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    Assessment of the Plant Diversity and Carbon Storage of Mangrove

    Species in Lian, Batangas

    A Research Presented to the

    Biological Sciences Department

    College of Science and Computer Studies

    De La Salle University - Dasmarias

    City of Dasmarias, Cavite

    In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree

    of Bachelor of Science in Biology with Concentration in Environmental

    Science

    Arciaga, Jerry Paul P.

    Palaya, Gerard John

    March 2014

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    APPROVAL SHEET

    (This page will be provided for by the Research Teacher)

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The researchers wish to express their utmost gratitude and

    appreciation to the following:

    ... this should be no more than 2 pages

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Title Page 1

    Abstract 2

    Approval Sheet 3

    Acknowledgments 4

    Table of Contents 5

    List of Tables 0

    List of Figures 0

    List of Plates 0CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study 00

    1.2 Theoretical Framework 00

    1.3 Statement of the Problem 00

    1.4 Scope and Limitations 00

    1.5 Significance of the Study 00

    1.6 Definition of Terms 00

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Conceptual Literature 00

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    2.2 Related Studies 00

    CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Research Design 00

    3.2 Research Setting (or Instrument) 00

    3.3 Research Procedure 00

    3.4 Data Gathering and Statistical Analysis 00

    Cited References 00

    Appendices

    A. Map of Study Site (if needed) 00

    B. Standard Procedure 00

    C. Raw Data and Statistical Analysis 00

    D. Photo Documention 00

    E. Certifications 00F. Curriculum Vitae 00

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    LIST OF TABLE

    1. Title of the first table 00

    2. Title of the second table 00

    3. Title of the third table 00

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    1. Title of the first figure 00

    2. Title of the second figure 00

    3. Title of the third figure 00

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    LIST OF PLATES

    1. Title of the first plate 00

    2. Title of the second plate 00

    3. Title of the third plate 00

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    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    Mangroves are unique kind of trees that can withstand the high salinity

    of ocean because of their ability to excrete salts through their leaves.

    Mangroves grow in areas with shallow water and where the action of waves

    is not extreme. Mangroves germinate their seeds on the tree itself. At the

    moment that their seeds fall to the water, they will float and then eventually

    when these seeds are trapped in the mud, they start to develop root system.

    The trees also have highly developed roots that extends above the water that

    can accumulate ocygen in the atmosphere and then absorb it

    (pneumatophores). Mangroves also serves as a habitat for mollusks,

    sponges and other ichtyofauna species.

    Mangrove forest is also known as the rainforest of the sea. Among the

    worlds 70 known species of mangrove s, 46 of these can be found growing in

    our country. Highly diversed mangrove areas can be found in; Bohol (26

    spp.), Pagbilao Bay in Quezon province (24 spp.), Aurora province (23 spp.),

    Ibajay in Aklan province (22 spp.), Puerto Galera in Mindoro Island (18 spp.),

    Cebu (18 spp.) (Primavera, 2000).

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    Mangroves also serve as carbon sink/storage by decreasing organic

    pollution at the shore lines. High carbon content of 10 percent or more can

    be found in soil layers and peat that compose the mangrove substrate. A

    hectare of mangrove area might also house almost 700 metric tons of

    Carbon per meter depth. But these carbons stucked in mangroves substrates

    can be release back to the atmosphere when the area is disturbed by the

    means of mangrove destruction or conversion of the area for other purposes.

    Now, the mangrove ecosystems are greatly reduced due to the conversion

    the area. The global warming caused by too much greenhouse gases in the

    atmosphere is also continuing that is why this study is important to know the

    actual number of mangrove in a selected area in Lian, Batangas and by

    knowing so, we can estimate how much carbon can be stored by the quantity

    of mangroves assessed. Previous studies focuses on the mangrove speciesdiversity and some environmental factors affecting them in Kawit, Cavite (

    BIO 1220 and BIO 1222-call numbers) and there are also some previous

    studies that assessed the carbon storage of a mangrove area in Verde

    Passage (Gevaa and Pampolina, 2009) and none of the both studies have

    been conducted in Lian, Batangas at the same time.

