the most economical run of pipes to and from the process units. Cooling towers should be

sited so that under the prevailing wind the plume of condensate spray drifts away from the plant

area and adjacent properties. Main storage areas should be placed between the loading and

unloading facilities and the process units they serve. Storage tanks containing hazardous

materials should be sited at least 70m from the site boundary. Typical plot plan is shown in the



A plant layout is that arrangement of major equipments, supporting system and utilities, so that such

operation is performed at the point of greatest convenience. Plant Layout is placing of the right equipment,

coupled with right method, in the right place to permit the processing of a product in most effective manner

through the shortest possible distance in the least shortest possible time.

The importance of a good layout is better pronounced in operating effective, such as economics

in the cost of materials handling, minimization of production delays and avoiding of bottlenecks

etc., one of the preliminary task of a good layout is the selection of a proper site. A schematic

plant layout of the cumene plant is shown in Figure attached at the end of the report. The

parameters considered to arrive at the plant layout are: Economic considerations, Process

Requirements, Operation & Maintenance requirements, Safety, Fire suppression system and


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Economic considerations

Construction and operating costs can be minimized by adopting a layout that gives the shortest

run of connecting pipe between equipment and the least amount of structural steel work.

Although this is will not necessarily be the best arrangement for operation and maintenance, cost

considerations can be compromised up to some extent to give optimum cost plant for safe

arrangement and convenient maintenance.

Operation and Process Requirements

The location of certain equipments is based on the process requirement. For example to elevate

the base of columns to provide the necessary net positive suction head to a pump. Equipment that

needs to have frequent operator attention should be located convenient to the control room.

Valves, sample points and instruments should be located at convenient positions and heights.

Sufficient working space and headroom must be provided to allow easy access to equipment. All

plant areas shall be suitably illuminated as operation is planned as a three shift continuous

operation. Piping routings should be made for easy access and maintenance. The power cable

and instrumentation cables should be connected in separate trays with power cable tray above the

instrumentation cable.


Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can easily be removed. Equipment that

requires dismantling for maintenance, such as compressors and large pumps, should be placed

under cover. Vessels that require frequent replacement of catalyst should be located on the

outside of buildings.


Blast walls are needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and confine the effect of an

explosion. At least two escape routes for operators must be provided from each level in process

buildings, as emergency exits.

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Fire Suppression System

A Fire suppression system should be provided in order to suppress the Fire and keep the plant

equipments and workers in safe. Firewater main ring with hoses for tall buildings are required for

fighting advanced fires. Reliable fire water supply and reliable power supply like class III / class

II are required for critical (emergency) loads. The lay out should be planned keeping in view of

relative fire hazards and their separation from each other.

Plant Expansion

Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any future expansion of

the process. Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs, and service pipes over-sized to

allow for future requirements.


National Fire Protection Association Ratings

Health: 3 Flammability: 2 Reactivity: 0

Acute Effects

The consequences of exposure to phenol can be severe. Phenol is highly toxic and corrosive by

all routes of exposure, and overexposure can cause severe injuries and death. However, it can

be handled safely by knowledgeable, trained personnel using appropriate equipment.


Phenol exposure occurs most often through skin contact. It can cause second or third degree

Page 43: Rev a Nth

chemical burns while being rapidly absorbed through the skin. Overexposure can lead to central

nervous system effects such as excitability, dizziness, loss of balance and coordination,

confusion, unconsciousness, shock, convulsion and death. Respiratory problems as well as

kidney and liver damage, are also signs of overexposure. Overexposure can be fatal if contact is

long enough and occurs over a large enough area of the body. Liquid exposure to 15 to 20% of

the body can lead to death. It is important to know that phenol acts as an anesthetic. This means

that skin contact may be very painful at first, but shortly the skin will become numb and the pain

will subside. Just because the pain goes away, it does not mean the phenol has been completely

removed.Please review the MSDS for additional information.


Inhalation of vapors or mists can be severely irritating to the upper respiratory tract, and can

result in damage to the respiratory tract and the lungs. Signs and symptoms of overexposure can

include coughing, choking, runny nose, pain or burning sensation, difficulty breathing and sore

throat. Similar to the effects resulting from skin contact, overexposure can cause kidney and liver

damage, central nervous system effects, shock, convulsions and possibly even death, if exposure

is long enough and the airborne concentrations are high enough.


Phenol vapors or mists can be severely irritating to the eyes. Direct contact of phenol with the

eyes can cause severe burns and permanent corneal damage which could result in blindness.

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Symptoms of overexposure include, severe pain, redness, swelling and photophobia (intolerance

of light).


Phenol is highly toxic when swallowed. It is absorbed rapidly into the system and can cause the

effects mentioned above, such as kidney and liver damage, shock, convulsions and possibly even

death, if the amount swallowed is large enough. As little as one (1) gram of phenol swallowed by

an adult has resulted in death.

