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SATELLITE BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM TO DETECT … · 2015-09-08 · satellite based early warning...

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  • SATELLITE BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM TO DETECT PEATLAND FIRE IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Presented in “INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LAND USE/COVER CHANGES AND AIR POLUTION IN ASIA”Bogor, 6 AGUSTUS 2015

    NINA YULIANTI*, RONY TEGUH, BETRIXIA BARBARA, E.K. FIRDARA

  • OUTLINE1. TYPICAL PEATLAND FIRES

    2. RECENT OPEN SOURCE OF FIRE MONITORING

    3. THE OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

    4. FIRES TREND IN KALIMANTAN

    5. HOW 2014-2015 PEATLAND FIRES IN C. KALIMANTAN ?

    6. HOTSPOT CHECK

    7. FIRE EDUCATION CAMPAIGN

  • WATER LEVEL

    1.TYPICAL PEATLAND FIRE

    PEAT DOME

    RIVER BANK

    CO2

    CO2

    CO2CO

    CO

    SmokeSmoke

    Smoke

    Smoke Smoke

    2. Peat fires

    3. Crown fires

    The natural condition is very humid and water-logged (swamp). The decreasing of ground water level by the canals of Mega Rice Project in C. Kal

    2. Drainage-Irrigation 1.Drainage-Irrigation

    1. Surface fires

  • PEAT FIRES (SMOLDERING)

    Peat fire : Ground fire burn peat layer, roots, dry leaves and other organic matter. This type is smoldering fire (incomplete fire), which can be active for days with flameless and low spreading rates. The depth of smoldering is about tens centimeters underground.

    Mineral soil

    peat

    Organic matter

  • 2. RECENT OPEN SOURCE OF FIRE MONITORING USING MODIS DATA IN INDONESIA

    Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) https://firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/firemap/World

    ASEAN Fire Alert http://aseanfirealert.org/index.cfm?&menuid=6ASEAN

    Fire Risk Sytemhttp://kebakaranhutan.or.id/

    Indone-sia

    (west)

    Local fires early warning in the pilot poject of REDD+ site ?C.

    Kalimantan

  • ASEAN FIRE ALERT BY GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER-USAID LEAF

    Provide data in PhoneApp

  • FIRE RISK SYSTEM BETABY CENTER FOR CLIMATE RISK AND OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND PACIFIC(CCROM)-UNORCID

    Provide fire prediction and weather datar (Canadian Fire Index)

  • ALL OF RECENT FIRE EARLY WARNING WEB ARE COMPLETELY

    PERFECT FOR SCIENTIST OR EXPERT BUT THEY ARE VERY

    COMPLEX FOR THE ORDINARY USER OR VILLAGER

    HOW TO REDUCE ANNUAL FIRE IN PEATLAND OF CENTRAL KALIMANTAN ?

    Nearly 70% of population have low education and low internet access.....

  • 3. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT ?

    To investigate peatland fire and the causes factor in Central Kalimantan To deliver the hotspot (fire)

    information to the local stakeholder (government, plantation owner, firefighter, villager) To improve the awaraness of the

    local community

  • 4. FIRE TREND IN KALIMANTAN

    This work was under JST-JICA Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) project on “Wild Fire and Carbon Management in Peat-Forest in Indonesia”.

  • Finding: Fire started in West Kalimantan and ended in Central-South Kalimantan (using MODIS hotspot data)

    R10

    4oS

    EQ

    4oN

    110oE 114oE 118oE

    Samarinda

    Tarakan

    Banjarmasin

    Pon anak

    Palangkaraya

    Sampit

    Singkawang

    2oN

    2oS

    112oE 116oE

    Ketapang

    (c) late July (2009)

    Warning fire in late July under pre- & early dry

    season (less than 50 hotspots/day)

    Warning fire in late July under pre- & early dry

    season (less than 50 hotspots/day)

    4oS

    EQ

    4oN

    110oE 114oE 118oE

    Samarinda

    Tarakan

    Banjarmasin

    Pon anak

    Palangkaraya

    Sampit

    Singkawang

    2oN

    2oS

    112oE 116oE

    Ketapang

    (b) early August (2009)

    Severe fire season for West

    Kalimantan in early August

    under peak dry season for Pontianak

    Severe fire season for West

    Kalimantan in early August

    under peak dry season for Pontianak

    4oS

    EQ

    4oN

    110oE 114oE 118oE

    Samarinda

    Tarakan

    Banjarmasin

    Pon anak

    Palangkaraya

    Sampit

    Singkawang

    2oN

    2oS

    112oE 116oE

    Ketapang

    (a) mid October (2006)

    Severe fire season for southern

    Kalimantan in mid October under dry season for Palangka Raya

    Severe fire season for southern

    Kalimantan in mid October under dry season for Palangka Raya

    Typical fire distribution is very important for preventing and predicting fire in Kalimantan

    Can we reduce the number in the future ?

  • • EVIDENCE: PRIOR TO 2006, THERE WAS FOREST NEAR SEBANGAUNATIONAL PARK (RED) IN BLOCK C OF MRP BUT THE FOREST WAS DISSAPPEAR AFTER 2006.THEREFORE, WE ASSUMED MEGA FIRE IN 2006 IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN CAUSED BY LAND CLEARING

    ! "#$%&' ($) '&*) ' ((+,%+(‐. /0($) '&*) '&1(

    2 3 456(! ) '&*) ' (

    7+8+9(

    (a) (b) 2006

    hotspotForest conditionLandsat image

  • 5. HOW 2014-2015 PEATLAND FIRES IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN ?