    Write here some definitions of important concepts about your topic.

    Also, write here the present scenario to justify that your topic is something

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    new and theres really a need to conduct such study. This may be sup plied

    with some important data (dont forget to cite your source, 2003).

    Write here some information to prove that there are some research

    gaps to justify that your topic is something new and theres really a need to

    conduct such study. You may include some data that will justify your study.

    Just make sure that sources of your supporting data must properly cited

    using the CSE format and as much as possible your sources should not be

    older than 5 years ago.

    The next few paragraphs should contain some background

    information or related literatures and recent findings about the topic. It may

    not be that long, some of the detailed information may be placed in the

    literature review.

    The present study determines the plant diversity and the carbon

    storage of mangroves species in Lian, Batangas. The last paragraph is a

    statement that will introduce your study, something like this: The present

    study will determine the effects of different concentrations of the independent

    variables to the dependent variables of the test organisms.

    1.2 Theoretical Framework

    In the previous research by Dixon T. Gevana and Nelson M. Pampolina (Plant Diversity and Carbon storage of a Rhizopora Stand in Verde passageSan Juan, Batangas) the study assessed the diversity (H1) and carbondensity of Rhizopora stand. The diversity index is ( H1 = 0.8165 to 1.4185is low with a total of nine species recorded. ( Gevana and Pampolina 2009).

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    The result of the study by Genevive Star A. Castillo and Anna

    Lorraine L. Estacio with the title Vegetational Analysis of Mangrove Areas

    on Barangay Wakas/Poblacion in Kawit, Cavite was the determination of

    abundance of mangrove species in the area where Rhizopora apiculata

    was found to be the most abundant with 43 individuals. It was followed by

    Avicennia marina with 34 species and then with Nypa fruticans and

    Xylocarpus granatum as the ones with the least number in the area.

    (Castillo and Estacio, 2013).

    The result of the study by Annie Grace B. Baldove, Cedrick Neil J.

    Cruz and Apple Chantal J. Santos with the title Mangrove Species of

    Barangay Marulas in Kawit, Cavite was the identification of the dominant

    species in the area. Avicennia oficinalis and Avicennia marina were found to

    be the most dominant in the area. There are also other species found in the

    area namely; Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pongamia pinnata and Rhizophoraceae

    species. (Baldove, Cruz and Santos, 2002).

    1.3 Statement of the Problem ( or Objectives of the Study)

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    The study generally aims to assess the Plant Diversity and Carbon

    Storage of Mangrove Species in Lian, Batangas; this is actually repetition of

    your title which states the general objective of the study.

    Specifically, the study will answer the following questions (if

    Objectives is used, the specific objectives should be stated in declarative

    form):

    1. To determine what Mangrove Species are present in Lian,

    Batangas Problem 1 or Objective 1, if problem, interrogative form?;

    if objective, declarative form.

    2. To determine the Carbon Storage of the Mangrove Area in Lian,

    Batangas Problem 2 (if objectives are used, be sure that it should

    be goal-objective and not procedure-objective;

    3. To determine the impact of the mangrove area to the community,to the other species and to the environment Problem 3, if problems

    are used it be a question?

    1.4 Scope and Limitations

    The study will focus on the determination of the plant diversity of

    Mangroves species in the study site. The study will also focus on measuring

    and determining how much carbon can be stored in the area. The study will

    also include the effect of the mangrove area and the carbon sinking in the

    area to the community, other species and the environment. effects of the

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    following different concentrations; you may enumerate here the different

    levels of the independent variables to the dependent variables. The

    dependent variables should also be specified here and should be explained

    when will be observed or measured. This paragraph is all about the scope or

    the inclusions of the study. The scope sets the boundaries of your research.

    You may also include here the duration of the experimental procedure.

    It is not the intention of the study to identify the physico-chemical

    factors affecting the mangrove area. The light penetration, wave actions,

    temperature, wind patterns, etc. The study will also not focus on the other

    nutrients/elements present in the soil such as nitrogen, phosphorus and

    sulfur. Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, copper, zinc, cadmium,

    chromium, arsenic and nickel will also not be focused.

    Other components of the study. This paragraph is all about the limitations orthe exclusions of the study.