Chronic Effects

Chronic phenol poisoning in industry is rare. Symptoms include vomiting, difficulty swallowing,

loss of appetite, dermatitis, dark urine, discolored skin, general weakness, loss of body weight,

enlarged liver and kidney damage.


Phenol was tested by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in a 2 year cancer bioassay and found

not to be a carcinogen. No organization or regulatory agency classifies phenol as a carcinogen.

Page 45: Rev a Nth


Employees working in an area where contact with phenol is possible must be trained and

knowledgeable in appropriate first aid procedures. Immediate first aid treatment is critical to

minimize effects. Deluge-type safety showers with quick-opening valves should be immediately

accessible in all working areas, and all personnel should be familiar with their location and

operation.Safety showers should be supplied with tempered water. If the safety shower is in a

remote area, it is suggested that the shower be alarmed and tied into a central monitoring facility.

Moderate pressure water hoses and eye wash fountains should also be located strategically

within work areas.

Skin Contact

Immediately flush with large volumes of water while removing contaminated clothing. Continue

to thoroughly wash with water for at least 20 minutes after clothing is removed. If phenol has

contaminated the face or head, the victim should wear goggles in the shower to prevent phenol

from entering the eyes. Phenol acts as an anesthetic. Just because the pain following initial

contact subsides, it does not mean that all of the phenol has been removed. It is important to

continue to flush the exposed area for the full 20 minutes.After the emergency shower, the

affected area(s) of the patient should be swabbed with cotton soaked in polyethylene glycol

(PEG) 400 for a minimum of 10 to 20 minutes. After treatment with PEG, the patient should be

transported to an emergency medical facility for further treatment.Dispose of all contaminated

Page 46: Rev a Nth

clothing, particularly leather items, because it can retain phenol and potentially cause re-

exposure if worn again.

Note: PEG 400 solution should be available in work areas in case of emergencies. This mixture

is available commercially.

Eye Contact

Flush with large amounts of water for at least 20 minutes, separating and lifting the upper and

lower eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.


If phenol vapors are inhaled, remove the person from the area immediately and get to fresh air

If a person has difficulty breathing, or if breathing has stopped, administer artificial respiration

(mouth-to-mouth) or oxygen as appropriate. Obtain assistance and call for medical help.


If phenol is swallowed, immediately call a physician. Wipe excessive material from mouth and

lip area. Transport person to hospital emergency facility immediately. DO NOT induce vomiting.

Give 1-2 glasses of milk or water if person is conscious and alert. Never give anything by mouth

to an unconscious person.


Carbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers should be used for small fires. For larger fires,

universal or PSL foams are most effective. If water is used, run-off should be contained to

prevent the entrance of phenolic water into sewers and waterways. The run-off water should be

Page 47: Rev a Nth

collected for proper disposal. Any escape of phenol or phenolic water must be reported promptly

to local authorities so that drinking water intakes can be closed and intakes to sewage plants can

be blocked or bypassed. Be careful not to splash personnel with water containing phenol because

it can cause chemical burns and toxic effects. Firefighters should wear a self-contained breathing

apparatus (SCBA).


Engineering Controls

Local exhaust ventilation should be used to capture and remove phenol vapors. Good ventilation

should be provided in all working areas.

Personal Protective Equipment

A comprehensive industrial hygiene plan reduces the likelihood of unnecessary exposure to

phenol and other chemicals in the industrial environment. This includes a ready supply of gloves

and other protective wear for employees working with phenol and atmospheric monitoring in

areas where exposure is possible.Personal protective equipment must be used to prevent direct

skin and eye contact and to reduce the potential for inhalation exposure. Employees can be

protected against skin contact by using gloves and other garments made from polyvinyl chloride

(PVC), neoprene or natural rubber. The eyes and face should be protected with splash goggles, a

full face shield or a full face respirator.The need for a respirator and respirator selection depends

upon the airborne concentrations of phenol in the workplace. When concentrations of phenol are

greater than 5 ppm, but less than 50 ppm, a half-mask organic vapor cartridge respirator should

be worn. When dust and/or mists are present, a particulate prefilter must also be used. A full-face

respirator with the same cartridge is suitable for concentrations up to 250 ppm phenol. For

concentrations greater than 250 ppm, an air supplied respirator must be worn. Firefighters should

Page 48: Rev a Nth

wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). When respirators are used at a facility, the

employer is responsible for implementing a respiratory protection program (OSHA 1910.134).

