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Saudi Arabia

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Saudi Arabia. By Ian Boucher. Basic information. 2 nd largest Arab Country in Central Asia “Land of Two Holy Mosques” Capital City Is Riyadh Minor Cities include Jeddah, Mecca, Medina, Dammam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Saudi Arabia By Ian Boucher
Page 1: Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

By Ian Boucher

Page 2: Saudi Arabia

Basic information• 2nd largest Arab Country in Central Asia• “Land of Two Holy Mosques”• Capital City Is Riyadh• Minor Cities include Jeddah, Mecca, Medina, Dammam• Population of 27 million, 8 million Ex-Patriots, 1.5 million illegal

immigrants (31% Foreign nationals)• Official Languages are Arabic; Hejazi, Nejdi, Gulf.• Minor Language include Tagalog, English, French, Egyptian Arabic,

and Urdu• Islam is required religion• Indian (1.1 mil.) , Pakistani (1 mil.) , Bangladeshi (755,000) , Filipino

(500,000), Turkish (100,000), American (100,000)

Page 3: Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian GeographyArabian Desert occupies majority of area of Saudi Arabia, with shrub land to the east. An- Nafud Desert is to north, and Rub’Al Khali to south. Hejaz Asir Mtns reside to west, which are the Countries highest terrain, and Rekbah and Jabal Tuwaya Plains are in center.

Page 4: Saudi Arabia

Geography/ Climate

• Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, U.A.E, Oman, and Yemen.

• Desert Climate• Avg. summer temperature 45 °c to 54°c• 300 mm of precipitation annually• Virtually no lakes, Oasis Prominence

Page 5: Saudi Arabia

History• Founded by Abdul-Azis bin Saud in 1932• “House of Saud” conquests to achieve Absolute Monarchy• Wahhabist-Bedouin Revolt of 1902, united two kingdoms of

Hejaz and Nejd by 1932• Al-Saud vs. Al-Rashid, struggle for power in World War One

against Ottoman Turks• Established relations with U.S. in 1933• Oil reserves of Al-Hasa discovered by U.S. Geologists in 1941• Joined United Nations in 1945, and establishes SAO ( Security

Assistance Organization)• 1962 Slavery abolished

Page 6: Saudi Arabia


• Literacy rate: 84.7% Male, 70.8% girls• $ USD 2 Billion budget• Traditional Elementary, Intermediate, Secondary levels

offered• Segregation among gender in classes• Wahhabi-Sunni compulsory classes, Islam dominates

Saudi educational system• Large focus on memorization of Qur'an, Tafsir, How to

incorporate into lives (Religious or Technical path)• Taweeter Reform Schooling

Page 7: Saudi Arabia


• Infant mortality rate 11.57 deaths per 1000• On avg. men live to 74 years, women live to 78

years• Water approximately consumes 0.7 % of Saudi

Arabia area

Page 8: Saudi Arabia


• Absolute Monarchy/ Unitary Islamic• King Abdullah bin Abdul Azis• Integrates judiciary elements, power resides with

royal family• Legislation resides with King’s decree, and no

politically parties recognized• Ulemas -Royal bureaucrats with judiciary functions• “Council of Ministries”• Critically seen as unstable

Page 9: Saudi Arabia


• 2nd largest oil reserve in world, 2nd largest exporter of oil

• GDP $ 776.233 Billion• Per Capita $ 26,691 • Saudi Riyal (SR)• Contains 1/4th of World’s oil reserves, 90% of economy

is oil exportation, 75% of revenue comes from oil• Exports include Gold, Uranium, Coal, Ivory, Zinc, Silver,

Copper, Gasoline, Petroleum Products, and Oil.