    1.5 Significance of the Study

    Mangrove forest is one of the most productive terrestrial

    ecosystems natural and renewable resource. Mangroves are not a marvel

    for their adaptations but also for the significant role in our environment.

    Mangroves are also a source of variety of wood and non-wood forest

    products. Determining the abundance and the plant diversity of a

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    mangrove is crucial for economical uses and preserving issues.The

    significance of this study is to obtain, record and asses the abundance of

    plant diversity of mangrove in Lian, Batangas. Including its species

    composition, structure and distribution of the mangrove and its

    ecosystemic functions as well as the carbon storing capabilities of a

    mangrove in a manner of how much carbon can the mangrove stores in its

    substrate. The data gathered can be used by different agencies that have

    concerns on mangrove preserving or any other ecological use, the

    inventory of trees in the area will determine what species is the most or

    the least abundant in the area and this study is also for the future

    references and researchers.

    By developing an accurate and reliable understanding of your topic

    here, you may include here some of the expected results of your study.

    You may cite some of the groups or beneficiaries from your study and

    explain also how your findings would give them some benefits. They may be

    arranged according to size, from bigger organization to smaller groups.

    1.6 Definition of Terms

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    Germinate: This means to cause the (seeds or spores) to sprout or (ofseeds or spores) to sprout or form new tissue following increasedmetabolism

    Mangroves: Any of several tropical evergreen trees or shrubs of the genusRhizophora, having stiltlike roots and stems and forming dense thicketsalong tidal shores

    Pneumatophores: a specialized root of certain swamp plants, such as themangrove, that branches upwards, rising above ground, and undergoesgaseous exchange with the atmosphere

    Salinity: the relative proportion of salt in a solution

    Substrate: A surface on which an organism grows or is attached.

    Ecosystem: everything that exist in a particular environment

    The following important terms (arranged in alphabetical order) are defined

    based on context or how they were used in the study:

    Term 1. The definition should be based on how it was used n the

    study; it should be in complete sentence.

    Term 2. The definition should be based on how it was used n the

    study; it should be in complete sentence.

    Term 2. The definition should be based on how it was used n the

    study; it should be in complete sentence.

    CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

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    2.1 Conceptual Literature

    Firs t topic

    The conceptual review is developmental in nature and is arranged by

    topics. There is no limit to the number of cited references but all should be

    relevant to the objectives of the research study.

    Second top ic

    The arrangement of topic should be from general to specifics. Mostly,

    these literatures are taken from books.

    Third topic

    The conceptual review is developmental in nature and is arranged by

    topics. There is no limit to the number of cited references but all should be

    relevant to the objectives of the research study.

    2.2 Related Studies

    A study conducted by Dixon T. Gevaa and Nelson M. Pampolina with

    the title Plant Diversity and Carbon storage of a Rhizopora Stand in Verde

    passage San Juan, Batangas in the year 2009 was done to know what

    mangrove species are in the study area and also, in their study, they

    measured the amount of carbon in the mangrove substrate. Rhizopora sp.

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    was found to be the most abundant mangrove species in the area. The

    carbon composition of the area is also high which indicates its capability to

    counteract the effect of climate change through the process of carbon

    sequestration (Gevana and Pampolina, 2009).

    A study conducted by Maria Fernanda Adame, Ruth Reef , Jorge A.

    Herrera- Silveria and Catherine E. Lovelock with the title Sensitivity of

    dissolved organic carbon exchange and sediment bacteria to water quality

    in mangrove forest in t he year 2012 was done to know the amount of

    dissolved carbon and its effect to the water quality in the mangrove forest.

    Their findings results to the understanding that the low water quality in

    the study area increases the bacterial abundance and at the same time,

    alters the DOC exchange of mangrove forest with flood water (Adame,

    Reef, Herrera-SIlveria, Lovelock 2012).

    A study conducted by Danna Mae T. Bondoc and Loi D. Dollete with

    the title Inventory of Mangroves and other Floral Species and Descriptio n

    of Environmental Factors in Barangay Wakas/Poblacion in Kawit, Cavite in

    the year 2013 was done to determine the number of mangrove species in

    the area. The species were grouped to those who belong to the mangrove

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    families and those to the mangrove-associated families where those

    species that belong to the mangrove associated families are the most

    abundant (Bondoc and Dollete, 2013).