As with any type of personal protective device an employee may use, safe practices and habits

are crucial to successful implementation. Therefore, a thorough education program should be in

place to properly train employees in the safe use of personal protective equipment. A personal

protective device used incorrectly will not afford the protection for which it was

designed.Anumber of factors will determine the proper course of action in the event of a spill or

leak of phenol.The most important factor to consider is whether available personnel have the

ability to properly handlethe spill based on the size and location of the spill. A responsible

individual should determine if materialsand information are available to enable them to safely

and effectively deal with a spill situation. In preparation for accidental spills, it is advisable to

have written procedures and personnel trained to deal with such emergencies. There are a few

important things to remember when dealing with a phenol spill:Because of phenol’s hazard

classification, preventing environmental releases is of the utmost importance. The reportable

quantity for phenol is 1,000 pounds. This means that if 1,000 pounds or more of phenol are

released to the environment in any 24 hour period, it must be reported to the National Response

Center immediately (phone 1-800-424-8802). Additional notification of state and local agencies

may be necessary; see “Regulatory Issues: Emergency Release Notification” section.When faced

with a phenol spill, first ensure the safety of personnel. If it is determined that an environmental

release is taking place, spill control procedures should be implemented.Determine if phenol is

still leaking and if it can safely be prevented from leaking further, i.e., by closing a valve or

shutting off a pump. Since phenol freezes at about 106°F, some leaks may be stopped by freezing

the area of the leak. Once it has been determined that either the leak has been stopped or it is

impossible to do so, action must be taken to prevent the spill from spreading any further. Spills

should be contained with booms or earthen dikes and allowed to solidify.To avoid water

pollution, water should not be used to flush or clean the area. Any release of phenol or phenolic

water to a waterway or to a storm sewer must be reported promptly to local authorities so that

downstream drinking water intakes can be closed. If phenolic water enters a process sewer

notification should be made to the associated wastewater treatment operations so that protective

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measures can be implemented such as bypassing to storage or blocking intakes to the treatment

plant. Phenol is miscible in water to a concentration of 8% by weight, at which point undissolved

phenol will sink.

DOT Regulatory Shipping Information

Phenol is classified by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) as a Class 6.1

(poisonous) material. When shipping via all modes of transportation, shipments must be

documented, packaged, labeled, marked, placarded, loaded and unloaded in accordance

with the applicable DOT Regulations. Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations contains the

regulations for shipping hazardous materials via air, highway, rail, and water, except bulk water

shipments, which are regulated by Titles 33 and 46, Code of Federal Regulations.


Molten phenol discolors quickly when in contact with iron or copper. The higher the

temperature, the more rapid the discoloration. To minimize discoloration store phenol at

temperatures below 60°C (140°F). The choice of construction materials for storing phenol

depends on color requirements in conjunction with the end use. Preservation of color

of high purity phenol is best accomplished in vessels constructed of stainless steel

or lined carbon steel. Glass, nickel, baked phenolic resins and two part inorganic zinc

silicate such as Plasite 1002/1010 are suitable materials for linings. When the color of

phenol is not important, vessels of ordinary carbon steel serve satisfactorily, because

phenol has no appreciable corrosive activity on mild steel at the temperatures usually

encountered in transportation and storage. Hot phenol readily attacks metals such as

copper, aluminum, magnesium, lead, and zinc. Therefore, these metals and their alloys

Page 50: Rev a Nth

are not recommended for use in molten phenol storage tanks where the metal is in direct

contact with the phenol. Constant circulation through external steam-heat exchangers is

the preferred method to maintain phenol in a liquid state while in storage. This minimizes

the chance of moisture contamination due to leaks, facilitates tank cleaning, and avoids

local overheating, which increases color degradation. All lines that are isolated after any

transfer should be blown clear with nitrogen or an acceptable inert gas to prevent damage

due to expansion. All transfer lines should be heat traced and insulated.

Sampling Phenol in Shipping Containers

Proper Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn when sampling phenol.

Samples of phenol may be taken through the manway opening of a shipping container by

means of a bottle placed in a stainless steel holder and suspended by a light stainless steel

chain. Before taking a sample for testing, the bottle should be rinsed with the phenol to be

sampled, and quickly closed to minimize moisture pickup and other contamination. An

ordinary three-gallon pail may be used to collect the sampling bottle, bottle holder and

chain as they are withdrawn, dripping, from the tank.

Transfers from Shipping Containers and Storage Tanks

Phenol can be transferred by pumping, pressure, or gravity. Centrifugal and turbine-type

pumps are used in transfer operations. Pipelines carrying phenol should be heat traced

and insulated to keep the chemical in a liquid state to avoid plugging lines. Steam tracing

is the most common means of heating; insulation is also recommended. Phenol should not

remain stagnant in steam traced lines to avoid color formation.

Page 51: Rev a Nth


Reference’s Books

Out lines of polymer science and technology

Advances in polymer science and technology

Robert H.perry and Don W, “Perry’s chemical engineers’ HAND BOOK”,

Mc.Graw hill publications.


1. www.google.com

2. www.wikipedia.com

3. www.Ethesis list.com

4. www.Patent online.com

5. www.sunocochem.com