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Schools Direct EAL training

Date post:08-Jun-2015
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Training on the EAL theory and teaching principles to Schools Direct teachers
  • 1. K A M I L T R Z E B I A T O W S K I E A L T E A C H E R A N D L I T E R A C Y C O O R D I N A T O R D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 3 English as an additional language

2. Who are EAL Learners? New Arrivals: coming from a school and/or a country where little or no English is used (Stages 1-2) Others may speak, read or write some English Born in the UK: may have had limited exposure to English before starting school Advanced learners of EAL: beginner bilinguals orally fluent, have English skills necessary to operate effectively in spoken English, but not be proficient in using academic language (Stages 3- 4) EAL pupils have a broad range of bilingual experiences. Most have made the UK their home, but some are accompanying parents on fixed-term contracts with international companies Understanding of how EAL students transfer their L1 (first language) to L2 (second language) is imperative to help them attain 3. Who are EAL learners? Pupils learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) share many common characteristics with pupils whose mother tongue is English, and many of their learning needs are similar to those of other children and young people learning in our schools. However, EAL pupils also have distinct and different needs from other pupils, by virtue of the fact that they are learning in and through another language, and that they come from backgrounds and communities with different understandings and expectations of education, language and learning. (NALDIC 1999) 4. How are they different from other learners? They are learning a new language through L1 They need to learn the content of the curriculum whilst at the same time learning the English language They will be affected by their culture, ethnicity, religion and attitudes towards them They need strategies meeting their language and learning needs at the same time 5. Im not like them and theyre not like me. I stand out. Ive never been to school before. Its really exciting. Im shy. Ill just nod my head and copy. That way I wont get laughed at or told off. Can I eat this? Can I do that activity? What will my family say? But will I like it? I miss home. Why did I get sent to this awful place? How can I get away from it? I just cant keep up its really tiring, but I have to succeed for my family to survive in this country. We get to discuss things much more... Why do some people seem to avoid talking to me? Why do they speak to me like Im dumb? At my other school I had much more interesting work. All I do here is sit quietly and copy. Where and when is my next lesson? Everyone else can do the work, knows where to go and what to do next. 6. EAL: The Learning Context Socio-cultural proccesses EAL Learner Cognitive development Academic development Language development Socio-cultural factors impact on EAL learners language, cognitive and academic development 7. BICS and CALP BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Survival English developed within 1 year; Communicative skills (BICS) within 2-3 years CALP Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency 5-7 years to operate on the same level with their monolingual peers Developing full academic proficiency (CALP) may take longer Language development needs are often masked by oral competence!! 8. Cumminss Framework Quadrant B DA C Cognitively demanding work Activities requiring deep thinking Cognitively undemanding work Activities that can be completed without much thought Concrete Context embedded Abstract Context reduced (pupils have little knowledge and cant relate to) For CALP, Quadrant B is required; for lessons in C: linguistic and contextual support is required; D is tempting (copying is one example), but should be avoided! 9. Cummins: Thinking Skills B DA C Cognitively demanding Cognitively undemanding Context embedded Context reduced Generalises Compares and contrasts Summarises Plans Classifies by known criteria Transforms and personalises Recalls and reviews information Seeks solutions to problems Parrots: repeats utterances ofs adult or peers Copies: reproduces information from board or texts Reading to find specific information: Identifies, names, matches, retells Transfers information from one medium to another: Applies known procedures Describes observations Sequences Narrates with sense of beginning, middle, and end Argues a case using evidence Identifies criteria persuasively Develops and sustains ideas Justifies opinion or judgment Evaluates critically Interprets evidence & makes deductions Forms hypotheses, asks further questions for investigation, predicts results Applies principles to new situation Analyses, suggests solution and tests 10. Cummins: Thinking Skills Effective planning: challenging learning experiences supported both linguistically and contextually - scaffolded and modelled lesson framework Contextual