    A study conducted by Genevive Star A. Castillo and Anna Lorraine L.

    Estacio with the title Vegetational Analysis of Mang rove Areas on

    Barangay Wakas/Poblacion in Kawit, Cavite in the year 2013 was done to

    know the number of mangrove species in the study area. Rhizopora

    apiculata was the most abundant while the Nypa fruticans and Xylocarpus

    granatum are the least in number. The most important species in the area

    is Avicennia marina (Castillo and Estacio, 2013).

    A study conducted by Annie Grace B. Baldove, Cedrick Neil J. Cruzand Apple Chantal J. Santos with the title Mangrove Species of Barangay

    Marulas in Kawit, Cavite in the year 2002 was done to assess the number of

    mangroves species in the study area. The findings were; the two abundant

    species in the area were Avicennia oficinalis and Avicennia marina . Other

    species found in the area were Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pongamia pinnata ,

    Rhizophoraceae species ( Baldove, Cruz and Santos, 2002).

    Related studies could be clustered together. One should integrate and

    synthesize all local and foreign related studies coherently to link the past

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    studies to the current study being undertaken. No more titles for the topics.

    Sixty to 70% of Literature Review must be related studies.

    CHAPTER 3

    METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Research Design

    State here the particular type of research design of your proposed

    study. You may also include the different levels/sets of groups under study.

    3.2 Research Setting

    State here the place where the study will be conducted. This portion

    may only be required if the setting is important or is a main factor in yourresults. The duration (in weeks) of gathering of data or experimentation may

    also be stated here.

    3.3 Research Procedure

    Procedure 1

    Explain here how you will be doing this particular step in a way that

    your reader can replicate your work by just following this particular part.

    Therefore, each step should be written in detail. Remember also that the

    arrangement of steps should be on how you actually conducted your study.

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    It is also important to acknowledge your source or basis using the CSE

    format.

    Procedure 2

    Explain here in detail how would go about this particular step of your

    methodology.

    Procedure 3

    Explain here in detail how would go about this particular step of your

    methodology.

    3.3 Data Gathering and Statistical Analysis

    Enumerate here all dependent variables that you observed or

    measured. Explain also how and when (including the frequency) youobserved or measured those variables.

    This paragraph should contain the specific statistical tool that you

    employed in the analysis and interpretation of results. This includes the post-

    statistical tool, if any. You should also include the formula for those tools that

    are not common in research. Mention also the probability level used in the

    analysis, like this: All statistical analyses were done at 5% probability level.

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    CHAPTER 4

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    4.1 Results

    Subt i t le of the f i r s t topic or prob lem

    Write here short details about how you obtained your data. The last

    statement should introduce the data (table or chart) below. Soil samples

    collected from the dumpsite were found to contain significantly (p

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    Write only the highlights of your results without the need to justify or to

    explain why you obtain such. You may also mention the trends or patterns of

    your results. Results obtained show that soils from dumpsite recorded higher

    metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) concentrations than their corresponding levels at the

    normal farmland. All heavy metals investigated in the dumpsite have

    significant differences from those obtained in the control.

    Sub- t it le of the second top ic or ob jec t ive

    Write here short details about how you obtained your data. The last

    statement should introduce the data (table or chart) below. Heavy metal

    concentrations in different parts of collected plant from the Smokey mountain

    dumpsite and control soils are given in the figure below.

    Fig. 1. Bioconcentration factor of Zn on studied plants and their partscollected in farmland and dumpsite

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    Again write here only the highlights of your results without the need to

    justify or to explain why you obtain such. You may also mention the trends

    or patterns of your results. Results obtained show that soils from dumpsite

    recorded higher metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) concentrations than their

    corresponding levels at the normal farmland. All heavy metals investigated in

    the dumpsite have significant differences from those obtained in the control.