Page 10: Saudi Arabia

Foreign Relations• Joined UN in 1945• Initially established relations in 1933• 1960’s U.S, Britain, France assist Saudi Arabia in Creating SANG, SA’s first

military organization• Member of Arab League (AL), Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Muslim

World League (MWL), OPEC, Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)• Strong Allies to U.S., 1991 sanctioned U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia for Gulf

War• Sept. 11, 2001- 9/11, 15 of 19 hijackers from Saudi Arabia,• Establishes stronger defense and cooperation with the U.S. although

involvement in Iraq is neutral • Terrorist activity including groups of Al-Qaeda, LeT, Taliban linked within

Saudi Arabia

Page 11: Saudi Arabia

Sharia• “Wahhabism influence,” or Salafistic Islam ideas • Prominence in educational text, Government laws, cultural tradition,

religious interpretation• Notorious for conservative righteousness• American critics including CIA director, James Woosley, accuses

“Wahhabi influence” on Saudi Arabia a detriment, and precursor for terrorist groups.

• 90% Wahhabi-Sunni• 10% Shi’ite (reside in provincial eastern part of SA)• No faith other than Islam is permitted, Apostasy is punishable by death• Traditional forms of punishment including decapitation, amputation,

and death used

Page 12: Saudi Arabia

Human Rights

• Abuse of prisoners incommunicado detention• Severe restrictions of freedoms including speech, press,

assembly and association, religion, and rights to election• Discrimination against women, including prohibition of

driving rights, veiling requirement, discouragement of work, and sexual relational penalization.

• Rape, murder, apostasy, armed robbery, and drug/alcohol trafficking are punishable by death

• 1 in 4 children are subject to physical abuse in Saudi Arabia

Page 13: Saudi Arabia

Current Events

Modern issues include: • High unemployment rate • Religious extremism • Gov’t. corruption and strict oppression to gov’t reform • Juvenile delinquency: drug/ alcohol use, unsatisfying

educational system• Oppression to minorities including Shi’ite Muslims in East• Contempt for Royal family and medieval gov’t practices• Trafficking of Women, Drug and Alcohol

Page 14: Saudi Arabia

Current Events Specified

• Sultan Al-siri beheaded in South-west province of Abha, accused of killing drinking partner

• 72nd person to be decapitated this year• Avg. of 140 immediate moratoriums on death

row a year• 2009 accumulated 67 beheadings, 2010

contained 27, and 2011 has 72 as of Al-Siri

Page 15: Saudi Arabia

Current Events Specified• Amnesty International criticizes Saudi Arabia of repression in provinces

of Qatif, Ansa, Awwamiya for Government reform. • 5,800 people have been tried since April in reformist ordeal on grounds

of the Detainment of Terrorist activity• Torture, ill-treatment, and disregard of due process evident• Last week, five men were killed by police forces during a protest, two

being completely unarmed• As well, 16 men ( 9 prominent reformists) were given sentences of 5-30

years in prison for protesting, primary witnessed say men were blind folded and handcuffed during trial, and lawyers weren’t permitted in first 3 sessions of court

• April, Crackdown of Shi’ite Muslim protests in Eastern Saudi Provinces• Questioning integrity of Royal family carries 10 years minimum in prison.

Page 16: Saudi Arabia

BibliographySaudi Arabia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, 4 Apr.

2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Arabia>."Background Note: Saudi Arabia." Saudi Arabia. U.S. Department of State, 30 Dec. 2009. Web.

13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm>Saudi-arabia-map. Photograph. By Freeworldmaps.com. Web.En.wikipedia.orh/wiki/shariaTrimel; Amnesty International, Suzanne. "New Wave of Repression in Saudi Arabia as

Authorities Stifle Calls for Political Reform, Says New Amnesty International Report."Amnesty International. Amnesty International USA, 1 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/uaa37111.pdf>.

Yahoo.News. "Amnesty Accuses Saudi of Repression." Yahoo!News. Yahoo.com, 12 Dec. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <ca.news.yahoo.com/amnesty-accuses-saudi-repression-13051>

Minaret.org. "Saudi Arabia." Minaret of Freedom Institute: A Free Market Muslim Perspective on Economics, Democracy, Terrorism and Middle East Conflict. Minaret.org, 27 Nov. 2011. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. http://www.minaret.org/index.html.

"Saudi Arabia Profile." BBC News. BBC, 27 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14702705>.