    • Severe peatland fire in Central Kalimantan occurred in 2006, 2002, 2009, 2004

    • These fires were break out under weak and moderate El Nino in Indonesia

    • Peatland fire occurred every year in Central Kalimantan.

  • 3 LEVELS OF TOTAL FIRE OCCURENCE IN REGENCIES IN 2014

    PulangPisau

    Kapuas

    Katingan

    KotawaringinTimur

    • There were more than 8.000 hotspot

    in Central Kalimantan from July to

    Nov. 2014

    • Fire in peatland was ~6.500 (80% of

    the total)

    • Level of fire occurance as follows:

    1. Red : hotspot >10% of the total

    hotspot in the province

    2. Orange: hotspot 5-9% of the total

    hotspot in the province

    3. Blue : hotspot

  • WHY ONLY THE FOUR REGENCIES HAVE HIGH NUMBER OF HOTSPOT (> 40% OF THE TOTAL ) ?

    1

    23

    4

    • Total peatland area in Central Kalimantan is nearly 3 million hectares, which is about 60% located in these 4 regencies

  • ANNUAL PEATLAND VS. NON PEATLAND FIRE

  • Nearest road

    6. HOTSPOT CHECK

    1 km

    1 km

    Hotspot

    Real fire ?

    Firefighter or villager

    MANY TIMES HOTSPOT LOOKS AS FALSE ALARM BECAUSE FIREFIGHTER SAID THERE IS NO FIRE

  • FIRE PATROLI BY GPS (LOCATION) 15 July 2015

    There is nearest hotspot

  • 20 July 2015

    No nearest hotspot due to fire < 1km2

  • 17 July 2015 (Palangka Raya)19 July 2015 (Barito Selatan)

  • • Surface peat fire (horizontal profile) conditions in Tumbang Nusa plot. • Image captured by an ordinary camera (left) and Therma-shot camera (right)

    Diam

    eter= 73cm

    Length= 180cm Depth= 20cm

    Depth= 30cm

    Depth= 25cm

    Large area(d= >25 cm)of max temperature 350oC (whitecolor)

    1. White smoke & ash (moderate peat fire)

    IR IMAGES (TEMPERATURE)

    Therma shot F30, Nippon Avionic Co., Ltd., Japan

  • Location:Maliku (South block C of MRP)

    2. Only heat emission and temperature drop to 30o after hours(light peat fire)

    Small area (d=

  • 1. Deep peat2. Ground water level

    3. Temperature 4. Peat Sample

    Peat Sampling

    • Ground water level was mostly above > -50cm but the peat below -20cm was still wet (maybe due to capiller water).

    • Peat samples experienced irreversible drying (psedousand) in the surface (0-20 cm)

    • Calorific values of peat is 22-26 Kj/g is similar to the low grade coal value.

    Burned oil palm

  • PROPOSAL: DEVELOPMENT OF PEATLAND FIRE RISK INDEX (PFRI)

    • This proposal showed in American-Indonesia Kavli Frontier of Science in June 2014

    This website shows several data that will be use for the index in the future

  • • Web based fire early warning bywww.kaltengpeatlandfire.org (see our poster)

    • Fire-related social economic study in Pulang Pisau Regency (the most fire prone area in Central Kalimantan)

    • Socialization in fire prone villages around the capital province (Pulang Pisau, Kapuas & Katingan Regency)

    7. FIRE EDUCATION CAMPAIGN FOR LOCAL COMMUNITY

    T. Nusa, August 2015

    Desa

    kebijakan pemerintah Kalimantan Tengah ttg

    larangan membakar lahan Dampak

    Ada Tidak Ada

    Tidak Tahu Total Ada

    Tidak Ada

    Tidak Tahu Total

    Dadahup 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 Tumbang Nusa 0 0 100 100 0 100 0 100 Luwuk Kanan 43 0 57 100 0 100 0 100 Samuda Besar 22 22 56 100 0 100 0 100

    2.There is fire-related local policy and the warning of the effect from government ?

    1.Do you burn the land during fire season ?

  • HOW THE NEGATIF IMPACT OF FIRE TO THE VILLAGER ?

    - THERE IS NO DIRECT IMPACT EXCEPT SMOKE- DURING FIRE SEASON, WE CAN CATCH MORE FISH THAN IN OTHER MONTHS- IT IS A GOOD TIME TO CLEAN OUR ABANDONED LAND

  • Kapuas, September 2014

    Pulang Pisau, August 2015

    Katingan, October 2014

    Kotawaringin Timur, October 2014

  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONTERIMA KASIH

    Supported by:

    Partner:

    Desa Tumbang Nusa(web is under contruction)

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SATELLITE BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM TO DETECT PEATLAND FIRE IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN Presented in “ INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LAND USE/COVER CHANGES AND AIR POLUTION IN ASIA” Bogor, 6 AGUSTUS 2015 NINA YULIANTI*, RONY TEGUH, BETRIXIA BARBARA, E.K. FIRDARA
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