    4.2 Discussion

    Discussions should not be grouped according to topic but a

    continuous flow of explanation about your results. Discussion should explain

    and justify why you obtained such results based on the findings of previous

    related studies. You may compare your own findings to the findings of

    related literatures.Do not forget to always cite or acknowledge your source using the

    CSE format for in-text citation.

    Remember that, ideally, this portion of your paper should contain the

    most number of pages. Thus, your discussion should be comprehensive, in

    detail, and complete.

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    CHAPTER 5

    SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    5.1 Summary

    Write here a summary of your major findings. But you may start first

    with a very short narration of your methodology like this: Collection of soil

    and plants in the dumpsite of Smokey Mountain, Tondo, Manila was done on

    September 2010. Heavy metal analysis for both soil and plants were done.

    Results were compared with soil and plants collected from farmland in Cavitewhich served as the control.

    You may include the most important quantitative values of your results

    and a brief justification like this. Heavy metals found in the soil of the

    dumpsite were significantly higher than the control. Zn (53.283 ppm) was

    recorded in highest concentration and Cd (0.1668 ppm) in lowest. This

    indicated the high heavy metal content in soils of the dumpsite.

    Muntingia calabur (aratiles), Zea mays (corn) and Corchorus olitorious

    (saluyot) were the common plants found in the dumpsite and were

    investigated. Plant parts differed in traced metal concentrations in each

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    species. Leaves, stem and seeds of all plants showed significant differences

    within their metal concentrations. Plant accumulation of heavy metals

    differed in the kind of metal and plant species.

    5.2 Conclusions

    Conclusion should be the direct answer to each of the specific

    questions or objectives or the study. Each conclusion should be qualitative

    statement or without the use of the quantitative values of your findings.

    The investigated dumpsite soil of Smokey Mountain, Tondo, Manila

    were found to have higher levels of metal concentrations compared to the

    control. It further revealed that generally, plants grown on dumpsite soils can

    accumulate more of toxic metals than plants grown in normal agricultural soil.

    Heavy metal accumulation varies on the variety of plant and the heavymetal contents of the soil. Muntingia calabura (tree), Zea mays (food crop)

    and Corchorus olitorious (shrub) were studied and it was revealed that parts

    of these plants have the capacity to accumulate heavy metals from soil,

    specifically, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb.

    Furthermore, the result obtained in this study showed the potential of

    the investigated plants for phytoremediation of polluted sites as shown by

    their bioconcentrationfactors (BCF).

    5.3 Recommendations

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    The following recommendations were drawn based on the results and

    conclusions of the study:

    1. Further study of other metals present in the dumpsite is suggested.

    Studies may also be done in different seasons to see if weather or

    temperature may affect the availability of heavy metal contents in

    dumpsite soil.

    2. Investigation on the plants studied to support the findings of its

    capability as bioaccumulator, specifically, the Muntingia calabura

    (tree).

    3. Effects of eating plants cultivated in the dumpsite may also be taken

    into consideration by the next studies.

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    CITED REFERENCES

    Environmental Science: A Study of Interrelationships 11 th Edition Enger

    and Smith, Pp 128

    http://www.denr.gov.ph/index.php/component/content/article/52.html

    Primavera, J.H. 2000. Philippine Mangroves: tatus, Threats and

    Sustainable Development. In International Workshop Asia-Pacific

    Cooperation Research for Conservation of Mangroves. 26-30 March

    2000, Okinawa, Japan

    http://mangroveactionproject.org/issues/climate-change

    [CSE] Council of Science Editors, [STM] Style Manual Committee. 2006.

    Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors and

    publishers 7 th ed. Reston (VA): The Council.

    Andrews JE. 1960a. Cold hardiness of sprouting wheat as affected by

    duration of hardening and hardening temperature. Can J Plant Sci.

    40(1):93-102.

    Andrews JE. 1960b. Cold hardening and cold hardiness of young winter rye

    seedlings as affected by stage of development and temperature. Can

    J Bot. 38(3):353-363.

    http://www.denr.gov.ph/index.php/component/content/article/52.htmlhttp://www.denr.gov.ph/index.php/component/content/article/52.htmlhttp://mangroveactionproject.org/issues/climate-changehttp://mangroveactionproject.org/issues/climate-changehttp://mangroveactionproject.org/issues/climate-changehttp://www.denr.gov.ph/index.php/component/content/article/52.html
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    Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy- the need for dialogue. N Engl J

    Med. 346(17):1319-1320.