support for pupils learning EAL includes: Making connections with and building on pupils experience Creating space to use existing knowledge Giving opportunities to talk around a topic across the curriculum. Encouraging the use of first language Building a framework for organising thinking, using key visuals Using visual clues Providing concrete examples of impersonal and abstract concepts 11. Planning for EAL students EAL students Learning Objectives Scaffold activities to ensure cognitive challenge; use extension rather than simplification of learning Language Focus Teach content-based language: vocabulary, language function, structures and grammar Use plenary to reflect on language use and language learning Context Consider socio-cultural knowledge Resources Contextual and visual support Writing frames Key visuals (graphic organisers) Bilingual resources Use support staff Provide opportunities for pre-teaching, speaking and listening and evaluation of language learning Use bilingual or multilingual skills Joint planning: EAL teacher with class/subject teacher 12. Planning for EAL students Demonstrating and modelling Demonstrate instructions practically Model examples of the types of language required for specific tasks, at word, sentence and text/genre level Collaborative learning Focused oral interaction/planned talk, in pupils preferred language Monitor and reinforce understanding through questioning Provide opportunities for oral rehearsal Differentiation Group with good language role models Plan differentiated tasks Whole class, group or paired work before moving onto individual activities Use first language Use first language to enhance understanding of key vocabulary and concepts 13. Support strategies Strategy Example Inclusive environment: Make sure your student can access your classrooms environment Display labels and signs in home languages Reflect diversity in visual displays Relate to the pupils cultural background within the curriculum and enable the pupil to draw on his/her own experience Pairing and mentoring Make sure the students have buddies and make sure they are used Friendly and out-going pupil Good role model of English If there is a pupil with the same first language in another class make arrangements for them to meet at other times 14. Support strategies Strategy Example Practical activities: Get the student to be involved in practical activities in your lessons Get them to collect books or distribute equipment Visuals: Provide as many visual aids in different formats as possible Pictures Diagrams Photographs Flash cards Picture dictionaries Computer programs Produce a set of picture cards for the pupils to use to communicate needs (ask for a communication fan if necessary) 15. Support strategies Strategy Example Key words : Give short vocabulary lists for every unit and examples of required key language Illustrate key words with simple pictures Pre-teach key words before a unit and/or of key words for each unit, lesson, using a bilingual peer or support assistant Get the student to keep their own personal vocabulary book If the pupil is literate in first language, they should be recorded in both languages, with a definition in first language Key visuals: Scaffold learning using key visuals Tables Timelines Venn diagrams Matrix charts Flow charts Pyramid diagrams Mind maps 16. Support strategies Strategy Example Dictionaries: Encourage them to bring their own dictionary to school or use what is available at the school Talk: Opportunities for talk should be planned A silent period is often a stage of development in learning EAL and a pupil should not be forced to respond Create activities for scaffolded talk Use paired discussion before starting written work 17. Support strategies Strategy Example Collaborative activities: Plan for regular collaboration with other students Group tasks facilitate involvement, belonging with peers and the need to experiment with language in order to complete a task Language is modelled by peers A non-threatening environment for learning 18. Strategies for Advanced Learners of EAL Assessment for Learning: Use of peer and self-evaluation Set and share challenging targets Use on-going assessment to inform planning Scaffolding: Draw on pupils previous experience Ensure dual focus on language and content Collaborative activities Use Key visuals, e.g. flow charts, cycle diagrams Use writing frames and sentence starters Plan for the effective use of ICT 19. Strategies for Advanced Learners of EAL Speaking and Listening: Value and use first language Share and practise new ideas Provide good models of English Ensure availability of peer support Subject-specific language: Reinforce key vocabulary Teach grammatical features of specific tasks Model language conventions of different subjects Explicit teaching of examination language 20. Strategies for Advanced Learners of EAL Time for students: To think in language of choice To plan To rehearse To translate Use other adults: Target support for individuals and groups Promote acc

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