    Lutz M. 1989. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural

    change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University.

    Oviedo S. 1995. Adolescent pregnancy: voices heard in the everyday lives of

    pregnant teenagers [masters thesis]. [Denton (TX)]: University of

    North Texas.

    Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D.

    2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004:observational study. BMJ [Internet]. [cited 2005 May 31];

    330(7500):1119-1120. Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.

    com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/19 doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7500.19.

    Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed.

    Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

    Smith CE. 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with

    established and developing rice culture. Introduction. Trans R Soc

    Trop Med Hyg. 64(4):481-482.

    Smith CE. 1975. The significance of mosquito longevity and blood-feeding

    behavior in the dynamics or arbovirus infections. Med Biol. 53(5):288-

    294.

    Todd JK. Strptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus). In: Behrman RE,

    Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 16 th

    ed. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunsers Company; c2000. p. 799-801.

    UT Southwestern Medical Center [Internet]. Dallas (TX): University of Texas

    Southwestern Medical Center; c2005. Holographic movies show

    promise for medical, military applications; 2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun

    26]; [about four screens]. Available from:

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    http://www8.utsouthwestern.edu/utsw/cda/dept37389/files/228328.htm

    l.

    APPENDICES

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    APPENDIX AMAP OF THE STUDY SITE

    Area with Vegetation

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    Map of the abandoned dumpsite, Smokey Mountain in Tondo, Manila

    APPENDIX BSTANDARD PROCEDURE

    Title of the procedure (Citation 2008)

    Write here the basis of your methodology or the standard procedure

    followed in your study. Do not forget to acknowledge your source.

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    0.3084 2.5499 0.3699 0.1365 0.6250 0.0860 0.40060.3066 2.5444 0.3464 0.1021 0.6177 0.0951 0.3862

    2. One-way ANOVA of Copper in Leaves of Plants

    Anova: Single Factor CopperSUMMARY

    Groups Count Sum Average Variance Aratiles 6.0000 7.7852 1.2975 0.0047Corn 6.0000 6.1881 1.0314 0.0086Saluyot 6.0000 7.9576 1.3263 0.0579

    ANOVASource ofVariation SS df MS F

    P-value F crit

    BetweenGroups 0.3173 2.0000 0.1587 6.6832 0.0084 3.6823Within Groups 0.3561 15.0000 0.0237

    Total 0.6734 17.0000

    APPENDIX D

    PHOTO DOCUMENTATION

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    Plate 1. Origanu m vu lgare L. (Oregano)

    Class: Magnoliopsida

    Order: Lamiales

    Family: Lamiaceae

    Genus: Origanum

    Species: O. vulgare

    A small perennial sub-shrub, perennial ground covers with many forms.

    Most have stems that can get very woody. Leaves are oval, dark green and

    in opposite pairs. Some varieties have fuzzy leaves, others not. The flowers

    stalks are spiky and may be white, pink or purple. Oregano starts out as a

    ground hugging rosette of leaves, but it can easily grow to about 40-50 cm

    tall.

    APPENDIX E

    TIME TABLE OF ACTIVITIES

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    (For proposal only)

    Research activityJuly Aug Sept Oct Nov

    1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

    Procedure 1

    Procedure 2

    Procedure 3

    Procedure 4

    Procedure 5

    Procedure 6

    Procedure 7

    APPENDIX F

    BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS

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    (For proposal only)

    Items Amount Total

    2 Cages 200/cage PhP 400

    72 albino rats 100/rat 7,200

    Feeds 20/100 g 40

    Vitamin supplements 200 200

    Blood glucose kit 6,000 6,000

    Blood cholesterol kit 300/kit 900

    Histology preparation 500 500

    Heavy metal analysis 800 800

    Total PhP 16,040.00

    APPENDIX G

    CURRICULUM VITAE

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    In paragraph form, write here all pertinent information about

    proponent 1.

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    In paragraph form, write here all pertinent information about

    proponent 2.

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